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1

Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clue of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPOs detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM-Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034 +396 about which we will also discuss briefly.

Gupta, Alok C.

2014-09-01

2

Quasi-periodic planar metamaterial substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experimental and theoretical studies on a metamaterial substrate consisting of a quasi-periodic metallic planr pattern and a flat metal sheet, interconnected through metallic vias. We show that this structure possesses multiple in-phase reflection frequency regimes and spectral gaps for transverse-magnetic surface waves, whereas the transverse-electric surface waves are suppressed in all frequencies. In particular, an antenna put

Hongqiang Li; Zhihong Hang; Yaqin Qin; Zeyong Wei; Lei Zhou; Yewen Zhang; Hong Chen; C. T. Chan

2005-01-01

3

Quasi-periodic planar metamaterial substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our experimental and theoretical studies on a metamaterial substrate consisting of a quasi-periodic metallic planr pattern and a flat metal sheet, interconnected through metallic vias. We show that this structure possesses multiple in-phase reflection frequency regimes and spectral gaps for transverse-magnetic surface waves, whereas the transverse-electric surface waves are suppressed in all frequencies. In particular, an antenna put on top of this planar structure radiates with very high directivity (D=240) at some frequencies. This phenomenon is mainly governed by the inhomogeneity of the structure, which is a collective effect of perfect magnetic and electric conductors operating simultaneously at the frequency.

Li, Hongqiang; Hang, Zhihong; Qin, Yaqin; Wei, Zeyong; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Hong; Chan, C. T.

2005-03-01

4

Quasi-periodic climate change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines evidence that the Martian climate undergoes quasi-periodic variations, including the polar layered terrain, differences between the residual polar caps, and the current net southward flow of H2O. The driving functions for these variations are oscillations in the elements of the Martian orbit coupled with precession of the Martian spin axis. These 'astronomic variations' control the distribution of the insolation, which in turn influences the partition of volatiles between atmospheric and surface reservoirs. The major effects anticipated at low obliquity are growth of the polar caps, substantial decrease in surface pressure, cessation of duststorms, release of CO2 from the regolith, and poleward migration of H2O ground ice. At high obliquity, the mass of the perennial polar caps decreases and permanent CO2 frost disappears, CO2 desorbs from the regolith at high latitudes, the surface pressure may increase to several times its current value, and the atmospheric dust load increases.

Kieffer, Hugh H.; Zent, Aaron P.

1992-01-01

5

Multispacecraft observations of quasi-periodic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-periodic (QP) emissions are VLF electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of about 0.5-5 kHz which exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. The modulation period is usually on the order of a few tens of seconds. The generation mechanism of these emissions is still not understood, but at least in some cases it appears to be related to ULF magnetic field pulsations which result in periodic modifications of the resonant conditions in the source region. We use multipoint measurements of QP emissions by the 4 Cluster spacecraft. The observations are obtained close to the equatorial region at radial distances of about 4 Earth radii, i.e. close to a possible generation region. A combined analysis of the high resolution data obtained by the WBD instruments and the ULF magnetic field data obtained by the FGM instruments allows for a detailed case-study analysis of these unique emissions. The presented analysis benefits from the recent close-separation configuration of three of the Cluster spacecraft (?20-100 km) and a related timing analysis, which would be impossible otherwise.

Nemec, Frantisek; Picket, Jolene S.; Santolik, Ondrej

2014-05-01

6

Quasi-periodic solutions for the quasi-periodically forced cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation on {T}d  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the existence of time quasi-periodic solutions for quasi-periodically forced cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation of higher spatial dimension with basic frequency vector ? = (?1, ?2, …, ?m). By constructing a KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theorem for a dissipative system which depends on time in a quasi-periodic way, we obtain a Cantorian branch of m + 2-dimensional invariant tori for the equation.

Cheng, Hongyu; Si, Jianguo

2013-08-01

7

Embedding of Analytic Quasi-Periodic Cocycles into Analytic Quasi-Periodic Linear Systems and its Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we prove that any analytic quasi-periodic cocycle close to constant is the Poincaré map of an analytic quasi-periodic linear system close to constant, which bridges both methods and results in quasi-periodic linear systems and cocycles. We also show that the almost reducibility of an analytic quasi-periodic linear system is equivalent to the almost reducibility of its corresponding Poincaré cocycle. By the local embedding theorem and the equivalence, we transfer the recent local almost reducibility results of quasi-periodic linear systems (Hou and You, in Invent Math 190:209-260, 2012) to quasi-periodic cocycles, and the global reducibility results of quasi-periodic cocycles (Avila, in Almost reducibility and absolute continuity, 2010; Avila et al., in Geom Funct Anal 21:1001-1019, 2011) to quasi-periodic linear systems. Finally, we give a positive answer to a question of Avila et al. (Geom Funct Anal 21:1001-1019, 2011) and use it to study point spectrum of long-range quasi-periodic operator with Liouvillean frequency. The embedding also holds for some nonlinear systems.

You, Jiangong; Zhou, Qi

2013-11-01

8

Band nonparabolicity in quasi-periodic Fibonacci heterostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonparabolic dispersion relations of electrons in the reformulated Schrödinger equation and a 2 × 2 transfer matrix approach are applied to the study of quasi-periodic Fibonacci semiconductor heterostructures. Energy minibands and resonant tunneling amplitudes are investigated and compared with the parabolic case to show the importance of nonparabolic deviations in AlxGa1?xAsGaAs superlattices.

M. Palomino-Ovando; Gregorio H. Cocoletzi; C. Pérez-López

1996-01-01

9

Quasi-periodic structure of a turbulent jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instantaneous near field pressure fluctuations of an axisymmetric subsonic jet were measured by using a longitudinal and an azimuthal microphone arrays in order to qualitatively determine the behaviors of the quasi-periodic structure within the flow. Statistical analysis is used to explain the characteristic of the pressure signals. In addition to the information obtained by forming the power spectral density,

L. Maestrello; Y.-T. Fung

1979-01-01

10

Pulsatory magma supply to a phonolite lava lake Clive Oppenheimer a,  

E-print Network

Pulsatory magma supply to a phonolite lava lake Clive Oppenheimer a, , Alexandra S. Lomakina b processes (Tazieff, 1997; Oppenheimer et al., 2004). The decadal persistence of some lava lakes, with no net, though it may well have existed for a century or more (Oppenheimer and Kyle, 2008). Since 2001, the lake

Kingsbury, Nick

11

High directive antenna using quasi-periodic planar metamaterial substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experimental and theoretical studies on a metamaterial substrate consisting of a quasi-periodic metallic planar pattern and a flat metal sheet, interconnected through metallic vias. We show that this structure possesses multiple in-phase reflection frequency regimes and spectral gaps for transverse-magnetic surface waves, whereas the transverse-electric surface waves are suppressed in all frequencies. In particular, an antenna put

Hongqiang Li; Z. H. Hang; Yaqin Qin; Lei Zhou; Yewen Zhang; Hong Chen; C. T. Chan

2005-01-01

12

Quasi-periodic compressive waves in polar plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation of polar plumes in the south polar coronal hole, carried out on 7 March 1996 by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), are analyzed. These polar plumes are cool density structures that arise from morphologically unipolar magnetic footpoints. Data from the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope show quasi-periodic perturbations in the brightness of the Fe IX and X line emissions at 171 A from polar plumes. The perturbations have periods of 10 to 15 min, and repeat for several cycles suggesting that they are compressive waves propagating through the plume at or near the Alfven speed. Possible explanations for the observed phenomenon are proposed.

DeForest, C. E.; Gurman, J. B.

1997-01-01

13

Quasi-periodicities of PKS 2155-304  

E-print Network

We have searched for periodicities in our VRIJHK photometry of PKS 2155-304, which covers the years 2005-2012. A peak of the Fourier spectrum with high significance is found at T$\\sim$315 days, confirming the recent findings by \\cite{Zhang2014}. The examination of the gamma-ray light curves from the\\textit{ Fermi} archives yields a significant signal at $\\sim$ 2T, which, while nominally significant, involves data spanning only $\\sim$ 6T. Assuming a black hole mass of $10^{9}\\ M_{\\odot}$ the Keplerian distance corresponding to the quasi-period T is $\\sim10^{16}$ cm, about 50 Schwarzschild radii.

Sandrinelli, Angela; Treves, Aldo

2014-01-01

14

Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in a Solar Microwave Burst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied a microwave burst that showed deep quasi-periodic pulsations using imaging observations at 17 and 34 GHz. Strongly modulated pul sations appear in radio images from the eastern end of a long loop an d in hard X-rays from the western end of the loop. Radio modulations are seen at the western end of the loop but at a level some 20 times weaker than at the eastern end; these radio modulations at the western end of the loop, like the hard X-ray modulations at the same locatio n, appear to lead the modulations at the eastern end by about 0.5 s, but all have the same period. The period of the modulation can be exp lained by MHD oscillations of the loop approximately 120" long connecting the sources.

Kundu, Mukul R.; Grechnev, V. V.; White, S. M.

2003-01-01

15

On repellers in quasi-periodically forced logistic map system  

E-print Network

We propose a method to identify and to locate "repellers'' in quasi-periodically forced logistic map (QPLM), using a kind of Morse decomposition of nested attracting invariant sets. In order to obtain the invariant sets, we use an auxiliary 1+2-dimensional skew-product map system describing the evolution of a line segment in the phase space of QPLM. With this method, detailed structure of repellers can be visualized, and the emergence of a repeller in QPLM can be detected as an easily observable bifurcation in the auxiliary system. In addition to the method to detect the repellers, we propose a new numerical method for distinguishing a strange non-chaotic attractor (SNA) from a smooth torus attractor, using a correspondence between SNAs in QPLM and attractors with riddled basin in the auxiliary system.

Tsuyoshi Chawanya; Takafumi Sakai

2014-03-03

16

Dynamics of a classical particle in a quasi periodic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional classical particle in a space and time dependent potential with randomly chosen parameters. The focus of this work is a quasi-periodic potential, which only includes a finite number of Fourier components. The momentum is calculated analytically for short time within a self-consistent approximation, under certain conditions. We find that the dynamics can be described by a model of a random walk between the Chirikov resonances, which are resonances between the particle momentum and the Fourier components of the potential. We use numerical methods to test these results and to evaluate the important properties, such as the characteristic hopping time between the resonances. This work sheds light on the short time dynamics induced by potentials which are relevant for optics and atom optics.

Tenenbaum Katan, Yaniv; Kachman, Tal; Fishman, Shmuel; Soffer, Avy

2015-03-01

17

Quasi-periodic variations in Doppler velocities of H ? spicules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New series of CCD spectral observations of spicules were obtained using 53-cm Lyot coronagraph of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (Georgia) at 5500 km height above the solar limb on October 17, 2012 in H ? spectral line. The line-of-sight Doppler velocities of 34 spicules were measured with the cadence of 4.5 s and standard error equal to ±0.3 km/s. Life times of almost all measured spicules were 5-6 min (and longer), therefore they resemble the type I spicules. No short lived structures (similar to type II spicules) were identified during the time series neither inside nor outside the observed spicules. The Doppler velocity time series were processed using Lomb Periodogram Algorithm revealing 4 types of dominating period intervals centered around: 254 s, 136 s, 94 s and 65 s having confidence levels over 95 %. The oscillations with periods around 254 s can be caused by quasi-periodic rebound shocks after the propagation of photospheric pulses. The oscillations with periods around 136 s can be caused by the oscillation of spicules axis at the kink cut-off frequency in gravitationally stratified magnetic tubes. In this case, seismological estimations give the density scale height as 380-540 km for the kink wave speed of 70-100 km/s in spicules. Shorter period oscillations are probably caused by propagating kink waves in spicules.

Khutsishvili, E.; Kulidzanishvili, V.; Kvernadze, T.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Kakhiani, V.; Khutsishvili, D.; Sikharulidze, M.

2014-12-01

18

Models of Kilohertz Quasi-Periodic Brightness Oscillations  

E-print Network

The remarkable discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic brightness oscillations (QPOs) in the accretion-powered emission from some sixteen neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary systems has led to much speculation about and theoretical modeling of the origin of these oscillations. It has also led to intense study of the implications that these QPOs have for the properties of neutron stars and of the accretion flow onto them. In this review we describe the strengths and weaknesses of the models that have been proposed for the kilohertz QPOs observed in the accretion-powered emission. We conclude that beat-frequency models, and in particular the sonic-point model, are currently the most promising. If these models are correct, the kilohertz QPOs provide the strongest constraints to date on the masses and radii of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, and on the equation of state of the dense matter in all neutron stars.

M. Coleman Miller

1997-12-18

19

Bifurcations of quasi-periodic dynamics: torus breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the dynamics of quasi-periodic bifurcations, we consider a system of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators using averaging, continuation and numerical bifurcation techniques. This relatively simple system displays considerable complexity. Assuming the internal resonance to be 1:2, we find a 2 ?-periodic solution which undergoes a supercritical Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, yielding a stable torus. Choosing a route in parameter space, we show by numerical bifurcation techniques how the torus gets destroyed by dynamical and topological changes in the involved manifolds (Krauskopf and Osinga in J Comput Phys 146:404-419, 1998). The 1:6 resonance turns out to be prominent in parameter space, and we detected a cascade of period doublings within the corresponding resonance tongue yielding a strange attractor. The phenomena agree with the Ruelle-Takens (Commun. Math. Phys. 20:167-192, 1971, Commun. Math. Phys. 23:343-344, 1971) scenario leading to strange attractors. Other periodic regimes are present in this system, and there is interesting evidence that two different regimes interact with each other, yielding yet another type of strange attractor. In this context, certain ?-periodic solutions emerge that are studied by continuation following the Poincaré-Lindstedt method using Mathieu functions; when the implicit function theorem breaks down, the analysis is supplemented by numerical bifurcation techniques.

Bakri, Taoufik; Verhulst, Ferdinand

2014-12-01

20

Normal form for a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP  

E-print Network

Normal form for a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP F. Gabern 1 #18; A. Jorba 1 Abstract We make a local semi-analytical study of a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP of a small particle near the triangular points of the Sun-Jupiter system. In order to perform this study, we

Barcelona, Universitat de

21

Normal form for a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP  

E-print Network

Normal form for a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP F. Gabern1 `A. Jorba1 Abstract We make a local semi-analytical study of a quasi-periodic perturbation of the Sun-Jupiter RTBP particle near the triangular points of the Sun-Jupiter system. In order to perform this study, we use

Barcelona, Universitat de

22

Quasi-Periodic Pulsations with Varying Period in Multi-Wavelength Observations of an X-class Flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an interesting phenomenon of the period variation in quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) observed during the impulsive phase of a coronal mass ejection-related X1.1 class flare on 2012 July 6. The period of QPPs was changed from 21 s at soft X-rays (SXR) to 22-23 s at microwaves, to ~24 s at extreme ultraviolet emissions (EUV), and to 27-32 s at metric-decimetric waves. The microwave, EUV, and SXR QPPs, emitted from flare loops of different heights, were oscillating in phase. Fast kink mode oscillations were proposed to be the modulation mechanism, which may exist in a wide region in the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to the upper corona or even to the interplanetary space. Changed parameters of flare loops through the solar atmosphere could result in the varying period of QPPs at different wavelengths. The first appearing microwave QPPs and quasi-periodic metric-decimetric type III bursts were generated by energetic electrons. This may imply that particle acceleration or magnetic reconnection were located between these two non-thermal emission sources. Thermal QPPs (in SXR and EUV emissions) occurred later than the nonthermal ones, which would suggest a some time for plasma heating or energy dissipation in flare loops during burst processes. At the beginning of flare, a sudden collapse and expansion of two separated flare loop structures occurred simultaneously with the multi-wavelength QPPs. An implosion in the corona, including both collapse and expansion of flare loops, could be a trigger of loop oscillations in a very large region in the solar atmosphere.

Huang, Jing; Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana

2014-08-01

23

Quasi-periodic regimes in the transition to unstable Lagrange dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of a narrow band of quasi-periodic regimes between the regions of periodic (stable) and unstable (in the Lagrange\\u000a sense) dynamics in the space of parameters of a dynamical system has been studied in the case of a model two-dimensional Hnon\\u000a map. It is established that fast breakage of a quasi-periodic regime proceeds via nonlocal bifurcation, whereby an attractor

A. P. Kuznetsov; A. V. Savin

2006-01-01

24

Quasi-periodic signal analysis using harmonic transform with application to voiced speech processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for quasi-periodic signal analysis and modelling with application to speech processing is proposed in this paper. The model of quasi-periodic signal treats the signal as a composition the two components. Periodic component is modelled as a sum of harmonically related sinusoidal partials with slowly time-varying amplitudes and frequencies, aperiodic component is modulated white noise. Fundamental frequency, amplitudes

Piotr Zubrycki; Alexander A. Petrovsky

2010-01-01

25

THE SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF QUASI-PERIODIC UPFLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION TIMESERIES  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-periodic propagating disturbances are frequently observed in coronal intensity image sequences. These disturbances have historically been interpreted as being the signature of slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves propagating into the corona. The detailed analysis of Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) timeseries observations of an active region (known to contain propagating disturbances) shows strongly correlated, quasi-periodic, oscillations in intensity, Doppler shift, and line width. No frequency doubling is visible in the latter. The enhancements in the moments of the line profile are generally accompanied by a faint, quasi-periodically occurring, excess emission at {approx}100 km s{sup -1} in the blue wing of coronal emission lines. The correspondence of quasi-periodic excess wing emission and the moments of the line profile indicates that repetitive high-velocity upflows are responsible for the oscillatory behavior observed. Furthermore, we show that the same quasi-periodic upflows can be directly identified in a simultaneous image sequence obtained by the Hinode X-Ray Telescope. These results are consistent with the recent assertion of De Pontieu and McIntosh that the wave interpretation of the data is not unique. Indeed, given that several instances are seen to propagate along the direction of the EIS slit that clearly shows in-phase, quasi-periodic variations of intensity, velocity, width (without frequency doubling), and blue wing enhanced emission, this data set would appear to provide a compelling example that upflows are more likely to be the main cause of the quasi-periodicities observed here, as such correspondences are hard to reconcile in the wave paradigm.

Tian Hui; McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 8037 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart, E-mail: htian@ucar.edu, E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu, E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2011-02-01

26

A renormalization operator for 1D maps under quasi-periodic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the reducibility loss of (periodic) invariant curves of quasi-periodically forced one-dimensional maps and its relationship with the renormalization operator. Let g? be a one-parametric family of one-dimensional maps with a cascade of period doubling bifurcations. Between each of these bifurcations, there exists a parameter value ?n such that g?_n has a superstable periodic orbit of period 2n. Consider a quasi-periodic perturbation (with only one frequency) of the one-dimensional family of maps, and let us call ? the perturbing parameter. For ? small enough, the superstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed map become attracting invariant curves (depending on ? and ?) of the perturbed system. Under a suitable hypothesis, it is known that there exist two reducibility loss bifurcation curves around each parameter value (?n, 0), which can be locally expressed as (?_n^+(\\varepsilon), \\varepsilon) and (?_n^-(\\varepsilon), \\varepsilon) . We propose an extension of the classic one-dimensional (doubling) renormalization operator to the quasi-periodic case. We show that this extension is well defined and the operator is differentiable. Moreover, we show that the slopes of reducibility loss bifurcation \\frac{d}{d\\varepsilon} ?_n^+/-(0) can be written in terms of the tangent map of the new quasi-periodic renormalization operator. In particular, our result applies to the families of quasi-periodic forced perturbations of the Logistic Map typically encountered in the literature. We also present a numerical study that demonstrates that the asymptotic behaviour of \\{\\frac{d}{d\\varepsilon} ?_n^+/-(0)\\}n? 0 is governed by the dynamics of the proposed quasi-periodic renormalization operator.

Jorba, À.; Rabassa, P.; Tatjer, J. C.

2015-04-01

27

The quasi-periodic nature of wall slip for molten plastics in large amplitude oscillatory shear  

E-print Network

THE QUASI-PERIODIC NATURE OF WALL SLIP FOR MOLTEN PLASTICS IN LARGE AMPLITUDE OSCILLATORY SHEAR A Thesis by DAVID WARREN ADRIAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE QUASI-PERIODIC NATURE OF WALL SLIP FOR MOLTEN PLASTICS IN LARGE AMPLITUDE OSCILLATORY SHEAR A Thesis by DAVID WARREN ADRIAN Approved as to style and content by: A. J...

Adrian, David Warren

1992-01-01

28

Phase Registration of a Single Quasi-Periodic Signal Using Self Dynamic Time Warping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a method for phase registration of a single non-parametric quasi-periodic signal. After a short-term period\\u000a has been detected for each sample by normalized autocorrelation, Self Dynamic Time Warping (Self DTW) between a quasi-periodic\\u000a signal and that with multiple-period shifts is applied to obtain corresponding samples of the same phase. A phase sequence\\u000a is finally estimated by the

Yasushi Makihara; Trung Ngo Thanh; Hajime Nagahara; Ryusuke Sagawa; Yasuhiro Mukaigawa; Yasushi Yagi

2010-01-01

29

Non thermal small black holes  

E-print Network

In this chapter we review the current theoretical state of the art of small black holes at the LHC. We discuss the production mechanism for small non thermal black holes at the LHC and discuss new signatures due to a possible discrete mass spectrum of these black holes.

Xavier Calmet; Dionysios Fragkakis; Nina Gausmann

2012-01-21

30

Observation and removal of daily quasi-periodic components in soil radon data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report (quasi) periodic oscillations observed in soil radon emanation data especially during summer period. Soil radon has been continuously monitored in the Marmara region of Turkey over the past nine years to reveal possible relationships between soil radon and seismic activities. This long term monitoring has clearly demonstrated that soil radon concentrations are affected by various parameters such as

S. Baykut; T. Akgül; S. ?nan; C. Seyis

2010-01-01

31

Period doubling and reducibility in the quasi-periodically forced logistic map  

E-print Network

Period doubling and reducibility in the quasi-periodically forced logistic map Angel Jorba1 , Pau of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands July 19, 2011 Abstract We study the dynamics of the Forced Logistic;3 The Forced Logistic Map 6 3.1 Basic study of the dynamics

Barcelona, Universitat de

32

A Two-Component Generalization of Burgers' Equation with Quasi-Periodic Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we aim for the theta function representation of quasi-periodic solution and related crucial quantities for a two-component generalization of Burgers' equation. Our tools include the theory of algebraic curves, meromorphic functions, Baker-Akhiezer functions and the Dubrovin-type equations for auxiliary divisor. Eith these tools, the explicit representations for above quantities are obtained.

Pan, Hongfei; Xia, Tiecheng; Chen, Dengyuan

2014-10-01

33

Quasi-periodic oscillations in a network of four Rossler chaotic oscillators  

E-print Network

We consider a network of four non-identical chaotic Rossler oscillators. The possibility is shown of appearance of two-, three- and four-frequency invariant tori resulting from secondary quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcations and saddle-node homoclinic bifurcations of tori.

Alexander P. Kuznetsov; Igor R. Sataev; Yuliya V. Sedova; Ludmila V. Turukina

2014-10-29

34

A FAST DIRECT SOLVER FOR QUASI-PERIODIC SCATTERING A. GILLMAN, A. BARNETT  

E-print Network

-kind), rendering fast multipole-based iterative schemes also inefficient. We present an integral equation based incident angle than a fast multipole based iterative solution, and 600 times faster when incident anglesA FAST DIRECT SOLVER FOR QUASI-PERIODIC SCATTERING PROBLEMS A. GILLMAN, A. BARNETT Abstract. We

Barnett, Alex

35

Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar hard X-ray and microwave flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a decade, various studies have pointed out that hard X-ray and microwave time profiles of some solar flares show quasi-periodic fluctuations or pulsations. Nevertheless, it was not until recently that a flare displaying large amplitude quasi-periodic pulsations in X-rays and microwaves was observed with good spectral coverage and with a sufficient time resolution. The event occurred on June 7, 1980, at approximately 0312 UT, and exhibits seven intense pulses with a quasi-periodicity of approximately 8 seconds in microwaves, hard X-rays, and gamma-ray lines. On May 12, 1983, at approximately 0253 UT, another good example of this type of flare was observed both in hard X-rays and in microwaves. Temporal and spectral characteristics of this flare are compared with the event of June 7, 1980. In order to further explore these observational results and theoretical scenarios, a study of nine additional quasi-periodic events were incorporated with the results from the two flares described. Analysis of these events are briefly summarized.

Kosugi, Takeo; Kiplinger, Alan L.

1986-01-01

36

Quasi-periodic Green's functions of the Helmholtz and Laplace equations  

E-print Network

A classical problem of free-space Green's function $G_{0\\Lambda}$ representations of the Helmholtz equation is studied in various quasi-periodic cases, i.e., when an underlying periodicity is imposed in less dimensions than is the dimension of an embedding space. Exponentially convergent series for the free-space quasi-periodic $G_{0\\Lambda}$ and for the expansion coefficients $D_{L}$ of $G_{0\\Lambda}$ in the basis of regular (cylindrical in two dimensions and spherical in three dimension (3D)) waves, or lattice sums, are reviewed and new results for the case of a one-dimensional (1D) periodicity in 3D are derived. From a mathematical point of view, a derivation of exponentially convergent representations for Schl\\"{o}milch series of cylindrical and spherical Hankel functions of any integer order is accomplished. The quasi-periodic Green's functions of the Laplace equation are obtained from the corresponding representations of $G_{0\\Lambda}$ of the Helmholtz equation by taking the limit of the wave vector magnitude going to zero. The derivation of relevant results in the case of a 1D periodicity in 3D highlights the common part which is universally applicable to any of remaining quasi-periodic cases. The results obtained can be useful for numerical solution of boundary integral equations for potential flows in fluid mechanics, remote sensing of periodic surfaces, periodic gratings, in many contexts of simulating systems of charged particles, in molecular dynamics, for the description of quasi-periodic arrays of point interactions in quantum mechanics, and in various ab-initio first-principle multiple-scattering theories for the analysis of diffraction of classical and quantum waves.

Alexander Moroz

2006-04-24

37

Non-thermal radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation starts with Karl Jansky's discovery of cosmic radio emission in 1933 and notes the striking similarities to Hess's discovery of cosmic-rays in 1912. At first it was assumed that this radio emission was thermal but in 1939 Grote Reber discovered that it was stronger at longer wavelengths, requiring a non-thermal emission process. These discoveries had a revolutionary impact on astronomy and radio astronomy was born. The interpretation of this non-thermal radiation as synchrotron emission from high energy particles in the interstellar medium did not occur until the late 1940s but then it provided the link between radio astronomy and cosmic-ray research. Ginzburg, in particular, saw that cosmic-ray astrophysics was now possible using radio waves to trace sources of cosmic-rays. We discuss the discovery of extragalactic active galactic nuclei leading to the discovery of quasars and the first evidence for black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. We summarise the present status and future of some of the main radio telescopes used to image the non-thermal emission from external galaxies. Finally, we include a short description of the use of radio signals for the direct detection of cosmic-rays and UHE neutrinos.

Ekers, R. D.

2014-01-01

38

On The Low Frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations of X-ray Sources  

E-print Network

Based on the interpretation of the twin kilohertz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (kHz QPOs) of X-ray spectra of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) to the Keplerian and the periastron precession frequencies at the magnetosphere-disk of X-ray neutron star (NS) respectively, we ascribe the low frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations (LFQPO) and HBO (15-60 Hz QPO for Z sources or Atoll sources) to the periastron precession at some outer disk radius. The obtained conclusions include: all QPO frequencies increase with increasing the accretion rate. The obtained theoretical relations between HBO (LFQPO) frequency and the kHz QPO frequency are similar to the measured empirical formula. Further, the possible dynamical mechanism for QPO production is discussed.

C. M. Zhang

2005-07-25

39

Quasi-periodic oscillations of the magnetopause during northward sheath magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geotail satellite quasi-periodically crossed the dawn flank of magnetopause more than ten times during an interval of 1.5 hours on November 4, 1992. Magnetopause crossings were characterized by quasi-periodic pulses of a sawtooth wave form in the magnetic field and the plasma flow components tangential to the magnetopause. The magnetic field strength in the magnetosheath was larger than that in the magnetosphere. The direction of magnetic field outside the magnetopause current layer was northward with antisunward tilt, indicating the draping of magnetic field on the magnetopause. Boundary normals of wavy magnetopause systematically incline sunward on the upstream side, while they tend to incline antisunward with considerable deviation on the downstream side. Comparison with other multiple crossing events suggests that the November 4 event exhibits wavy structure of the dawn flank magnetopause associated with the northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

Kokubun, S.; Kawano, H.; Nakamura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsuoka, A.; Frank, L. A.

1994-01-01

40

Towards modeling quasi-periodic oscillations of microquasars with oscillating slender tori  

E-print Network

Context. One of the often discussed models for X-ray binaries high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations is the oscillating torus model that considers oscillation modes of slender accretion tori. Aims. Here, we aim at developing this model by considering the observable signature of an optically thick slender accretion torus subject to simple periodic deformations. Methods. We compute light curves and power spectra of a slender accretion torus subject to simple periodic deformations: vertical or radial translation, rotation, expansion and shear. Results. We show that different types of deformations lead to very different Fourier power spectra and therefore could be observationally distinguished. Conclusions. This work is a first step in a longer-term study of the observable characteristics of the oscillating torus model. It gives promising perspectives on the possibility to constrain this model by studying the observed power spectra of quasi-periodic oscillations.

Mazur, G P; Johansson, M; Sramkova, E; Torok, G; Bakala, P; Abramowicz, M A

2013-01-01

41

Narrowband DWDM filters based on Fibonacci-class quasi-periodic structures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a narrowband DWDM filter structure, whose reflection band characteristics, meets the ITU-T standard. The proposed filter structure is based on Fibonacci quasi-periodic structures composed of multilayers with large index differences. Studying the effects of the optical and geometrical parameters of Fibonacci quasi-periodic structures on its filtering properties, we have realized that to achieve the ITU-T standard, we need to cascade two successive structures both with the same generation numbers j=4 and orders n=25 and apodized refractive indices. The apodization process helps to minimize the stop band sidelobes. We have also demonstrated that beside Fibonacci's order, n, the layers dimensions, and their refractive index ratios are the main design parameters. PMID:19547405

Golmohammadi, S; Moravvej-Farshi, M K; Rostami, A; Zarifkar, A

2007-08-20

42

The localization of light in a 2D quasi-periodic coherently prepared atomic medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the localization of light in two-dimensional (2D) atomic systems. The system proposed in this paper is a resonant cold atomic ensemble with N configuration, which is coherently prepared by four pairs of control fields. Under the condition of the electromagnetically induced transparency, the propagation of the signal field is modelled as a system that is uniform along the propagating direction (z) but shows quasi-periodic structure on the transverse plane (x - y plane). Through numerical simulations, we find that the 2D quasi-periodic coherently prepared atomic medium can make the signal field anisotropic localized transversely during the propagation, and the localization direction can be manipulated by the phase of the control field.

Wang, C. F.; Cheng, J.; Chen, B.

2015-02-01

43

Observational evidence of coupling between quasi-periodic echoes and medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that quasi-periodic (QP) echoes in the E region were well defined when medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) in the F region were present. The appearance and disappearance of the MSTIDs observed with the dense GPS receiver network are well correlated with the development and decay of QP echoes observed with the Middle-and-Upper atmosphere (MU) radar. Interferometric

S. Saito; M. Yamamoto; H. Hashiguchi; A. Maegawa; A. Saito

2007-01-01

44

On quasi-periodic solutions for generalized Boussinesq equation with quadratic nonlinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, one-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation: utt - uxx + (u2 + uxx)xx = 0 with boundary conditions ux(0, t) = ux(?, t) = uxxx(0, t) = uxxx(?, t) = 0 is considered. It is proved that the equation admits a Whitney smooth family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with 2-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. The proof is based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and Birkhoff normal form.

Shi, Yanling; Xu, Junxiang; Xu, Xindong

2015-02-01

45

Order determination and optimum harmonic reconstruction of quasi-periodic signals in noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a new method for determining the order of wide-band quasi-periodic signals from frequency estimates provided either by their short-time Fourier or linear prediction (LP) spectra. The method consists in the search for harmonic patterns in the signal spectrum that minimize an error sum of the estimated frequencies. This error can be thought of as an extension to

Christos Malliopoulos; Stelios Bakamidis; George Carayannis

1999-01-01

46

Design broadband Fabry-Perot resonator antenna using quasi-periodic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broadband Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator antenna composed of single-layer quasi-periodic FSS superstrate with tapered size square patch fed by U-slotted patch is proposed, whose common bandwidth for -3 dB directivity-drop and -10 dB returned loss increases by 7.99% to 12.2% for two different cases, as compared to that of previously single layer uniform FSS. Furthermore, FP resonator antenna can be

Zhen-Guo Liu

2008-01-01

47

Quasi-periodical components in the radial distributions of cosmologically remote objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical analysis of radial (line-of-sight) 1D-distributions of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) within the redshift interval 0.044 ? z ? 0.78 and Mg II absorption-line systems (0.37 ? z ? 2.28) is carried out. Power spectra and two-point radial correlation functions are calculated. It is found that both radial distributions of spectroscopic redshifts of 52 683 BCGs and 32 840 Mg II absorption systems incorporate similar quasi-periodical components relatively to the comoving distance. Significance of the components exceeds 4?-level and admits an increase ( ? 5?) for some broad subsamples. For the ? cold dark matter cosmological model the periodicities correspond to spatial comoving scales (98 ± 3) and (101 ± 2) h-1 Mpc, respectively. These quasi-periods turn out to be close to the characteristic scale (101 ± 6) h-1 Mpc of the quasi-periodical component obtained earlier for the radial distribution of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). On the other hand, the scales are close to the spatial scale corresponding to the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) revealed by many authors at the last decade. Fourier transform phases obtained for the BCGs and LRGs are found to be close, while the phases calculated for the Mg II absorption systems and LRGs are opposite. Discussions of the results in a context of the BAO and large-scale structure characteristic scales are outlined.

Ryabinkov, A. I.; Kaminker, A. D.

2014-05-01

48

Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity  

SciTech Connect

Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

Briskin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Fluegeman, R. (Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (USA))

1990-04-01

49

Lifetime distribution of spontaneous emission from line antennas in two-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the lifetime distribution functions of spontaneous emission from line antennas embedded in finite-size two-dimensional 12-fold quasi-periodic photonic crystals. Our calculations indicate that two-dimensional quasi-periodic crystals lead to the coexistence of both accelerated and inhibited decay processes. The decay behaviors of line antennas are drastically changed as the locations of the antennas are varied from the center to the edge in quasi-periodic photonic crystals and the location of transition frequency is varied.

Xu, Xingsheng; Hu, Haiyang; Yamada, Toshiki; Chen, Hongda; Wang, Yiquan

2008-03-01

50

J. Phys. II France 6 (1996) 305-328 FEBRUARY 1996, PAGE 305 Forced Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns  

E-print Network

September1995, accepted 18 October 1995) PACS.47.20.-k Hydrodynamic stability PACS.03.40.Gc Fluid dynamics-dimensional periodic and quasi-periodic patterns, such as rectangular pattern, skewed varicose pattern, undulations

Boyer, Edmond

51

Velocity of shock propagation and evolution of quasi-periodic oscillations in outbursting black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequencies using the oscillating properties of the Compton cloud which constitute the inner puffed-up region (the so-called CENBOL) of the transonic, low-angular momentum flow. As the CENBOL is cooled down by inverse Compton effect, the oscillating centrifugal pressure supported shock moves inward, while trying to satisfy Rankine-Hugoniot shock condition. We show that the low frequency QPOs do indeed originate from these oscillating shocks and their frequencies evolve on a daily basis in a predictable way.

Mondal, Santanu; Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

52

A search for quasi-periodic oscillations in 4U/MXB 1735-44  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 4U/MXB 1735-44 was performed using Exosat observations during which the source was in a horizontal branch of the spectral hardness-intensity diagram for about 8 hr and in a normal branch type of behavior for about 46 hr. No QPOs or low-frequency noise was found in the horizontal branch state. It is suggested that this absence is due to either low luminosity or the fact that the companion in 1735-44 is a main-sequence star.

Penninx, Wim; Hasinger, Guenther; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan; Van Der Klis, Michiel

1989-01-01

53

Quasi-periodicities of the BL Lacertae Object PKS 2155-304  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched for periodicities in our VRIJHK photometry of PKS 2155-304, which covers the years 2005-2012. A peak of the Fourier spectrum with high significance is found at T ~ 315 days, confirming the recent findings by Zhang et al. The examination of the gamma-ray light curves from the Fermi archives yields a significant signal at ~2T, which, while nominally significant, involves data spanning only ~6T. Assuming a black hole mass of 109 M ?, the Keplerian distance corresponding to the quasi-period T is ~1016 cm, about 50 Schwarzschild radii.

Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Treves, A.

2014-09-01

54

Lifetime distribution of spontaneous emission from line antennas in two-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the lifetime distribution functions of spontaneous emission from line antennas embedded in finite-size two-dimensional 12-fold quasi-periodic photonic crystals. Our calculations indicate that two-dimensional quasi-periodic crystals lead to the coexistence of both accelerated and inhibited decay processes. The decay behaviors of line antennas are drastically changed as the locations of the antennas are varied from the center to the

Xingsheng Xu; Haiyang Hu; Toshiki Yamada; Hongda Chen; Yiquan Wang

2008-01-01

55

Using Newton's Method to Search for Quasi-Periodic Relative Satellite Motion Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the monodromy variant of Newton's method is applied to locate periodic or quasi-periodic relative satellite motion. Advantages of using Newton's method to search for periodic or quasi-periodic relative satellite motion include simplicity of im- plementation, ability to deal with nonlinear dynamics, repeatability of the solutions due to its non-random nature, and fast convergence. A nonlinear Hamiltonian model

V. M. Becerra; J. D. Biggs; S. J. Nasuto; V. F. Ruiz; W. Holderbaum; D. Izzo

56

Topological incommensurate magnetization plateaus in quasi-periodic quantum spin chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncovering topologically nontrivial states in nature is an intriguing and important issue in recent years. While most studies are based on the topological band insulators, the topological state in strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has not been extensively explored due to the failure of direct explanation from the topological band insulator theory on such systems and the origin of the topological property is unclear. Here we report the theoretical discovery of strongly correlated topological states in quasi-periodic Heisenberg spin chain systems corresponding to a series of incommensurate magnetization plateaus under the presence of the magnetic field, which are uniquely determined by the quasi-periodic structure of exchange couplings. The topological features of plateau states are demonstrated by the existence of non-trivial spin-flip edge excitations, which can be well characterized by nonzero topological invariants defined in a two-dimensional parameter space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the topological invariant of the plateau state can be read out from a generalized Streda formula and the spin-flip excitation spectrum exhibits a similar structure of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum for the two-dimensional quantum Hall system on a lattice.

Hu, Hai-Ping; Cheng, Chen; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shu

2015-02-01

57

What can quasi-periodic oscillations tell us about the structure of the corresponding compact objects?  

E-print Network

We show how one can estimate the multipole moments of the space-time, assuming that the quasi-periodic modulations of the X-ray flux (quasi-periodic oscillations), observed from accreting neutron stars or black holes, are due to orbital and precession frequencies (relativistic precession model). The precession frequencies $\\Omega_{\\rho}$ and $\\Omega_z$ can be expressed as expansions on the orbital frequency $\\Omega$, in which the moments enter the coefficients in a prescribed form. Thus, observations can be fitted to these expressions in order to evaluate the moments. If the compact object is a neutron star, constrains can be imposed on the equation of state. The same analysis can be used for black holes as a test for the validity of the no-hair theorem. Alternatively, instead of fitting for the moments, observations can be matched to frequencies calculated from analytic models that are produced so as to correspond to realistic neutron stars described by various equations of state. Observations can thus be used to constrain the equation of state and possibly other physical parameters (mass, rotation, quadrupole, etc.) Some distinctive features of the frequencies, which become evident by using the analytic models, are discussed.

George Pappas

2012-04-16

58

New Anomalous Lieb-Robinson Bounds in Quasi-Periodic XY Chains  

E-print Network

We announce and sketch the rigorous proof of a new kind of anomalous (or sub-ballistic) Lieb-Robinson bound for an isotropic XY chain in a quasi-periodic transversal magnetic field. By "anomalous", we mean that the usual effective light cone defined by $|x|\\leq v|t|$ is replaced by the region $|x|\\leq v|t|^\\alpha$ for some $0values of $\\alpha$ for which this holds as those exceeding the upper transport exponent $\\alpha_u^+$ of an appropriate one-body discrete Schr\\"odinger operator. Previous study has produced a good amount of quantitative information on $\\alpha_u^+$. The result is obtained by mapping to free fermions, obtaining good dynamical bounds on the one-body level by adapting techniques developed by Damanik, Gorodetski, Tcheremchantsev, and Yessen and then "pulling back" these bounds through the non-local Jordan-Wigner transformation, following an idea of Hamza, Sims, and Stolz. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous derivation of anomalous many-body transport. We also explain why our method does not extend to yield anomalous LR bounds of power-law type if one replaces the quasi-periodic field by a random dimer field.

David Damanik; Marius Lemm; Milivoje Lukic; William Yessen

2014-08-28

59

QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND BROADBAND VARIABILITY IN SHORT MAGNETAR BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. However, with only three giant flares ever recorded, and only two with data of sufficient quality to search for QPOs, such analysis is seriously data limited. We set out a procedure for doing QPO searches in the far more numerous, short, less energetic magnetar bursts. The short, transient nature of these bursts requires the implementation of sophisticated statistical techniques to make reliable inferences. Using Bayesian statistics, we model the periodogram as a combination of red noise at low frequencies and white noise at high frequencies, which we show is a conservative approach to the problem. We use empirical models to make inferences about the potential signature of periodic and QPOs at these frequencies. We compare our method with previously used techniques and find that although it is on the whole more conservative, it is also more reliable in ruling out false positives. We illustrate our Bayesian method by applying it to a sample of 27 bursts from the magnetar SGR J0501+4516 observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and we find no evidence for the presence of QPOs in any of the bursts in the unbinned spectra, but do find a candidate detection in the binned spectra of one burst. However, whether this signal is due to a genuine quasi-periodic process, or can be attributed to unmodeled effects in the noise is at this point a matter of interpretation.

Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Uttley, Phil; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Van der Klis, Michiel [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Office of Science and Technology, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Goegues, Ersin [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, Jonathan [The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra'anana 43537 (Israel); Vaughan, Simon [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finger, Mark H., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

2013-05-01

60

The geometric origin of low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray radiation from accreting black holes displays quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). This was discovered 30 years ago and the potential of the signal to provide insight into accretion physics was immediately recognised, however the QPO origin was not understood. Perhaps the most promising model to date associates the QPO with Lense-Thirring (LT) precession of the inner accretion flow. In general relativity, a spinning black hole drags the surrounding spacetime with it (frame dragging), causing LT precession in any particle orbit misaligned with the black hole equatorial plane. Determining the QPO phase dependence of the spectrum provides a powerful diagnostic tool to test this model against alternative interpretations. However, this poses a technical challenge because the QPO is quasi-periodic rather than purely periodic and so existing techniques are not suitable. I will describe a method designed to circumvent these problems and present the results of the first QPO phase resolved spectral analyses using archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We find, through variations in the equivalent width of the iron K alpha emission line, strong evidence that the accretion geometry changes on the QPO period, consistent with the predictions of the precession model.

Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.; Done, C.

2014-07-01

61

Topological incommensurate magnetization plateaus in quasi-periodic quantum spin chains  

PubMed Central

Uncovering topologically nontrivial states in nature is an intriguing and important issue in recent years. While most studies are based on the topological band insulators, the topological state in strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has not been extensively explored due to the failure of direct explanation from the topological band insulator theory on such systems and the origin of the topological property is unclear. Here we report the theoretical discovery of strongly correlated topological states in quasi-periodic Heisenberg spin chain systems corresponding to a series of incommensurate magnetization plateaus under the presence of the magnetic field, which are uniquely determined by the quasi-periodic structure of exchange couplings. The topological features of plateau states are demonstrated by the existence of non-trivial spin-flip edge excitations, which can be well characterized by nonzero topological invariants defined in a two-dimensional parameter space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the topological invariant of the plateau state can be read out from a generalized Streda formula and the spin-flip excitation spectrum exhibits a similar structure of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum for the two-dimensional quantum Hall system on a lattice. PMID:25678145

Hu, Hai-Ping; Cheng, Chen; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shu

2015-01-01

62

Topological incommensurate magnetization plateaus in quasi-periodic quantum spin chains.  

PubMed

Uncovering topologically nontrivial states in nature is an intriguing and important issue in recent years. While most studies are based on the topological band insulators, the topological state in strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has not been extensively explored due to the failure of direct explanation from the topological band insulator theory on such systems and the origin of the topological property is unclear. Here we report the theoretical discovery of strongly correlated topological states in quasi-periodic Heisenberg spin chain systems corresponding to a series of incommensurate magnetization plateaus under the presence of the magnetic field, which are uniquely determined by the quasi-periodic structure of exchange couplings. The topological features of plateau states are demonstrated by the existence of non-trivial spin-flip edge excitations, which can be well characterized by nonzero topological invariants defined in a two-dimensional parameter space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the topological invariant of the plateau state can be read out from a generalized Streda formula and the spin-flip excitation spectrum exhibits a similar structure of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum for the two-dimensional quantum Hall system on a lattice. PMID:25678145

Hu, Hai-Ping; Cheng, Chen; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shu

2015-01-01

63

Bifurcation boundaries of three-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in discrete-time dynamical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents an extensive investigation of bifurcations of quasi-periodic oscillations based on an analysis of a coupled delayed logistic map. This map generates an invariant two-torus (IT>2) that corresponds to a three-torus in vector fields. We illustrate detailed Lyapunov diagrams and, by observing attractors, derive a quasi-periodic saddle-node (QSN) bifurcation boundary with a precision of 10-9. We derive a stable invariant one-torus (IT>1) and a saddle IT>1, which correspond to a stable two-torus and a saddle two-torus in vector fields, respectively. We confirmed that the QSN bifurcation boundary coincides with a saddle-node bifurcation point of a stable IT>1 and a saddle IT>1. Our major concern in this study is whether the qualitative transition from an IT>1 to an IT>2 via QSN bifurcations includes phase-locking. We prove with a precision of 10-9 that there is no resonance at the bifurcation point.

Kamiyama, Kyohei; Inaba, Naohiko; Sekikawa, Munehisa; Endo, Tetsuro

2014-12-01

64

Non-thermal plasma treatment of textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to give an overview of the literature on the treatment of textiles with non-thermal plasmas. Because of the enormous amount of potential uses of non-thermal plasmas for the modification of textile products, categorizing the applications is difficult, and therefore a review is given on plasma treatment effects or results rather than on the textile applications that benefit

R. Morent; N. De Geyter; J. Verschuren; K. De Clerck; P. Kiekens; C. Leys

2008-01-01

65

An evolving MHD vortex street model for quasi-periodic solar wind fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation are used to provide a dynamical basis for the 'vortex street' model of the quasi-periodic meridional flow observed by Voyager 2 in the outer heliosphere. Various observations suggest the existence near the current sheet at solar minimum, of a vorticity distribution of two opposite shear layers with an antisymmetric staggered velocity pattern due to structured high-speed wind surrounding low-speed equatorial flow. It is shown that this flow pattern leads to the formation of a highly stable vortex street through the nonlinear interaction of the two shear layers. Spatial profiles of various simulated parameters (velocity, density, meridional flow angle and the location of magnetic sector boundaries) and their relative locations in the quasi-steady vortex street are generally in good agreement with the observations.

Siregar, Edouard; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

1992-01-01

66

Strong-field general relativity and quasi-periodic oscillations in x-ray binaries  

E-print Network

Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at frequencies near 1000 Hz were recently discovered in several x-ray binaries containing neutron stars. Two sources show no correlation between QPO frequency and source count rate (Berger et al. 1996, Zhang et al. 1996). We suggest that the QPO frequency is determined by the Keplerian orbital frequency near the marginally stable orbit predicted by general relativity in strong gravitational fields (Muchotrzeb-Czerny 1986, Paczynski 1987, Kluzniak et al. 1990). The QPO frequencies observed from 4U 1636-536 imply that the mass of the neutron star is 2.02 +/- 0.12 solar masses. Interpretation of the 4.1 keV absorption line observed from 4U 1636-536 (Waki et al. 1984) as due to Fe XXV ions then implies a neutron star radius of 9.6 +/-0.6 km.

Philip Kaaret; Eric Ford; Kaiyou Chen

1997-01-16

67

QUASI-PERIODIC FORMALDEHYDE MASER FLARES IN THE MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR OBJECT IRAS 18566+0408  

SciTech Connect

We report results of an extensive observational campaign of the 6 cm formaldehyde maser in the young massive stellar object IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20) conducted from 2002 to 2009. Using the Arecibo Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Green Bank Telescope, we discovered quasi-periodic formaldehyde flares (P {approx} 237 days). Based on Arecibo observations, we also discovered correlated variability between formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) masers. The H{sub 2}CO and CH{sub 3}OH masers are not spatially coincident, as demonstrated by different line velocities and high angular resolution MERLIN observations. The flares could be caused by variations in the infrared radiation field, possibly modulated by periodic accretion onto a young binary system.

Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Hofner, P.; Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de RadioastronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olmi, L. [University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, Physics Department, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Sewilo, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-07-10

68

Wideband absorption in fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heterostructure containing a Fibonacci quasi-periodic layer and a resonant metal back reflector is proposed, which can realize wideband absorption. The Fibonacci layer is composed of graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials and isotropic media to obtain wideband absorption. To enhance absorption, an impedance-matching layer is put on top of the Fibonacci layer. It is shown to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves in an 11 terahertz absorption bandwidth for a transverse magnetic mode at normal angle incidence. The absorption bandwidth is affected by the reflection band gap. Compared with some previous designs, our proposed structure has a larger absorption bandwidth and higher absorption in the mid-infrared range. The results should be valuable in the design of infrared stealth and broadband optoelectronic devices.

Ning, Renxia; Liu, Shaobin; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Xiangkun; Bian, Borui; Bao, Jie

2014-12-01

69

Modelling the energy dependencies of X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting compact objects  

E-print Network

We have constructed models of quasi-periodic variability of X-ray emission from accreting compact objects. Assuming a general scenario of a propagation model of variability, with inverse Compton upscatering as the emission mechanism, we have considered a number of cases for the periodic modulation: modulation of the plasma heating rate, cooling rate by external soft photons, and the amplitude of the reprocessed component. We have computed various observational characteristics which can be compared to good quality data.These include Fourier-frequency resolved spectra and results of cross-correlation analysis between light-curves at different energies. Each model of modulation predicts specific observational signatures, which help in identifying the physical processes driving QPO emission in accreting sources.

P. T. Zycki; M. Sobolewska

2005-09-08

70

Synchronizations of Quasi-period and Hyperchaos in Injected Two-section Semiconductor Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hyperchaos synchronization system is presented. Hyperchaos synchronization in injection two-section semiconductor lasers was achieved for its application in secure communication. We found also a route from single-period to hyperchaos after passing quasi-period and chaos with increasing frequency detuning while the receiver synchronized with the transmitter in these dynamical regions. All optical private data communication encoded by a rate of 0.16 Gbit/s on/off phase shift key and a rate of 0.16 Gbit/s amplitude modulation and photoelectric private data communication encoded by a rate of 0.2 Gbit/s on/off current shift key and a current modulation of 0.12 GHz frequency, respectively, are simulated via this hyperchaos synchronization system. Decoding has been numerically demonstrated to achieve successfully.

Yan, Sen-lin

2013-03-01

71

Tunability of acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.

Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong

2015-03-01

72

QUASI-PERIODIC WIGGLES OF MICROWAVE ZEBRA STRUCTURES IN A SOLAR FLARE  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-periodic wiggles of microwave zebra pattern (ZP) structures with periods ranging from about 0.5 s to 1.5 s are found in an X-class solar flare on 2006 December 13 at the 2.6-3.8 GHz with the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS/Huairou). Periodogram and correlation analysis show that the wiggles have two to three significant periodicities and are almost in phase between stripes at different frequencies. The Alfvén speed estimated from the ZP structures is about 700 km s{sup –1}. We find the spatial size of the wave-guiding plasma structure to be about 1 Mm with a detected period of about 1 s. This suggests that the ZP wiggles can be associated with the fast magnetoacoustic oscillations in the flaring active region. The lack of a significant phase shift between wiggles of different stripes suggests that the ZP wiggles are caused by a standing sausage oscillation.

Yu, Sijie; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Nakariakov, V. M.; Selzer, L. A., E-mail: sjyu@nao.cas.cn [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2013-11-10

73

Extended states for polyharmonic operators with quasi-periodic potentials in dimension two  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a polyharmonic operator H = ( - ?)l + V(x) in dimension two with l ? 2, l being an integer, and a quasi-periodic potential V(x). We prove that the absolutely continuous spectrum of H contains a semiaxis and there is a family of generalized eigenfunctions at every point of this semiaxis with the following properties. First, the eigenfunctions are close to plane waves ei?k, x? at the high energy region. Second, the isoenergetic curves in the space of momenta k corresponding to these eigenfunctions have a form of slightly distorted circles with holes (Cantor type structure). A new method of multiscale analysis in the momentum space is developed to prove these results.

Karpeshina, Yulia; Shterenberg, Roman

2012-10-01

74

Multiscale analysis in momentum space for quasi-periodic potential in dimension two  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a polyharmonic operator H=(-?)^l+V({x}) in dimension two with l ? 2, l being an integer, and a quasi-periodic potential V({x}). We prove that the absolutely continuous spectrum of H contains a semiaxis and there is a family of generalized eigenfunctions at every point of this semiaxis with the following properties. First, the eigenfunctions are close to plane waves e^{i< {\\varkappa },{x}rangle } at the high energy region. Second, the isoenergetic curves in the space of momenta {\\varkappa } corresponding to these eigenfunctions have a form of slightly distorted circles with holes (Cantor type structure). A new method of multiscale analysis in the momentum space is developed to prove these results.

Karpeshina, Yulia; Shterenberg, Roman

2013-07-01

75

Dwarf Nova Oscillations and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Cataclysmic Variables I. Observations of VW Hyi  

E-print Network

From archived and recent high speed photometry of VW Hyi we find Dwarf Nova Oscillations (DNOs) occasionally present throughout outburst, evolving from 14.06 s period at maximum to > 40 s near the end of outburst. A relatively slow increase of period is followed by rapid increase and subsequent decrease. Quasi-periodic Oscillations (QPOs) are seen at periods of hundreds of seconds. For the first time, an evolution of QPO period is seen, steadily increasing during the final decline of an outburst. The occasional presence of two DNOs, separated in frequency by the QPO frequency, suggests reprocessing of the rotating DNO beam by a `wall' rotating progradely in the disc at the QPO period.

Woudt, P A; Woudt, Patrick A.; Warner, Brian

2002-01-01

76

GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE  

SciTech Connect

We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

Nesci, R., E-mail: roberto.nesci@uniroma1.i [Physics Department, University of Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

2010-06-15

77

Multi-splitting and self-similarity of band gap structures in quasi-periodic plates of Cantor series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have demonstrated the multi-splitting and self-similarity of the band gap structures in quasi-periodic plates of Cantor series. The splitting peaks give the regularity of tri-branching. A semi-quantitative explanation is proposed in which the inherent cavity-like structure is proven to play the essential role in the phenomena of multi-splitting and self-similarity, which gives a reliable way to predict where and how the band gap is splitting in the quasi-periodic systems. Possible applications are discussed.

Ding, Hong-Xing; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Ni, Xiao-Wu; Zhu, Xue-Feng

2012-02-01

78

A Model for Backscattering from Quasi Periodic Corn Canopies at L-Band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, a model for backscattering at L-band from a corn canopy is proposed. The canopy consists of a quasi-periodic distribution of stalks and a random distribution of leaves. The Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) is employed to calculate the single scattered return from the corn field. The new feature of the method is that the coherence of the stalks in the row direction is incorporated in the model in a systematic fashion. Since the wavelength is on the order of the distance between corn stalks in a row, grating lobe behavior is observed at certain azimuth angles of incidence. The results are compared with experimental values measured in Huntsville, Alabama in 1998. The mean field and the effective dielectric constant of the canopy are obtained by using the Foldy approximation. The stalks are placed in the effective medium in a two dimensional lattice to simulate the row structure of a corn field. In order to mimic a real corn field, a quasi-periodic stalk distribution is assumed where the stalks are given small random perturbations about their lattice locations. Corn leaves are also embedded in the effective medium and the backscattered field from the stalks and the leaves is computed. The backscattering coefficient is calculated and averaged over successive stalk position perturbations. It is assumed that soil erosion has smoothed the soil sufficiently so that it can be assumed flat. Corn field backscatter data was collected from cornfields during the Huntsville 98 experimental campaign held at Alabama A&M University Research Station, Huntsville, Alabama in 1998 using the NASA/GW truck mounted radar. Extensive ground truth data was collected. This included soil moisture measurements and corn plant architectural data to be used in the model. In particular, the distances between the stalks in a single row have been measured. The L-band radar backscatter data was collected for both H and V polarizations and for look angles of 15o and 45o over a two week period under varying soil moisture conditions. These measured backscattering values will be compared with the model backscattering values and a discussion of the results will be presented.

Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Zhao, Q.; O'Neill, P.

2010-01-01

79

Quasi-periodic oscillations discovered in the X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations at 0.11 Hz in the 221 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034. Among about 30 known transient X-ray pulsars this is the sixth source in which QPOs have been observed. If the QPOs are produced because of inhomogeneities in the accretion disk at the magnetospheric boundary, the low frequency of the QPOs indicate a large magnetosphere for this pulsar. Both the Keplerian frequency model and the beat frequency model are applicable for production of QPOs in this source. The QPOs and regular pulsations are found to be stronger at higher energy which favours the beat frequency model. A detailed analysis, of the QPO feature as a function of pulse phase and energy will be presented which will help in firmly deciding one of the two alternatives for the QPO phenomenon. The spectrum is hard, consisting of two components, a cut-off power law and an iron fluorescence line.

Paul, B.; Rao, A. R.

1998-12-01

80

DISCOVERY OF QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE RECURRENT BURST EMISSION FROM SGR 1806-20  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the recurrent outburst emission from the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20 using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations. By searching a sample of 30 bursts for timing signals at the frequencies of the QPOs discovered in the 2004 December 27 giant flare from the source, we find three QPOs at 84, 103, and 648 Hz in three different bursts. The first two QPOs lie within {approx}1{sigma} from the 92 Hz QPO detected in the giant flare. The third QPO lies within {approx}9{sigma} from the 625 Hz QPO also detected in the same flare. The detected QPOs are found in bursts with different durations, morphologies, and brightness, and are vindicated by Monte Carlo simulations, which set a lower limit confidence interval {>=}4.3{sigma}. We also find evidence for candidate QPOs at higher frequencies in other bursts with lower statistical significance. The fact that we can find evidence for QPOs in the recurrent bursts at frequencies relatively close to those found in the giant flare is intriguing and can offer insight about the origin of the oscillations. We confront our finding against the available theoretical models and discuss the connection between the QPOs we report and those detected in the giant flares. The implications to the neutron star properties are also discussed.

El-Mezeini, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Alaa I., E-mail: amezeini@aucegypt.ed, E-mail: ai@aucegypt.ed, E-mail: amiae2@cam.ac.u, E-mail: ai@space.mit.ed [Department of Physics, American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

2010-10-01

81

Reprocessing model for the optical quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of black hole X-ray transients show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the optical (ultraviolet) and X-ray bands at the same frequency, which challenge models for production of radiation at these wavelengths. We propose a model where the optical radiation is modulated by the oscillating X-ray flux resulting in varying irradiation of the outer parts of the accretion disc. The proposed QPO mechanism inevitably takes place in the systems with sufficiently small ratio of the outer disc radius to the QPO period. We show that, unlike in the case of the aperiodic variability, it is not possible to obtain the optical QPO profiles from those observed in the X-rays through the transfer function, because of different X-ray signals seen by the disc and by the observer. We demonstrate that with the increasing QPO frequency, occurring at the rising phase of the X-ray outburst, the rms should be constant for sufficiently low frequencies, then to increase reaching the peak and finally to drop substantially when the QPO period becomes comparable to the light-crossing time to the outer disc. We predict that the QPO rms in this model should increase towards shorter wavelengths and this fact can be used to distinguish it from other QPO mechanisms.

Veledina, Alexandra; Poutanen, Juri

2015-03-01

82

Kilo-Second Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Cataclysmic Variable DW Cancri  

E-print Network

Our photometric monitoring revealed that DW Cnc, which was originally classified as a dwarf nova (V=15--17.5), remained at a bright state of Rc=14.68+/-0.07 for 61 days. In conjunction with optical spectra lacking a strong He II emission line, we propose that the object is not a dwarf nova, but a non-magnetic nova-like variable. Throughout our monitoring, the object showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with amplitudes reaching about 0.3 mag. Our period analysis yielded a power spectrum with two peaks of QPOs, whose center periods are 37.5+/-0.1 and 73.4+/-0.4 min and, furthermore, with a significant power in frequencies lower than the QPOs. DW Cnc is a unique cataclysmic variable in which kilo-second QPOs were continuously detected for 61 days. We propose two possible interpretations of DW Cnc: (i) A permanent superhumper below the period minimum of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables. (ii) A nova-like variable having an orbital period over 3 hours. In this case, the QPOs may be caused by trapped disk oscillations.

M. Uemura; T. Kato; R. Ishioka; R. Novak; J. Pietz

2002-03-15

83

Kilo-Second Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Cataclysmic Variable DW Cancri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our photometric monitoring revealed that DWCnc, which was originally classified as a dwarf nova (V=15 - 17.5) remained at a bright state of Rc=14.68 +/- 0.07 for 61days. In conjunction with optical spectra lacking a strong He II emission line, we propose that the object is not a dwarf nova, but a non-magnetic nova-like variable. Throughout our monitoring, the object showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with amplitudes reaching about 0.3mag. Our period analysis yielded a power spectrum with two peaks of QPOs, whose center periods are 37.5 +/- 0.1 and 73.4 +/- 0.4 min and, furthermore, with a significant power in frequencies lower than the QPOs. DWCnc is a unique cataclysmic variable in which kilo-second QPOs were continuously detected for 61days. We propose two possible interpretations of DWCnc: (i) A permanent superhumper below the period minimum of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variab les. (ii) A nova-like variable having an orbital period over 3hours. In this case, the QPOs may be caused by trapped disk oscillations.

Uemura, Makoto; Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Novak, Rudolf; Pietz, Jochen

2002-04-01

84

Kilo-Second Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Cataclysmic Variable DW Cancri  

E-print Network

Our photometric monitoring revealed that DW Cnc, which was originally classified as a dwarf nova (V=15--17.5), remained at a bright state of Rc=14.68+/-0.07 for 61 days. In conjunction with optical spectra lacking a strong He II emission line, we propose that the object is not a dwarf nova, but a non-magnetic nova-like variable. Throughout our monitoring, the object showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with amplitudes reaching about 0.3 mag. Our period analysis yielded a power spectrum with two peaks of QPOs, whose center periods are 37.5+/-0.1 and 73.4+/-0.4 min and, furthermore, with a significant power in frequencies lower than the QPOs. DW Cnc is a unique cataclysmic variable in which kilo-second QPOs were continuously detected for 61 days. We propose two possible interpretations of DW Cnc: (i) A permanent superhumper below the period minimum of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables. (ii) A nova-like variable having an orbital period over 3 hours. In this case, the QPOs may be caused by trapped ...

Uemura, M; Ishioka, R; Novak, R; Pietz, J

2002-01-01

85

Quasi-periodic recurrence of large earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been 153 yr since the last large earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault (California, United States), but the average interseismic interval is only ~100 yr. If the recurrence of large earthquakes is periodic, rather than random or clustered, the length of this period is notable and would generally increase the risk estimated in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses. Unfortunately, robust characterization of a distribution describing earthquake recurrence on a single fault is limited by the brevity of most earthquake records. Here we use statistical tests on a 3000 yr combined record of 29 ground-rupturing earthquakes from Wrightwood, California. We show that earthquake recurrence there is more regular than expected from a Poisson distribution and is not clustered, leading us to conclude that recurrence is quasi-periodic. The observation of unimodal time dependence is persistent across an observationally based sensitivity analysis that critically examines alternative interpretations of the geologic record. The results support formal forecast efforts that use renewal models to estimate probabilities of future earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault. Only four intervals (15%) from the record are longer than the present open interval, highlighting the current hazard posed by this fault.

Scharer, Katherine M.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Weldon, Ray J., II; Fumal, Tom E.

2010-01-01

86

Optical properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene photonic crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel type of one-dimensional photonic crystal called Fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene photonic crystal (FGPC), in which the structure in each dielectric cell follows the Fibonacci sequence and the graphene monolayers are embedded between adjacent dielectric layers. The transmission properties of FGPC are investigated using transfer matrix method in detail. It is shown that both photonic band gap induced by graphene (GIBPG) and the Bragg gap exist in the structure. We study the band gaps of TE and TM waves at different incident angles or chemical potentials. It is found that the band gaps can be tuned via a gate voltage and GIBPG is almost omnidirectional and insensitive to the polarization. In order to investigate difference between the GIPBG and Bragg gap, we plot the electromagnetic field profiles inside FGPC for some critical frequencies. The propagation loss of the structure caused by absorption of graphene is researched in detail. Also, the passing bands of Fibonacci sequences of different orders and their splitting behavior at higher order are investigated.

Zhang, Yuping; Wu, Zhixin; Cao, Yanyan; Zhang, Huiyun

2015-03-01

87

On the Inverse Spectral Problem for the Quasi-Periodic Schrödinger Equation  

E-print Network

We study the quasi-periodic Schr\\"odinger equation $$ -\\psi"(x) + V(x) \\psi(x) = E \\psi(x), \\qquad x \\in \\IR $$ in the regime of "small" $V$. Let $(E_m',E"_m)$, $m \\in \\zv$, be the standard labeled gaps in the spectrum. Our main result says that if $E"_m - E'_m \\le \\ve \\exp(-\\kappa_0 |m|)$ for all $m \\in \\zv$, with $\\ve$ being small enough, depending on $\\kappa_0 > 0$ and the frequency vector involved, then the Fourier coefficients of $V$ obey $|c(m)| \\le \\ve^{1/2} \\exp(-\\frac{\\kappa_0}{2} |m|)$ for all $m \\in \\zv$. On the other hand we prove that if $|c(m)| \\le \\ve \\exp(-\\kappa_0 |m|)$ with $\\ve$ being small enough, depending on $\\kappa_0 > 0$ and the frequency vector involved, then $E"_m - E'_m \\le 2 \\ve \\exp(-\\frac{\\kappa_0}{2} |m|)$.

David Damanik; Michael Goldstein

2014-09-28

88

On the modulation of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the properties of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations detected in a sample of six black hole candidates (XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, GX 339-4, XTE J1650-500) observed by the Rossi XTE satellite. We analysed the relation between the full width at half-maximum and the frequency of all the narrow peaks detected in power density spectra where a type-C QPO is observed. Our goal was to understand the nature of the modulation of the signal by comparing the properties of different harmonic peaks in the power density spectrum. We find that for the sources in our sample the width of the fundamental and of the first harmonic are compatible with a frequency modulation, while that of the sub-harmonic is independent of frequency, possibly indicating the presence of an additional modulation in amplitude. We compare our results with those obtained earlier from GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564.

Pawar, Devraj D.; Motta, Sara; Shanthi, K.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Belloni, Tomaso

2015-04-01

89

Millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations and broad iron line from LMC X-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the temporal and energy spectral characteristics of the persistent black hole X-ray binary LMC X-1 using two XMM-Newton and a Suzaku observation. We report the discovery of low-frequency (˜26-29 m Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We also report the variability of the broad iron K? line studied earlier with Suzaku. The QPOs are found to be weak with fractional rms amplitude in the ˜1-2 per cent range and quality factor Q ˜ 2-10. They are accompanied by weak red noise or zero-centred Lorentzian components with rms variability at the ˜1-3 per cent level. The energy spectra consist of three varying components - multicolour disc blackbody (kTin ˜ 0.7-0.9 keV), high-energy power-law tail (? ˜ 2.4-3.3) and a broad iron line at 6.4-6.9 keV. The broad iron line, the QPO and the strong power-law component are not always present. The QPOs and the broad iron line appear to be clearly detected in the presence of a strong power-law component. The broad iron line is found to be weaker when the disc is likely truncated and absent when the power-law component almost vanished. These results suggest that the QPO and the broad iron line together can be used to probe the dynamics of the accretion disc and the corona.

Alam, Md. Shah; Dewangan, G. C.; Belloni, T.; Mukherjee, D.; Jhingan, S.

2014-12-01

90

SUBMILLIMETER QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN MAGNETICALLY CHOKED ACCRETION FLOW MODELS OF SgrA*  

SciTech Connect

High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetically choked accretion flows around rapidly rotating black holes (BHs). We perform polarized radiative transfer calculations with the ASTRORAY code to explore the manifestations of these QPOs for SgrA*. We construct a simulation-based model of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and find model parameters by fitting the mean polarized source spectrum. The simulated QPOs have a total submillimeter flux amplitude up to 5% and a linearly polarized flux amplitude up to 2%. The oscillations reach high levels of significance 10{sigma}-30{sigma} and high-quality factors Q Almost-Equal-To 5. The oscillation period T Almost-Equal-To 100 M Almost-Equal-To 35 minutes corresponds to the rotation period of the BH magnetosphere that produces a trailing spiral in resolved disk images. The total flux signal is significant over noise for all tested frequencies 87 GHz, 230 GHz, and 857 GHz and inclination angles 10 Degree-Sign , 37 Degree-Sign , and 80 Degree-Sign . The non-detection in the 230 GHz SubMillimeter Array light curve is consistent with a low signal level and a low sampling rate. The presence of submillimeter QPOs in SgrA* will be better tested with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

Shcherbakov, Roman V. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: roman@astro.umd.edu [Joint Space Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-09-10

91

Entrainment in nerve by a ferroelectric model (II): Quasi-periodic oscillation and the phase locking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear state equation for membrane excitation can be simplified by Leuchtag's ferroelectric model which is applied to a chemical network theory. A dissipative structure of such a membrane is described by an equilibrium space, ? 3 + a? + b = 0, giving a cusp catastrophe, and the membrane is self-organized in the resting state under the condition, a < 0( T < Tc), where ? corresponds to the membrane potential, and a and b imply dipole-dipole and dipole-ion interactions of channel proteins embedded in the membrane, respectively. As well known, a specific characteristic of nonlinear electrical phenomena in the membrane is a limit cycle arising through the entrainment by periodical stimuli or chaos. A phase transition between the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium states (a dissipative structure without the resting state) is described by a parameter giving the difference from thermal equilibrium. In this dynamic system, quasi-periodic oscillations which arise in periodic external fields and the phase locking, that is, entrainment, caused by changing I0 at ? ? ? n (? n - the natural frequency of the membrane) are studied with parameters introduced into Zeeman's formulas of ? and ?.

Shirane, Kotaro; Tokimoto, Takayuki; Kushibe, Hiroyuki

1997-09-01

92

ON THE NATURE OF QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION PHASE LAGS IN BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes (BHs). In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provide feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and time-delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its nonlinear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy-dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signals in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly discuss the implications of the observed energy dependence of the QPO reverberation times and amplitudes on the nature of the power-law spectral component and its variability.

Shaposhnikov, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolai.v.shaposhnikov@nasa.gov, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, CRESST/University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2012-06-20

93

On the modulation of low frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in black-hole transients  

E-print Network

We studied the properties of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations detected in a sample of six black hole candidates (XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47,GX 339-4, XTE J1650-500) observed by the Rossi XTE satellite. We analyzed the relation between the full width half maximum and the frequency of all the narrow peaks detected in power density spectra where a type-C QPO is observed. Our goal was to understand the nature of the modulation of the signal by comparing the properties of different harmonic peaks in the power density spectrum. We find that for the sources in our sample the width of the fundamental and of the first harmonic are compatible with a frequency modulation, while that of the sub-harmonic is independent of frequency, possibly indicating the presence of an additional modulation in amplitude. We compare our results with those obtained earlier from GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564.

Pawar, Devraj D; Shanthi, K; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Belloni, Tomaso

2015-01-01

94

ON THE HIGH-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS FROM BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We apply the global mode analysis, which has been recently developed for the modeling of kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from neutron stars, to the inner region of an accretion disk around a rotating black hole. Within a pseudo-Newtonian approach that keeps the ratio of the radial epicyclic frequency {kappa} to the orbital frequency {Omega} the same as the corresponding ratio for a Kerr black hole, we determine the innermost disk region where the hydrodynamic modes grow in amplitude. We find that the radiation flux emerging from the inner disk has the highest values within the same region. Using the flux-weighted averages of the frequency bands over this region we identify the growing modes with highest frequency branches {Omega} + {kappa} and {Omega} to be the plausible candidates for the high-frequency QPO pairs observed in black hole systems. The observed frequency ratio around 1.5 can therefore be understood naturally in terms of the global free oscillations in the innermost region of a viscous accretion disk around a black hole without invoking a particular resonance to produce black hole QPOs. Although the frequency ratio ({Omega} + {kappa})/({Omega}) is found to be not sensitive to the black hole's spin which is good for explaining the high-frequency QPOs, it may work as a limited diagnostic of the spin parameter to distinguish black holes with very large spin from the slowly rotating ones. Within our model we estimate the frequency ratio of a high-frequency QPO pair to be greater than 1.5 if the black hole is a slow rotator. For fast rotating black holes, we expect the same ratio to be less than 1.5.

Erkut, M. Hakan, E-mail: m.erkut@iku.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Kueltuer University, Atakoey Campus, Bak Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I rkoey 34156, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-12-10

95

Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Random X-Ray Bursts Around Rotating Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue our earlier studies of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the power spectra of accreting, rapidly rotating black holes that originate from the geometric "light echoes" of X-ray flares occurring within the black hole ergosphere. Our present work extends our previous treatment to three-dimensional photon emission and orbits to allow for arbitrary latitudes in the positions of the distant observers and the X-ray sources in place of the mainly equatorial positions and photon orbits of the earlier consideration. Following the trajectories of a large number of photons, we calculate the response functions of a given geometry and use them to produce model light curves which we subsequently analyze to compute their power spectra and autocorrelation functions. In the case of an optically thin environment, relevant to advection-dominated accretion flows, we consistently find QPOs at frequencies on the order of ~kHz for stellar-mass black hole candidates, while on the order of ~mHz for typical active galactic nuclei (~107 M sun) for a wide range of viewing angles (30°-80°) from X-ray sources predominantly concentrated toward the equator within the ergosphere. As in our previous treatment, here too, the QPO signal is produced by the frame-dragging of the photons by the rapidly rotating black hole, which results in photon "bunches" separated by constant time lags, the result of multiple photon orbits around the hole. Our model predicts for various source/observer configurations the robust presence of a new class of QPOs, which is inevitably generic to a curved spacetime structure in rotating black hole systems.

Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Stephenson, Gordon

2009-04-01

96

A delayed oscillator model for the quasi-periodic multidecadal variability of the NAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet analysis of the annual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index back to 1659 reveals a significant frequency band at about 60 years. Recent NAO decadal variations, including the increasing trend during 1960-1990 and decreasing trend since the mid-1990s, can be well explained by the approximate 60-year cycle. This quasi 60-year oscillation of the NAO is realistically reproduced in a long-term control simulation with version 4 of the Community Climate System Model, and the possible mechanisms are further investigated. The positive NAO forces the strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and induces a basin-wide uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming that corresponds to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The SST field exhibits a delayed response to the preceding enhanced AMOC, and shows a pattern similar to the North Atlantic tripole (NAT), with SST warming in the northern North Atlantic and cooling in the southern part. This SST pattern (negative NAT phase) may lead to an atmospheric response that resembles the negative NAO phase, and subsequently the oscillation proceeds, but in the opposite sense. Based on these mechanisms, a simple delayed oscillator model is established to explain the quasi-periodic multidecadal variability of the NAO. The magnitude of the NAO forcing of the AMOC/AMO and the time delay of the AMOC/AMO feedback are two key parameters of the delayed oscillator. For a given set of parameters, the quasi 60-year cycle of the NAO can be well predicted. This delayed oscillator model is useful for understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of the NAO, which has significant potential for decadal predictions as well as the interpretation of proxy data records.

Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Jin, Fei-Fei

2015-01-01

97

Effects of Resonance in Quasi-Periodic Oscillators of Neutron Star Binaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a large quantity of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data presented in the literature, I offer a detailed investigation into the accuracy of the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency determination. The QPO phenomenon seen in X-ray binaries is possibly a result of the resonance of the intrinsic (eigen) oscillations and harmonic driving forces of the system. I show that the resonances, in the presence of the damping of oscillations, occur at frequencies that are systematically and randomly shifted with respect to the eigenfrequencies of the system. The shift value strongly depends on the damping rate that is measured by the half-width of the QPO feature. Taking into account this effect, I analyze the QPO data for four Z sources, Scorpius X-I, GX 340+0, GX 5-1, and GX 17+2, and two atoll sources, 4U 1728-34 and 4U 0614+09. The transition-layer model (TLM) predicts the existence of the invariant quantity delta, an inclination angle of the magnetospheric axis with respect to the normal to the disk. I calculate delta and the error bars of delta using the resonance shift, and I find that the inferred delta-values are consistent with constants for these four Z sources, in which horizontal-branch oscillation and kilohertz frequencies have been detected and correctly identified. It is shown that the inferred delta are in the range between 5.5 deg and 6.5 deg. I conclude that the TLM seems to be compatible with the data.

Titarchuk, Lev; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

98

Multi-mode quasi-periodic pulsations in a solar flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) of the electromagnetic radiation emitted in solar and stellar flares are often detected in microwave, white light, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. Mechanisms for QPP are intensively debated in the literature. Previous studies revealed that QPP may manifest non-linear, non-stationary and, perhaps, multi-modal processes operating in flares. Aims: We study QPP of the microwave emission generated in an X3.2-class solar flare on 14 May, 2013, observed with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), aiming to reveal signatures of the non-linear, non-stationary, and multi-modal processes in the signal. Methods: The NoRH correlation signal obtained at the 17 GHz intensity has a clear QPP pattern. The signal was analysed with the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) that allows one to determine its instant amplitude and frequency, and their time variation. Results: It was established that the QPP consists of at least three well-defined intrinsic modes, with the mean periods of 15, 45, and 100 s. All the modes have quasi-harmonic behaviour with different modulation patterns. The 100 s intrinsic mode is a decaying oscillation, with the decay time of 250 s. The 15 s intrinsic mode shows a similar behaviour, with the decay time of 90 s. The 45 s mode has a wave-train behaviour. Conclusions: Dynamical properties of detected intrinsic modes indicate that the 100 s and 15 s modes are likely to be associated with fundamental kink and sausage modes of the flaring loop, respectively. The 100 s oscillation could also be caused by the fundamental longitudinal mode, while this interpretation requires the plasma temperature of about 30 million K and hence is not likely. The 45 s mode could be the second standing harmonics of the kink mode.

Kolotkov, D. Y.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Kupriyanova, E. G.; Ratcliffe, H.; Shibasaki, K.

2015-02-01

99

SOFT LAGS IN NEUTRON STAR kHz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS: EVIDENCE FOR REVERBERATION?  

SciTech Connect

High frequency soft reverberation lags have now been detected from stellar mass and supermassive black holes. Their interpretation involves reflection of a hard source of photons onto an accretion disk, producing a delayed reflected emission, with a time lag consistent with the light travel time between the irradiating source and the disk. Independently of the location of the clock, the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) emission is thought to arise from the neutron star boundary layer. Here, we search for the signature of reverberation of the kHz QPO emission, by measuring the soft lags and the lag energy spectrum of the lower kHz QPOs from 4U1608-522. Soft lags, ranging from {approx}15 to {approx}40 {mu}s, between the 3-8 keV and 8-30 keV modulated emissions are detected between 565 and 890 Hz. The soft lags are not constant with frequency and show a smooth decrease between 680 Hz and 890 Hz. The broad band X-ray spectrum is modeled as the sum of a disk and a thermal Comptonized component, plus a broad iron line, expected from reflection. The spectral parameters follow a smooth relationship with the QPO frequency, in particular the fitted inner disk radius decreases steadily with frequency. Both the bump around the iron line in the lag energy spectrum and the consistency between the lag changes and the inferred changes of the inner disk radius, from either spectral fitting or the QPO frequency, suggest that the soft lags may indeed involve reverberation of the hard pulsating QPO source on the disk.

Barret, Didier, E-mail: didier.barret@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

2013-06-10

100

MASS-ANGULAR-MOMENTUM RELATIONS IMPLIED BY MODELS OF TWIN PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Twin peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in the X-ray power-density spectra of several accreting low-mass neutron star (NS) binaries. Observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1 display unusually low QPO frequencies. Using these observations, we have previously considered the relativistic precession (RP) twin peak QPO model to estimate the mass of the central NS in Circinus X-1. We have shown that such an estimate results in a specific mass-angular-momentum (M - j) relation rather than a single preferred combination of M and j. Here we confront our previous results with another binary, the atoll source 4U 1636-53 that displays the twin peak QPOs at very high frequencies, and extend the consideration to various twin peak QPO models. In analogy to the RP model, we find that these imply their own specific M - j relations. We explore these relations for both sources and note differences in the {chi}{sup 2} behavior that represent a dichotomy between high- and low-frequency sources. Based on the RP model, we demonstrate that this dichotomy is related to a strong variability of the model predictive power across the frequency plane. This variability naturally comes from the radial dependence of characteristic frequencies of orbital motion. As a consequence, the restrictions on the models resulting from observations of low-frequency sources are weaker than those in the case of high-frequency sources. Finally we also discuss the need for a correction to the RP model and consider the removing of M - j degeneracies, based on the twin peak QPO-independent angular momentum estimates.

Toeroek, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Sramkova, Eva; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin; Goluchova, Katerina, E-mail: pavel.bakala@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: martin.urbanec@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: terek@volny.cz, E-mail: sram_eva@centrum.cz [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)

2012-12-01

101

Conjugate observations of quasi-periodic emissions by Cluster and DEMETER spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> (QP) emissions are electromagnetic emissions at frequencies of about 0.5-4 kHz that are characterized by a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. Typical periods of this modulation are on the order of minutes. We present a case study of a large-scale long-lasting QP event observed simultaneously on board the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) and the Cluster spacecraft. The measurements by the Wide-Band Data instrument on board the Cluster spacecraft enabled us to obtain high-resolution frequency-time spectrograms of the event close to the equatorial region over a large range of radial distances, while the measurements by the STAFF-SA instrument allowed us to perform a detailed wave analysis. Conjugate observations by the DEMETER spacecraft have been used to estimate the spatial and temporal extent of the emissions. The analyzed QP event lasted as long as 5 h and it spanned over the L-shells from about 1.5 to 5.5. Simultaneous observations of the same event by DEMETER and Cluster show that the same QP modulation of the wave intensity is observed at the same time at very different locations in the inner magnetosphere. ULF magnetic field fluctuations with a period roughly comparable to, but somewhat larger than the period of the QP modulation were detected by the fluxgate magnetometers instrument on board the Cluster spacecraft near the equatorial region, suggesting these are likely to be related to the QP generation. Results of a detailed wave analysis show that the QP emissions detected by Cluster propagate unducted, with oblique wave normal angles at higher geomagnetic latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N?Mec, F.; SantolíK, O.; Parrot, M.; Pickett, J. S.; Hayosh, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464645"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> PROPAGATING SIGNALS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: THE SIGNATURE OF MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES OR HIGH-VELOCITY UPFLOWS?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the discovery of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> propagating oscillations with periods of order 3-10 minutes in coronal loops with TRACE and SOHO/EIT (and later with STEREO/EUVI and Hinode/EIS), they have been almost universally interpreted as evidence for propagating slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves in the low plasma {beta} coronal environment. Here we show that this interpretation is not unique, and that for coronal loops associated with plage regions (as opposed to sunspots), the presence of magnetoacoustic waves may not be the only cause for the observed <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicities</span>. We focus instead on the ubiquitous, faint upflows at 50-150 km s{sup -1} that were recently discovered as blueward asymmetries of spectral line profiles in footpoint regions of coronal loops, and as faint disturbances propagating along coronal loops in EUV/X-ray imaging time series. These faint upflows are most likely driven from below and have been associated with chromospheric jets that are (partially) rapidly heated to coronal temperatures at low heights. These two scenarios (waves versus flows) are difficult to differentiate using only imaging data, but careful analysis of spectral line profiles indicates that faint upflows are likely responsible for some of the observed <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillatory signals in the corona. We show that recent EIS measurements of intensity and velocity oscillations of coronal lines (which had previously been interpreted as direct evidence for propagating waves) are actually accompanied by significant oscillations in the line width that are driven by a <span class="hlt">quasi-periodically</span> varying component of emission in the blue wing of the line. This faint additional component of blue-shifted emission <span class="hlt">quasi-periodically</span> modulates the peak intensity and line centroid of a single Gaussian fit to the spectral profile with the same small amplitudes (respectively a few percent of background intensity and a few km s{sup -1}) that were previously used to infer the presence of slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves. Our results indicate that it is possible that a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicities</span> observed with coronal imagers and spectrographs that have previously been interpreted as propagating magnetoacoustic waves are instead caused by these upflows. The different physical cause for coronal oscillations would significantly impact the prospects of successful coronal seismology using propagating disturbances in coronal loops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Pontieu, Bart [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); McIntosh, Scott W., E-mail: bdp@lmsal.co, E-mail: mscott@ucar.ed [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26382050"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spectroscopy on <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of controlled thermonuclear research presents problems ; different from those generally treated by the astrophysicist. These differences ; can be mainly ascribed to the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> nature of the high temperature ; laboratory plasma. The problems posed by this type of plasma, and progress ; toward their solutions, are outlined. (auth);</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CNSNS..18..464J"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the coexistence of periodic or <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations near a Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation in NFDE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Normal form method is first employed to study the Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation in neutral functional differential equation (NFDE), and is proved to be an efficient approach to show the rich dynamics (periodic and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations) around the bifurcation point. We give an algorithm for calculating the third-order normal form in NFDE models, which naturally arise in the method of extended time delay autosynchronization (ETDAS). The existence of Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation in a van der Pol's equation with extended delay feedback is given and the unfoldings near this critical point is obtained by applying our algorithm. Some interesting phenomena, such as the coexistence of several stable periodic oscillations (or <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations) and the existence of saddle connection bifurcation on a torus, are found by analyzing the bifurcation diagram and are illustrated by numerical method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Weihua; Niu, Ben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Chaos..17a5112K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-rectified signal averaging for the detection of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicities</span> and the prediction of cardiovascular risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) method as an efficient technique for the study of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in noisy, nonstationary signals. It allows the assessment of system dynamics despite phase resetting and noise and in relation with either increases or decreases of the considered signal. We employ the method to study the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicities</span> of the human heart rate based on long-term ECG recordings. The center deflection of the PRSA curve characterizes the average capacity of the heart to decelerate (or accelerate) the cardiac rhythm. It can be measured by a central wavelet coefficient which we denote as deceleration capacity (DC). We find that decreased DC is a more precise predictor of mortality in survivors of heart attack than left ventricular ejection fraction, the current "gold standard" risk predictor. In addition, we discuss the dependence of the DC parameter on age and on diabetes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bauer, Axel; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Barthel, Petra; Schneider, Raphael; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1207.0368v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> motion of timelike minimal surface in the Minkowski space $\\textbf{R}^{1+n}$</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we consider the motion of timelike minimal surface in the Minkowski space $\\textbf{R}^{1+n}$. Those surfaces are known as a membranes or relativistic strings, and described by a system with $n$ nonlinear wave equations of Born-Infeld type. We show that the timelike minimal surface can takes a time <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> motion in $\\textbf{R}^{1+n}$.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiping Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0007460v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing Frequency Separation of Kilohertz <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in the Sonic-Point Beat-Frequency Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous work on the sonic-point beat-frequency (SPBF) model of the kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux from neutron stars in low-mass binary systems has shown that it naturally explains many properties of these QPOs. These include the existence of just two principal QPOs in a given source, the commensurability of the frequency separation \\Dnu\\ of the two kilohertz QPOs and the spin frequency \</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frederick K. Lamb; M. Coleman Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..GECCT2005S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasmas in dentistry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasmas are very efficient in the deactivation of bacteria. A relatively new area is the use of these plasmas in biomedical and dental applications. In this work, application of a novel device in dentistry is investigated, the plasma needle. The plasma needle is used to generate a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric micro-plasma. A promising application of this micro-plasma is the treatment of dental cavities, to stop caries without causing pain and removing too much healthy tissue. Various bacterial model systems are used to test the bactericidal efficiency of the plasma needle: bacteria in droplets, thin films and (multi-species) biofilms. The effects of plasma needle treatment on bacterial viability, growth and composition are discussed. The results indicate that plasma can become a useful tool for dental treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sladek, Raymond; Stoffels, Eva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21567730"> <span id="translatedtitle">TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. III. <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> VARIABILITY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the no-hair theorem, astrophysical black holes are uniquely described by their masses and spins. An observational test of the no-hair theorem can be performed by measuring at least three different multipole moments of the spacetime of a black hole and verifying whether their values are consistent with the unique combinations of the Kerr solution. In this paper, we study <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> variability observed in the emission from black holes across the electromagnetic spectrum as a test of the no-hair theorem. We derive expressions for the Keplerian and epicyclic frequencies in a quasi-Kerr spacetime, in which the quadrupole moment is a free parameter in addition to mass and spin. We show that, for moderate spins, the Keplerian frequency is practically independent of small deviations of the quadrupole moment from the Kerr value, while the epicyclic frequencies exhibit significant variations. We apply this framework to <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) in black hole X-ray binaries in two different scenarios. In the case that a pair of QPOs can be identified as the fundamental g- and c-modes in the accretion disk, we show that the no-hair theorem can be tested in conjunction with an independent mass measurement. If pairs of oscillations are identified with non-parametric resonance of dynamical frequencies in the accretion disk, then testing the no-hair theorem also requires an independent measurement of the black hole spin. In addition, we argue that VLBI observations of Sgr A* may test the no-hair theorem through a combination of imaging observations and the detection of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johannsen, Tim [Physics Department, University of Arizona, 1118 East 4th Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: timj@physics.arizona.edu, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..507K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodical</span> variations of pulsars spin as mimicry of differential rotation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT Observation of pulsars is a powerful source of information for studying the dynamics and internal structure of neutron stars. Known about <span class="hlt">quasi-periodical</span> fluctuations of the time-of-arrival of radiation(TOA) for some pulsars, which we explain as Chandler wobble, Free core nutation, Free inner core nutation and Inner core wobble in case three layer model. Using hamilton approximation to theory rotation of multilayer celestial bodies we estimate dynamical flattening for different layers for PSR B1828-11. It is known that an innate feature of pulsar radiation is high stability of the time-of-arrival (TOA) of pulses, and therefore the analysis of TOA fluctuations can reflect subtle effects of neutron stars dynamics. TOA variations of pulsars can be interpreted by three reasons: gravitational perturbation of pulsar by planetary bodies, peculiarities of a pulsar interior like Tkachenko oscillations and free precession motion, when axis of rotation do not coincide with vectors of the angular moment of solid crust, liquid outer core and crystal core. The radial velocity of a star is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the Doppler effect in its spectrum. Stars showing a small amplitude variation of the radial velocity can be interpreted as systems having planetary companions. Assuming that the pulsar PSR B1257+12 has a mass of 1:35M¯, the Keplerian orbital radii are 0.9, 1.4 and 2.1 AU and with masses are 3:1M©=sin(i), 10:2M©=sin(i), 4:6M©=sin(i), where i is the orbital inclination [7]. In 2000, Stairs, Lyne and Shemar reported about their discovery of long-term, highly-periodic and correlated variations of pulse shape and the rate of slow-down of the pulsar PSR B182811 with period variations approximately 1000, 500, 250 and 167 days, which may be a result of the spin axis caused by an asymmetry in the shape of the pulsar. The long-periodic precession phenomenon was also detected for a few pulsars: PSR 2217+47, PSR 0531+21, PSR B083345, PSR B182811, PSR B164203 [2,3,6,]. The rotation of the terrestrial planets having rigid mantle, outer liquid and inner solid cores is characterized by Chandler wobble, Inner core wobble, Free Core Nutation, Free Inner Core Nutation. Like the Earth, a neutron star can undergo a free precession [4]. The period of precession is defined by deformation of a pulsar and tension in crust and mantle. If the crust and the core of pulsar have differential rotation then axis of a pulsar rotation will be precess, because axis of deformation will not coincide with axis of rotation. The three-layer model is more complicated than the previous case therefore classical methods fail. Escapa, Getino and Ferrandiz [1] developed a canonical formulation for an three-layer Earth model. We research model of pulsar, which includes three layers (fig. 1): an axis symmetrical rigid mantle, a fluid outer core (FOC) and a solid inner core (SIC). Flattened of the pulsar, it's FOC and SIC are Here A;C;Af ;Cf ;As;Cs;Ac;Cc are moments of inertia of the pulsar, FOC, SIC and total core accordingly; e, ef , ec are the flattening of total pulsar, FOC, core and SIC accordingly. In case rotation of a three-layer neutron star we have variations of next types: the Chandler Wobble (CW) is a motion of the pulsar rotation axis around its dynamical figure due to the bulges of the pulsar (it is the only global rotational mode for completely solid pulsar); the Free Core Nutation (FCN) is a differential rotation of the liquid core relatively the crust rotation; This mode does exist only if the core is liquid; the Free Inner Core Nutation (FICN) is a mode related to the differential rotation of the inner core with respect to the other layers of the pulsar. The mode exists only if the pulsar has two-layer core contains outer liquid and inner solid components; the Inner Core Wobble (ICW) is a differential rotation of the figure axis of the pulsar core with respect to the rotation axis of the pulsar and is due to the flattened of the inner core, having an excess of density with respect to the liquid core. This mode does exist only if</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kitiashvili, I.; Gusev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARR43006R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum coherence of Hard Core Bosons and Fermions in one dimensional <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> potentials: superfluid, Mott and glassy phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use Hanbury- Brown-Twiss interferometry (HBTI) to characterize and contrast the different quantum phases exhibited by hard core bosons (HCBs) and ideal fermions confined in a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> potential. In addition to the Bose-glass, superfluid and Mott insulator phases characteristic of interacting disordered bosons, we show the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> potential induces a cascade of Mott-like band insulator transitions triggered by the fermion-type statistics of HCBs . A comparative study of the fermion model shows that except for a sign difference, HCB and fermion interferometric patterns coincide in the localized phases. In the extended phase, however, fermions behave quite differently ; their correlation functions reflect some of the multi-fractal properties characteristic of the metal-insulator transition. When plotted as a function of the filling factor, their quasi-momentum distribution displays an Arnold tongue-like structure and the HBTI peak intensity follows a step-like pattern which resembles a devil's staircase at the onset of the localization transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rey, Ana Maria; Satija, Indubala I.; Clark, Charles W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSCom.152.2113Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Omnidirectional photonic band gaps enlarged by Fibonacci <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> one-dimensional ternary superconductor photonic crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First two omnidirectional photonic band gaps (OBGs) realized by one-dimensional (1D) Fibonacci <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> structure which is composed of superconductor and two kinds of isotropic dielectric are theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method (TMM). From the numerical results, it has been shown that such OBGs are insensitive to the incident angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave (EM wave), and the frequency ranges and central frequencies of OBGs cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order, but vary with the ambient temperature of system and the thickness of the superconductor, respectively. The bandwidths of OBGs can be notably enlarged. The damping coefficient of superconductor layers has no effect on the frequency ranges of OBGs. Those OBGs originate from a Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n˜ gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap. It has been proved that Fibonacci <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> 1D ternary superconductor dielectric photonic crystals (SDPCs) have a superior feature in the enhancement of OBGs frequency ranges compared with the conventional binary dielectric photonic crystals (DPCs).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Bian, Bo-Rui; Dai, Yi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...569A..12N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a high-quality <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> rapidly propagating wave train using SDO/AIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. We present a new event of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> wave trains observed in EUV wavebands that rapidly propagate away from an active region after a flare. Aims: We measured the parameters of a wave train observed on 7 December 2013 after an M1.2 flare, such as the phase speeds, periods and wavelengths, in relationship to the local coronal environment and the energy sources. Methods: We compared our observations with a numerical simulation of fast magnetoacoustic waves that undergo dispersive evolution and leakage in a coronal loop embedded in a potential magnetic field. Results: The wave train is observed to propagate as several arc-shaped intensity disturbances for almost half an hour, with a speed greater than 1000 km s-1 and a period of about 1 min. The wave train followed two different patterns of propagation, in accordance with the magnetic structure of the active region. The oscillatory signal is found to be of high-quality, i.e. there is a large number (10 or more) of subsequent wave fronts observed. The observations are found to be consistent with the numerical simulation of a fast wave train generated by a localised impulsive energy release. Conclusions: Transverse structuring in the corona can efficiently create and guide high-quality <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> propagating fast wave trains. The movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nisticò, G.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998A%26A...337..815P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> oscillations discovered in the new X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery of low frequency <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations centered at 0.11 Hz in the newly discovered 221 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034. Among about 30 known transient X-ray pulsars this is the sixth source in which QPOs have been observed. If the QPOs are produced because of inhomogeneities in the accretion disk at the magnetospheric boundary, the low frequency of the QPOs indicate a large magnetosphere for this pulsar. Both the Keplerian frequency model and the beat frequency model are applicable for production of QPOs in this source. The QPOs and regular pulsations are found to be stronger at higher energy which favours the beat frequency model. The magnetic field of the pulsar is calculated as a function of its distance. The energy spectrum is found to be very hard, consisting of two components, a cut-off power law and an iron fluorescence line.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul, B.; Rao, A. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...746L..10D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-infrared and X-Ray <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations in Numerical Models of Sgr A*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report transient <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) on minute timescales in relativistic, radiative models of the galactic center source Sgr A*. The QPOs result from nonaxisymmetric m = 1 structure in the accretion flow excited by MHD turbulence. Near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray power spectra show significant peaks at frequencies comparable to the orbital frequency at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) fo . The excess power is associated with inward propagating magnetic filaments inside the ISCO. The amplitudes of the QPOs are sensitive to the electron distribution function. We argue that transient QPOs appear at a range of frequencies in the neighborhood of fo and that the power spectra, averaged over long times, likely show a broad bump near fo rather than distinct, narrow QPO features.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Noble, Scott C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ASPC..466..225P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the Mass and Moment of Inertia of Neutron Stars from <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in X-ray Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We put some constraints on the mass and moment of inertia of neutron stars based on the interpretation of high-frequency <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (HF-QPOs) observed in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We use available HF-QPOs observations to look for the average mass and moment of inertia of neutron stars by applying our parametric resonance model to discriminate between slow and fast rotators in relation with the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). We find an average mass M* ? (2.0 - 2.2) M?. The corresponding average moment of inertia is then I* ? (1 - 3) × 1038kg m2 ? (0.5 - 1.5) (10 km)2 M?.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pétri, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...801..115M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing Gravity with <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations from Accreting Black Holes: The Case of Einstein–Dilaton–Gauss–Bonnet Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting black holes are associated with phenomena occurring near the horizon. Future very large area X-ray instruments will be able to measure QPO frequencies with very high precision, thus probing this strong-field region. Using the relativistic precession model, we show the way in which QPO frequencies could be used to test general relativity (GR) against those alternative theories of gravity which predict deviations from the classical theory in the strong-field and high-curvature regimes. We consider one of the best-motivated high-curvature corrections to GR, namely, the Einstein–Dilaton–Gauss–Bonnet theory, and show that a detection of QPOs with the expected sensitivity of the proposed ESA M-class mission LOFT would set the most stringent constraints on the parameter space of this theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pani, Paolo; Stella, Luigi; Ferrari, Valeria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040070829&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Frequency <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015660&hterms=black&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dblack"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 200-Second <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodicity</span> After the Tidal Disruption of a Star by a Dormant Black Hole</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supermassive black holes are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass, In the local Universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, often coming in the form of long term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a approx.200-s X-ray <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicity</span> around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local Universe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Gueltkinm K.; Maitra, D.; King, A. L.; Strohmayer, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22859817"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 200-second <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicity</span> after the tidal disruption of a star by a dormant black hole.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supermassive black holes (SMBHs; mass is greater than or approximately 10(5) times that of the Sun) are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass. In the local universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, which often comes in the form of long-term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a ~200-second x-ray <span class="hlt">quasi-periodicity</span> around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local universe. PMID:22859817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reis, R C; Miller, J M; Reynolds, M T; Gültekin, K; Maitra, D; King, A L; Strohmayer, T E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1211.3344v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twin peak <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations and the kinematics of orbital motion in a curved space-time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twin peak high frequency <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (HF QPOs) observed in the power spectra of Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs), with either a black hole or a neutron star, have central frequencies that are typical of the orbital motion time-scale close to the compact object. Thus, twin HF QPOs might carry the fingerprint of physical effects in a strongly curved space-time. We study the azimuth phase \\phi(t) for orbital motion in the Schwarzschild metric and calculate the power spectra to check whether they display the features seen in the observed ones. We show that the timing of \\phi(t) on non-closed orbits can account for the observed twin peak HF QPOs. The uppermost couple of peaks in frequency has the lower peak that corresponds to the azimuthal frequency \</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudio Germanà</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0510834v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Model for Twin Kilohertz <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We suggest a plausible interpretation for the twin kiloHertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. We identify the upper kHz QPO frequencies to be the rotational frequency and the lower kHz QPOs the standing kink modes of loop oscillations at the inner edge of the accretion disk, respectively. Taking into account the interaction between the neutron star magnetic field and the disk, this model naturally relates the twin QPO frequencies with the star's spin frequencies. We have applied the model to four X-ray sources with kHz QPOs detected simultaneously and known spin frequencies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. -D. Li; C. -M. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1014014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fuel injector utilizing <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma activation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9402011v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low Frequency <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries and Galactic Black Hole Candidates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the inner regions of accretion disks surrounding black holes and neutron stars and investigate the nonlinear time dependent evolution of thermal-viscous instabilities. The viscous stress is assumed to be proportional to the gas pressure with the viscosity parameter formulated as $\\alpha =\\min[\\alpha_0 (h/r)^n, \\alpha_{\\max}]$, where $h$ is the local scale height, $r$ is the distance from the central compact object, and $n$, $\\alpha_0$ and $\\alpha_{\\max}$ are constants. It is found that the disk is unstable for $\\alpha$ sufficiently sensitive to $h$ ($n \\gapprox 1.2$). The instabilities are globally coherent in the entire unstable region of the disk and, depending on the viscosity parameters, the time variability of the mass accretion rates are manifested as periodic or <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations. We show that, the low frequency ($\\sim 0.04$~Hz) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) discovered recently in some of the black hole candidates (Cyg~X-1 and GRO~J0422+32) and a low mass X-ray binary (Rapid Burster MXB~1730--335) may be explicable by the thermal-viscous instabilities in accretion disks. The observations of QPOs place constraints on the viscosity parameters and suggest that $(n,\\alpha_0)$ $\\sim (1.6,30)$ for the Rapid Burster with a $1.4\\,\\msun$ neutron star. In the case of black hole candidates, the dependence of $\\alpha$ on $h/r$ is less steep corresponding to $n \\sim 1.2-1.3$ for black holes less than $10\\,\\msun$.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xingming Chen; Ronald E. Taam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-02-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plasma.mem.drexel.edu/publications/documents/JAP.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">TOPICAL REVIEW: <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure discharges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has been considerable interest in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure discharges over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. Diverse applications demand a solid physical and chemical understanding of the operational principals of such discharges. This paper focuses on the four most important and widely used varieties of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> discharges: corona, dielectric barrier, gliding arc and spark</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Fridman; A. Chirokov; A. Gutsol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/32312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral changes during the 0.1-4 Hz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis, we describe the analysis of 0.1-4 Hz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 using data obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. Data from 13 ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cho, Steven N. (Steven Nicholas)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071533&hterms=magnetic+vortex&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bvortex"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> transverse plasma flow associated with an evolving MHD vortex street in the outer heliosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study a transverse plasma flow induced by the evolution of a Karman vortex street using a Chebyshev-Fourier spectral algorithm to solve both the compressible Navier-Stokes and MHD equations. The evolving vortex street is formed by the nonlinear interaction of two vortex sheets initially in equilibrium. We study spatial profiles of the total plasma velocity, the density, the meridional flow angle and the location of sector boundaries and find generally good agreement with Voyager 2 measurements of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> transverse flow in the outer heliosphere. The pressure pulses associated with the meridional flows in the simulation are too small, although they are correctly located, and this may be due to the lack of any 'warp' in the current sheet in this model. A strong, flow-aligned magnetic field, such as would occur in the inner heliosphere, is shown to lead to weak effects that would be masked by the background interplanetary turbulence. We also study the plasma and magnetic transport resulting from the meridional flow and find that deficits of magnetic quantities do occur near the ecliptic. While the effect is relatively small, it is in general agreement with the most recent analysis of 'flux deficit' in the outer heliosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siregar, Edouard; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22078460"> <span id="translatedtitle">LOW-FREQUENCY <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATION FROM THE 11 Hz ACCRETING PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: NOT FRAME DRAGGING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on six RXTE observations taken during the 2010 outburst of the 11 Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During these observations we find power spectra which resemble those seen in Z-type high-luminosity neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, with a <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) in the 35-50 Hz range simultaneous with a kHz QPO and broadband noise. Using well-known frequency-frequency correlations, we identify the 35-50 Hz QPOs as the horizontal branch oscillations, which were previously suggested to be due to Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. As IGR J17480-2446 spins more than an order of magnitude more slowly than any of the other neutron stars where these QPOs were found, this QPO cannot be explained by frame dragging. By extension, this casts doubt on the LT precession model for other low-frequency QPOs in neutron stars and perhaps even black hole systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute, 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ingram, A. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Linares, M.; Homan, J., E-mail: d.altamirano@uva.nl [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22314686"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2??m. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1–2.6?GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50?dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aliev, Gazi N., E-mail: g.aliev@bath.ac.uk; Goller, Bernhard [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010073051&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Frequency <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an analysis of the high-frequency timing properties of the April-May 2000 outburst of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar XTE J1550-564, measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, The rapid X-ray variability we measure is consistent with the source being in either the "very high" or "intermediate" canonical black hole state. A strong (5-8% RMS) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) is found between 249-278 Hz; this may represent the first recurrence of the same high-frequency QPO in subsequent outbursts of a transient black hole candidate. We also present possible evidence for a lower-frequency QPO at approximately 187 Hz, also reported previously and likely present simultaneously with the higher-frequency QPO. We discuss these findings within the context of the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, and comment on implications for models of QPOs, accretion flows, and black hole spin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Homan, J.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116i4903A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2 ?m. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1-2.6 GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50 dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aliev, Gazi N.; Goller, Bernhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446.3516I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-resolved spectroscopy of low-frequency <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in GRS 1915+105</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray radiation from black hole binary (BHB) systems regularly displays <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs). In principle, a number of suggested physical mechanisms can reproduce their power spectral properties, thus more powerful diagnostics which preserve phase are required to discern between different models. In this paper, we first find for two Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the BHB GRS 1915+105 that the QPO has a well-defined average waveform. That is, the phase difference and amplitude ratios between the first two harmonics vary tightly around a well-defined mean. This enables us to reconstruct QPO waveforms in each energy channel, in order to constrain QPO phase-resolved spectra. We fit these phase-resolved spectra across 16 phases with a model including Comptonization and reflection (Gaussian and smeared edge components) to find strong spectral pivoting and a modulation in the iron line equivalent width. The latter indicates the observed reflection fraction is changing throughout the QPO cycle. This points to a geometric QPO origin, although we note that the data presented here do not entirely rule out an alternative interpretation of variable disc ionization state. We also see tentative hints of modulations in the iron line centroid and width which, although not statistically significant, could result from a non-azimuthally symmetric QPO mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9805007v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Rapid Stellar Rotation on Equation of State Constraints Derived from <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Brightness Oscillations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> X-ray brightness oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies around a kilohertz have now been discovered in more than a dozen neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. There is strong evidence that the frequencies of the kilohertz oscillations are the orbital frequencies of accreting gas in nearly circular orbits around these stars. Some stars that produce kilohertz QPOs may have spin frequencies greater than 400 Hertz. For spin rates this high, first-order analytic treatments of the effects of the star's rotation on its structure and the spacetime are inaccurate. Here we use the results of a large number of fully relativistic, self-consistent numerical calculations of the stellar structure of rapidly rotating neutron stars and the interior and exterior spacetime to investigate the constraints on the properties of such stars that can be derived if stable circular orbits of various frequencies are observed. We have computed the equatorial radius of the star, the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit, and the frequency of the highest-frequency stable circular orbit as functions of the stellar spin rate, for spin rates up to the maximum possible and for several illustrative equations of state. Our calculations show that the upper bounds on the stiffness of neutron star matter implied by a given orbital frequency are typically significantly stricter for stars with spin frequencies more than 400 Hertz than for slowly rotating stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Coleman Miller; Frederick K. Lamb; Gregory B. Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...790..150S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging Observation of <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Disturbances' Amplitudes Increasing with Height in the Polar Region of the Solar Corona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At present, there have been few extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging observations of spatial variations of the density perturbations due to the slow magnetoacoustic waves (SMWs) propagating along the solar coronal magnetic fields. In this paper, we present such observations taken from the polar region of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and investigate the amplitude of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> propagating disturbances that increase with height in the lower corona (0-9 Mm over the solar limb). We statistically determined the following parameters associated with the disturbances: pressure scale height, period, and wavelength in AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å channels. The scale height and wavelength are dependent of temperature, while the period is independent of temperature. The acoustic velocities inferred from the scale height highly correlate with the ratios of wavelength to period, i.e., phase speeds. They provide evidence that the propagating disturbances in the lower corona are likely SMWs and the spatial variations in EUV intensity in the polar region likely reflects the density compressional effect by the propagating SMWs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Shen, Y. D.; Priya, T. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060009467&hterms=gsm&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgsm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cluster observations of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> impulsive signatures in the dayside northern lobe: High-latitude flux transfer events?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on a series of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> reversals in GSM B(sub Z) observed by the four Cluster spacecraft in the northern dayside lobe poleward of the cusp on 23 February 2001. During an interval of about 35 min, multiple reversals (negative to positive) in B(sub Z) of approximately 1-min duration with an approximate 8-min recurrence time were observed. The individual structures do not resemble low-latitude flux transfer events (FTE) [Russell and Elphic, 1979] but the 8-min recurrence frequency suggests that intermittent reconnection may be occurring .Measurements (appropriately lagged) of the solar wind at ACE show that the IMF was southward-oriented with a strong B(sub X) and that a modest dynamic pressure increased as the events started. The multi-point observations afforded by the Cluster spacecraft were used to infer the motion (direction and speed) of the observed magnetic field reversals. The associated currents were also calculated and they are consistent with the spatial confinement of the observed magnetic field reversals. We propose that the observed reversals are due to flux tubes reconnecting with closed field lines on the dayside. Ancillary data from the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) instruments were used to develop a physical picture of the reversals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, S. M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Balogh, A.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Kistler, L. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...787..128H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations in Short Recurring Bursts of the Soft Gamma Repeater J1550-5418</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ~93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huppenkothen, D.; D'Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; van der Klis, M.; van der Horst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Baring, M. G.; Gö?ü?, E.; Granot, J.; Kaneko, Y.; Lin, L.; von Kienlin, A.; Younes, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.442..521S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical model for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure in galaxy clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> pressure in the intracluster gas has been found ubiquitously in numerical simulations, and observed indirectly. In this paper we develop an analytical model for intracluster <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure in the virial region of relaxed clusters. We write down and solve a first-order differential equation describing the evolution of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocity dispersion. This equation is based on insights gained from observations, numerical simulations, and theory of turbulence. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy is sourced, in a self-similar fashion, by the mass growth of clusters via mergers and accretion, and dissipates with a time-scale determined by the turnover time of the largest turbulence eddies. Our model predicts a radial profile of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure for relaxed clusters. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> fraction increases with radius, redshift, and cluster mass, in agreement with numerical simulations. The radial dependence is due to a rapid increase of the dissipation time-scale with radii, and the mass and redshift dependence comes from the mass growth history. Combing our model for the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> fraction with the Komatsu-Seljak model for the total pressure, we obtain thermal pressure profiles, and compute the hydrostatic mass bias. We find typically 10 per cent bias for the hydrostatic mass enclosed within r500.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Xun; Komatsu, Eiichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Aftertreatment of Particulates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, S.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4868S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic-gravity waves in the nonisothermal atmosphere and its influence on the magnetospheric <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> vlf emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine two mutually complementing tasks related to the theoretical analysis of acoustic-gravity disturbances in the Earth's atmosphere and its influence on magnetosphere processes. Our research is based on modern atmospherical models. We study waves propagation, absorption, and filtration. The atmospheric nonisothermicity is taken into account, for example, by introduction of a two-layered atmosphere temperature model. For a study of more delicate effects, a piecewise-linear model, for which the analytical solution is written by the hypergeometric functions, is employed. Also we consider an influence of acoustic-gravity waves on VLF electromagnetic wave excitation in the magnetosphere. This influence occurs as a result of the following processes: a modulation of the plasma density by acoustic-gravity waves in the ionosphere, a modulation of reflection from the ionosphere for VLF waves, and a modification of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor for VLF waves. Variation of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor has an influence on the operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser, where the active substances are radiation belts particles and the working modes are electromagnetic VLF waves (whistler-type waves). The plasma magnetospheric maser can be responsible for an excitation of self-oscillations. These self-oscillations are frequently characterized by alternating stages of accumulation and precipitation of energetic particles into the ionosphere during a pulse of whistler emissions. Numerical and analytical investigations of the response of self-oscillations to harmonic oscillations of the whistler reflection coefficient shows that even a small modulation rate can significantly changes the magnetospheric VLF emissions. Our results can explain the causes of the modulation of energetic electron fluxes and whistler wave intensity with a time scale from 10 to 150 seconds in the day-side magnetosphere. Such <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> VLF emissions are often observed in the sub-auroral and auroral magnetosphere and have a noticeable effect on the formation of the space weather phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savina, Olga; Bespalov, Peter; Misonova, Vera; Petrov, Kiril</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44R.154G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twin-peak <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in X-ray binaries: clues from their amplitude and coherence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with either a black hole or a neutron star show power spectra characterized by several enhanced fractions of power at given frequencies, such as <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs). Twin-peak high-frequency QPOs (HF QPOs) are typical of the orbital motion time-scale for matter orbiting within 10 r_{g} from the compact object (r_{g}=GM/c^{2} is the gravitational radius of the compact object). Thus, such modulations could arise from the energy released by accreting clumps of matter interacting with the strong gravitational field of the compact object. Twin-peak HF QPOs are characterized by their central frequency ?, root mean square amplitude (rms) and coherence Q=???, where ?? is the width of the peak. Here we investigate on the characteristic behavior of the rms observed in several LMXBs. We highlight the work done by the strong tidal force as root source of the energy (rms) released by a QPO. By means of the Schwarzschild potential we estimate the maximum allowed radius of clumps of matter that can survive to tides in the inner part of the accretion disk. It turns to be R˜ 40 m for matter in an accretion disk around a 2 M_{odot} neutron star and R˜ 150 m for matter around a 10 M_{odot } black hole. The work loaded by tides on the clump of matter depends on the Schwarzschild potential shape for the given orbit. We highlight that for orbits approaching to the inner most stable circular orbit (ISCO) the changing Schwarzschild potential shape may account for the observed behavior of the energy (rms) carried by the twin-peak HF QPOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Germanà, C.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; Gomes, A. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092460"> <span id="translatedtitle">FRACTIONAL AMPLITUDE OF KILOHERTZ <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATION FROM 4U 1728-34: EVIDENCE OF DECLINE AT HIGHER ENERGIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (kHz QPO) is an observationally robust high-frequency timing feature detected from neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). This feature can be very useful to probe the superdense core matter of neutron stars and the strong gravity regime. Although many models exist in the literature, the physical origin of kHz QPO is not known, and hence this feature cannot be used as a tool yet. The energy dependence of kHz QPO fractional rms amplitude is an important piece of the jigsaw puzzle to understand the physical origin of this timing feature. It is known that the fractional rms amplitude increases with energy at lower energies. At higher energies, the amplitude is usually believed to saturate, although this is not established. We combine tens of lower kHz QPOs from a neutron star LMXB 4U 1728-34 in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Consequently, we, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, find a significant and systematic decrease of the fractional rms amplitude with energy at higher photon energies. Assuming an energy spectrum model, blackbody+powerlaw, we explore if the sinusoidal variation of a single spectral parameter can reproduce the above-mentioned fractional rms amplitude behavior. Our analysis suggests that the oscillation of any single blackbody parameter is favored over the oscillation of any single power-law parameter, in order to explain the measured amplitude behavior. We also find that the quality factor of a lower kHz QPO does not plausibly depend on photon energy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mukherjee, Arunava; Bhattacharyya, Sudip, E-mail: arunava@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...756...55M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractional Amplitude of Kilohertz <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillation from 4U 1728-34: Evidence of Decline at Higher Energies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (kHz QPO) is an observationally robust high-frequency timing feature detected from neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). This feature can be very useful to probe the superdense core matter of neutron stars and the strong gravity regime. Although many models exist in the literature, the physical origin of kHz QPO is not known, and hence this feature cannot be used as a tool yet. The energy dependence of kHz QPO fractional rms amplitude is an important piece of the jigsaw puzzle to understand the physical origin of this timing feature. It is known that the fractional rms amplitude increases with energy at lower energies. At higher energies, the amplitude is usually believed to saturate, although this is not established. We combine tens of lower kHz QPOs from a neutron star LMXB 4U 1728-34 in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Consequently, we, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, find a significant and systematic decrease of the fractional rms amplitude with energy at higher photon energies. Assuming an energy spectrum model, blackbody+powerlaw, we explore if the sinusoidal variation of a single spectral parameter can reproduce the above-mentioned fractional rms amplitude behavior. Our analysis suggests that the oscillation of any single blackbody parameter is favored over the oscillation of any single power-law parameter, in order to explain the measured amplitude behavior. We also find that the quality factor of a lower kHz QPO does not plausibly depend on photon energy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mukherjee, Arunava; Bhattacharyya, Sudip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020086982&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a Second High-Frequency <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation from the Microquasar GRS 1915+105</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery in archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of a approx. 40 Hz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation QPO) in the hard X-ray flux from the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105. The QPO is detected only in the hard X-ray band above approx. 13 keV and was discovered in observations in which the previously known 67 Hz QPO is present. The 40 Hz QPO has a typical rms amplitude of approx. 2% in the 13-27 keV band and a width of approx. 5.5 Hz (FWHM). We show that the 67 and 40 Hz QPOs are detected in the same observations in 1997 July and November. However, the QPO is not detected in observations from 1996 April, May, and June in which the 67 Hz QPO was first discovered. The frequency of the 67 Hz QPO is significantly higher in the 1997 observations by about 5% compared with the 1996 data. The identification of the 40 Hz QPO makes GRS 1915 + 105 the second black hole binary to show a pair of simultaneous high-frequency QPOs (the other being GRO J1655-40). The similarities between the properties of the 67 Hz QPO in GRS 1915+105 and the recently discovered 450 Hz QPO in GRO J1655-40 suggest that the pairs of frequencies in these systems may be produced by the same physical mechanism, with the frequency differences between the two being likely due to different black hole masses in the two systems. We discuss the implications of our result for the mass and spin of GRS 1915+105 as well as for models of X-ray variability in black holes and neutron stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000012411&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broadband noise (BBN) (0.001-64 Hz) and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the "very high state" is spectrally intermediate to the soft/high state and hard/low state. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anticorrelation; where the BBN variability switches from high state to low state; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broadband variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the hard/low and soft/high states. We conclude that these QPOs should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPOs observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the hard/low state, and we compare these to the QPOs observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rutledge, Robert E.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; VanDerKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouvewliotou, Chryssa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990064602&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in Black Hole Candidates as an Indicator of Transition Between Low and High States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By comparing positions on a spectral color-color diagram from 10 black hole candidates (BHCS) observed with Ginga (1354-64, 1826-24, 1630-47, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, GS 2000+25, GS 2023+33, GS 1124-68, Cyg X-1, and GX 339-4) with the observed broad-band noise (0.001- 64 Hz; BBN) and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) variability, we find that the so-called "Very High State" is spectrally intermediate to the Soft/High-State and Hard/Low-State. We find a transition point in spectral hardness where the dependence of the BHC QPO centroid frequency (of GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4) on spectral hardness switches from a correlation to an anti-correlation; where the BBN variability switches from High-State to Low-State; and where the spectral hardness of the QPO relative to that of the BBN variability is a maximum. This coincidence of changing behavior in both the QPO and the broad-band variability leads us to hypothesize that the QPO is due to interaction between the physical components which dominate the behaviors of BHCs when they occupy the Hard/Low and Soft/High States. We conclude that these QPO should be observed from BHCs during transition between these two states. Comparison with QPO and BBN behavior observed during the 1996 transition of Cyg X-1 supports this hypothesis. We also report 1-3 Hz QPO observed in GS 2000+25 and Cyg X-1 in the Hard/Low State, and we compare these to the QPO observed in GS 1124-68 and GX 339-4.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rutledge, Robert E; Lewin, Walter H. G.; vanderKlis, Michiel; vanParadijs, Jan; Dotani, Tadayasu; Vaughan, Brian; Belloni, Tomaso; Oosterbroek, Tim; Kouveliotou, Chryssa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9609157v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sonic-Point Model of Kilohertz <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Brightness Oscillations in Low-Mass X-ray Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strong, coherent, <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> brightness oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies ranging from about 300 Hz to 1200 Hz have been discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in the X-ray emission from some fifteen neutron stars in low-mass binary systems. Two simultaneous kilohertz QPOs differing in frequency by 250 to 350 Hertz have been detected in twelve of the fifteen sources. Here we propose a model for these QPOs. In this model the X-ray source is a neutron star with a surface magnetic field of 10^7 to 10^10 G and a spin frequency of a few hundred Hertz, accreting gas via a Keplerian disk. The frequency of the higher-frequency QPO in a kilohertz QPO pair is the Keplerian frequency at a radius near the sonic point at the inner edge of the Keplerian flow whereas the frequency of the lower-frequency QPO is approximately the difference between the Keplerian frequency at a radius near the sonic point and the stellar spin frequency. This model explains naturally many properties of the kilohertz QPOs, including their frequencies, amplitudes, and coherence. We show that if the frequency of the higher-frequency QPO in a pair is an orbital frequency, as in the sonic-point model, the frequencies of these QPOs place interesting upper bounds on the masses and radii of the neutron stars in the kilohertz QPO sources and provide new constraints on the equation of state of matter at high densities. Further observations of these QPOs may provide compelling evidence for the existence of a marginally stable orbit, confirming a key prediction of general relativity in the strong-field regime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Coleman Miller; Frederick K. Lamb; Dimitrios Psaltis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0111099v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brownian Dynamics Studies on DNA Gel Electrophoresis. I. Numerical Method and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Behavior of Elongation-Contraction Motions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dynamics of individual DNA undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation method which we have developed. The method simulates electrophoresis of DNA in a 3 dimensional (3D) space by a chain of electrolyte beads of hard spheres. Under the constraint that the separation of each pair of bonded beads is restricted to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the Langevin equation of motion for the beads is solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities, $\\mu$, as a function of the electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> behavior is found in the chain dynamics, and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, $R_l(t)$. It is found that the mean width of a peak in $R_l(t)$, or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, $M$, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is proportional to $M^0$ for large $M$. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to $M$ in each elongation-contraction motion, yield $\\mu \\propto M^0$. This explains why CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size $L (\\propto M)$ for large $L$.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryuzo Azuma; Hajime Takayama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10525471"> <span id="translatedtitle">Timing Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in the Low-Mass X-Ray Neutron Star Binaries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise simultaneous measurements of the frequencies of the two kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (referred in the literature as upper and lower kHz QPOs) cast doubts on the validity of the simple beat-frequency interpretation and some of the modifications introduced to explain the results of the varying frequency difference. A new model explains the variation of the frequency difference, suggesting that the upper kHz QPO, namely nuh, is an upper hybrid frequency of the Keplerian oscillator under the influence of the Coriolis force and the lower kHz QPO is the Keplerian frequency nuK. Such an oscillator has two branches characterized by a high frequency nuh ( approximately 1 kHz) and by a low frequency nuL ( approximately 50 Hz). The frequency nuL depends strongly on the angle delta between the normal to the neutron star disk and Omega-the angular velocity of the magnetosphere surrounding the neutron star. In the lower part of the QPO spectrum ( approximately 10 Hz), this model identifies the frequency of radial viscous oscillations nuV (previously called "extra noise component") and the break frequency nub, which is associated with the diffusive process in the transition region (the innermost part of the disk). According to this model, all frequencies (namely nuh, nuL, nub, and nuV) have specific dependences on nuK. This Letter focuses on the verification of the predicted relations. For the source 4U 1728-34, the best theoretical fit is obtained for delta=8&fdg;3+/-1&fdg;0, which is slightly larger than the value of delta=5&fdg;5+/-0&fdg;5 previously found for Scorpius X-1. In addition, we show that the theoretically derived power-law relation nub~nu1.61V is consistent with the recent observations of other atoll and Z-sources. PMID:10525471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titarchuk; Osherovich; Kuznetsov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047913"> <span id="translatedtitle">TIME DELAYS IN <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report observations of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department of Mathematics, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmutz, W. [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Zender, J., E-mail: dolla@sidc.be [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.440.3275S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Broad iron emission line and kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in the neutron star system 4U 1636-53</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both the broad iron (Fe) line and the frequency of the kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) can potentially provide independent measures of the inner radius of the accretion disc. We use XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the LMXB 4U 1636-53 to test this hypothesis. We study the properties of the Fe K? emission line as a function of the spectral state of the source and the frequency of the kHz QPOs. We find that the inner radius of the accretion disc deduced from the frequency of the upper kHz QPO varies as a function of the position of the source in the colour-colour diagram, in accordance with previous work and with the standard scenario of accretion disc geometry. On the contrary, the inner disc radius deduced from the profile of the iron line is not correlated with the spectral state of the source. The values of the inner radius inferred from kHz QPOs and iron lines, in four observations, do not lead to a consistent value of the neutron star mass, regardless of the model used to fit the iron line. Our results suggest that either the kHz QPO or the standard relativistic Fe line interpretation does not apply for this system. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of kHz QPOs and broad iron lines is difficult to reconcile with models in which the broadening of the iron line is due to the reprocessing of photons in an outflowing wind.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanna, Andrea; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Hiemstra, Beike; Linares, Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.334.1413B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Abstract Nash-Moser Theorem and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Solutions for NLW and NLS on Compact Lie Groups and Homogeneous Manifolds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prove an abstract implicit function theorem with parameters for smooth operators defined on scales of sequence spaces, modeled for the search of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> solutions of PDEs. The tame estimates required for the inverse linearised operators at each step of the iterative scheme are deduced via a multiscale inductive argument. The Cantor-like set of parameters where the solution exists is defined in a non inductive way. This formulation completely decouples the iterative scheme from the measure theoretical analysis of the parameters where the small divisors non-resonance conditions are verified. As an application, we deduce the existence of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> solutions for forced NLW and NLS equations on any compact Lie group or manifold which is homogeneous with respect to a compact Lie group, extending previous results valid only for tori. A basic tool of harmonic analysis is the highest weight theory for the irreducible representations of compact Lie groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berti, Massimiliano; Corsi, Livia; Procesi, Michela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43152612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Index and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in Black Holes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between the low frequencies (1-10 Hz) of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several black hole (BH) candidate sources, in low (hard) states, steep power law (soft) states, and transitions between these states. The observations indicate that the X-ray spectra of such state (phases) show the presence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lev Titarchuk; Ralph Fiorito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cds.cern.ch/record/600023/files/0301168.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dwarf Nova Oscillations and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations Extension of the Two-QPO Diagram of X-Ray Binaries, and a new kind of DNO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seventeen examples are given of Cataclysmic Variable (CV) stars possessing both Dwarf Nova Oscillations (DNOs) and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations (QPOs). These form an extension of the X-Ray Two-QPO correlation to frequencies three orders of magnitude lower. We draw attention to the existence of a second type of DNO in CVs, which is probably caused by magnetically channelled accretion onto the white dwarf.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warner, B; Warner, Brian; Woudt, Patrick A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0503078v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energies in solar flares</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy to hot flare plasma.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3025030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma on Mammalian Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma produces no heat, so its effects can be selective. In order to exploit the potential for clinical applications, including wound healing, sterilization, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with living tissues is required. Using mammalian cells in culture, it is shown here that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has dose-dependent effects that range from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis. It is also shown that these effects are primarily due to formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have utilized ?-H2AX to detect DNA damage induced by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma and found that it is initiated by production of active neutral species that most likely induce formation of organic peroxides in cell medium. Phosphorylation of H2AX following <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma treatment is ATR dependent and ATM independent, suggesting that plasma treatment may lead to replication arrest or formation of single-stranded DNA breaks; however, plasma does not lead to formation of bulky adducts/thymine dimers. PMID:21283714</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalghatgi, Sameer; Kelly, Crystal M.; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Torabi, Behzad; Alekseev, Oleg; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008POBeo..84..250N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma: Sources and applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma at atmospheric pressure is an inherently unstable object. Nature of discharge plasma instabilities and conditions for observation of uniform <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma at atmospheric pressure in different environments will be discussed. Various discharge techniques have been developed, which could support uniform <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with parameters varied in a wide range. Time limitation by plasma instabilities can be overcome by shortening pulse length or by restriction of plasma plug residence time with a fast gas flow. Discharge instabilities leading to formation of filaments or sparks are provoked by a positive feedback between the electric field and plasma density, while the counteracting process is plasma and thermal diffusion. With gas pressure growth the size of plasma fluctuation, which could be stabilized by diffusion, diminishes. As a result, to have long lived uniform plasma one should miniaturize discharge. There exist a number of active methods to organize negative feedback between the electric field and plasma density in order to suppress or, at least, delay the instability. Among them are ballast resistors in combination with electrode sectioning, reactive ballast, electronic feedback, and dielectric barrier across the electric current. The last methods are relevant for ac discharges. In the lecture an overview will be given of different discharge techniques scalable in pressure up to one atmosphere. The interest in this topic is dictated by a potential economic benefit from numerous <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technologies. The spectrum of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma applications is continuously broadening. An incomplete list of known applications includes: plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition, etching, polymerization, gas-phase synthesis, protective coating deposition, toxic and harmful gas decomposition, destruction of warfare agents, electromagnetic wave shielding, polymer surface modifications, gas laser excitation, odor control, plasma assisted combustion, and gas dynamic flow control. Many of these applications have been developed with low-pressure plasma. Atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technologies possess such advantages as simplicity of operation and relatively low cost of equipments. A variety of available discharge techniques provides <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gases with parameters covering a wide range in power densities, reduced electric field strengths and current densities. Requirements to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma parameters and sorts of gas for various applications vary widely, too. For any specific application the most appropriate discharge type can be found. The spectrum of discharge devices already existing is surprisingly broad. The problem of a successful choice of a discharge type for a specific application will be discussed. A particular emphasis will be placed on the problem of plasma removal of toxic and harmful species from the gas flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Napartovich, A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mpcengr.com/cal_awma_2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma (NTP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using <span class="hlt">Non</span>- <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasma (NTP) Paper # (42930) Sandeep to determine the feasibility of using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) for destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA stationary sources must be monitored and controlled. <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) is a new</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cal, Mark P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CNSNS..19.4080N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> processes in repeated measurements: New approach for the fitting and clusterization of different data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many experimentalists were accustomed to think that any independent measurement forms a non-correlated measurement that depends weakly from others. We are trying to reconsider this conventional point of view and prove that similar measurements form a strongly-correlated sequence of random functions with memory. In other words, successive measurements "remember" each other at least their nearest neighbors. This observation and justification on real data help to fit the wide set of data based on the Prony's function. The Prony's decomposition follows from the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> (QP) properties of the measured functions and includes the Fourier transform as a partial case. New type of decomposition helps to obtain a specific amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the measured (random) functions analyzed and each random function contains less number of the fitting parameters in comparison with its number of initial data points. Actually, the calculated AFR can be considered as the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS), which will be extremely useful in cases where the simple model pretending on description of the measured data is absent but vital necessity of their quantitative description is remained. These possibilities open a new way for clusterization of the initial data and new information that is contained in these data gives a chance for their detailed analysis. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements realized for empty resonator (pure noise data) and resonator containing a sample (CeO2 in our case) confirmed the existence of the QP processes in reality. But we think that the detection of the QP processes is a common feature of many repeated measurements and this new property of successive measurements can attract an attention of many experimentalists. To formulate some general conditions that help to identify and then detect the presence of some QP process in the repeated experimental measurements. To find a functional equation and its solution that yields the description of the identified QP process. To suggest some computing algorithm for fitting of the QP data to the analytical function that follows from the solution of the corresponding functional equation. The content of this paper is organized as follows. In the Section 2 we will try to find the answers on the problem posed in this introductory section. It contains also the mathematical description of the QP process and interpretation of the meaning of the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS). The GPS includes the conventional Fourier decomposition as a partial case. Section 3 contains the experimental details associated with receiving of the desired data. Section 4 includes some important details explaining specific features of application of general algorithm to concrete data. In Section 5 we summarize the results and outline the perspectives of this approach for quantitative description of time-dependent random data that are registered in different complex systems and experimental devices. Here we should notice that under the complex system we imply a system when a conventional model is absent[6]. Under simplicity of the acceptable model we imply the proper hypothesis ("best fit" model) containing minimal number of the fitting parameters that describes the behavior of the system considered quantitatively. The different approaches that exist in nowadays for description of these systems are collected in the recent review [7].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nigmatullin, R.; Rakhmatullin, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Processing on Peanut Allergens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26248964"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma for diesel exhaust treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The review of application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technique to treat diesel exhaust is presented. The nanosecond corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and surface discharges are produced directly in gas. The formation of active particles is generated by electron impact with main components. The conversion NO initiated by discharges in different gas composition has been modeled and studied. The hydrocarbons lower</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-O. Chae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42037122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrostatic solitary structures in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solitary electrostatic structures involving density depletions have been observed in the upper ionosphere by the Freja satellite [Dovner et al., 1994]. If these are interpreted as ion sound solitons, the difficulty arises that the standard Korteweg-de Vries description predicts structures with enhanced rather than depleted density. Here we show that the presence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons may change the nature of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Cairns; A. A. Mamum; R. Bingham; R. Boström; R. O. Dendy; C. M. C. Nairn; P. K. Shukla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9505072v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> radiative pair plasmas: processes and spectra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the emission and absorption spectra due to various photon and pair processes in a non-equilibrium pair plasma containing a significant density of photons. We present here some preliminary results from Monte-Carlo simulations. These investigations are likely to be useful in understanding the radiation and relaxation mechanisms in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> gamma-ray sources in astrophysics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravi P. Pilla; Jacob Shaham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23952601"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas induced electrostatic stress on corneocyte desquamation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advent of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma brought a breakthrough in exploring its clinical applications in dermatology to bolster tissue generation in the domain of plasma medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma on the corneocyte of the skin cells, in treating superficial skin diseases via the process of corneocyte desquamation, a probable mechanism for skin cell proliferation. The postulated brick and mortar arrangement of corneocytes in the stratum corneum was modeled consisting of three corneocytes and three corneodesmosomes in a simulation domain of 40.30 × 3.00 ?m² using Maxwell 2D finite element analyzer. The corneocyte desquamation was quantified by the weakening of corneodesmosomes due to electrostatic pressure (~530 MV/m) on the corneodesmosome surface exceeding its tensile strength (~76 MPa). A mathematical model displaying a relationship between the plasma potential and the skin tensile strength is also presented in this investigation. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma could emerge as a clean and dry therapy to treat superficial skin diseases. Our study propels investigating the interaction of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with the wet tissue in the deeper layer (dermis) of the skin cells and also, the development of such instruments for a comprehensive skin treatment. PMID:23952601</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tiwari, Pawan K; Lee, Yeon Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=18854"> <span id="translatedtitle">FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR HYBRID <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> PLASMA REACTORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of SERDP project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) reactor technology for DoD air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile o...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Ge%26Ae..52...77M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> very low frequency emissions, very low frequency chorus, and geomagnetic Pc4 pulsations (Event on April 3, 2011)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of an analysis of ground-based observations of very low frequency (VLF) emissions in Scandinavia ( L ˜ 5) in April 2011 are discussed. A detailed study is conducted of an non-typical event (April 3, 2011) of simultaneous generation of VLF chorus at frequencies below 3 kHz and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> VLF emissions ( QP) in the band of 4-6 kHz, which were not discrete emissions but consisted of separate short (about 20 s) bursts of hiss. It is shown that these emissions were mainly characterized by right-hand polarization, which indicates the location of the exit point of waves from the ionosphere near the point of ground observations. Based on an analysis of the spectral characteristics of emissions, it is concluded that the generation regions of chorus and QP emissions were located at different L shells. The appearance of QP emissions coincided with the excitation of resonance geomagnetic pulsations of the Pc4 range in the magnetosphere with a period that was close to the <span class="hlt">quasi-period</span> of repetition of spectral forms in QP emissions. However, based on the available data, it is not possible to conclude that these geomagnetic pulsations caused the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> generation of bursts of VLF hiss. The time shift between the peaks of QP and geomagnetic pulsations was inconsistent and varied from one burst of hiss to another. It is suggested that the discussed QP emissions were a result of the development of self-oscillations in the Earth's radiation belts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Bespalov, P. A.; Raita, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809488"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM?.? concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> extension: a case study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> extension for daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> extension, daily movements of mean PM?.? concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration in a concise and intuitive way. PMID:24809488</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Zong-chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.3472v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Fixed Point in a Holographic Superfluid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlo Ewerz; Thomas Gasenzer; Markus Karl; Andreas Samberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrP.....2...26D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> and Thermal properties of Dark Matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM) abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially) with the primordial bath or remain <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dev, Bhupal; Mazumdar, Anupam; Qutub, Saleh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.5297v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> and Thermal properties of Dark Matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM) abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to DM, reheating temperature, and the DM mass and interaction rate with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially) with the primordial bath or remain <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. S. Bhupal Dev; Anupam Mazumdar; Saleh Qutub</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23115623"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma approaches in CO 2 utilization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">CO2 is the final product of combustion of all fossil fuels. CO2 itself has little value by far, but it contributes more than 50% to the man-made greenhouse effect among all the greenhouse gases. There is still no proven technology for the chemical utilization of such a plentiful carbon resource. Recently, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas have been found to be effective in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang-jun Liu; Gen-hui Xu; Timing Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.4173v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emission from old supernova remnants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from old shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) on the frame of a time-dependent model. In this model, the time-dependent <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectra of both primary electrons and protons as well as secondary electron/positron ($e^{\\pm}$) pairs can be calculated numerically by taking into account the evolution of the secondary $e^{\\pm}$ pairs produced from proton-proton (p-p) interactions due to the accelerated protons collide with the ambient matter in an SNR. The multi-wavelength photon spectrum for a given SNR can be produced through leptonic processes such as electron/positron synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering as well as hadronic interaction. Our results indicate that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission of the secondary $e^{\\pm}$ pairs is becoming more and more prominent when the SNR ages in the radiative phase because the source of the primary electrons has been cut off and the electron synchrotron energy loss is significant for a radiative SNR, whereas the secondary $e^{\\pm}$ pairs can be produced continuously for a long time in the phase due to the large energy loss time for the p-p interaction. We apply the model to two old SNRs, G8.7$-$0.1 and G23.3$-$0.3, and the predicted results can explain the observed multi-wavelength photon spectra for the two sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jun Fang; Li Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.0730.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a detailed theoretical analysis of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars induced by collisions with hot atomic oxygen from martian corona. To accurately describe the energy transfer in O + H$_2(v,j)$ collisions, we performed extensive quantum-mechanical calculations of state-to-state elastic, inelastic, and reactive cross sections. The escape flux of H$_2$ molecules was evaluated using a simplified 1D column model of the martian atmosphere with realistic densities of atmospheric gases and hot oxygen production rates for the low solar activity conditions. An average density of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> escape flux of H$_2$ of $1.9\\times10^5$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ was obtained considering energetic O atoms produced in dissociative recombinations of O$_{2}^{+}$ ions. Predicted rovibrational distribution of the escaping H$_2$ was found to contain a significant fraction of higher rotational states. While the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> escape rate was found to be lower than Jeans flux for H$_2$ molecules, the non-ther...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.1215H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission of Cas A</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results of our research on the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> continuum emission of Cassiopeia A. Chandra discovered in 2001 thin <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> rims at a distance of 150" to the center of Cas A. These rims can be associated with the forward shock and contain a surprisingly high magnetic field of 0.1 - 0.5 mG. This feeds the thought that forward shocks of young shell-type supernova remnants are able to accelerate cosmic rays at least up to the knee, at 1015 eV. In addition, the Chandra image shows thin, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> filaments at the inside of the remnant. A natural question is whether these filaments are due to the forward shock projected onto the interior of the remnant, or whether the filaments have another origin. We investigated this issue by employing a deprojection technique. Assuming spherical symmetry, we deproject the surface brightness into the intrinsic emissivity as a function of the radius. A result of this deprojection is that we see the reverse shock coming up in the (deprojected) continuum emissivity. A spectral analysis of the continuum emission shows that in the Western half of the remnant, this emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation. This is rather surprising as it requires a high reverse shock velocity (in the frame of the ejecta), at odds with simple hydrodynamic models for a supernova remnant evolving in a stellar wind.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helder, Eveline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106e3703L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained rat skin sections from plasma-treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Jäger, A.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.; Dejneka, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.1239N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging Observations of X-Ray <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations at 3 - 6 keV in the 26 December 2002 Solar Flare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> oscillations in soft X-rays (SXR) are not well known due to the instrument limitations, especially the absence of imaging observations of SXR oscillations. We explore the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations of SXR at 3 - 6 keV in a solar flare observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 26 December 2002. This was a B8.1 class event and showed three X-ray sources (S1, S2, and S3) at 3 - 6 keV and two sources (S1 and S2) at 12 - 25 keV. The light curves of the total fluxes display a two-minute oscillation at 3 - 6 keV, but not in the energy bands above 8 keV. To investigate imaging observations of the oscillations, we prepared CLEAN images at seven energy bands between 3 keV and 20 keV with an eight-second integration. The light curves of three sources were analyzed after integrating the flux of each source region. We used the Fourier method to decompose each source light curve into rapidly varying and slowly varying components. The rapidly varying components show seven individual peaks which are well fitted with a sine function. Then we used the wavelet method to analyze the periods in the rapidly varying component of each source. The results show that three sources display damped <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations with a similar two-minute period. The damped oscillations timescale varies between 2.5 to 6 minutes. Source S1 oscillates with the same phase as S3, but is almost in anti-phase with S2. Analyzing the flaring images in more detail, we found that these oscillation peaks are well consistent with the appearance of S3, which seems to split from or merge with S2 with a period of two minutes. The flare images with a high cadence of one second at 3 - 6 keV show that source S3 appears with a rapid period of 25 seconds. The two-minute oscillation shows the highest spectral power. Source S3 seems to shift its position along the flare loop with a mean speed of 130 km s-1, which is of the same order as the local sound speed. This connection between the oscillation peaks and emission enhancement appears to be an observational constraint on the emission mechanism at 3 - 6 keV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ning, Zongjun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/39/85/PDF/Khacef_et_al_corrigA_.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control: Toluene removal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Application of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 02, France. Keywords: <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> Plasma, Catalysis, Toluene, oxidation. Abstract The combination of heterogeneous catalysts with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (DBD</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/68/07/77/PDF/Khacef.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of Toluene in Air by <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid , H. T. Pham</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Removal of Toluene in Air by <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System A. Khacef , H. T. Pham , A, Abstract: Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma (ANTP) technology for indoor air treatment has the disadvantage catalysts. The products of the toluene oxidation were CO and CO2. Keywords: <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> Plasma, Catalysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/33/54/29/PDF/Plasmas_et_applications.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of Pollutants by Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasmas Ahmed Khacef 1*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Removal of Pollutants by Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">Thermal</span> Plasmas Ahmed Khacef 1* , Jean Marie Cormier1. As an alternative, the application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) instead of thermal energy for removal of toxic and water treatment. In the present paper, we present results on the application of <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> plasmas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMSA43A1094W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Variations of 2 to 4 Days in the Electron Density of the Post Sunset Equatorial Anomaly Observed to be Synchronous on a Planetary Sale.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> variations are observed in the F layer maximum electron density of the post sunset equatorial anomaly at its temporal maximum which occurs near 2100 LT. Periods are 3-4 days in Oct-Jan and about 2 days in Mar-Apr; magnitudes are large, peak-to-valley ratios being between 2 and 5; conditions are solar maximum. Observations are by ionospheric sounders in the American sector at magnetically conjugate locations in Northern and Southern hemispheres, and at Okinawa in the northern anomaly of Eastern Asia. The variations are synchronous in that the dates of each maximum and of each minimum coincide at all locations, day-to-day continuously for month-long periods. This relation exists although measurements in the American sector are at 02 UT and those at Okinawa are at 12 UT. In addition, the magnetically conjugate variations are simultaneous, which is evidence that the variations are a product of pre-reversal ExB drift velocity. These variations are similar both in frequency and in their episodic nature to those observed principally in the daytime anomaly where they are attributed to planetary scale oscillations in the neutral mesospheric zonal winds. If the variations reported here have a similar cause, it raises the possibility that the magnitude of the electron density of the anomaly - and therefore the conditions under which scintillation on trans-ionospheric RF signals can occur - can be forecast by two means: by the <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> repetition of the variations; and by the observation of planetary waves in the mesosphere by the TIMED satellite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whalen, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950024364&hterms=solar+flare&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bflare"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studying the thermal/<span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> crossover in solar flares</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes work performed under contract NAS5-32584 for Phase 3 of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 1 November 1993 through 1 November 1994. We have made spectral observations of the hard x-ray and gamma-ray bremsstrahlung emissions from solar flares using the Burst and Transit Source Experiment (BASTE) on CGRO. These measurements of their spectrum and time profile provided valuable information on the fundamental flare processes of energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Our scientific objective was to study both the thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> sources of solar flare hard x-ray and gamma-ray emission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CRPhy..15..468S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma potentialities for microwave device reconfigurability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three examples of results achieved from cooperative works with microwave and plasma research groups in Toulouse (France) are presented in this paper. They are focused on the use of few <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to make a microwave device reconfigurable. The relative permittivity of such a plasma medium can be tuned from unity to negative values. This special feature appears to be very attractive, although the electromagnetic losses are significant. The use of plasmas with planar waveguides and within metamaterials is discussed. In addition, the basic principles of a scanning antenna built with a leaky wave in a plasma layer are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sokoloff, Jérôme; Pascal, Olivier; Callegari, Thierry; Pascaud, Romain; Pizarro, Francisco; Liard, Laurent; Lo, Juslan; Kallel, Asma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.591a2052A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen oxides and methane treatment by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> plasma was used to treat nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH4), since they are important constituents of hydrocarbon combustion emissions processes and, both gases, play a key role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. These gases are involved in environmental problems like acid rain and some diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia. In the case of methane is widely known its importance in the global climate change, and currently accounts for 30% of global warming. There is a growing concern for methane leaks, associated with a rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas extraction techniques as well as a large-scale methane release from Arctic because of ice melting and the subsequent methane production of decaying organic matter. Therefore, methane mitigation is a key to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. The research, here reported, deals about the generation of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with a double dielectric barrier (2DBD) at atmospheric pressure with alternating current (AC) for NOx and CH4 treatment. The degradation efficiencies and their respective power consumption for different reactor configurations (cylindrical and planar) are also reported. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gases degradation are reported before and after treatment with cold plasma. Experimental and theoretical results are compared obtaining good removal efficiencies, superior to 90% and to 20% respectively for NOx and CH4.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alva, E.; Pacheco, M.; Colín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Pacheco, J.; Valdivia, R.; Soria, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of NO reduction with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma has been proved to be an effective and competitive technology for removing NO in flue gas since 1970. In this paper, the NO reduction mechanism of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reaction in NO/N2/O2 system was investigated using the method of spectral analysis and quantum chemistry. By the establishment of NO reduction and gas discharge plasma emission spectrum measuring system, the NO reduction results, gas discharge emission spectra of NO/N2/O2 and pure N2 were obtained, and then the model of molecular orbit of N2 either in ground state or its excited state was worked out using the method of molecular orbit Ab initio in Self-Consistent Field (SCF). It was found that NO reduction in NO/N2 gas discharge plasma was achieved mainly through a series of fast elementary reactions and the N(E6) at excited state was the base for NO reduction. PMID:16083121</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Gang; Yu, Qi; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zeng, Ke-Si; Gu, Fan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9903158v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Physics of Hybrid Thermal/<span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Models of the continuum radiation from accreting hot plasmas typically assume that the plasma heating mechanism produces energetic particles distributed in energy either as a Maxwellian (the ``thermal'' models) or as an extended power law (the ``<span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>'' models). The reality, however, is that neither description is probably accurate. In other astrophysical contexts where we have been able to observe the actual particle energy distributions, e.g. solar system plasmas, and in many particle acceleration theories, the heating mechanism supplies only some fraction of the available energy to very energetic particles. The remainder goes into producing lower energy particles which settle into a quasi-Maxwellian energy distribution. Here, I review the arguments for ``thermal'' versus ``<span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>'' plasmas in accreting black hole systems and discuss the physics and emission properties of ``hybrid'' plasmas, where the particle distribution energy is approximately a Maxwellian plus a power law tail. Using results from a new emission code, I then show that such plasmas may be relevant to explaining recent observations, particularly those of Galactic black hole candidates in their soft state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paolo S. Coppi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839988"> <span id="translatedtitle">MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V.K. Mathur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhST..131a4017P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma on gas cleansing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma technologies are an interesting complement or alternative, for some conventional systems used for gas pollution control (i.e. wet scrubbers and catalytic converters) because they are able to remove simultaneously several gas pollutants, with quite good efficiency at a relatively low-energy consumption. In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge was used to remove nitric oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from a mixture of air and water vapor. A chemical model was developed to obtain a toxic gas removal mechanism and to observe the behavior of the species in the plasma. The influence of water vapor addition on the toxic gases removal efficiency is also investigated. Several experimental parameters such as power, frequency, initial concentration of NOx and SO2 were tested and analyzed. Results of numerical simulation demonstrated good agreement with experimental data of the removal process achieving about 95% of efficiency removal of toxic gases studied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pacheco, M.; Pacheco, J.; Moreno, H.; Santana, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...783L..21S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic Reconnection: An Efficient Source of <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In magnetized astrophysical outflows, the dissipation of field energy into particle energy via magnetic reconnection is often invoked to explain the observed <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> signatures. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate anti-parallel reconnection in magnetically dominated electron-positron plasmas. Our simulations extend to unprecedentedly long temporal and spatial scales, so we can capture the asymptotic state of the system beyond the initial transients, and without any artificial limitation by the boundary conditions. At late times, the reconnection layer is organized into a chain of large magnetic islands connected by thin X-lines. The plasmoid instability further fragments each X-line into a series of smaller islands, separated by X-points. At the X-points, the particles become unmagnetized and they get accelerated along the reconnection electric field. We provide definitive evidence that the late-time particle spectrum integrated over the whole reconnection region is a power law whose slope is harder than -2 for magnetizations ? >~ 10. Efficient particle acceleration to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energies is a generic by-product of the long-term evolution of relativistic reconnection in both two and three dimensions. In three dimensions, the drift-kink mode corrugates the reconnection layer at early times, but the long-term evolution is controlled by the plasmoid instability which facilitates efficient particle acceleration, analogous to the two-dimensional physics. Our findings have important implications for the generation of hard photon spectra in pulsar winds and relativistic astrophysical jets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.02397.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidences of an innermost stable bound orbit predicted by general relativity from the amplitude of the twin-peak <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The twin-peak high-frequency <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (HF QPOs), observed in the power spectra of low-mass X-ray binaries, might carry relevant clues about the physics laws reigning close to a compact object. Their frequencies are typical of the orbital motion time-scales a few gravitational radii away from the compact object. The aim of the manuscript is to propose an intuitive model explaining that the energy carried by the lower HF QPO can be related to differences of potential energy released by clumps of plasma spiraling in a curved space-time. Our model provides estimates on both the size of clumps of matter that can survive to the strong tidal force and energy loaded by tides on the clump. We also have obtained some constraints on the mechanical properties of the plasma orbiting into the accretion disk. We note that the systematic behavior of the emitted energy as function of the central frequency of the lower HF QPO, observed in several sources with a neutron star, might give clues related to an in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Germanà, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.444..327S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stable <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> 4.18-d oscillation and mysterious occultations in the 2011 MOST light-curve of TW Hya</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an analysis of the 2011 photometric observations of TW Hya by the MOST satellite; this is the fourth continuous series of this type. The large-scale light variations are dominated by a strong, <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> 4.18-d oscillation with superimposed, apparently chaotic flaring activity. The former is probably produced by stellar rotation with one large hotspot created by a stable accretion funnel, while the latter may be produced by small hotspots, created at moderate latitudes by unstable accretion tongues. A new, previously unnoticed feature is a series of semiperiodic, well-defined brightness dips of unknown nature, of which 19 were observed during 43 d of our nearly continuous observations. Re-analysis of the 2009 MOST light-curve revealed the presence of three similar dips. On the basis of recent theoretical results, we tentatively conclude that the dips may represent occultations of the small hotspots created by unstable accretion tongues by hypothetical optically thick clumps of dust.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siwak, Michal; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9812124v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">kHz <span class="hlt">Quasi</span> <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Oscillations in Low Mass X-ray Binaries as Probes of General Relativity in the Strong Field Regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the interpretation of a pair of kHz <span class="hlt">Quasi</span> <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier spectra of two Low Mass X-Ray Binaries, Sco X-1 and 4U1608-52, hosting an old accreting neutron star. The observed frequency difference of these QPOs decreaseas as their frequency increases, contrary to simple beat frequency models, which predict a constant frequency difference. We show that the behaviour of these QPOs is instead well matched in terms of the fundamental frequencies (in the radial and azimuthal directions) for test particle motion in the gravitational field of the neutron star, for reasonable star masses, and nearly independent of the star spin. The radial frequency must be much smaller than the azimuthal one, testifying that kHz QPOs are produced close to the innermost stable orbit. These results are not reproduced through the post--Newtonian (PN) approximation of General Relativity (GR). kHz QPOs from X-ray binaries likely provide an accurate laboratory for strong field GR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luigi Stella; Mario Vietri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446.3926A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation in the ultraluminous X-ray source IC 342 X-1: XMM-Newton results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery of a <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) at 642 mHz in an XMM-Newton observation of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) IC 342 X-1. The QPO has a centroid at ?QPO = 642 ± 20 mHz, a coherence factor Q = 11.6 and an amplitude (rms) of 4.1 per cent with significance of 3.6?. The energy dependence study shows that the QPO is stronger in the energy range 0.3-5.0 keV. A subsequent observation (6 d later) does not show any signature of the QPO in the power-density spectrum. The broad-band energy spectra (0.3-40.0 keV) obtained by quasi-simultaneous observations of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be described well by an absorbed diskbb plus cutoffpl model. The best-fitting spectral parameters are power-law index (?) ˜ 1.1, cut-off energy (Ec) ˜ 7.9 keV and disc temperature (kTin) ˜ 0.33 keV where the QPO is detected. The unabsorbed bolometric luminosity is ˜5.34 × 1039 erg s-1. Comparing this with the well-known X-ray binary GRS 1915+105, our results are consistent with the mass of the compact object in IC 342 X-1 being in the range ˜20-65 M?. We discuss the possible implications of our results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agrawal, V. K.; Nandi, Anuj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10790076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kilohertz <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations in Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Sources and Their Relation to the Neutron Star Magnetic Field.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Starting from the observation that kilohertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (kHz QPOs) occur in a very narrow range of X-ray luminosities in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, we try to link the kHz QPO observability to variations of the neutron star magnetospheric radius, in response to changing mass inflow rate. At low luminosities, the drop-off of kHz QPO activity may be explained by the onset of the centrifugal barrier, when the magnetospheric radius reaches the corotation radius. At the opposite side, at higher luminosities, the magnetospheric radius may reach the neutron star and the vanishing of the magnetosphere may lead to the stopping of the kHz QPO activity. If we apply these constraints, the magnetic fields of atoll [B approximately 0.3-1x108 G for Aql X-1] and Z [B approximately 1-8x108 G for Cyg X-2] sources can be derived. These limits naturally apply in the framework of beat-frequency models but can also work in the case of general relativistic models. PMID:10790076</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...795..114H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations in Short Recurring Bursts of Magnetars SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 Observed with RXTE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) observed in the giant flares of magnetars are of particular interest due to their potential to open up a window into the neutron star interior via neutron star asteroseismology. However, only three giant flares have been observed. We therefore make use of the much larger data set of shorter, less energetic recurrent bursts. Here, we report on a search for QPOs in a large data set of bursts from the two most burst-active magnetars, SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14, observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find a single detection in an averaged periodogram comprising 30 bursts from SGR 1806-20, with a frequency of 57 Hz and a width of 5 Hz, remarkably similar to a giant flare QPO observed from SGR 1900+14. This QPO fits naturally within the framework of global magneto-elastic torsional oscillations employed to explain giant flare QPOs. Additionally, we uncover a limit on the applicability of Fourier analysis for light curves with low background count rates and strong variability on short timescales. In this regime, standard Fourier methodology and more sophisticated Fourier analyses fail in equal parts by yielding an unacceptably large number of false-positive detections. This problem is not straightforward to solve in the Fourier domain. Instead, we show how simulations of light curves can offer a viable solution for QPO searches in these light curves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huppenkothen, D.; Heil, L. M.; Watts, A. L.; Gö?ü?, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11882471"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER CONTROL: A CRITICAL REVIEW</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma is an emerging technique in environmental pollution control technology, produced by the high-voltage discharge processes and therefore a large amount of high energy electrons and active species are generated. The degradation of difficult-degraded organic pollutions will be greatly enhanced by the active species generated from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma process. However, research on <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technology on organic wastewater cleaning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsu-Hui Cheng; Shiao-Shing Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Din-Lit Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16764282"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> spatiotemporal filtering.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.2532v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simbol-X capability of detecting the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission of stellar flares</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the capability of detecting, with Simbol-X, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission during stellar flares, and distinguishing it from hot thermal emission. We find that flare <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission is detectable when at least ~20 cts are detected with the CZT detector in the 20-80 keV band. Therefore Simbol-X will detect the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from some of the X-ray brightest nearby stars, whether the thermal vs. <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> relation, derived for solar flares, holds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Argiroffi; G. Micela; A. Maggio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045810&hterms=M87&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DM87"> <span id="translatedtitle">RXTE Observations M87: Investigating the <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Continuum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is the final report for NASA grant NAG5-7329, awarded for the RXTE Cycle 3 Guest Observer Program, "RXTE Observations of M87: Investigating the nonthermal continuum". This grant totaled $8000 and was spent over 3 years (4/1998-4/2001). It supported analysis of RXTE observations of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the RXTE satellite. The main aim of these observations was to search for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from the core of M87 and the famous jet. This grant also partially funded supporting theoretical work. The observational campaign was performed in December 1997 and January 1998, and we were given the final data tape in April 1998. Sebastian Heinz (then a graduated student in our group) and I started to work on the data immediately. The results of our detailed analysis were submitted to the Astrophysical Journal in November 1998, and accepted for publication in March 1999. Tile paper was published in August, 1999. The journal reference is: A RXTE study of N187 and the core of the Virgo cluster, Reynolds C.S.,Heinx S., Fabian A.C., Begelman M.C., 1999, ApJ, 102, 1999. During this first year of the project, this grant supported Mr. Heinz's travel to the Paris Texas Symposium in December 1998, as well as providing funds for necessary maintenance of our computer system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Christopher S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0805.1707v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">The physics of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation in microquasars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microquasars are binary systems that harbor a normal star and a compact object (black-hole or neutron star), and show relativistic outflows (or jets). The matter that forms these jets is of likely stellar origin, previously expelled from the star and trapped in the potential well of the compact object. This matter is accreted by the compact object, forming a disk due to its angular momentum, and is eventually ejected in the form of a bipolar outflow (the jets), which generates radio emission and could also be a very high-energy emitter. To study and understand the radiation from microquasars, there is a set of elements that can play a major role and are to be taken into account: the photons and the expelled matter from the star in the case of high-mass systems; the accreted matter radiation; the jet; the magnetic field carried by the jet or filling the binary system; and the medium surrounding the microquasar at large scales (~pc). In this lecture, we consider these elements of the microquasar scenario and briefly describe the physical conditions and processes involved in the production of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation from radio to gamma-rays. The required energetics, particle acceleration and transport, several radiative mechanisms, and the impact of different photon absorption processes, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Bosch-Ramon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...775...28S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Spectral Study of the Rapid Transitions of Type-B <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations in the Black Hole Transient XTE J1859+226</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fast transitions of type-B and type-A <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) are rarely found, and they are observed at the peak of the outburst in black hole transient (BHT) sources. The associated spectral variations during such events are crucial to understand the origin and location of such QPOs in the accretion disk. During the 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226, on four occasions a rapid transition of type-B/A QPOs was noted. We performed broadband spectral analysis on these four observations to unveil the responsible spectral parameter causing the rapid transitions. After invoking simple spectral models, it was observed that disk parameters were consistently varying along with disk and power-law fluxes, and almost no change was noted in the power-law index parameter. Though using a complex physical model showed consistent results, the spectral parameter variations across the transitions were not significant. It was observed that the type-B QPO was always associated with an inner disk front which is closer to the BH. In one observation, a type-A QPO appeared as the source count rate suddenly dropped, and the power-law index as well as disk normalization parameter considerably changed during this transition. The spectral changes in this particular observation were similar to the changes observed in XTE J1817-330, indicating a common underlying mechanism. We have also examined a similar observation of BHT source GX 339-4, where a sudden transition of a type-A/B QPO was noted. Similar spectral study again revealed that the disk parameters were changing. We discuss the results in the framework of a truncated disk model and conclude that the movement of the coupled inner disk-corona region is responsible for such rapid transitions of type-B QPOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sriram, K.; Rao, A. R.; Choi, C. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...616..463I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7 Second <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on 2003 January 6, while the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) was also monitoring the source. Using the RXTE Proportional Counter Array data set between 2002 December 3 and 2003 January 29, the spin period and average spin-up rate during the XMM-Newton observations were found to be 354.7940+/-0.0008 s and (7.4+/-0.9)×10-13 Hz s-1, respectively. In the power spectrum of the 0.9-11 keV EPIC PN light curve, we found <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) around 0.044 Hz (22.7 s) with an rms fractional amplitude of ~6.6%. We interpreted this QPO feature as the Keplerian motion of inhomogeneities through the inner disk. In the X-ray spectrum, in addition to the power-law component with high-energy cutoff and the ~6.4 keV fluorescent iron emission line, we discovered a soft component consistent with blackbody emission with kT~1.9 keV. The pulse phase spectroscopy of the source revealed that the blackbody flux peaked at the peak of the pulse with an emission radius of ~0.3 km, suggesting the polar cap on the neutron star surface as the source of the blackbody emission. The flux of the iron emission line at ~6.42 keV was shown to peak at the off-pulse phase, supporting the idea that this feature arises from fluorescent emission of the circumstellar material around the neutron star rather than the hot region in the vicinity of the neutron star polar cap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">?nam, S. Ç.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.; Stark, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047646"> <span id="translatedtitle">LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATIONS?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Altamirano, D. [Astronomical Institute, 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strohmayer, T., E-mail: d.altamirano@uva.nl [Astrophysics Science Division, Mail Code 662, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...771L..44P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillation from the most Massive Stellar-mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an ?7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33? confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q ? ?/??, of ?11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of ? - 2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies gsim0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990067630&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence from <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations for a Millisecond Pulsar in the Low Mass X-Ray Binary 4U 0614+091</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have detected <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) near 1 kHz from the low mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+091 in observations with RXTE. The observations span several months and sample the source over a large range of X-ray luminosity. In every interval QPOs are present above 400 Hz with fractional RMS amplitudes from 3 to 12% over the full PCA band. At high count rates, two high frequency QPOs are detected simultaneously. The difference of their frequency centroids is consistent with a constant value of 323 Hz in all observations. During one interval a third signal is detected at 328 +/- 2 Hz. This suggests the system has a stable 'clock' which is most likely the neutron star with spin period 3.1 msec. Thus, our observations of 4U 0614+091 and those of 4U 1728-34 provide the first evidence for millisecond pulsars within low-mass X-ray binary systems and reveal the 'missing-link' between millisecond radiopulsars and the late stages of binary evolution in low mass X-ray binaries. The constant difference of the high frequency QPOs sug,,ests a beat-frequency interpretation. In this model, the high frequency QPO is associated with the Keplerian frequency of the inner accretion disk and the lower frequency QPO is a 'beat' between the differential rotation frequency of the inner disk and the spinning neutron star. Assuming the high frequency QPO is a Keplerian orbital frequency for the accretion disk, we find a maximum mass of 1.9 solar mass and a maximum radius of 17 km for the neutron star.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120012493&hterms=newtons+law+motion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnewtons%2Blaw%2Bmotion"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> X-ray Dips from an ULX: Implications for the Binary Motion and the Orbital Inclination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results from long-term X-ray (0.3-8.0 keY) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy-dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 +/- 4 days the amplitude of which decreases during the second half of the light curve and (3) energy spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data, possibly due to a change in the ionization state of the circumbinary material. We interpret the X-ray modulations in the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination low-mass X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 +/- 23 days in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk (similar to the phenomenon of dipping LMXBs), this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination approx > 60 deg. We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036924"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> FAST-MODE WAVE TRAINS WITHIN A GLOBAL EUV WAVE AND SEQUENTIAL TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS DETECTED BY SDO/AIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first unambiguous detection of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances {approx}> R{sub Sun }/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s{sup -1} decelerating to {approx}650 km s{sup -1}. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by {approx}50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ofman, Leon, E-mail: weiliu@lmsal.com [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washingtom, DC 20064 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21455134"> <span id="translatedtitle">EVIDENCE OF A WARM ABSORBER THAT VARIES WITH <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATION PHASE IN THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS RE J1034+396</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent observation of the nearby (z = 0.042) narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 on 2007 May 31 showed strong <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux. We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of this observation, using data obtained by the EPIC PN detector on board XMM-Newton. The 'low' phase spectrum, associated with the troughs in the light curve, shows (at >4{sigma} confidence level) an absorption edge at 0.86 {+-} 0.05 keV with an absorption depth of 0.3 {+-} 0.1. Ionized oxygen edges are hallmarks of X-ray warm absorbers in Seyfert active galactic nuclei; the observed edge is consistent with H-like O VIII and implies a column density of N{sub OVIII} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. The edge is not seen in the 'high' phase spectrum associated with the crests in the light curve, suggesting the presence of a warm absorber in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole that periodically obscures the continuum emission. If the QPO arises due to Keplerian orbital motion around the central black hole, the periodic appearance of the O VIII edge would imply a radius of {approx}9.4(M/[4x10{sup 6}M{sub sun}]){sup -2/3}(P/[1 hr]){sup 2/3} r{sub g} for the size of the warm absorber.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon M., E-mail: dmaitra@umich.ed, E-mail: jonmm@umich.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140010423&hterms=black&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dblack"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation from the Most Massive Stellar-Mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an approx.. = 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33 sigma confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q is identical with nu/delta nu, of approx. = 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of approx. = -2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies approx. > 0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140010228&hterms=so-called&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dso-called"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Fast-mode Wave Trains Within a Global EUV Wave and Sequential Transverse Oscillations Detected by SDO-AIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first unambiguous detection of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances greater than approximately solar radius/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 kilometers per second decelerating to approximately 650 kilometers per second. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by approximately 50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270915"> <span id="translatedtitle">A SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE RAPID TRANSITIONS OF TYPE-B <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATIONS IN THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT XTE J1859+226</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fast transitions of type-B and type-A <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) are rarely found, and they are observed at the peak of the outburst in black hole transient (BHT) sources. The associated spectral variations during such events are crucial to understand the origin and location of such QPOs in the accretion disk. During the 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226, on four occasions a rapid transition of type-B/A QPOs was noted. We performed broadband spectral analysis on these four observations to unveil the responsible spectral parameter causing the rapid transitions. After invoking simple spectral models, it was observed that disk parameters were consistently varying along with disk and power-law fluxes, and almost no change was noted in the power-law index parameter. Though using a complex physical model showed consistent results, the spectral parameter variations across the transitions were not significant. It was observed that the type-B QPO was always associated with an inner disk front which is closer to the BH. In one observation, a type-A QPO appeared as the source count rate suddenly dropped, and the power-law index as well as disk normalization parameter considerably changed during this transition. The spectral changes in this particular observation were similar to the changes observed in XTE J1817-330, indicating a common underlying mechanism. We have also examined a similar observation of BHT source GX 339-4, where a sudden transition of a type-A/B QPO was noted. Similar spectral study again revealed that the disk parameters were changing. We discuss the results in the framework of a truncated disk model and conclude that the movement of the coupled inner disk-corona region is responsible for such rapid transitions of type-B QPOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, A. R., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApJ...577L..23T"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Low and High Frequency Correlation in <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Oscillations among White Dwarf, Neutron Star, and Black Hole Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We interpret the correlation over 5 orders of magnitude between high frequency ?high and low frequency ?low in <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) found by Psaltis, Belloni, & van der Klis for black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) systems and then extended by Mauche to white dwarf (WD) binaries. The observed correlation strongly constrains theoretical models and provides clues to understanding the nature of the QPO phenomena at large. We argue that the observed correlation is a natural consequence of the Keplerian disk flow adjustment to the innermost sub-Keplerian boundary conditions near the central object that ultimately leads to the formation of the sub-Keplerian transition layer (TL) between the adjustment radius and the innermost boundary (the star surface for the NS and WD and the horizon for the BH). In the frameworks of the TL model, ?high is related to the Keplerian frequency at the outer (adjustment) radius ?K, and ?low is related to the magnetoacoustic oscillation frequency ?MA. Using a relation between ?MA, the magnetic and gas pressure, and the density and the hydrostatic equilibrium condition in the disk, we infer a linear correlation between ?K and ?MA. Identification of ?high, ?low with ?K, ?MA, respectively, leads us to the determination of H/rout=1.5×10-2 and ?=0.1 (where H is the half-width of the disk and ? is a ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure). We estimate the magnetic field strength near the TL outer radius for BHs, NSs, and WDs. The fact that the observed high-low frequency correlation over 5 orders of magnitude is valid for BHs, NSs, and down to WDs strongly rules out relativistic models for QPO phenomena. We come to the conclusion that the QPO observations indicate the adjustment of the geometrically thin disk to sub-Keplerian motion near the central object. This effect is a common feature for a wide class of systems, starting from WD binaries up to BH binaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titarchuk, Lev; Wood, Kent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118675"> <span id="translatedtitle">DISCOVERY OF A 7 mHz X-RAY <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATION FROM THE MOST MASSIVE STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE IC 10 X-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an Almost-Equal-To 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33{sigma} confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q {identical_to} {nu}/{Delta}{nu}, of Almost-Equal-To 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of Almost-Equal-To - 2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies {approx}>0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the 'heartbeat' mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz 'dipper QPOs' of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Mushotzky, Richard F. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Strohmayer, Tod E., E-mail: dheeraj@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: richard@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: tod.strohmayer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...798..108I"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: Re-evaluating their Nature in the Context of Power-law Flare Fourier Spectra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nature of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ? 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dominique, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039312"> <span id="translatedtitle">EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> PULSATIONS IN A SOLAR POST-FLARE CUSP-SHAPE LOOP WITH SDO/AIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present extreme-ultraviolet multi-wavelength observations with the SDO/AIA instruments of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> pulsations (QPPs) propagating along a cusp-shaped loop formed after an M2.2 flare on the Sun. Our motivation is to detect whether there were slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves propagating along its protruding flux tube. To this end, with fast Fourier transform we extract the short (<3 minutes) and long (>3 minutes) period components of the QPPs from time-space diagrams of the tube slices. We find that velocity differences did exist among the short/long-period components of different wavelengths, but only one event in the long-period ones showed they were greater than the measurement errors (e.g., 65 km s{sup -1}), which were 330 km s{sup -1} detected in 171 A, 590 km s{sup -1} in 211 A, and 180 km s{sup -1} in 304 A. The intensity modulation in all wavelengths is found to be very large, e.g., {approx}60% of the emission trend for an event in the 171 A passband, which would be an order of magnitude higher than the perturbation of the plasma density in the slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves. Moreover, only the QPPs with upward velocities of 50-300 km s{sup -1} are found in the tube, and the downward ones of several tens of kilometers are never unambiguously detected. Therefore, most of the QPP events under study were likely the episodic outflows along the tube, and the one with a supersonic speed of 590 km s{sup -1} may be a kink wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su, J. T. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Shen, Y. D.; Liu, Y. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20130014487&hterms=Newton+laws+of+motion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528%2528%2528Newton%2Bs%2529%2Blaws%2529%2Bof%2529%2Bmotion%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence For <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> X-ray Dips From An Ultraluminous X-ray Source: Implications for the Binary Motion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results from long-term (approx.1240 days) X-ray (0.3-8.0 keV) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Here we expand on earlier work by Strohmayer (2009) who used only a part of the present data set. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of sharp, <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span>, energy-independent dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 +/- 4 days, the amplitude of which weakens during the second half of the light curve, and (3) spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data. We interpret the X-ray modulations within the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination accreting X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 +/- 23 days, in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported by Strohmayer (2009). We discuss the overall X-ray modulation within the framework of accretion via Roche-lobe overflow of the donor star. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk, this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination > or approx.70deg. We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HEAD...1340205R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> X-ray Dips from the ULX NGC 5408 X-1: Implications for the Accretion Geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains mysterious. It is not clear whether they are simply scaled-up accreting binaries, i.e., intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) in binary orbits around companion stars accreting at a sub-Eddington rate or if they are stellar-mass black holes accreting and emitting via a super-Eddington mechanism. Perhaps the ULX population comprises both categories. We present evidence from an archetypal ULX, NGC 5408 X-1 (X-ray luminosity > 10^40 ergs/sec), that the source accretes in a geometry similar to that of Roche lobe overflow binaries. Using the approximately 3.5 years of Swift/X-ray monitoring data of the source we detect two distinct phenomena: (1) a quasi-sinusoidal, energy-dependent (modulation amplitude decreases with increasing energy upto 8 keV) modulation of the X-ray flux with a period of 112 days and (2) <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span>, energy-independent dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days and with a variance of 23 days, suggesting a moderately high inclination. These two modulations (including their phase separation) appear to be consistent with the predicted variations for Roche-lobe accreting binaries with low-mass ratios, q = M(donor)/M(accretor). The smooth component can be produced by absorption/obscuration by two spatially distinct bulges along the outer rim of the accretion disk (produced by the tidal effects of the massive companion star) while the sharp dips are possibly produced by absorption due to clumps of material produced by the accretion stream - disk impact. We present an idealized accretion geometry of ULX NGC 5408 X-1 that is consistent with these modulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranga Reddy Pasham, Dheeraj; Strohmayer, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...764...93P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> X-Ray Dips from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source: Implications for the Binary Motion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results from long-term (?1240 days) X-ray (0.3-8.0 keV) monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. Here we expand on earlier work by Strohmayer (2009) who used only a part of the present data set. Our primary results are: (1) the discovery of sharp, <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span>, energy-independent dips in the X-ray intensity that recur on average every 243 days, (2) the detection of an energy dependent (variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy), quasi-sinusoidal X-ray modulation with a period of 112.6 ± 4 days, the amplitude of which weakens during the second half of the light curve, and (3) spectral evidence for an increase in photoelectric absorption during the last continuous segment of the data. We interpret the X-ray modulations within the context of binary motion in analogy to that seen in high-inclination accreting X-ray binaries. If correct, this implies that NGC 5408 X-1 is in a binary with an orbital period of 243 ± 23 days, in contrast to the 115.5 day quasi-sinusoidal period previously reported by Strohmayer (2009). We discuss the overall X-ray modulation within the framework of accretion via Roche-lobe overflow of the donor star. In addition, if the X-ray modulation is caused by vertically structured obscuring material in the accretion disk, this would imply a high value for the inclination of the orbit. A comparison with estimates from accreting X-ray binaries suggests an inclination gsim70°. We note that, in principle, a precessing accretion disk could also produce the observed X-ray modulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040182471&hterms=Periodic+table&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Periodic%2Btable%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s <span class="hlt">Quasi</span> <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and average spin-up rate during the XMM-Newton observations were found to be 354.7940+/-0.0008 s and (7.4 +/- 0.9) x 10(exp -13) Hz/s respectively. In the power spectrum of the 0.9-11 keV EPIC-PN lightcurve, we found <span class="hlt">quasi</span> <span class="hlt">periodic</span> oscillations around 0.044 Hz (22.7 s) with an rms fractional amplitude approx. 6.6 %. We interpreted this QPO feature as the Keplerian motion of inhomogeneities through the inner disk. In the X-ray spectrum, in addition to the power law component with high energy cutoff and approx. 6.4 keV fluorescent iron emission line, we discovered a soft component consistent with a blackbody emission with kT approx. 1.9 keV. The pulse phase spectroscopy of the source revealed that the blackbody flux peaked at the peak of the pulse with an emission radius approx. 0.3 km, suggesting the polar cap on the neutron star approx. 6.42 keV was shown to peak at the off-pulse phase, supporting the idea that this feature arises from fluorescent emission of the circumstellar material around the neutron star rather than the hot region in the vicinity of the neutron star polar cap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inam, S. C.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.; Stark, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52233082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Radio Emission from â??Presumablyâ?? Single O Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of hot stars have radio fluxes that deviate from a simple thermal spectrum. It is generally accepted that synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles accelerated in shocks, can account for this <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio emission. A fundamental question regarding <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio emission is its correlation with binarity. For Wolf Rayet stars, the evolutionary descendents of O stars, this link is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. van Loo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020085232&hterms=periodic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dperiodic"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a 450 Hz <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation from the Microquasar GRO J1655-40 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery with the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer of a 450 Hz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) in the hard X-ray flux from the Galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. This is the highest frequency QPO modulation seen to date from a black hole. The QPO is detected only in the hard X-ray band above approx. 13 keV. It is both strong and narrow, with a typical rms (root mean square) amplitude of 4.5% in the 13-27 keV range and a width of approx. 40 Hz (FWHM). For two observations in which we detect the 450 Hz QPO, a previously known approx. 300 Hz QPO is also observed in the 2-13 keV band. We show that these two QPOs sometimes appear simultaneously, thus demonstrating the first detection of a pair of high-frequency QPOs in a black hole system. Prior to this, pairs of high-frequency QPOs have been detected only in neutron star systems. GRO J1655-40 is one of only a handful of black hole systems with a good dynamical mass constraint. For a nonrotating black hole with mass between 5.5 and 7.9 solar masses, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) ranges from 45 to 70 km. For any mass in this range the radius at which the orbital frequency reaches 450 Hz is less than the ISCO radius, indicating that, if the modulation is caused by Kepler motion, the black hole must have appreciable spin. If the QPO frequency is set by the orbital frequency of matter at the ISCO, then for this mass range the dimensionless angular momentum lies in the range 0.15 < j < 0.5. Moreover, if the modulation is caused by oscillation modes in the disk or Lense-Thirring precession, then this would also require a rapidly rotating hole. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for models of X-ray variability in black holes and neutron stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...612..988T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Index and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in Black Holes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between the low frequencies (1-10 Hz) of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several black hole (BH) candidate sources, in low (hard) states, steep power law (soft) states, and transitions between these states. The observations indicate that the X-ray spectra of such state (phases) show the presence of a power-law component and are sometimes related to simultaneous radio emission, indicating the probable presence of a jet. Strong QPOs (>20% rms) are present in the power density spectrum in the spectral range where the power-law component is dominant (i.e., 60%-90%). This evidence contradicts the dominant, long-standing interpretation of QPOs as a signature of the thermal accretion disk. We present the data from the literature and our own data to illustrate the dominance of power-law index-QPO frequency correlations. We provide a model that identifies and explains the origin of the QPOs and how they are imprinted on the properties of the power-law flux component. We argue for the existence of a bounded compact coronal region that is a natural consequence of the adjustment of the Keplerian disk flow to the innermost sub-Keplerian boundary conditions near the central object and that ultimately leads to the formation of a transition layer (TL) between the adjustment radius and the innermost boundary. The model predicts two phases or states dictated by the photon upscattering produced in the TL: (1) a hard state, in which the TL is optically thin and very hot (kT>~50 keV), producing photon upscattering via thermal Comptonization (the photon spectrum index ?~1.7 for this state is dictated by gravitational energy release and Compton cooling in an optically thin shock near the adjustment radius), and (2) a soft state that is optically thick and relatively cold (kT<~5 keV; the index for this state, ?~2.8, is determined by soft-photon upscattering and photon trapping in a converging flow into the BH). In the TL model for the corona, the QPO frequency ?high is related to the gravitational (close to Keplerian) frequency ?K at the outer (adjustment) radius and ?low is related to the TL's normal mode (magnetoacoustic) oscillation frequency ?MA. The observed correlations between index and low and high QPO frequencies are readily explained in terms of this model. We also suggest a new method for evaluation of the BH mass using the index-frequency correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titarchuk, Lev; Fiorito, Ralph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/41/02/00/PDF/Beroual_IMETI2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffr´e, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual Ecole Centrale de to the determination of corona ig- nition threshold for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma generation and to the optimization: Corona Discharges, Energy, <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasmas, Gas Treatments 1 INTRODUCTION Nitrogen oxides (NOx</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4238021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell death induced by ozone and various <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications, with the potential to create novel therapeutic methods. However, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma cellular effects remains a significant challenge. In this study, we show how two types of different <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas induce cell death in mammalian cell cultures via the formation of multiple intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Our results showed a discrepancy in the superoxide accumulation and lysosomal activity in response to air and helium plasma, suggesting that triggered signalling cascades might be grossly different between different plasmas. In addition, the effects of ozone, a considerable component of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma, have been simultaneously evaluated and have revealed much faster and higher cytotoxic effects. Our findings offer novel insight into plasma-induced cellular responses, and provide a basis for better controlled biomedical applications. PMID:25410636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskii, Vitalii; Churpita, Olexander; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E7129L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell death induced by ozone and various <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications, with the potential to create novel therapeutic methods. However, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma cellular effects remains a significant challenge. In this study, we show how two types of different <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas induce cell death in mammalian cell cultures via the formation of multiple intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Our results showed a discrepancy in the superoxide accumulation and lysosomal activity in response to air and helium plasma, suggesting that triggered signalling cascades might be grossly different between different plasmas. In addition, the effects of ozone, a considerable component of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma, have been simultaneously evaluated and have revealed much faster and higher cytotoxic effects. Our findings offer novel insight into plasma-induced cellular responses, and provide a basis for better controlled biomedical applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskii, Vitalii; Churpita, Olexander; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/~svenvl/journals/JENAM.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can single O stars produce <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio emission? Or are they binaries?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">). A fundamental question regarding <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio emission is its correlation with bina- rity. For Wolf are confirmed binary or multiple systems. For the other stars, binarity has not been established</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Loo, Sven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53464468"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamental limitations of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing for internal combustion engine NO(x) control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics and chemistry of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing for post-combustion NO(x) control in internal combustion engines are discussed. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO(x) removal mechanisms, and by-product formation. Can <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> deNO(x) operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. M. Penetrante</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26248561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitric oxide decomposition in air by using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing - with additives and catalyst</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">NO removal process by using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with catalyst (copper coated zeolite catalyst i.e. Cu-ZSM-5) was studied to enhance NO removal efficiency of the plasma chemical reactions. A hydrocarbon agent was added to the synthesized flue gas before the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing. Adding effects of hydrocarbon agent to the synthesized flue gas on the NO removal were also investigated. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tetsuiji Oda; Tomohide Kato; Tadashi Takahashi; Kazuo Shimizu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26248967"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma processing for environmental protection: decomposition of dilute VOCs in air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma processing is one of the most hopeful air-cleaning technologies to remove toxic gas contaminants in air. The historical background of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma related with the electrostatics is described and the fundamental experimental system including the reactor designs and their power supplies is introduced. Some experimental results suggested the high potential of the plasma processing to decompose those</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Oda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040182332&hterms=Periodic+table&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Periodic%2Btable%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Index and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in Black Holes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between the low frequencies (1-10 Hz) of <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several black hole (BH) candidate sources, in low (hard) states, steep power law (soft) states, and transitions between these states. The observations indicate that the X-ray spectra of such state (phases) show the presence of a power-law component and are sometimes related to simultaneous radio emission, indicating the probable presence of a jet. Strong QPOs (>20% rms) are present in the power density spectrum in the spectral range where the power-law component is dominant (i.e., 60%90%). This evidence contradicts the dominant, long-standing interpretation of QPOs as a signature of the thermal accretion disk. We present the data from the literature and our own data to illustrate the dominance of power-law index-QPO frequency correlations. We provide a model that identifies and explains the origin of the QPOs and how they are imprinted on the properties of the power-law flux component. We argue for the existence of a bounded compact coronal region that is a natural consequence of the adjustment of the Keplerian disk flow to the innermost sub-Keplerian boundary conditions near the central object and that ultimately leads to the formation of a transition layer (TL) between the adjustment radius and the innermost boundary. The model predicts two phases or states dictated by the photon upscattering produced in the TL: (1) a hard state, in which the TL is optically thin and very hot (kT approximately greater than 50 keV), producing photon upscattering via thermal Comptonization (the photon spectrum index Gamma approximates 1.7 for this state is dictated by gravitational energy release and Compton cooling in an optically thin shock near the adjustment radius), and (2) a soft state that is optically thick and relatively cold (kT approximately less than 5 keV the index for this state, Gamma approximates 2.8, is determined by soft-photon upscattering and photon trapping in a converging flow into the BH). In the TL model for the corona, the QPO frequency V(sub high) is related to the gravitational (close to Keplerian) frequency V(sub K) at the outer (adjustment) radius and v(sub low) is related to the TL's normal mode (magnetoacoustic) oscillation frequency v(sub MA) . The observed correlations between index and low and high QPO frequencies are readily explained in terms of this model. We also suggest a new method for evaluation of the BH mass using the index-frequency correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titarchuk, Lev; Fiorito, Ralph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.447.3678B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Galaxy evolution: modelling the role of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure in the interstellar medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Galaxy evolution depends strongly on the physics of the interstellar medium (ISM). Motivated by the need to incorporate the properties of the ISM in cosmological simulations, we construct a simple method to include the contribution of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components in the calculation of pressure of interstellar gas. In our method, we treat three <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components - turbulence, magnetic fields and cosmic rays - and effectively parametrize their amplitude. We assume that the three components settle into a quasi-steady-state that is governed by the star formation rate, and calibrate their magnitude and density dependence by the observed radio-FIR correlation, relating synchrotron radiation to star formation rates of galaxies. We implement our model in single-cell numerical simulation of a parcel of gas with constant pressure boundary conditions and demonstrate its effect and potential. Then, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure model is incorporated into RAMSES and hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies with and without the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure model are presented and studied. Specifically, we demonstrate that the inclusion of realistic <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure reduces the star formation rate by an order of magnitude and increases the gas depletion time by as much. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure can prolong the star formation epoch and achieve consistency with observations without invoking artificially strong stellar feedback.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Birnboim, Yuval; Balberg, Shmuel; Teyssier, Romain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.1020S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical model for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure in galaxy clusters - II. Comparison with cosmological hydrodynamics simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Turbulent gas motion inside galaxy clusters provides a non-negligible <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure support to the intracluster gas. If not corrected, it leads to a systematic bias in the estimation of cluster masses from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, and affects interpretation of measurements of the SZ power spectrum and observations of cluster outskirts from ongoing and upcoming large cluster surveys. Recently, Shi & Komatsu developed an analytical model for predicting the radius, mass, and redshift dependence of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure contributed by the kinetic random motions of intracluster gas sourced by the cluster mass growth. In this paper, we compare the predictions of this analytical model to a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation. As different mass growth histories result in different <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure, we perform the comparison on 65 simulated galaxy clusters on a cluster-by-cluster basis. We find an excellent agreement between the modelled and simulated <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure profiles. Our results open up the possibility of using the analytical model to correct the systematic bias in the mass estimation of galaxy clusters. We also discuss tests of the physical picture underlying the evolution of intracluster <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> gas motions, as well as a way to further improve the analytical modelling, which may help achieve a unified understanding of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> phenomena in galaxy clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Xun; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000048492&hterms=colliding+wind+binary&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcolliding%2Bwind%2Bbinary"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory and Observations of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Phenomena in Hot Massive Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shock between the colliding winds in binary systems containing two massive stars accelerates particles to relativistic energies. These energetic particles can produce observable <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation from the radio to gamma-rays. The important physical processes in such systems are very similar to those we have proposed for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions from single hot stars, which have shocks generated by instabilities in the radiatively driven stellar winds. This paper discusses the theory and observations of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray regions from both single stars and massive binaries. Similarities and differences between the two types of systems are outlined. We discuss two important physical effects that apparently have been neglected in previous theoretical work on colliding wind binaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, Richard L.; Chen, Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...748...67W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Perspective on <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Emission in HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The search for diffuse <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. In this work, we investigate 14-195 keV spectra from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey for evidence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> excess emission above the exponentially decreasing tail of thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. To account for the thermal contribution at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectral components can be determined simultaneously. We find marginally significant IC components in six clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single-temperature fits to the XMM-Newton data alone, we see no significant excess emission above that predicted by the thermal model determined at soft energies. This result also holds for the summed spectra of various subgroups, except for the subsample of clusters with diffuse radio emission. For clusters hosting a diffuse radio halo, a relic, or a mini-halo, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission is initially detected at the ~5? confidence level—driven by clusters with mini-halos—but modeling and systematic uncertainties ultimately degrade this significance. In individual clusters, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure of relativistic electrons is limited to <~ 10% of the thermal electron pressure, with stricter limits for the more massive clusters, indicating that these electrons are likely not dynamically important in the central regions of clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tueller, Jack; Okajima, Takashi; Clarke, Tracy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016149"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE PERSPECTIVE ON <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> EMISSION IN HIFLUGCS GALAXY CLUSTERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The search for diffuse <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. In this work, we investigate 14-195 keV spectra from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey for evidence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> excess emission above the exponentially decreasing tail of thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. To account for the thermal contribution at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectral components can be determined simultaneously. We find marginally significant IC components in six clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single-temperature fits to the XMM-Newton data alone, we see no significant excess emission above that predicted by the thermal model determined at soft energies. This result also holds for the summed spectra of various subgroups, except for the subsample of clusters with diffuse radio emission. For clusters hosting a diffuse radio halo, a relic, or a mini-halo, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission is initially detected at the {approx}5{sigma} confidence level-driven by clusters with mini-halos-but modeling and systematic uncertainties ultimately degrade this significance. In individual clusters, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure of relativistic electrons is limited to {approx}< 10% of the thermal electron pressure, with stricter limits for the more massive clusters, indicating that these electrons are likely not dynamically important in the central regions of clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wik, Daniel R.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Tueller, Jack; Okajima, Takashi [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarazin, Craig L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Zhang Yuying [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Mushotzky, Richard F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Clarke, Tracy E., E-mail: daniel.r.wik@nasa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60543907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of pulsed power and power modulation to the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma treatment of hazardous gaseous wastes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, and smog are preeminent environmental problems facing the world today. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma techniques offer an innovative approach to the cost-effective solution of these problems. Many potential applications of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to air pollution control have already been demonstrated. The use of pulsed power and power modulation is essential to the successful implementation of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penetrante</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/619732"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas as gas-phase advanced oxidation processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas are useful for generating reactive species (free radicals) in a gas stream. Because radical attack reaction rate constants are very large for many chemical species, entrained pollutants are readily decomposed by radicals. Such plasmas can generate both oxidative and reductive radicals; therefore, they show promise for treating a wide variety of pollutants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosocha, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/uploads/bibman/tsigutkin:2004b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Investigation of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Electric Fields and Plasma Waves in Pulsed-Power Plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental Investigation of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Electric Fields and Plasma Waves in Pulsed-Power Plasmas and the properties of plasmas under high-power pulses at the nanosecond time scale. The method is based on resonant in a coaxial-pulsed-plasma configura- tion. The plasma is doped with a laser-produced lithium heam, fol- lowed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/36/33/75/PDF/khacef2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and low temperature (420 K). <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas Keywords: Non</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=254386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cold plasma - a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cold plasma is a novel <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25589789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/789890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superconductivity--a possible mechanism for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> biological effects of microwaves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent evidence for high temperature superconductivity in lipids and in a protein and for a role for superconductivity in growth and nerve processes, combined with experimental demonstration of microwave effects on probable superconductive tunneling in carbon films at room temperature, suggest the possibility that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of microwaves on biological systems may occur by a superconductive mechanism. PMID:789890</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cope, F W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=18855"> <span id="translatedtitle">EXPERIMENTAL AND CFD STUDIES OF <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> PLASMAS FOR NOX CONTROL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas (NTPs) represent a promising technology for the destruction of various toxic gases entrained in air streams. One challenging example of the need for hazardous gas control is the jet engine test cell (JETC) facility where very large amounts of NO(x)s are emitte...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/faculty/statewide/schuerger/Schuerger_2008_IJA_Plasmas-Bacillus.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasmas to reduce the viability of Bacillus subtilis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Use of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasmas to reduce the viability of Bacillus subtilis on spacecraft pressure glow-discharge (APGD) plasmas have been proposed for sterilizing spacecraft surfaces prior to launch. The advantages of APGD plasmas for the sterilization of spacecraft surfaces include low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schuerger, Andrew C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18837237"> <span id="translatedtitle">TOPICAL REVIEW: <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas in and in contact with liquids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the last two decades atmospheric (or high) pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas in and in contact with liquids have received a lot of attention in view of their considerable environmental and medical applications. The simultaneous generation of intense UV radiation, shock waves and active radicals makes these discharges particularly suitable for decontamination, sterilization and purification purposes. This paper reviews the current</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Bruggeman; Christophe Leys</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26486355"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma assisted reforming technologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On board hydrogen production out of hydrocarbons (reforming) for fuel cells feed is subject to problems when used with traditional catalysts. High device weight, a relatively long transient time and poisoning problems make the integration onboard a vehicle complex. In response to these challenges, hydrocarbons reforming processes assisted by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas for hydrogen production have been implemented over recent years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Petitpas; J.-D. Rollier; A. Darmon; J. Gonzalez-Aguilar; R. Metkemeijer; L. Fulcheri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ApPhA..63..315G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> laser-induced desorption of metal atoms with bimodal kinetic energy distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser-induced desorption of metal atoms at low rate has been studied for pulsed excitation with wavelengths of ?=266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm. For this purpose sodium adsorbed on quartz served as a model system. The detached Na atoms were photo-ionized with the light of a second laser operating at ?=193 nm and their kinetic energy distribution was determined by time-of-flight measurements. For ?=1064 nm a distribution typical of thermal bond breaking is observed. If desorption, however, is stimulated with light of ?=266 or 532 nm, the kinetic energy distribution is <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> with a single maximum at E kin=0.16±0.02 eV. For ?=355 nm the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> distribution is even bimodal with maxima appearing at E kin=0.16±0.02 and 0.33±0.02 eV. These values of the kinetic energies actually remain constant under variation of all experimental parameters. They appear to reflect the electronic and geometric properties of different binding sites from which the atoms are detached and thus constitute fingerprints of the metal surface. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> desorption mechanism is discussed in the framework of the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead scenario. The transition from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> to thermal desorption at large fluences of the laser light could also be identified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Götz, T.; Bergt, M.; Hoheisel, W.; Träger, F.; Stuke, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18882825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of cylindrical Langmuir probes in weakly ionized, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, stationary and moderately collisional plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A finite length cylindrical Langmuir probe is modelled as an ellipsoid of revolution with spheroidal equipotential surfaces and confocal orthogonal hyperboloidal electric field lines. The theory is applicable in the transition regime of probe operation between the collisionless and fully collisional limits. The plasma is assumed to be weakly ionized, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and stationary, being characterized by frozen reactions and constant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P M Bryant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=29303"> <span id="translatedtitle">FIRST REPORT ON <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> PLASMA REACTOR SCALING CRITERIA AND OPTIMIZATION MODELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of SERDP project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) reactor technology for DoD air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile o...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mcw.edu/FileLibrary/Groups/AcademicAffairs/MSSRP/2012HughesPatrick-NinomiyaPost.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Infrared Light Increases Proliferation, Alters Maturation, and Enhances Mineralization in Osteoblasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Infrared Light Increases Proliferation, Alters Maturation, and Enhances that treatment of fractures with near infrared light (NIR) increases the rate of callus formation and bone for this behavior remain largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the effects of NIR light on cellular</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhD...44A0301N"> <span id="translatedtitle">EDITORIAL: <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This special issue is based on the symposium on <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Plasma Assisted Fuel Conversion for Green Chemistry, a part of the 240th ACS National Meeting & Exposition held in Boston, MA, USA, 22-26 August 2010. Historically, the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has featured three plasma-related symposia since 2000, and has launched special issues in Catalysis Today on three occasions: 'Catalyst Preparation using Plasma Technologies', Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 2000. Special issue in Catalysis Today 72 (3-4) with 12 peer-reviewed articles. 'Plasma Technology and Catalysis', Spring Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2003. Special issue in Catalysis Today 89 (1-2) with more than 30 peer-reviewed articles. 'Utilization of Greenhouse Gases II' (partly focused on plasma-related technologies), Spring Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2004. Special issue in Catalysis Today 98 (4) with 25 peer-reviewed articles. This time, selected presentations are published in this Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics special issue. An industrial material and energy conversion technology platform is established on thermochemical processes including various catalytic reactions. Existing industry-scale technology is already well established; nevertheless, further improvement in energy efficiency and material saving has been continuously demanded. Drastic reduction of CO2 emission is also drawing keen attention with increasing recognition of energy and environmental issues. Green chemistry is a rapidly growing research field, and frequently highlights renewable bioenergy, bioprocesses, solar photocatalysis of water splitting, and regeneration of CO2 into useful chemicals. We would also like to emphasize 'plasma catalysis' of hydrocarbon resources as an important part of the innovative next-generation green technologies. The peculiarity of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma is that it can generate reactive species almost independently of reaction temperature. Plasma-generated reactive species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than conventional thermochemical reactions, leading to non-equilibrium product distribution or creating unconventional reaction pathways. When <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma is combined with catalysts, a synergistic effect is frequently observed. Such unique properties of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma are expected to contribute excellent control over process parameters that meet the need for energy saving, environment protection, and material preservation. This special issue consists of eleven peer-reviewed papers including two invited publications. Professors Alexander Fridman and Alexander Rabinovich from Drexel University, and Dr Gutsol from the Chevron Energy Technology Company present a critical review of various industry-oriented practical plasma fuel conversion processes. Professor Richard Mallinson from University of Oklahoma describes his recent project on E85 (85%-ethanol/15%-gasoline) upgrading using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma and catalyst hybrid reactor, and highlights the synergistic effect on fuel conversion processes. Other papers focus on plasma/catalyst hybrid reactions for methane dry (CO2) reforming, plasma synthesis of carbon suboxide polymer from CO, the gas-to-liquid (GTL) process using a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma-combined micro-chemical reactor, and molecular beam characterization of plasma-generated reactive species. Much research regarding plasma catalysis is ongoing worldwide, but there is plenty of room for further development of plasma fuel processing, which could eventually provide a viable and flexible solution in future energy and material use. Finally, we would like to thank all symposium participants for their active discussion. We appreciate the sponsorship of the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. We express special thanks to the program chair of the Fuel Chemistry Division, Professor Chang-jun Liu at Tianjin University, for his dedication to the success of the symposium. We particularly express our appreciation to the Editorial Board of Journal </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nozaki, Tomohiro; Gutsol, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......128L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas on selected mammalian cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma surface modifications have become indispensable processing steps in various industry and research sectors. Applications range from semiconductor processing to biotechnology and recently, plasma medicine. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma sources have the advantage that a number of electron-driven chemical reactions can be produced while maintaining the gas (heavy species) temperature low, thus enabling the treatment of temperature-sensitive surfaces such as polymers, tissues and live cells. In the fields of biology and medicine, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas have been primarily used for the deposition or modification of biocompatible polymers and for sterilization. Recently, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas have been used to treat tissues and cells. A new field of research has emerged, Plasma Medicine, which studies the effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas on cells and tissues for clinical applications. The Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge torch (APGD-t), a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma source, built in our laboratory was used to study the effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas on mammalian cells. In its first application, we indirectly used the APGD-t to deposit a plasma-polymer on a glass surface and studied its effects on cultured cells. It was shown that the cells grew preferentially on the plasma-polymer, and their proliferation rate increased. The second application of the APGD-t was to further investigate previous observations of cell permeabilization obtained by plasma treatments and to apply <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to cell transfection. It was demonstrated that the APGD-t is able to locally transfect adherent cells. We estimated the diameter of the pores created to be below 10 nm and that the pores remain open for less than 5 seconds. However, while investigating the mechanisms involved in cell transfection we observed that the use of higher gas flows in the negative controls (using the APGD-t but with the plasma turned off) also resulted in cell transfection. To further study this phenomena, we built a simple transfection device consisting of a straight glass capillary tube and a plastic support. Using three different gases and five different capillary diameters, we were able to relate the transfection efficiency to the dynamic pressure of the gas exiting the capillary tube. Finally, even though transfection of cells seem to depend more on the mechanical forces exerted by the gas flow than on the effects of the plasma, other applications of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma in the field of medicine are in development. However, published studies have focused on only the positive effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas, neglecting the potentially induced adverse effects. Therefore, we studied if damage could be caused in cells following an indirect (APGD-t) or a direct (parallel electrodes DBD) plasma treatment. We found that a low power direct plasma treatment caused oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Both plasma sources were shown to produce DNA double-strand breaks but no lipid peroxidation. Also, the sequencing of plasma-treated naked plasmid DNA introduced in electrocompetent bacteria showed no evidence of mutations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leduc, Mathieu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> steps. By using two samples, conductance G{sub para}(V{sub g}) parallel to the steps and G{sub perp}(V{sub g}) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V{sub g}. At sufficiently high V{sub g}, G{sub para} at 80 K is several times as high as G{sub perp}, which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V{sub g} is reduced to -0.7 V, G{sub perp} almost vanishes, while {sub Gpara} stays sizable unless V{sub g} is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); IIS, University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Noda, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sakaki, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); IIS, University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562532"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIRECT IMAGING OF <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhao Junwei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ofman, Leon [Catholic University of America and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Icar..221..682Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mars exospheric thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components: Seasonal and local variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of the martian exosphere is built for average solar conditions. A Chamberlain’s approach (Chamberlain, J.W. [1963]. Planet. Space Sci. 11, 901) is used to describe the O, CO, CO2, and O2 thermal exospheric components. The average thermal oxygen density at 300 km in altitude varies by about one order of magnitude with seasons. A Monte-Carlo test particle simulation is also developed in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> oxygen component of the exosphere. The seasonal variation of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> oxygen average density is much less than the thermal component but displays clear seasonal variations of its spatial distribution. The neutral oxygen atomic escaping flux varies from 2.9 to 5.3 × 1025 s-1 in good agreement with Valeille et al. (Valeille, A., Combi, M.R., Bougher, S.W., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A.F. [2009a]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 114, 11006; Valeille, A., Tenishev, V., Bougher, S.W., Combi, M.R., Nagy, A.F. [2009b]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 114, 11005). Mars’s oxygen exosphere is thermal below 600 km and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> above 700 km at all seasons. The typical scale height is ?45 km for thermal O and ?500 km for the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> oxygen density. The total photoionization rate above 300 km corresponds to a CO2+/O total production ratio between 0.004 and 0.02. When compared to the composition of the escaping flux measured by ASPERA-3/Mars Express, this suggests that ions formed below 300 km should significantly contribute to the escaping ion flux and/or that a significant part of the newly O+ ions reimpacts Mars. The simulated oxygen density profile is also compared to the recent observed profile by Alice/Rosetta (Feldman, P.D. et al. [2011]. Icarus 214, 394-399). Although the scale height of our simulated <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> oxygen exosphere and the transition from thermal to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> dominated exospheres are slightly higher than suggested by Feldman et al. (Feldman, P.D. et al. [2011]. Icarus 214, 394-399), a good agreement is found when taking into account the uncertainties of Alice/Rosetta observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yagi, M.; Leblanc, F.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Hess, S.; Modolo, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.0228v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Study of a Propagating <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Microwave Feature in a Solar Flare Loop</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analytically and numerically study the motion of electrons along a magnetic loop, to compare with the observation of the propagating feature of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> microwave source in the 1999 August 28 solar flare reported by Yokoyama et al. (2002). We model the electron motion with the Fokker-Planck equation and calculate the spatial distribution of the gyrosynchrotron radiation. We find that the microwave propagating feature does not correspond to the motion of electrons with a specific initial pitch angle. This apparent propagating feature is a consequence of the motion of an ensemble of electrons with different initial pitch angles, which have different time and position to produce strong radiation in the loop. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons in the 1999 August 28 flare were isotropically accelerated and then are injected into the loop.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.05406.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dark Matter Production Mechanisms with a <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Cosmological History - A Classification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> cosmological history, i.e with a phase of pressure-less matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynethesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). We classify the different production mechanisms for DM in this framework, generalizing previous works by considering a wide range of DM masses/couplings and allowing for DM to be in equilibrium with a "dark" sector. We identify four distinct parametric regimes for the production of relic DM, and derive accurate semi-analytic approximations for the DM relic abundance. Our results are particularly relevant for supersymmetric theories, in which the standard <span class="hlt">non-thermally</span> produced DM candidates are disfavored by indirect detection constraints. We also comment on experimental signals in this framework, focusing on novel effects involving the power spectrum of DM de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Gordon L; Nelson, Brent D; Zheng, Bob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...784L..43B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Observed Correlation between Thermal and <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ?-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E p and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E pvpropT ? which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index ? indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Ryde, Felix; Veres, Peter; Mészáros, Peter; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Pe'er, Asaf; Iyyani, Shabnam; Goldstein, Adam; Axelsson, Magnus; Baring, Matthew G.; Bhat, P. N.; Byrne, David; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Kocevski, Daniel; Omodei, Nicola; Paciesas, William S.; Pelassa, Veronique; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Xiong, Shaolin; Yu, Hoi-Fung; Zhang, Binbin; Zhu, Sylvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECUF1008M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet on human breast cancer cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays, <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma enjoy a wide range of applications in biomedical fields such as Sterilization, Wound healing, Cancer treatment and etc. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet on breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. In this regard the effect of plasma on death of the cancer cells are explored experimentally. The plasma in this discharge is created by pulsed dc high voltage power supply with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz which led to the inductively coupled plasma. The pure helium gas were used for formation of the plasma jet. MTT assay were used for quantification of death cells. The results showed that the cells death rate increase with plasma exposure time. This study confirm that plasma jet have significant effect on treatment of human breast cancer cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirpour, Shahriar; Nikkhah, Maryam; Pirouzmand, Somaye; Ghomi, Hamid Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55442837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of Polytetrafluoroethylene Surface Energy by Repetitive Pulse <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma Treatment in Atmospheric Air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma treatment is presented, using a nanosecond-positive-edge repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge generator in atmospheric air. The electrical parameters including discharging power, peak and density of micro-discharge current were calculated, and the electron energy was estimated. Surface treatment experiments of polytetrafluoroethylene films were conducted for both different applied voltages and different treating durations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guoqing Yang; Guanjun Zhang; Wenyuan Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/767461"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most studies on dusty plasmas have assumed that electrons and ions follow Maxwellian distributions. However, in the presence of energetic ions, the distribution of ions tends to be non-Maxwellian. It is shown here that the existence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ions would increase the phase velocity of a dust-acoustic wave. It is also found that the change in the phase velocity profoundly affects the characteristics of a dust-acoustic solitary wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6708775"> <span id="translatedtitle">SOLCOST - Version 3. 0. Solar energy design program for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> specialists</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The SOLCOST solar energy design program is a public domain computerized design tool intended for use by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> specialists to size solar systems with a methodology based on life cycle cost. An overview of SOLCOST capabilities and options is presented. A detailed guide to the SOLCOST input parameters is included. Sample problems showing typical imput decks and resulting SOLCOST output sheets are given. Details of different parts of the analysis are appended. (MHR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110010267&hterms=UNE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DUNE"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Swift BAT Perspective on <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Emission in HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The search for diffuse <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Until recently, comprehensive surveys of hard X-ray emission from clusters were not possible; instead, individually proposed-for. long observations would be collated from the archive. With the advent of the Swift BAT all sky survey, any c1u,;ter's emission above 14 keV can be probed with nearly uniform sensitivity. which is comparable to that of RXTE, Beppo-SAX, and Suzaku with the 58-month version of the survey. In this work. we search for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> excess emission above the exponentially decreasing, high energy thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. The BAT emission from many of the detected clusters is marginally extended; we are able to extract the total flux for these clusters using fiducial models for their spatial extent. To account for thermal emission at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both the thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectral components can be determined simultaneou,;ly in joint fits. We find marginally significant IC components in 6 clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single temperature</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wik, Daniel R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54075212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Study of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Emissions and Electron Transport in a Solar Flare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that a large amount of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons are produced in a solar flare. To understand their acceleration and transport mechanisms, hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave observations are the most powerful means. HXRs are emitted primarily by electrons with energy below several hundred keV via bremsstrahlung (Brown 1971), while microwaves are by electrons with energy above several</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takashi Minoshima; Takaaki Yokoyama; Satoshi Masuda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60622104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Alternative to Waste Incineration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. L. Foutz; J. E. Rogers; J. D. Mather</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26248611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corona induced <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas: Fundamental study and industrial applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our investigations on corona induced <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas include both fundamental study and products development. This paper presents our recent work in following subjects: investigation on characteristics of pulsed corona discharge in relation with flue gas cleaning; evaluation of high voltage power supply; design of plasma reactor; experimental study on DeNOx and DeSO2; decomposition of VOCs and indoor air cleaning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keping Yan; Hexing Hui; Mi Cui; Jinsong Miao; Xiaoli Wu; Chongguang Bao; Ruinian Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23316957"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved oxidation of air pollutants in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) for the removal of organic air pollutants (especially in low concentrations) is improved by the introduction of ferroelectric and catalytically active materials into the discharge zone of an NTP reactor. Experiments with model systems (various contaminants and packed-bed materials) have shown that such a modification of a homogeneous gas-phase plasma can overcome the most</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. Roland; F. Holzer; F.-D. Kopinke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22825115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combining <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with heterogeneous catalysis in waste gas treatment: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plasma driven catalysis is a promising technology for waste gas treatment characterized by higher energy efficiencies, high mineralization rates and low by-product formation. The combination of heterogeneous catalysts with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma can be operated in two configurations: positioning the catalyst in the discharge zone (in-plasma catalysis) or downflow the discharge zone (post plasma catalysis).In a first part of the review,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jim Van Durme; Jo Dewulf; Christophe Leys; Herman Van Langenhove</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/5v32122xx3271451.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Ultraviolet Light Technology for <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Processing of Liquid Foods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A negative, public reaction is growing over the addition of chemical preservatives to liquid foods and beverages to extend\\u000a their shelf life and to protect against foodborne pathogens. As a physical method, ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation has\\u000a a positive consumer image and is of interest to the food industry as a low cost <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> method of preservation. Recent\\u000a advances in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tatiana Koutchma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10606342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic abatement of volatile organic compounds assisted by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Catalytic purification of air containing 250ppm of toluene assisted by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma was carried out with a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with an inner electrode made of sintered metal fibers (SMF). The optimization of the reactor performance was carried out by modifying the SMF with Mn and Co oxides, varying the voltage from 12.5 to 22.5kV and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ch. Subrahmanyam; A. Renken; L. Kiwi-Minsker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54896766"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Link Between Massive Binary Stars and <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Radio Emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> radio emission in Wolf-Rayet {WR} stars is explained in terms of synchrotron emission from shocks in the wind. For single star models, the shocks arise from instabilities in the wind itself, whereas in binary models, the shocks form at the wind-wind interaction zone. In Niemela et al. 1998 {from WFPC2 data}, we support the binary theory, for two WR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debra Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22011812"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> EMISSIONS FROM COOL CORES HEATED BY COSMIC RAYS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions from cool cores in galaxy clusters. We adopted a recent model in which cosmic rays (CRs) prevail in the cores and stably heat them through CR streaming. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions come from the interaction between CR protons and intracluster medium (ICM). Comparison between the theoretical predictions and radio observations shows that the overall CR spectra must be steep, and most of the CRs in the cores are low-energy CRs. Assuming that the CRs are injected through active galactic nucleus activities, we study the nature of the shocks that are responsible for the CR acceleration. The steep CR spectra are likely to reflect the fact that the shocks travel in hot ICM with fairly small Mach numbers. We also study the dependence on the CR streaming velocity. The results indicate that synchrotron emissions from secondary electrons should be observed as radio mini-halos in the cores. In particular, low-frequency observations (e.g., LOFAR) are promising. However, the steepness of the spectra makes it difficult to detect <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray and gamma-ray emissions from the cores. The low-energy CRs may be heating optical filaments observed in the cores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Theory Centre, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMSM13A1197B"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Observations of the <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Continuum Radiation at the Plasmapause</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> continuum radiation is an electromagnetic emission associated with the plasmapause and is an important feature of the coupled inner magnetosphere. It is now believed that there are three main types of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> continuum radiation that are distinguished by their frequency range and source location. The normal continuum radiation (also referred to as the trapped and escaping continuum) is typically in the 5 to 100 kHz frequency range. The continuum enhancement is observed from 10-100 kHz frequency range coming from night-side source regions. Kilometric continuum is observed to be generated at the plasmapause, in the magnetic equator, deep in notch structures of the plasmasphere over a frequency range from 100 to 800 kHz. New observations of the normal <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> continuum from the IMAGE/RPI instrument show a distinct "Christmas-tree" pattern in the frequency-time spectrogram that extend from 10's of Hz into the kilometric continuum frequency range (300 kHz). These observations show source region at nearly all local times. New observations of the continuum enhancement shows that the emission is associated with night-side electron injections and results in a very broad emission cone extending in frequency up to 300 kHz. These new observations of NTC will be put in the context of their role in the coupling of the hot and cold plasma populations at the plasmapause as an inner magnetospheric response to geomagnetic storms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boardsen, S. A.; Green, J. L.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Sandel, B. R.; Reinisch, B. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...746...53F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Emissions from Cool Cores Heated by Cosmic Rays in Galaxy Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions from cool cores in galaxy clusters. We adopted a recent model in which cosmic rays (CRs) prevail in the cores and stably heat them through CR streaming. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions come from the interaction between CR protons and intracluster medium (ICM). Comparison between the theoretical predictions and radio observations shows that the overall CR spectra must be steep, and most of the CRs in the cores are low-energy CRs. Assuming that the CRs are injected through active galactic nucleus activities, we study the nature of the shocks that are responsible for the CR acceleration. The steep CR spectra are likely to reflect the fact that the shocks travel in hot ICM with fairly small Mach numbers. We also study the dependence on the CR streaming velocity. The results indicate that synchrotron emissions from secondary electrons should be observed as radio mini-halos in the cores. In particular, low-frequency observations (e.g., LOFAR) are promising. However, the steepness of the spectra makes it difficult to detect <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray and gamma-ray emissions from the cores. The low-energy CRs may be heating optical filaments observed in the cores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0302186v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure Balance between Thermal and <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasmas in the 3C129 Cluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With new Chandra observations of the cluster containing the two radio galaxies 3C129 and 3C129.1, we have made a fit to the X-ray surface brightness to obtain thermal pressures. VLA data at 1.4 GHz have been obtained to complement previous maps at 0.33 GHz and at 5 and 8 GHz. From these radio data, we are able to derive the minimum <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressure of various emitting volumes along the tail of 3C129 and in the lobes of 3C129.1. Under the assumption that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma excludes significant thermal plasma, we may expect pressure balance for most features since ram pressure should be important only close to the cores of the galaxies. Since we find that the minimum <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pressures are generally only a factor of a few below estimates of the ambient thermal pressure, we conclude that it is unlikely that relativistic protons contribute significantly to the total pressure. Reasonable contributions from low energy electrons and filling factors in the range 0.1 to 1 suffice to achieve pressure balance. Although we do not find strong signatures for the exclusion of hot gas from the radio structures, we find soft features near the cores of both galaxies suggestive of cool gas stripping and hard features associated with radio jets and possibly a leading bow shock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. E. Harris; H. Krawczynski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4256026"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Possible Application in Wound Healing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out. PMID:25489414</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990A%26A...229..504A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of micro-flaring and secular and <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> variations in dMe flare stars. IV - Harmonic analysis of YZ Canis Minoris and a possible connection with the Ionson-Mullan hypothesis of coronal heating</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periodograms of U-band photometric data have been examined to search for "time signatures" in YZ Canis Minoris down to periods of about 6 seconds. <span class="hlt">Quasi-periods</span> are found at 7.1, 15.4, 33.2 and 92.9 s. From harmonic analysis the fundamental frequencies, 46.3 mHz (21.6s period) and 35.8 mHz (27.9 s) and 10.8 mHz (92.9 s), and several overtones and found. The 7.1-s "time signature" appears to be superposed overtones of these fundamentals. The 15.4-s "time signature" is very close to the 5th overtone of 10.8 mHz. Similarities with other dM4.5e stars, e.g. AT Microscopii (with "time signatures" 13.2 and 7.9 s), may be explicable in terms of a few such close fundamental frequencies. These fundamental frequencies and their overtones may have a bearing on the Ionson-Mullan hypothesis that coronal-heating is coupled to convective motion in late-type stars, and they are important new parameters possibly related to the flaring mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, A. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cds.cern.ch/record/619909/files/0306085.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dwarf Nova Oscillations and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations in Cataclysmic Variables: III. A New Kind of Dwarf Nova Oscillation, and Further Examples of the Similarities to X-Ray Binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present measurements of the periods of Dwarf Nova Oscillations (DNOs) and <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations (QPOs) in Cataclysmic Variable stars (CVs), many culled from published literature, but also others newly observed (in VZ Pyx, CR Boo, OY Car, Z Cha, AQ Eri, TU Men, HX Peg, CN Ori, V893 Sco, WX Hyi and EC2117-54). These provide data for 26 systems. We show that in general P_QPO ~ 15 P_DNO and that the correlation for CVs extends by three orders of magnitude lower in frequency the similar relationship found for X-Ray binaries. In addition, we have found that there is a second type of DNO, previously overlooked, which have periods ~ 4 times those of the regular DNOs (As well as those mined from publications, we have observed them in VW Hyi, OY Car, AQ Eri, V803 Cen, CR Boo, VZ Pyx, HX Peg and EC2117-54). Often both types of DNO coexist. Unlike the standard DNOs, the periods of the new type, which we refer to as longer period DNOs (lpDNOs), are relatively insensitive to accretion luminosity and can even appea...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warner, B; Pretorius, M L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.445.3659L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a correlation between the frequency of the mHz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations and the neutron-star temperature in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We detected millihertz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillations (QPOs) in an XMM-Newton observation of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. These QPOs have been interpreted as marginally stable burning on the neutron-star surface. At the beginning of the observation the QPO was at around 8 mHz, together with a possible second harmonic. About 12 ks into the observation a type I X-ray burst occurred and the QPO disappeared; the QPO reappeared ˜25 ks after the burst and it was present until the end of the observation. We divided the observation into four segments to study the evolution of the spectral properties of the source during intervals with and without mHz QPO. We find that the temperature of the neutron-star surface increases from the QPO segment to the non-QPO segment, and vice versa. We also find a strong correlation between the frequency of the mHz QPO and the temperature of a blackbody component in the energy spectrum representing the temperature of neutron-star surface. Our results are consistent with previous results that the frequency of the mHz QPO depends on the variation of the heat flux from the neutron-star crust, and therefore supports the suggestion that the observed QPO frequency drifts could be caused by the cooling of deeper layers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyu, Ming; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50766397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">quasi</span> <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in cardiac rhythm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary form only given. Variability of cardiac activity reflected in electrocardiograms has been of considerable interest and the subject of different studies. In particular, the presented project included development of a scheme for presentation of cardiac activity and a comparative evaluation of heart rate variability. The graphical representation of cardiac rhythm variability is demonstrated in a form of circular displays,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravindra Sheth; Christopher Druzgalski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268344"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by ?-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air plasma on dental instruments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air plasma device was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (?=0.05). RESULTS The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. CONCLUSION The atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer. PMID:23508991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W.; Jeong, Chang-Mo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0910.2150.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the ultra-fast transformation of bismuth <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transient state of femtosecond laser excited bismuth has been studied by various groups with time-resolved optical, x-ray, and electron probes at the deposited energy density from below through up to several times the equilibrium enthalpy of melting. However, the interpretations of the experimental results are controversial: the optical probes reveal the absence of transition to the melting phase while the authors of x-ray and electron diffraction experiments claim the observation of ultrafast <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> melting. The presented analysis, based on temperature dependence of bismuth optical properties, unequivocally shows a purely thermal nature of all the observed fs-laser induced transformations in bismuth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gamaly, E G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/972295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) processor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ferreri, Vincent (Westminster, CO); Kim, Yongho (Los Alamos, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma Device</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles Mones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhD...46H5401M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we investigate the influences of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mileti?, M.; Mojsilovi?, S.; Oki? ?or?evi?, I.; Maleti?, D.; Pua?, N.; Lazovi?, S.; Malovi?, G.; Milenkovi?, P.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014xru..confE.300P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from bowshocks produced by runaway stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing throughout the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds, can produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high energy photons by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. We present a new insight in the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission treatment by introducing new approaches, new formulae and exploring the computational method to search for sistematic errors, and we also test its feasibility. We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock (López-Santiago et al. 2012), and BD+43º3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission. From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43º3654, which explains its non detection in X-rays by Terada et al. (2012).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereira, V.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; López-Santiago, J.; De Castro, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10158017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preradiation studies for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> Z-pinch wire load experiments on Saturn</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implosion dynamics of compact wire arrays on Saturn are explored as a function of wire mass m, wire length {ell}, wire radii R, and radial power-flow feed geometry using the ZORK code. Electron losses and the likelihood of arcing in the radial feed adjacent the wire load are analyzed using the TWOQUICK and CYLTRAN codes. The physical characteristics of the implosion and subsequent thermal radiation production are estimated using the LASNEX code in one dimension. These analyses show that compact tungsten wire arrays with parameters suggested by D. Mosher and with a 21-nH vacuum feed geometry satisfy the empirical scaling criterion I/(M/{ell}) {approximately} 2 MA/(mg/cm) of Mosher for optimizing <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation from z pinches, generate low electron losses in the radial feeds, and generate electric fields at the insulator stack below the Charlie Martin flashover limit thereby permitting full power to be delivered to the load. Under such conditions, peak currents of {approximately}5 MA can be delivered to wire loads {approximately}20 ns before the driving voltage reverses at the insulator stack, potentially allowing the m = 0 instability to develop with the subsequent emission of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radiation as predicted by the Mosher model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanford, T.W.L.; Humphreys, D.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Marder, B.M.; Halbleib, J.A.; Crow, J.T.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mock, R.C. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...539A.101S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from ? Carinae's blast wave of 1843</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> hard X-ray and high-energy (HE; 1 MeV < E < 100 GeV) ?-ray emission in the direction of ? Carinae has been recently detected using the INTEGRAL, AGILE and Fermi satellites. This emission has been interpreted either in the framework of particle acceleration in the colliding wind region between the two massive stars or in the very fast moving blast wave which originates in the historical 1843 "great eruption". Archival Chandra data has been reanalysed to search for signatures of particle acceleration in ? Carinae's blast wave. No shell-like structure could be detected in hard X-rays and a limit has been placed on the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission from the shell. The time dependence of the target radiation field of the Homunculus is used to develop a single zone model for the blast wave. Attempting to reconcile the X-ray limit with the HE ?-ray emission using this model leads to a very hard electron injection spectrum dN/dE ? E - ? with ? < 1.8, harder than the canonical value expected from diffusive shock acceleration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skilton, J. L.; Domainko, W.; Hinton, J. A.; Jones, D. I.; Ohm, S.; Urquhart, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of UHF RFID exposure on biological drugs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises to improve several processes in the healthcare scenario, especially those related to traceability of people and things. Unfortunately, there are still some barriers limiting the large-scale deployment of these innovative technologies in the healthcare field. Among these, the evaluation of potential thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects due to the exposure of biopharmaceutical products to electromagnetic fields is very challenging, but still slightly investigated. This paper aims to setup a controlled RF exposure environment, in order to reproduce a worst-case exposure of pharmaceutical products to the electromagnetic fields generated by the UHF RFID devices placed along the supply chain. Radiated powers several times higher than recommended by current normative limits were applied (10 W and 20 W). The electric field strength at the exposed sample location, used in tests, was as high as 100 V/m. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> effects were evaluated by chromatography techniques and in vitro assays. The results obtained for a particular case study, the ActrapidTM human insulin preparation, showed temperature increases lower than 0.5 °C and no significant changes in the structure and performance of the considered drug. PMID:22717524</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calcagnini, Giovanni; Censi, Federica; Maffia, Michele; Mainetti, Luca; Mattei, Eugenio; Patrono, Luigi; Urso, Emanuela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10167984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to pollution control. Revision 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. The authors discuss in detail their work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO{sub x} in diesel engine exhaust. The results suggest that their plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kW and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1,200 liters per minute.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0005051v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sgr A* Polarization: No ADAF, Low Accretion Rate, and <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Synchrotron Emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent detection of polarized radiation from Sgr A* requires a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron distribution for the emitting plasma. The Faraday rotation measure must be small, placing strong limits on the density and magnetic field strength. We show that these constraints rule out advection-dominated accretion flow models. We construct a simple two-component model which can reproduce both the radio to mm spectrum and the polarization. This model predicts that the polarization should rise to nearly 100% at shorter wavelengths. The first component, possibly a black-hole powered jet, is compact, low density, and self-absorbed near 1 mm with ordered magnetic field, relativistic Alfven speed, and a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron distribution. The second component is poorly constrained, but may be a convection-dominated accretion flow with dM/dt~10^-9 M_Sun/yr, in which feedback from accretion onto the black hole suppresses the accretion rate at large radii. The black hole shadow should be detectable with sub-mm VLBI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Agol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23773445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toluene degradation by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma combined with a ferroelectric catalyst.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Degradation of toluene in a gas by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma with a ferroelectric catalyst was studied at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. Spontaneous polarization material (BaTiO3) and photocatalyst (TiO2) were added into plasma system simultively. Toluene degradation efficiency and specific energy density during the discharge process were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts and degradation mechanisms of toluene were also investigated. The toluene degradation efficiency increased when <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technology was combined with the catalyst. The toluene degradation efficiencies of the different catalysts tested were in the following order: BaTiO3/TiO2>BaTiO3>TiO2>no catalyst. A mass ratio of 2.38:1 was optimum for the BaTiO3 and TiO2 catalyst. The outlet gas was analyzed by gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the main compounds detected were CO2, H2O, O3 and benzene ring derivatives. PMID:23773445</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Wen-Jun; Ma, Lin; Liu, Huan; Li, Jian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ApSS...96..280G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser ablation of metals: the transition from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes to thermal evaporation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanisms of laser-stimulated ablation of metal surfaces have been investigated for different regimes of incident photon fluence. For this purpose, small Na particles served as a model system. They were held under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and exposed to laser radiation with wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range. The ablation products were photoionized by light of a second laser. Their mass as well as their kinetic energy distributions were determined by time-of-flight measurements. The results show that initially, at low laser fluence, ablation occurs along one or even two <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> reaction pathways. At this stage, predominantly atoms come off. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> mechanism can be understood within the framework of the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead scenario. As the fluence grows thermal decomposition gradually takes over and an increasing amount of dimers is found. Under certain experimental conditions the rate of dimers detached from the surface per laser pulse can by far surmount the rate of atoms. Finally, for even larger fluences, evidence for detachment of large particulates is found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Götz, T.; Bergt, M.; Hoheisel, W.; Träger, F.; Stuke, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.05672v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> CMSSM with a 125 GeV Higgs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the phenomenology of the CMSSM/mSUGRA with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> neutralino dark matter. Besides the standard parameters of the CMSSM we include the reheating temperature as an extra parameter. Imposing radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and no dark matter overproduction, we contrast the scenario with different experimental bounds from colliders (LEP, LHC), cosmic microwave background (Planck), direct (LUX, XENON100, CDMS, IceCube) and indirect (Fermi) dark matter searches. The allowed parameter space is characterised by a Higgsino-like LSP with a mass around 300 GeV. The observed dark matter abundance can be saturated for reheating temperatures around 2 GeV while larger temperatures require extra non-neutralino dark matter candidates and extend the allowed parameter space. Sfermion and gluino masses are in the few TeV region. These scenarios can be achieved in string models of sequestered supersymmetry breaking which avoid cosmological moduli problems and are compatible with gauge coupling unification. Astrophysics and particle physics experiments will fully investigate this <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> scenario in the near future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luis Aparicio; Michele Cicoli; Bhaskar Dutta; Sven Krippendorf; Anshuman Maharana; Francesco Muia; Fernando Quevedo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167135"> <span id="translatedtitle">MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22275486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-minimal sneutrino inflation, Peccei-Quinn phase transition and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> leptogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a phenomenological extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model which incorporates non-minimal chaotic inflation, driven by a quartic potential associated with the lightest right-handed sneutrino. Inflation is followed by a Peccei-Quinn phase transition based on renormalizable superpotential terms, which resolves the strong CP and ? problems of the minimal supersymmetric standard model provided that one related parameter of the superpotential is somewhat small. Baryogenesis occurs via <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> leptogenesis, which is realized by the inflaton decay. Confronting our scenario with the current observational data on the inflationary observables, the baryon assymetry of the universe, the gravitino limit on the reheating temperature and the upper bound on the light neutrino masses, we constrain the effective Yukawa coupling involved in the decay of the inflaton to relatively small values and the inflaton mass to values lower than 10{sup 12}GeV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pallis, C.; Toumbas, N., E-mail: kpallis@auth.gr, E-mail: nick@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dust-acoustic shock formation in dusty plasmas with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the nonlinear Burgers equation in the presence of the dust charge fluctuation is derived and the shock-like solution is determined. It is well known that in order to have a monotonic or oscillatory shock wave, a source of dissipation is needed. By using the experimental data reported in the laboratory observation of self-excited dust-acoustic shock waves [Heinrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 115002 (2009)], it is shown that dust charge fluctuation can be considered as a candidate for the source of dissipation needed for the dust-acoustic shock formation. By examining the effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ions on dust-acoustic shock's characteristics, a possible theoretical explanation for the discrepancies observed between theory and experiment is proposed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMAE44A..02T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Gamma-Ray Emissions from Winter Thunderclouds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-energy radiation bursts associated with lightning phenomena, including <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> x/? rays, have been recently observed by satellites and ground-based observatories. In particular, radiation-monitoring posts, arranged in power plants located on the coastal area of Sea of Japan, frequently have observed such bursts associated with winter thunderstorms. However, those bursts observed at the coastal area have remained much less understood. Installed at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa power plant on the coastal area, our new radiation-detection system detected a remarkable radiation enhancement associated with strong thunderstorms on 2007 January 6 (UT). The burst lasts for a ~40seconds prior to lightning discharges, the energy spectrum extending up to 10 MeV. Our results strongly suggests that the burst consists of bremsstrahlung photons from electrons accelerated beyond 10 MeV in thunderclouds. Given the results, we will present one emission model and estimate the energetics of the radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsuchiya, H.; Enoto, T.; Yamada, S.; Yuasa, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kokubun, M.; Kato, H.; Okano, M.; Nakamura, S.; Makishima, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030000747&hterms=steady+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsteady%2Bstate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Equilibrium Fluid Flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriquez, Alvaro Che</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECAM1009L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of the Proliferation of Mammalian Cells by the <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent development of the atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs) reported dramatic achievement on the applications to sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, and so on. These effects are coming from the abundant electrons, various ions, radicals, and neutral atoms which cause specific interactions with cells. However, the application of APPs to human cells has been mainly focused on cell death, but not so much on cell proliferation. In this study, the effects of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were investigated for three different human cell lines. It was observed that the exposure of APP to human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and the primary lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells induced increased cell proliferation in a specific condition. On the other hand, the same exposure of APP to HeLa cells dramatically decreased their viability. These observations suggest that different types of human cells differentially respond to the exposure of APP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Hae June; Ha, Chang Seung; Ma, Yonghao; Lee, Jungyeol; Song, Kiwon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.591a2050A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric-Pressure <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Plasma-JET effects on PS and PE surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Atmospheric-Pressure <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma (APNTP) has become a topic of a great interest for a wide spectrum of applications in different industry branches, including the surface of treatment processes. In this work we evaluate the effect of an argon APNTP exposure to determine changes suffered by a polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) polymer surface through RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM. It was determined that the hydrophilic change in energetic terms, i.e. surface activation in the PS and PE polymers is addition of oxygen by surface activation when the samples with jet plasma are exposed with the inert argon gas. It was possible to characterize the hydrophilic shift based on the change in intensity of the spectra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arrieta, J.; Asenjo, J.; Vargas, I.; Solis, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4195462"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ASPC..488..114M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Challenges in Computing Thermal and <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Emission from Relativistic Outflows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-wavelength emission from relativistic outflows (e.g., jets and blast waves) provides us with valuable information about the physical conditions of the emitting plasma, its fluid dynamics and about the process which generates the outflows (i.e., the central engine). We use the relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) code MRGENESIS coupled to a radiative transfer code SPEV to simulate the dynamics and emission of relativistic jets in two astrophysical scenarios, one involving <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> synchrotron emission in radio, and the other where thermal emission in optical is predominant. We give an overview of the structure of two codes and explain how they are coupled to compute the time-dependent emission from the evolving relativistic fluid. A considerable attention is given to the computational challenges that we face when applying SPEV to compute the light curves and spectra of relativistic jets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mimica, P.; Aloy, M. A.; Cuesta-Martínez, C.; Aloy, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..GECFP2034H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas for surface treatment of polymer films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to surface treatment. In this work, we used an asymmetric glow dielectric-barrier discharge (GDBD), at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen, to improve the surface hydrophilicity of three kinds of polymer films, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyimide (PI), and triacetyl cellulose (TAC). This set-up consists of two asymmetric electrodes covered by dielectrics. And to prevent the filamentary discharge occur, the frequency, gas flow rate and uniformity of gas flow distribution should be carefully controlled. The discharge performance is monitored through an oscilloscope, which is connected to a high voltage probe and a current monitor. The physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces before and after GDBD treatment were analyzed via water contact angle (CA) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Hsiao-Feng; Wen, Chun-Hsiang; Wei, Hsiao-Kuan; Kou, Chwung-Shan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0307500v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpenetrating plasma shells: near-equipartition magnetic field generation and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> particle acceleration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first three-dimensional fully kinetic electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell simulations of the collision of two interpenetrating plasma shells. The highly accurate plasma-kinetic "particle-in-cell" (with the total of $10^8$ particles) parallel code OSIRIS has been used. Our simulations show: (i) the generation of long-lived near-equipartition (electro)magnetic fields, (ii) <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> particle acceleration, and (iii) short-scale to long-scale magnetic field evolution, in the collision region. Our results provide new insights into the magnetic field generation and particle acceleration in relativistic and sub-relativistic colliding streams of particles, which are present in gamma-ray bursters, supernova remnants, relativistic jets, pulsar winds, etc..</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. O. Silva; R. A. Fonseca; J. Tonge; J. M. Dawson; W. B. Mori; M. V. Medvedev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.3747R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA - II. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> diffuse emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our closest neighbours, the Local Group dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, are extremely quiescent and dim objects, where thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> diffuse emissions lack, so far, of detection. In order to possibly study the dSph interstellar medium, deep observations are required. They could reveal <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions associated with the very low level of star formation, or to particle dark matter annihilating or decaying in the dSph halo. In this work, we employ radio observations of six dSphs, conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the frequency band 1.1-3.1 GHz, to test the presence of a diffuse component over typical scales of few arcmin and at an rms sensitivity below 0.05 mJy beam-1. We observed the dSph fields with both a compact array and long baselines. Short spacings led to a synthesized beam of about 1 arcmin and were used for the extended emission search. The high-resolution data mapped background sources, which in turn were subtracted in the short-baseline maps, to reduce their confusion limit. We found no significant detection of a diffuse radio continuum component. After a detailed discussion on the modelling of the cosmic ray (CR) electron distribution and on the dSph magnetic properties, we present bounds on several physical quantities related to the dSphs, such that the total radio flux, the angular shape of the radio emissivity, the equipartition magnetic field, and the injection and equilibrium distributions of CR electrons. Finally, we discuss the connection to far-infrared and X-ray observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AAS...198.1001E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Signatures in Low State Spectra of Black Hole X-Ray Transients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many transient and persistent Black Hole X-ray Binaries (BHXBs) show characteristic state transitions between low/hard and high/soft spectral states. A typical low/hard state X-ray spectrum, as seen for example in Cyg X-1 and GRO J0422+32, is a power-law with a photon index of order 1.4-1.6 and an exponential cutoff with a characteristic e-folding energy ~ 100 keV. These spectra are generally interpreted as emission from hot thermal plasma modeled either as an accretion disk corona, or as a hot accretion flow inside a truncated thin disk. We show that low state spectra of three transient BHXBs, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1550-564, and 4U1630-47, do not show the characteristic hard X-ray turnover. The absence of the turnover is difficult to understand in the context of the thermal Comptonization models, and argues for the presence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission in these systems. We propose that a typical hard power-law spectrum can be produced both in the (thermal) accretion flow or in the (<span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>) jet (as suggested by Fender et al. 2000). The strength of the jet emission relative to that from the accretion flow (and therefore whether we observe the thermal cutoff in the spectrum or not) can depend on several parameters, e.g. inclination of the jet with respect to the binary and the observer, mass accretion rate, accretion flow configuration. This work was supported by Chandra Postdoctoral Fellowship grant #PF8-10002 awarded by the Chandra X-Ray Center, which is operated by the SAO for NASA under contract NAS8-39073, and by a CASS Postdoctoral Fellowship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esin, A. A.; Tomsick, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ap%26SS.356..277M"> <span id="translatedtitle">In quest of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> signatures in early-type stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A reduced fraction of luminous, early-type stars in binaries has provided some of the most interesting sources in modern high-energy astrophysics. A fingerprint of the capability of these systems to accelerate particles up to TeV energies is the associated detection of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, synchrotron emission often in the radio domain. Here we aim to identify new early-type, luminous stars where energetic, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes are at work to enable future comparative studies based on an extended sample. Moreover, these objects also appear as very interesting targets for future gamma-ray observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We have designed a methodology to search for new examples of these interesting sources in order to enlarge the extremely reduced population currently known. Our search procedure is described in this paper, together with a practical application using public databases and catalogues currently available (Luminous Stars in the Northern Milky Way, NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and Westerbork Northern Sky Survey). Optical and radio interferometric follow-up observations of selected candidate stars were conducted to better assess their properties. Although no new discoveries of this kind have been achieved yet, the observational data analyzed in this work does provide some interesting side results, such as characterizing the spectroscopic and photometric properties of two early-type stars originally selected as candidates to be explored, namely TYC4051-1277-1 and TYC3594-2269-1. Unexpectedly, this last one was also found to be a new DAO-type white dwarf star instead of a non-degenerate star. In addition, both stars seem to display different optical periods based on our photometric monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Casares, Jorge; Marcote, Benito; Paredes-Fortuny, Xavier; Ribó, Marc; Paredes, Josep M.; Núñez, Jorge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3432087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Atmospheric Pressure <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacteria exist, in most environments, as complex, organised communities of sessile cells embedded within a matrix of self-produced, hydrated extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilms. Bacterial biofilms represent a ubiquitous and predominant cause of both chronic infections and infections associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and prostheses. Such infections typically exhibit significantly enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial, biocidal and immunological challenge. This renders them difficult, sometimes impossible, to treat using conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Effective alternative approaches for prevention and eradication of biofilm associated chronic and device-associated infections are therefore urgently required. Atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and control of bacterial infection and contamination. To date, however, the majority of studies have been conducted with reference to planktonic bacteria and rather less attention has been directed towards bacteria in the biofilm mode of growth. In this study, the activity of a kilohertz-driven atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma jet, operated in a helium oxygen mixture, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilms was evaluated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exhibit marked susceptibility to exposure of the plasma jet effluent, following even relatively short (?10?s s) exposure times. Manipulation of plasma operating conditions, for example, plasma operating frequency, had a significant effect on the bacterial inactivation rate. Survival curves exhibit a rapid decline in the number of surviving cells in the first 60 seconds followed by slower rate of cell number reduction. Excellent anti-biofilm activity of the plasma jet was also demonstrated by both confocal scanning laser microscopy and metabolism of the tetrazolium salt, XTT, a measure of bactericidal activity. PMID:22952948</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alkawareek, Mahmoud Y.; Algwari, Qais Th.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; O'Connell, Deborah; Gilmore, Brendan F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126956"> <span id="translatedtitle">SUZAKU/WAM AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS OF <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> ELECTRONS IN SOLAR MICROFLARES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on hard X-ray spectroscopy of solar microflares observed by the Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM), on board the Suzaku satellite, and by RHESSI. WAM transient data provide wide energy band (50 keV-5 MeV) spectra over a large field of view ({approx}2{pi} sr) with a time resolution of 1 s. WAM is attractive as a hard X-ray solar flare monitor due to its large effective area ({approx}800 cm{sup 2} at 100 keV, {approx}13 times larger than that of RHESSI). In particular, this makes it possible to search for high energy emission in microflares that is well below the RHESSI background. The WAM solar flare list contains six GOES B-class microflares that were simultaneously observed by RHESSI between the launch of Suzaku in 2005 July and 2010 March. At 100 keV, the detected WAM fluxes are more than {approx}20 times below the typical RHESSI instrumental background count rates. The RHESSI and WAM <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectra are in good agreement with a single power law with photon spectral indices between 3.3 and 4.5. In a second step, we also searched the RHESSI microflare list for events that should be detectable by WAM, assuming that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> power-law emission seen by RHESSI extends to >50 keV. From the 12 detectable events between 2005 July and 2007 February, 11 were indeed seen by WAM. This shows that microflares, similar to regular flares, can accelerate electrons to energies up to at least 100 keV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krucker, Saem; Lin, Robert P. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ohno, Masanori, E-mail: s.ishikawa@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...54..153P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrohydrodynamic flow in a wire-plate <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor measured by 3D PIV method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work was aimed at measurements of the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) secondary flow in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor using three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) method. The wide-type <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor used in this work was an acrylic box with a wire discharge electrode and two plate collecting electrodes. The positive DC voltage was applied to the wire electrode through a 10 M? resistor. The collecting electrodes were grounded. The voltage applied to the wire electrode was 28 kV. Air flow seeded with a cigarette smoke was blown along the reactor duct with an average velocity of 0.6 m/s. The 3D PIV velocity fields measurements were carried out in four parallel planes stretched along the reactor duct, perpendicularly to the wire electrode and plate electrodes. The measured flow velocity fields illustrate complex nature of the EHD induced secondary flow in the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Podlinski, J.; Niewulis, A.; Mizeraczyk, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012xmm..prop..101W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Search for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission in a unique relic radio mini-halo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a 50 ks observation of the galaxy group MRC 0116+111. It is an ideal target for searching for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, inverse-Compton X-ray emission, because its ratio of radio to X-ray luminosity is > 70 times larger than that of any other known radio mini-halo. Our short snapshot observation with Chandra reveals X-ray morphology extended along the bright radio outflows. The X-ray spectrum can be described by a thermal model with kT=0.7 keV and an extremely low apparent metallicity of Z<0.13 Solar, which indicates the presence of an additional <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectral component. The proposed observation will allow us to disentangle the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from the thermal component and, in combination with the existing radio data, place strong constraints on the volume averaged magnetic field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Werner, Norbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamental limitations of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing for internal combustion engine NO{sub x} control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma processing for post-combustion NO{sub x} control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO{sub x} removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> deNO{sub x} operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penetrante, B.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-08-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/829861"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1175401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of stable, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251439"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron and ion distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio ?, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> parameters ? and ?, electron to ion density ratio ?, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eslami, Esmaeil, E-mail: eeslami@iust.ac.ir; Baraz, Rasoul [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078877"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span>, pulsed electric field cell ablation: A novel tool for regenerative medicine and scarless skin regeneration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High voltage, short pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ablation method, in which defined PEF irreversibly destabilize cell membranes, while preserving other tissue components such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present report, we show that PEF ablated rat skin retains its microvascular blood supply and ECM structure. Complete regeneration of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and the panniculus carnosusis observed two months after the ablation. Our results clearly indicate that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> PEF has the potential to be a powerful and novel tool for scarless tissue regeneration. PMID:24999487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Bohr, Stefan; Mihm, Martin C.; Austen, William G.; Albadawi, Hassan; Watkins, Michael T.; Yarmush, Martin L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030001919&hterms=pds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpds"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Hard X-Ray Emission in Galaxy Clusters Observed with the BeppoSAX PDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the X-ray emission in a sample of clusters using the BeppoSAX PDS instrument in the 20 -- 80 keV energy band. We estimated the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> cluster emission (HXR) by modeling the thermal contribution from the cluster gas and the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> contamination from the AGN in the field, and propagating the corresponding uncertainties. We also evaluated and propagated the systematic uncertainties due to the background fluctuations. The resulting <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> component is detected at a sigma level in approx. 50 % of the non-significantly AGN-contaminated clusters, i.e. in clusters A2142, A2256, A3376, Coma, Ophiuchus and Virgo. Furthermore, Virgo is detected at a 4 sigma level. All the clusters detected at a 2 sigma level exhibit some degree of merger signatures, i.e. deviations from the azimuthally symmetric brightness and temperature distributions, while the relaxed clusters are detected at a lower confidence. The data are consistent with a scenario whereby relaxed clusters have no <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hard X-ray component, whereas merger clusters do, with a 20 -- 80 keV luminosity of approx. 10(exp 42-44)((h(sub 50))(exp -2))(erg/s). Consistent with merger boosting of cluster temperatures, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> luminosity increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude between the average cluster temperatures 2 and 10 keV, as L(sub NTE) is proportional to T(sup j) with j = 2.4+/-0.3. These results corroborate the assumption which is the essential element in most <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hard X-ray emission models. The co-added spectrum of all non-significantly AGN-contaminated clusters indicates a power-law spectrum for the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> component with a photon index of 1.5+/-0.25 at 1 sigma confidence level. Unless there is a high energy cut-off in the electron velocity distribution, the total spectrum implies that Inverse Compton scatter of Cosmic Microwave Background photons from electron population dominates over the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> bremsstrahlung in producing hard X-rays in clusters on the merger shock acceleration of electrons in clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nevalainen, Jukka H.; Oosterbroeck, T.; Bonamente, Max; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140011109&hterms=Nature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNature"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Nature of the mHz X-ray <span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140151"> <span id="translatedtitle">ON THE NATURE OF THE mHz X-RAY <span class="hlt">QUASI-PERIODIC</span> OSCILLATIONS FROM ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE M82 X-1: SEARCH FOR TIMING-SPECTRAL CORRELATIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz <span class="hlt">quasi-periodic</span> oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs ({approx}0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling. We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasham, Dheeraj R. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Strohmayer, Tod E., E-mail: dheeraj@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: tod.strohmayer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21326172"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Alternative to Waste Incineration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the applicability of SET{sup TM} to currently problematic waste streams that have very limited treatment alternatives. In summary: SET{sup TM} operates as a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> destruction process under low pressure. The process occurs in a closed system producing no hazardous off-gases and no regulated by-products such as dioxins or furans or their precursors. Advantages of SET{sup TM} include: - Organic contaminants are destroyed, not just removed, diluted or concentrated. - Operates as a closed system - produces no regulated secondary wastes. - Holds an EPA permit for PCB destruction. - Operates at ambient temperatures (70 deg. F). - Portable and sets up quickly in less than 4000 square feet of space. - Scalable to accommodate any size waste stream. - Requires minimal amounts of power, water and infrastructure. - Applicable to heterogeneous waste streams in all phases. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.9999% effective in destroying organic constituents of RCRA and TSCA waste, explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In November 2007, Commodore completed a treatability study on Pyranol to determine the effectiveness of SET{sup TM} treatment on oil containing 600,000 PPM PCBs. Laboratory results proved destruction of PCBs to less than 1 PPM at low temperatures and pressures. SET{sup TM} is a proven, safe and cost-effective alternative to incineration for some of the most difficult waste treatment problems that exist today. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50319134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wide range two-dimensional imaging of NO density in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor by LIF technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma process has been considered to be an effective method to remove NOx from flue gas. In order to optimize the reactor and provide the information for numerical simulation of NOx removal, it is important to study directly the discharge induced plasma chemical processes responsible for NOx removal in the reactor. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful diagnostic method</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Kanazawa; T. Sumi; S. Shimamoto; T. Ohkubo; Y. Nomoto; J. Mizeraczyk; J. S. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/215850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overview of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing <span class="hlt">non</span>- <span class="hlt">thermal</span> treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various <span class="hlt">non</span>- <span class="hlt">thermal</span> technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1644249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams and industrial flue gases by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NOx , SOx, etc.), volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substance (ODS), etc., have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges become significant due to advantages such as lower cost, higher removal efficiency, smaller space volume, etc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=40751"> <span id="translatedtitle">INTERIM GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL/DESTRUCTION OF PCBS AND PCB ITEMS BY <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> METHODS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report is an interim resource and guideline document to help EPA regional offices implement the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations (40 CFR 761) for using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> methods of destroying/disposing of PCBs. The report describes and evaluates various alternative chemic...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270862"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> LINE BROADENING AND HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES DURING SOLAR FLARES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> broadening and high-energy particles during large flares using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We have analyzed five large flare events that contain thermal-rich, intermediate, and thermal-poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal-rich flares, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal-poor flares, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference between thermal-rich and intermediate/thermal-poor flares based on the spatial information of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> broadening, which may provide clues that the presence of turbulence plays an important role in the pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, Kurabashira, Kamitakaracho, Takayama, Gifu 506-1314 (Japan); Imada, S. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...575A.109B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emission from standing relativistic shocks: an application to red giant winds interacting with AGN jets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Galactic and extragalactic relativistic jets are surrounded by rich environments that are full of moving objects, such as stars and dense medium inhomogeneities. These objects can enter into the jets and generate shocks and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission. Aims: We characterize the emitting properties of the downstream region of a standing shock formed due to the interaction of a relativistic jet with an obstacle. We focus on the case of red giants interacting with an extragalactic jet. Methods: We perform relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet meeting an obstacle of very large inertia. The results are interpreted in the framework of a red giant whose dense and slow wind interacts with the jet of an active galactic nucleus. Assuming that particles are accelerated in the standing shock generated in the jet as it impacts the red giant wind, we compute the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> particle distribution, the Doppler boosting enhancement, and the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> luminosity in gamma rays. Results: The available <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy from jet-obstacle interactions is potentially enhanced by a factor of ~100 when accounting for the whole surface of the shock induced by the obstacle, instead of just the obstacle section. The observer gamma-ray luminosity, including the effective obstacle size, the flow velocity and Doppler boosting effects, can be ~300 (?j/10)2 times higher than when the emitting flow is assumed at rest and only the obstacle section is considered, where ?j is the jet Lorentz factor. For a whole population of red giants inside the jet of an active galactic nucleus, the predicted persistent gamma-ray luminosities may be potentially detectable for a jet pointing approximately to the observer. Conclusions: Obstacles interacting with relativistic outflows, for instance clouds and populations of stars for extragalactic jets, or stellar wind inhomogeneities in microquasar jets and in winds of pulsars in binaries, should be taken into account when investigating the origin of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from these sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bosch-Ramon, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22437908"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among yellow monkeyflower populations from thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> soils in Yellowstone National Park.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In flowering plants, soil heterogeneity can generate divergent natural selection over fine spatial scales, and thus promote local adaptation in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation in one of the few flowering plants that thrives in both geothermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> soils in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) growing at two geothermal ("thermal") sites in YNP were distinct in growth form and phenology from paired populations growing nearby (<500 m distant) in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> soils. In simulated thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> environments, thermal plants remained significantly divergent from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plants in vegetative, floral, mating system, and phenological traits. Plants from both thermal populations flowered closer to the ground, allocated relatively more to sexual reproduction, were more likely to initiate flowering under short daylengths, and made smaller flowers that could efficiently self-fertilize without pollinators. These shared differences are consistent with local adaptation to life in the ephemeral window for growth and reproduction created by winter and spring snowmelt on hot soils. In contrast, habitat type (thermal vs. <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>) explained little of the genetic variation at neutral markers. Instead, we found that one thermal population (Agrostis Headquarters; AHQ-T) was strongly differentiated from all other populations (all F (ST) > 0.34), which were only weakly differentiated from each other (all F (ST) < 0.07). Phenotypic differentiation of thermal M. guttatus, but little population genetic evidence of long-term ecotypic divergence, encourages further investigations of the potential for fine-scale adaptation and reproductive isolation across the geothermal gradient in Yellowstone. PMID:22437908</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lekberg, Ylva; Roskilly, Beth; Hendrick, Margaret F; Zabinski, Catherine A; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1407.5482.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (II): <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> diffuse emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diffuse radio emission in the interstellar medium of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is an important aspect of the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the intracluster and inter-galactic medium in the early universe, competing with AGNs and starburst galaxy activity. The current quiescent phase of Local Group dSphs has so far dampened the possibility of measuring their <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions and in turn of fully understanding connected aspects of dSph properties and evolution. Deep observations are required in order to probe the emission associated to the very-low level of dSph star formation or, possibly, to particle dark matter annihilating or decaying in the dSph halo. In this work, we employ radio observations of six local dSphs to test the presence of a diffuse component over typical scales of few arcmin. The dSph targets require wide-field low-frequency observations which were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the frequency band 1.1-3.1 GHz. The achieved rms sensitivity ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regis, M; Colafrancesco, S; Profumo, S; de Blok, W J G; Massardi, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.228..526D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of folia in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0302269v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on distances to Galactic Centre <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> filaments from HI absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied HI absorption towards three <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> filaments (NTFs) Sgr-C, G359.54+0.18 and G359.79+0.17 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Our study, for the first time, constrains the distance of the Sgr C NTF and the HII region seen associated with the NTF in the sky plane, to within a few hundred parsecs from the Galactic Centre (GC). A molecular cloud with a velocity of -100 km/s appears to be associated with the central part of the Sgr C NTF. Our study also indicates that the Sgr C HII region is relatively farther away than the NTF along our line of sight, and thereby provides evidence against any possible interaction between the two objects. The NTF G359.54+0.18 shows weak HI absorption (4 sigma detection) at a velocity of -140 km/s, which is the velocity of a known dense molecular cloud seen towards the NTF. This cloud is expected to be located within ~200 pc from the GC and thereby provides a lower limit to the distance. The upper limit to the distance of this NTF from the Sun is 10.5 kpc. The distance to the NTF G359.79+0.17 is between 5.1 and 10.5 kpc from the Sun.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subhashis Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114j4701S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> mechanism of weak microwave fields influence on neurons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> mechanism of weak microwave field impact on a nerve fiber is proposed. It is shown that in the range of about 30-300 GHz, there are strongly pronounced resonances associated with the excitation of ultrasonic vibrations in the membrane as a result of interaction with electromagnetic radiation. The viscous dissipation limits the resonances and results in their broadening. These forced vibrations create acoustic pressure, which may lead to the redistribution of the protein transmembrane channels, and thus changing the threshold of the action potential excitation in the axons of the neural network. The influence of the electromagnetic microwave radiation on various specific areas of myelin nerve fibers was analyzed: the nodes of Ranvier, and the initial segment—the area between the neuron hillock and the first part of the axon covered with the myelin layer. It was shown that the initial segment is the most sensitive area of the myelined neurons from which the action potential normally starts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/658275"> <span id="translatedtitle">First report on <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor scaling criteria and optimization models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of SERDP project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) reactor technology for Department of Defense (DoD) air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Example NO{sub x} sources are jet engine test cells (JETCs) and diesel engine powered electrical generators. Example VOCs are organic solvents used in painting, paint stripping, and parts cleaning. To design and build NTP reactors that are optimized for particular DoD applications, one must understand the basic decomposition chemistry of the target compound(s) and how the decomposition of a particular chemical species depends on the air emissions stream parameters and the reactor operating parameters. This report is intended to serve as an overview of the subject of reactor scaling and optimization and will discuss the basic decomposition chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) and two representative VOCs, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride, and the connection between the basic plasma chemistry, the target species properties, and the reactor operating parameters (in particular, the operating plasma energy density). System architecture, that is how NTP reactors can be combined or ganged to achieve higher capacity, will also be briefly discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosocha, L.A.; Korzekwa, R.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15887886"> <span id="translatedtitle">SynGas production from organic waste using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>-pulsed discharge.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to develop a technology that can convert biogas to synthesis gas (SynGas), a low-emission substituted energy, using a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>-pulsed plasma method. To investigate the characteristics of SynGas production from simulated biogas, the reforming characteristics in relation to variations in pulse frequency, biogas component ratio (C3H8/CO2), vapor flow ratio (H2O/total flow rate [TFR]), biogas velocity, and pulse power were studied. A maximum conversion rate of 49.1% was achieved for the biogas when the above parameters were 500 Hz, 1.5, 0.52, 0.32 m/sec, and 657 W, respectively. Under the above conditions, the dry basis mole fractions of the SynGas were as follows: H2 = 0.645, CH4 = 0.081, C2H2 = 0.067, C3H6 = 0.049, CO = 0.008 and C2H4 = 0.004. The ratio of hydrogen to the other intermediates in the SynGas (H2/ITMs) was 3.1. PMID:15887886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chun, Young N; Kim, Si W; Song, Hyoung O; Chae, Jae O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3760242"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Nanoelectroablation of UV-induced Murine Melanomas Stimulates an Immune Response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> nanoelectroablation therapy completely ablates UV-induced murine melanomas. C57/BL6-HGF/SF transgenic mice were exposed to UV radiation as pups and began to develop visible melanomas 5–6 months later. We have treated 27 of these melanomas in 14 mice with nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) therapy delivering 2000 electric pulses each 100 ns long and 30 kV/cm at a rate of 5–7 pulses per second. All nanoelectroablated melanoma tumors began to shrink within a day after treatment and gradually disappeared over a period of 12–29 days. Pyknosis of nuclei was evident within 1 h of nsPEF treatment, and DNA fragmentation as detected by TUNEL staining was evident by 6 h after nsPEF treatment. In a melanoma allograft system, nsPEF treatment was superior to tumor excision at accelerating secondary tumor rejection in immune-competent mice, suggesting enhanced stimulation of a protective immune response by nsPEF-treated melanomas. This is supported by the presence of CD4+-T cells within treated tumors as well as within untreated tumors located in mice with other melanomas that had been treated with nanoelectroablation at least 19 days earlier. PMID:22686288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nuccitelli, Richard; Tran, Kevin; Lui, Kaying; Huynh, Joanne; Athos, Brian; Kreis, Mark; Nuccitelli, Pamela; De Fabo, Edward C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092062"> <span id="translatedtitle">SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> SUPERNOVA REMNANT HESS J1731-347</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A detailed analysis of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission from the northwestern and southern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 with Suzaku is presented. The shell portions covered by the observations emit hard and lineless X-rays. The spectrum can be reproduced by a simple absorbed power-law model with a photon index {Gamma} of 1.8-2.7 and an absorption column density N{sub H} of (1.0-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. These quantities change significantly from region to region; the northwestern part of the SNR has the hardest and most absorbed spectrum. The western part of the X-ray shell has a smaller curvature than the northwestern and southern shell segments. A comparison of the X-ray morphology to the very high energy gamma-ray and radio images was performed. The efficiency of the electron acceleration and the emission mechanism in each portion of the shell are discussed. Thermal X-ray emission from the SNR was searched for but could not be detected at a significant level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Puehlhofer, Gerd; Klochkov, Dmitry [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Acero, Fabio [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Tian Wenwu [National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China); Li Zhiyuan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Horns, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kosack, Karl [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Komin, Nukri [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathology of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garcia, Paulo A.; Roberston, John L.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RAA....14..285Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emissions from accreting X-ray binary pulsars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emissions from cascade processes in accreting X-ray binary pulsars. In the framework of the magnetospheric gap model, we consider three photon fields, which are respectively from the polar cap of a pulsar, its surrounding accretion disk and a massive companion star with a circumstellar disk, to shield the gap. The gap-accelerated ultra-relativistic electrons emit high-energy photons via curvature radiation and an inverse Compton scattering process, in which part of these high-energy photons absorbed by interactions with the surrounding photon fields can facilitate the following electromagnetic cascades. We first carry out numerical calculations of the cascade processes in order to obtain the predicted emission spectra. As an example, we subsequently apply this model to reproduce observations of LS I +61° 303. We find that the results can fit observations ranging from hard X-ray to ?-ray bands. In particular, they can explain the spectral cutoff feature at a few GeV. Finally, we suggest that the emissions detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope from X-ray binary pulsars originate in the magnetosphere region of the pulsar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Jian-Fu; Jin, Hui; Dong, Ai-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.4256.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission from HH 80</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km/s, creating strong shocks when interacting with interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated to the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated to thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and the hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lopez-Santiago, J; Bonito, R; Miceli, M; Albacete-Colombo, J F; Benaglia, P; de Castro, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215418"> <span id="translatedtitle">EVIDENCE OF <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup –1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">López-Santiago, J. [Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar, S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar, S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR), CCT La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR), CCT La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonito, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Miceli, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)] [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Albacete-Colombo, J. F. [Universidad Nacional del COMAHUE, Monseñor Esandi y Ayacucho, 8500 Viedma, Río Negro (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional del COMAHUE, Monseñor Esandi y Ayacucho, 8500 Viedma, Río Negro (Argentina); De Castro, E. [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...776L..22L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> X-Ray Emission from HH 80</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s-1, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">López-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; Benaglia, P.; de Castro, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...756..149B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suzaku Observations of the <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Supernova Remnant HESS J1731-347</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A detailed analysis of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission from the northwestern and southern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 with Suzaku is presented. The shell portions covered by the observations emit hard and lineless X-rays. The spectrum can be reproduced by a simple absorbed power-law model with a photon index ? of 1.8-2.7 and an absorption column density N H of (1.0-2.1) × 1022 cm-2. These quantities change significantly from region to region; the northwestern part of the SNR has the hardest and most absorbed spectrum. The western part of the X-ray shell has a smaller curvature than the northwestern and southern shell segments. A comparison of the X-ray morphology to the very high energy gamma-ray and radio images was performed. The efficiency of the electron acceleration and the emission mechanism in each portion of the shell are discussed. Thermal X-ray emission from the SNR was searched for but could not be detected at a significant level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bamba, Aya; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Acero, Fabio; Klochkov, Dmitry; Tian, Wenwu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Li, Zhiyuan; Horns, Dieter; Kosack, Karl; Komin, Nukri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.697D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small Amplitude Electron Acoustic Solitons in a Magnetoplasma with <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Electrons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An important characteristic of space plasmas is their ability to sustain a great variety of wave phenomena. Such plasma waves are detected in space with the frequency ranging from few millihertz to several tens of kilohertz. The nonlinear evolutions of these waveforms are interpreted as electron-acoustic and ion-acoustic solitary waves. There have been several studies on solitary waves that are based on models using the Boltzmann distribution function for electrons/ions. However, in space plasmas, a population of superthermal electrons, where the particle distributions may deviate from the Maxwellian can exist. We have studied the small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in four component plasma consisting of nonthermal hot electrons, fluid cold electrons, beam electrons and ions is studied. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing nonlinear evolution of electron acoustic solitons is derived. The effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermality</span>, beam electron velocity and temperature, obliquity on electron acoustic solitary structures are investigated in detail. These theoretical results on solitary potential structures will be used to model satellite observations in the various regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Devanandhan, Selvaraj; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Singh, Satyavir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/16711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct chemical oxidation: a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> technology for the destruction of organic wastes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MRE.....2a5019C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-step <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma synthesis of 3C-SiC nanoparticles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a scalable, single-step, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma synthesis technique for the growth of sub-5 nm, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) coated 3C-SiC nanoparticles (NPs). In a tubular flow reactor, we first nucleate and grow c-Si NPs upstream in a SiH4/Ar plasma. These c-Si NPs are then transported by gas flow to a downstream C2H2/Ar plasma, and carburized in-flight by carbon-containing radicals and ions to 3C-SiC NPs. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy indicate an NP size of ˜4 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms that the c-Si NPs are completely carburized to 3C-SiC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the surface of the 3C-SiC NPs is coated with a-C:H with some alkenyl termination, which can facilitate further solution-based surface functionalization for biomedical applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; de Peuter, Koen; Ghodes, Jacob A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Cloud, Jacqueline E.; Yang, Yongan; Stradins, Paul; Agarwal, Sumit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe(2+)). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC-MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15 min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. PMID:25466684</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markovi?, Marijana; Jovi?, Milica; Stankovi?, Dalibor; Kova?evi?, Vesna; Rogli?, Goran; Gojgi?-Cvijovi?, Gordana; Manojlovi?, Dragan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECAM1012R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antitumor action of <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> plasma sources, DBD and Plasma Gun, alone or in combined protocols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presentation deals with the assessment on two <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> plasma sources developed and optimized for oncology applications. The first plasma source is a floating-electrode dielectric barrier discharge powered at a few hundreds of Hz which deliver air-plasma directly on the surface of cell culture medium in dishes or on the skin or organs of mice bearing cancer tumors. The second plasma source, so called Plasma Gun, is a plasma jet source triggered in noble gas, transferred in high aspect ratio and flexible capillaries, on targeting cells or tumors after plasma transfer in air through the ``plasma plume'' generated at the capillary outlet. In vitro evidence for massive cancer cell destruction and in vivo tumor activity and growth rate reductions have been measured with both plasma sources. DNA damages, cell cycle arrests and apoptosis induction were also demonstrated following the application of any of the two plasma source both in vitro and in vivo. The comparison of plasma treatment with state of the art chemotherapeutic alternatives has been performed and last but not least the benefit of combined protocols involving plasma and chemotherapeutic treatments has been evidenced for mice bearing orthotopic pancreas cancer and is under evaluation for the colon tumors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert, Eric; Brullé, Laura; Vandamme, Marc; Riès, Delphine; Le Pape, Alain; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2966522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vascular smooth muscle cells ablation with endovascular <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> irreversible electroporation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose Using fundamental principles of electroporation and mathematical analyses of temperature and electrical fields of blood vessels we developed an endovascular ablation approach - <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">thermal</span> irreversible electroporation (NTIRE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of endovascular NTIRE on blood vessels. Material and Methods Specially made endovascular devices with four electrodes on top of inflatable balloons were used to apply electroporation pulses. Finite element simulations were used to characterize NTIRE protocols that will not induce thermal damage to treated tissues. Right iliac arteries of eight rabbits were treated with 90 NTIRE pulses. Angiograms were preformed before and after the procedures. Arterial specimens were harvested at 7 and 35 days. Evaluation included Hematoxylin & Eosin, elastic Von Giessen, and Masson’s Trichrome stains. Immunohistochemistry of selected slides included smooth muscle actin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, von willebrand factor and S-100 antigen. Results At 7 days, all NTIRE-treated arterial segments displayed complete, transmural ablation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). At 35 days, similar damage to VSMC was noted. In most cases, elastic lamina remained intact and endothelial layer regenerated. Occasional mural inflammation and cartilaginous metaplasia were noted. After five weeks there was no evidence of significant VSMC proliferation, with the dominant process being wall fibrosis with regenerated endothelium. Conclusions NTIRE can be applied in an endovascular approach. It efficiently ablates vessel wall within seconds and with no damage to extra-cellular structures. NTIRE has possible applications in many fields of clinical cardiology, including arterial restenosis and cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:20933436</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maor, Elad; Ivorra, Antoni; Mitchell, James J.; Rubinsky, Boris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22534704M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons on resolved black hole accretion disk images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent developments in radio astronomy (in particular, the Event Horizon Telescope) allow us for the first time to resolve length scales around the Milky Way's Sgr A* comparable to the event horizon radius. These observations are opening up new opportunities to study strong gravity and accretion physics in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole. However, the processes governing black hole accretion are not well understood. In particular, the electron thermodynamics in black hole accretion disks remain mysterious, and current models vary significantly from each other. The impact of these differences between current electron thermodynamics models on results obtained from EHT images is not well understood. Thus, in this work, we explore the effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons on black hole images and radio spectra in the context of both semi-analytic and numerical models of accretion flows. Using general relativistic ray-tracing and radiative transfer code, we simulate images of the accretion disk around Sgr A* and compare our simulations to observed radio data. We estimate the range of electron energy distribution functions permissible by the data. In so doing, we also explore the range and variety of black hole images obtained by varying the distribution function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mao, Shengkai; Dexter, Jason; Quataert, Eliot</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.05672.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> CMSSM with a 125 GeV Higgs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the phenomenology of the CMSSM/mSUGRA with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> neutralino dark matter. Besides the standard parameters of the CMSSM we include the reheating temperature as an extra parameter. Imposing radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and no dark matter overproduction, we contrast the scenario with different experimental bounds from colliders (LEP, LHC), cosmic microwave background (Planck), direct (LUX, XENON100, CDMS, IceCube) and indirect (Fermi) dark matter searches. The allowed parameter space is characterised by a Higgsino-like LSP with a mass around 300 GeV. The observed dark matter abundance can be saturated for reheating temperatures around 2 GeV while larger temperatures require extra non-neutralino dark matter candidates and extend the allowed parameter space. Sfermion and gluino masses are in the few TeV region. These scenarios can be achieved in string models of sequestered supersymmetry breaking which avoid cosmological moduli problems and are compatible w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aparicio, Luis; Dutta, Bhaskar; Krippendorf, Sven; Maharana, Anshuman; Muia, Francesco; Quevedo, Fernando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.7825J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functionalization of nanomaterials by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti3+ ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing.A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti3+ ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01889j</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030113139&hterms=pds&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpds"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Hard X-Ray Emission in Galaxy Clusters Observed with the BeppoSAX PDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the X-ray emission in a Sample of galaxy clusters using the BeppoSAX PDS instrument in the 20 - 80 keV energy band. We estimate the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hard X-ray cluster emission (HXR) by modeling the thermal contribution from the cluster gas and the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> contamination from the unobscured AGN in the clusters. We also evaluate the systematic uncertainties due to the background fluctuations. Assuming negligible contamination from the obscured AGN, the resulting <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> component is detected at a 2 sigma level in approx. 50% of the non-significantly AGN-contaminated clusters: A2142, A2199, A2256, A3376, Coma, Ophiuchus and Virgo. The data are consistent with a scenario whereby relaxed clusters have no hard X-ray component of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> origin, whereas merger clusters do. The co-added spectrum of the above clusters indicates a power-law spectrum for the HXR with a photon index of 2.8+0.3-0.4 in the 12 - 115 keV band, and we find indication that it has extended distribution. These indications argue against significant contamination from obscured AGN, which have harder spectra and centrally concentrated distribution. These results are supportive of the assumption of the merger shock acceleration of electrons in clusters, which has been proposed as a possible origin of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hard X-ray emission models. Assuming that the Cosmic Microwave Background photons experience Inverse Compton scattering from the merger-accelerated relativistic electrons, and thus produce the observed HXR, the measured hard X-ray slope corresponds to a differential momentum spectra of the relativistic electrons with a slope of mu = 3.8 - 5.0. In presence of cluster magnetic fields this relativistic electron population produces synchrotron emission with a spectral index of 1.4 - 2.1, consistent with radio halo observations of merger clusters. Thus both hard X-ray and radio observations of merger clusters are consistent with the Inverse Compton model. The observed slope of HXR is also consistent with that predicted by the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> bremsstrahlung, which chus cannot be ruled by the fit to the current data, even though this model requires an extreme, untenable cluster energetics. Assuming centrally concentrated distribution of HXR, the data requires a harder slope for the HXR spectrum, which is consistent with secondary electron models, but this model yields a worse fit to the PDS data and thus seems to be disfavored over the primary electron Inverse Compton model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nevalainen, J.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bonamente, M.; Colafrancesco, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0510701v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> high-energy emission from colliding winds of massive stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colliding winds of massive star binary systems are considered as potential sites of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> high-energy photon production. This is motivated merely by the detection of synchrotron radio emission from the expected colliding wind location. Here we investigate the properties of high-energy photon production in colliding winds of long-period WR+OB-systems. We found that in the dominating leptonic radiation process anisotropy and Klein-Nishina effects may yield spectral and variability signatures in the gamma-ray domain at or above the sensitivity of current or upcoming gamma-ray telescopes. Analytical formulae for the steady-state particle spectra are derived assuming diffusive particle acceleration out of a pool of thermal wind particles, and taking into account adiabatic and all relevant radiative losses. For the first time we include their advection/convection in the wind collision zone, and distinguish two regions within this extended region: the acceleration region where spatial diffusion is superior to convective/advective motion, and the convection region defined by the convection time shorter than the diffusion time scale. The calculation of the Inverse Compton radiation uses the full Klein-Nishina cross section, and takes into account the anisotropic nature of the scattering process. This leads to orbital flux variations by up to several orders of magnitude which may, however, be blurred by the geometry of the system. The calculations are applied to the typical WR+OB-systems WR 140 and WR 147 to yield predictions of their expected spectral and temporal characteristica and to evaluate chances to detect high-energy emission with the current and upcoming gamma-ray experiments. (abridged)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Reimer; M. Pohl; O. Reimer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhD...38.....M"> <span id="translatedtitle">EDITORIAL: Atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas for processing and other applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure plasmas to plasma processing for the benefits this can offer to existing and potential new processes, because they do not require expensive vacuum systems and batch processing. There have been considerable efforts to efficiently generate large volumes of homogeneous atmospheric pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas to develop environmentally friendly alternatives for surface treatment, thin film coating, sterilization, decontamination, etc. Many interesting questions have arisen that are related to both fundamental and applied research in this field. Many concern the generation of a large volume discharge which remains stable and uniform at atmospheric pressure. At this pressure, depending on the experimental conditions, either streamer or Townsend breakdown may occur. They respectively lead to micro-discharges or to one large radius discharge, Townsend or glow. However, the complexity arises from the formation of large radius streamers due to avalanche coupling and from the constriction of the glow discharge due to too low a current. Another difficulty is to visually distinguish many micro-discharges from one large radius discharge. Other questions relate to key chemical reactions in the plasma and at the surface. Experimental characterization and modelling also need to be developed to answer these questions. This cluster collects up-to-date research results related to the understanding of different discharges working at atmospheric pressure and the application to polymer surface activation and thin film coating. It presents different solutions for generating and sustaining diffuse discharges at atmospheric pressure. DC, low-frequency and radio-frequency excitations are considered in noble gases, nitrogen or air. Two specific methods developed to understand the transition from Townsend to streamer breakdown are also presented. They are based on the cross-correlation spectroscopy and an electrical model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Massines, Françoise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Ap%26SS.345..325R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and thermal radiations of Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0810.0692v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emission from Galaxy Clusters and future observations with the FERMI gamma-ray telescope and LOFAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">FERMI (formely GLAST) and LOFAR will shortly provide crucial information on the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components (relativistic particles and magnetic field) in galaxy clusters. After discussing observational facts that already put constraints on the properties and origin of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components, I will report on the emission spectrum from galaxy clusters as expected in the context of general calculations in which relativistic particles (protons and secondary electrons due to proton-proton collisions) interact with MHD turbulence generated in the cluster volume during cluster-cluster mergers. In this scenario (known as re-acceleration scenario) diffuse cluster-scale radio emission is produced in massive clusters during merging events, while gamma ray emission, at some level, is expected to be common in clusters. Expectations of interest for LOFAR and FERMI are also briefly discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Brunetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..8703004S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational studies on ECE spectrum for ITER, in the presence of a small fraction of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> and radial resolution evolution for oblique view</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In tokamaks, the temperature measurement using different techniques like Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE), Thomson scattering etc. shows differences because of various phenomena. The physical reasons for this are not entirely understood. Thus to have comprehensive understanding of these difference, the contribution from each phenomenon needs to be individually understood. The phenomenon affecting radial temperature profile measurement includes harmonics overlap, relativistic down shifting, presence of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> etc. For ITER like plasma, radial temperature profiles can be obtained from the first harmonics ordinary (O) mode or second harmonic extra-ordinary(X) mode of ECE spectrum. It is possible that, higher harmonics produced from the <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> can be relativistically downshifted to second harmonics and results a deviation in the measured temperature profile. We performed a parametric study on the effect of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons on measured ECE temperature for ITER scenario-2. All the numerical calculations reported in this paper are performed using NOTEC computer code which is capable of handling <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> populations. After proper validation of numerical methods using normal electron population (without <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span>) a parametric study with <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> is performed. In the parametric study radial locations of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span>, energy of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> and fraction of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> are considered. This study is initially performed for normal view and later extended in to oblique views. The range of deviation of temperature over the examined parametric regime as well as the possible physical reasons will be presented. The effect of parallel component of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy is also examined. Finally results of one set of study for oblique view (where the detector is not exactly normal to the magnetic field) with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons are also presented. In ITER apart from an Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) detector placed normal to magnetic field an oblique view detector is planned to grab information about <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons. Usefulness of such an additional detector for a better radial resolution is examined. The differences in the ECE spectrum from a tokamak plasma between a direct LOS (normal to toroidal magnetic field) and a slightly oblique LOS have been modelled. A typical ITER tokamak scenario has been chosen in this study. The intensities of radiation, as observable from the low-field side, covering the first harmonic O-mode spectral frequencies 105-230 GHz have been compared. The physical reasons for the code-predicted results, regarding the differences between the direct and oblique spectra, are elucidated. Finally, signatures of the presence of <span class="hlt">non-thermals</span> from a comparison of normal view and oblique view are also examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subhash, P. V.; Ghai, Yashika; Pandya, Hitesh K.; Singh, Amit K.; Begam, A. M.; Vasu, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50586217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Direct and Indirect Effects of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Bacteria and Mechanisms of Such Interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary form only given. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasmas are already well-known for their sterilization ability; however, the mechanisms of this sterilization are under debate. Short and long-living active species and radicals produced by plasma, ultraviolet (UV) radiation in VUV and UVC bands, local thermal effects of micro-discharges, and bombardment by charged particles are all listed as potential candidates for sterilization of various</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Fridman; A. Fridman; A. Gutsol; V. Vasilets; G. Friedman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.2823v2"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> recombination - a neglected source of flare hard X-rays and fast electron diagnostic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Flare Hard X-Rays (HXRs) from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons are commonly treated as solely bremsstrahlung (f-f), recombination (f-b) being neglected. This assumption is shown to be substantially in error, especially in hot sources, mainly due to recombination onto Fe ions. Aims. We analyse the effects on HXR spectra and electron diagnostics by including <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> recombination onto heavy elements in our model. Methods. Using Kramers hydrogenic cross sections with effective Z, we calculate f-f and f-b spectra for power-law electron spectra, in both thin and thick target limits, and for Maxwellians, with summation over all important ions. Results. We find that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron recombination, especially onto Fe, must, in general, be included together with f-f, for reliable spectral interpretation, when the HXR source is hot. f-b contribution is greatest when the electron spectral index is large, and any low energy cut-off small. f-b spectra recombination edges mean a cut-off in F(E) appears as a HXR feature at Photon energy = Ec + Vz, offering an Ec diagnostic. Including f-b lowers, greatly in some cases, the F(E) needed for prescribed HXR fluxes and, even when small, seriously distorts F(E) as inferred by inversion or forward fitting based on f-f alone. Conclusions. f-b recombination from <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons can be an important contributor to HXR spectra and should be included in spectral analyses, especially for hot sources. Accurate results will require use of better cross sections than ours and consideration of source ionisation structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John C. Brown; Procheta C. V. Mallik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831925"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functionalization of nanomaterials by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti(3+) ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing. PMID:23831925</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma needle to eliminate ex vivo biofilms in root canals of extracted human teeth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim To evaluate the efficacy of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) at atmospheric pressure on ex vivo biofilm in root canals of extracted teeth. Methodology Intra-canal contents from three teeth with root canal infections were collected, pooled, and grown in thirty-five microCT-mapped root canals of extracted and instrumented human teeth. One group of teeth was treated with NTP, another with 6% NaOCl, and one set was left untreated. The intra-canal contents from twenty-seven teeth (nine teeth in each group) were plated on agar and colony forming units were determined. Parametric test of one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze statistical significance. The remaining teeth were cut open, stained with LIVE/DEAD® and examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results The untreated root canals were covered with biofilm of varying thickness. The treatment with the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma decreased the number of viable bacteria in these biofilms by one order of magnitude, while the NaOCl control achieved a reduction of more than four magnitudes. Both the NTP and the NaOCl treatment results were significantly different from the negative control (P< 0.05). Conclusion The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma displayed antimicrobial activity against endodontic biofilms in root canals, but was not as effective as the use of 6 % NaOCl. PMID:23480318</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaudinn, C; Jaramillo, D; Freire, M O; Sedghizadeh, P P; Nguyen, A; Webster, P; Costerton, J W; Jiang, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21579989"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span>, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO EMISSION FROM Cyg OB2 no. 5: A WIND-COLLISION REGION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radio emission from the well-studied massive stellar system Cyg OB2 no. 5 is known to fluctuate with a period of 6.7 years between a low-flux state, when the emission is entirely of free-free origin, and a high-flux state, when an additional <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> component (of hitherto unknown nature) appears. In this paper, we demonstrate that the radio flux of that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> component is steady on timescales of hours and that its morphology is arc-like. This shows that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission results from the collision between the strong wind driven by the known contact binary in the system and that of an unseen companion on a somewhat eccentric orbit with a 6.7 year period and a 5-10 mas semimajor axis. Together with the previously reported wind-collision region located about 0.''8 to the northeast of the contact binary, so far Cyg OB2 no. 5 appears to be the only multiple system known to harbor two radio-imaged wind-collision regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio A. [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J., E-mail: g.ortiz@crya.unam.mx [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 ± 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 ± 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas. PMID:23126765</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schäfer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Kewitz, T.; Šperka, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 {+-} 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 {+-} 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaefer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Kewitz, T. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Sperka, J. [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83j3506S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 ± 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 ± 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schäfer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Kewitz, T.; Šperka, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40851221"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Pulsatory</span> magma supply to a phonolite lava lake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A few lava lakes, like that at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, have been continuously active for decades, reaching a steady-state. We report spectroscopic and thermal observations from Erebus that reveal remarkable, phase-locked cycles of lava lake convection and gas plume composition. We argue that the observed fluctuations in gas ratios, including the SO2\\/CO2 content in the plume, identify two end-member contributions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clive Oppenheimer; Alexandra S. Lomakina; Philip R. Kyle; Nick G. Kingsbury; Marie Boichu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086408"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.0502.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and Purely thermal radiations of Kerr-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incorporating Parikh and Wilczek's opinion to the Kerr de-Sitter (KdS) black hole Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and purely thermal radiations have been investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. We have taken the background spacetime of KdS black hole as dynamical, involving the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles, energy and angular momentum has been taken as conserved and show that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The explored results gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of KdS black hole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossain, M Ilias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Existence domains of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas with positive and negative dust</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the traditional Sagdeev pseudopotential approach, the existence of large amplitude solitons is investigated for a plasma composed of cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ions and Boltzmann electrons. The lower and upper soliton Mach number limitations are determined as a function of various parameters and physical reasons are provided as to why these Mach number limits occur. Some regions in parameter space have been identified where only negative or positive solitons occur, whereas, other regions support the coexistence of both positive and negative potential solitons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency Space Science, P O Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........12O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> processes on ice and liquid micro-jet surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary focus of this research is to investigate <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes occurring on ice surfaces and the photo-ejection of ions from liquid surfaces. Processes at the air-water/ice interface are known to play a very important role in the release of reactive halogen species with atmospheric aerosols serving as catalysts. The ability to make different types of ice with various morphologies, hence, different adsorption and surface properties in vacuum, provide a useful way to probe the catalytic effect of ice in atmospheric reactions. Also, the use of the liquid jet technique provides the rare opportunity to probe liquid samples at the interface; hitherto impossible to investigate with traditional surface science techniques. In Chapter 2, the effect of ice morphology on the release of reactive halogen species from photodissociation of adsorbed organic halides on ice will be presented. Quantum state resolved measurements of neutral atomic iodine from the photon irradiation of submonolayer coverages of methyl iodide adsorbed on low temperature water ice were conducted. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of methyl iodide adsorbed on ice were performed to provide information on the effect of ice morphology on the adsorption of submonolayer methyl iodide. The interaction and autoionization of HCl on low-temperature (80{140 K) water ice surfaces has been studied using low-energy (5-250 eV) electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). A detailed ESD study of the interactions of low concentrations of HCl with low-temperature porous amorphous solid water (PASW), amorphous solid water (ASW) and crystalline ice (CI) surfaces will be presented in Chapter 3. The ESD cation yields from HCl adsorbed on ice, as well as the coverage dependence, kinetic energy distributions and TPD measurements were all monitored. Probing liquid surface using traditional surface science technique is usually difficult because of the problem of keeping the liquid surface clean and the distortion of information by the interference of equilibrium dense vapor above the liquid. By using the liquid jet technique the ejection of ions from surface of micron sized liquid can be adequately probed with a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The photoionization of pure water and aqueous solutions of NaOH, NaCl and HCl is presented in Chapter 4. The aim of this investigation was to provide a fundamental understanding of the structure of water/vacuum interfaces. In Chapter 5, the ejection of ions from salt solutions containing divalent cations is also presented. The goal of the experiment was to figure out the solvation structure and reaction dynamics of divalent metal ions, M2+ on the surface of aqueous solution. A lot of work has been done in the gas phase either by a pickup-type cluster source or by collision induced dissociation of ejected ions from electrospray. For the first time the direct monitoring of ions ejected from liquid into gas phase is explored. Possible ejection mechanisms for the ejection of cations are discussed extensively in both Chapters 4 and 5. The results presented in this thesis is a combination of experiments performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which includes experiments on ice and micro-jet respectively. The results in Chapters 2 and 3 have been submitted to the Journal of Chemical Physics and the Journal of Physical Chemistry respectively. It is important to note that the data presented in Chapter 3 was originally taken by Dr Janine Herring-Captain as part of her thesis work. It is also presented in this thesis due to effort in analyzing the data and preparation of the submitted manuscript. Chapter 4 and 5 represents papers which will also be submitted for publication in the open scientific literature. All the work leading to the results presented in these two chapters were done during my visit to PNNL and I would like to acknowledge that the instrumentation and data acquisition were done in collaboration with Nikolai Pet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olanrewaju, Babajide O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...789...49F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional Simulations of the <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Broadband Emission from Young Supernova Remnants Including Efficient Particle Acceleration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and ?-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 ?G) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferrand, Gilles; Decourchelle, Anne; Safi-Harb, Samar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..GECDT2004K"> <span id="translatedtitle">GEC Student Award for Excellence Finalist: Interaction of <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma with DNA inside Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma is now being widely considered for various medical applications, viz; cancer treatment, coagulation, wound healing. However, the understanding of the interaction between <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma and cells is lacking. Here we study the possibility that effects of the plasma treatment can penetrate though cellular membranes without destroying them. One of the most important of such effects to investigate would be DNA double strand breaks (DSB's) since these are some of the important events in a cell's life cycle. We measured DNA DSB's in mammalian cells using immunofluorescence and western blots. Hydrogen peroxide treatment was used as a positive control since it is known to induce massive DNA double strand breaks. The results indicate that short (5 seconds) direct plasma treatment at low power (0.2 W/cm^2) does produce DNA DSB's in mammalian cells. This means that somehow plasma penetrates inside the cells. Several questions arise about what is the mechanism of penetration and do the cells repair the DNA DSB's. We show that the cells do repair the DNA DSB's produced by short exposure of low power plasma. Although the detailed mechanisms are being investigated we confirmed that reactive oxygen species mediate interaction between plasma and DNA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalghatgi, Sameer; Kelly, Crystal; Fridman, Gregory; Clifford-Azizkhan, Jane; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.447L...1H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> superbubble in IC 10: the generation of cosmic ray electrons caught in the act</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superbubbles are crucial for stellar feedback, with supposedly high (of the order of 10 per cent) thermalization rates. We combined multiband radio continuum observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) with Effelsberg data to study the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> superbubble (NSB) in IC 10, a starburst dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. Thermal emission was subtracted using a combination of Balmer H? and VLA 32 GHz continuum maps. The bubble's <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectrum between 1.5 and 8.8 GHz displays curvature and can be well fitted with a standard model of an ageing cosmic ray electron population. With a derived equipartition magnetic field strength of 44 ± 8 ?G, and measuring the radiation energy density from Spitzer MIPS maps as 5 ± 1 × 10-11 erg cm-3, we determine, based on the spectral curvature, a spectral age of the bubble of 1.0 ± 0.3 Myr. Analysis of the LITTLE THINGS H I data cube shows an expanding H I hole with 100 pc diameter and a dynamical age 3.8 ± 0.3 Myr, centred to within 16 pc on IC 10 X-1, a massive stellar mass black hole (M > 23 M?). The results are consistent with the expected evolution for a superbubble with a few massive stars, where a very energetic event like a Type Ic supernova/hypernova has taken place about 1 Myr ago. We discuss alternatives to this interpretation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Krause, Martin G. H.; Harwood, Jeremy J.; Rau, Urvashi; Rupen, Michael P.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Chy?y, Krzysztof T.; Kitchener, Ged</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4049833"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2939732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dentin surface treatment using a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated by using a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric argon plasma brush for various durations. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using FTIR/ATR and an increase in carbonyl groups on dentin surfaces was detected with plasma treated dentin. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for tensile test. Student Newman Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of peripheral dentin surface up to 100 s gave an increase in interfacial bonding strength, while a prolong plasma treatment of dentin surfaces, e.g., 5 min treatments, showed a decrease in interfacial bonding strength. PMID:20831586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ritts, Andy Charles; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0609034v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heating and <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Particle Acceleration in Relativistic, Transverse Magnetosonic Shock Waves in Proton-Electron-Positron Plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the results of 1D particle-in-cell simulations of ultrarelativistic shock waves in proton-electron-positron plasmas. We consider magnetized shock waves, in which the upstream medium carries a large scale magnetic field, directed transverse to the flow. Relativistic cyclotron instability of each species as the incoming particles encounter the increasing magnetic field within the shock front provides the basic plasma heating mechanism. The most significant new results come from simulations with mass ratio $m_p/m_\\pm = 100$. We show that if the protons provide a sufficiently large fraction of the upstream flow energy density (including particle kinetic energy and Poynting flux), a substantial fraction of the shock heating goes into the formation of suprathermal power-law spectra of pairs. Cyclotron absorption by the pairs of the high harmonic ion cyclotron waves, emitted by the protons, provides the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> acceleration mechanism. As the proton fraction increases, the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> efficiency increases and the pairs' power-law spectra harden. We suggest that the varying power law spectra observed in synchrotron sources powered by magnetized winds and jets might reflect the correlation of the proton to pair content enforced by the underlying electrodynamics of these sources' outflows, and that the observed correlation between the X-ray spectra of rotation powered pulsars with the X-ray spectra of their nebulae might reflect the same correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elena Amato; Jonathan Arons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012pbdm.book..215Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews our recent research results of using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite restoration improvement. Oral bacteria of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) with an initial bacterial population density between 1.0 × 108 and 5.0 × 108 cfu/ml were seeded on various media and their survivability with plasma exposure was examined. The plasma exposure time for a 99.9999% cell reduction was less than 15 s for S. mutans and within 5 min for L. acidophilus. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. After dental composite application and light curing, the teeth were then sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for microtensile test. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment of the dentin surfaces. These findings indicated that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasma technology is very promising for dental clinical applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Qing Song; Li, H.; Ritts, A. C.; Yang, B.; Chen, M.; Hong, L.; Xu, C.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24911947"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20829396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bactericidal effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> argon plasma in vitro, in biofilms and in the animal model of infected wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> (low-temperature) physical plasma is under intensive study as an alternative approach to control superficial wound and skin infections when the effectiveness of chemical agents is weak due to natural pathogen or biofilm resistance. The purpose of this study was to test the individual susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria to <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> argon plasma and to measure the effectiveness of plasma treatments against bacteria in biofilms and on wound surfaces. Overall, Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to plasma treatment than Gram-positive bacteria. For the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Escherichia coli, there were no survivors among the initial 10(5) c.f.u. after a 5 min plasma treatment. The susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria was species- and strain-specific. Streptococcus pyogenes was the most resistant with 17?% survival of the initial 10(5) c.f.u. after a 5 min plasma treatment. Staphylococcus aureus had a strain-dependent resistance with 0 and 10?% survival from 10(5) c.f.u. of the Sa 78 and ATCC 6538 strains, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium had medium resistance. Non-ionized argon gas was not bactericidal. Biofilms partly protected bacteria, with the efficiency of protection dependent on biofilm thickness. Bacteria in deeper biofilm layers survived better after the plasma treatment. A rat model of a superficial slash wound infected with P. aeruginosa and the plasma-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strain Sa 78 was used to assess the efficiency of argon plasma treatment. A 10 min treatment significantly reduced bacterial loads on the wound surface. A 5-day course of daily plasma treatments eliminated P. aeruginosa from the plasma-treated animals 2 days earlier than from the control ones. A statistically significant increase in the rate of wound closure was observed in plasma-treated animals after the third day of the course. Wound healing in plasma-treated animals slowed down after the course had been completed. Overall, the results show considerable potential for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> argon plasma in eliminating pathogenic bacteria from biofilms and wound surfaces. PMID:20829396</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ermolaeva, Svetlana A; Varfolomeev, Alexander F; Chernukha, Marina Yu; Yurov, Dmitry S; Vasiliev, Mikhail M; Kaminskaya, Anastasya A; Moisenovich, Mikhail M; Romanova, Julia M; Murashev, Arcady N; Selezneva, Irina I; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Sysolyatina, Elena V; Shaginyan, Igor A; Petrov, Oleg F; Mayevsky, Evgeny I; Fortov, Vladimir E; Morfill, Gregor E; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Alexander L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma (NTP) session overview: Second International Symposium on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advanced Oxidation Technologies (used in pollution control and treating hazardous wastes) has expanded from using hydroxyl radicals to treat organic compounds in water, to using reductive free radicals as well, and to application to pollutants in both gases and aqueous media. <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Plasma (NTP) is created in a gas by an electrical discharge or energetic electron injection. Highly reactive species (O atoms, OH, N radicals, plasma electrons) react with entrained hazardous organic chemicals in the gas, converting them to CO2, H2O, etc. NTP can be used to simultaneously remove different kinds of pollutants (eg, VOCs, SOx, NOx in flue gases). This paper presents an overview of NTP technology for pollution control and hazardous waste treatment; it is intended as an introduction to the NTP session of the symposium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosocha, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT........25H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A system for the assessment of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of ultrasound on cells at liquid nitrogen temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system with which to study <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of ultrasound on cells was developed and built. Isolated human red blood cell membranes (ghosts) were irradiated in this system by ultrasound ranging in frequency from 3 to 7 MHz, intensity from 2 to 24 mW/sq cm, and durations of 30 and 60 minutes. Cryopreserved ghosts were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures and placed in a dewar or liquid nitrogen for ensonification. Acoustic characteristics of liquid nitrogen were investigated, and parameters such as the sound velocity, absorption and piezo-optic coefficient were determined. In addition, performances of transducers in liquid nitrogen were characterized and irradiating intensities quantified. The ghosts, prepared in both a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and in a solution containing Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were analyzed using disc electrophoresis so that the resulting protein band structures of the irradiated membranes could be compared with control membranes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Himberger, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........27Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of atmospheric pressure capillary <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasmas and their applications to the degradation of volatile organic compounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric pressure capillary <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (AP-CNTP) has been investigated as a potential technology far the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Advanced Life Support Systems (ALS). AP-CNTP is a destructive technology far the removal of VOCs from air streams by active plasma species, such as electrons, ions, and excited molecules. Complete VOC destruction ideally results in the formation of water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other by-product's may also form, including ozone (O3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and decomposed hydrocarbons. Several organic compounds, such as BTEX, ethylene, n-heptane, isooctane, methanol and NH3, were tested in an AP-CNTP system. Parametric experiments were carried out by varying plasma discharge power, flowrates, and initial concentrations. The degradation efficiency varied depending on the chemical nature of the compounds. A plasmochemical kinetic model was derived for toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and n-heptane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Shu-Min</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...791...71L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons by Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Implications for <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> Emission from Black Hole Accretion Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use analytic estimates and numerical simulations of test particles interacting with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence to show that subsonic MHD turbulence produces efficient second-order Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles. This acceleration is not well described by standard quasi-linear theory but is a consequence of resonance broadening of wave-particle interactions in MHD turbulence. We provide momentum diffusion coefficients that can be used for astrophysical and heliospheric applications and discuss the implications of our results for accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, we show that particle acceleration by subsonic turbulence in radiatively inefficient accretion flows can produce a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> tail in the electron distribution function that is likely important for modeling and interpreting the emission from low-luminosity systems such as Sgr A* and M87.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lynn, Jacob W.; Quataert, Eliot; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Parrish, Ian J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7548E..3BI"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> ablation technology for arrhythmia therapy: acute and chronic electrical conduction block with photosensitization reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have examined the possibility of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> ablation technology for arrhythmia therapy with photosensitization reaction, in which photochemically generated singlet molecular oxygen may induce myocardial electrical conduction block. In the most popular energy source for arrhythmia catheter ablation; radiofrequency current, the thermal tissue injury causes electrophysiological disruption resulting in electrical isolation of ectopic beats. The temperature-mediated tissue disruption is difficult to control because the tissue temperature is determined by the heating and thermal conduction process, so that severe complications due to excessive heat generation have been the problem in this ablation. We demonstrated the electrical conduction block of surgically exposed porcine heart tissue in vivo with photosensitization reaction. The acute myocardial electrical conduction block was examined by the stimulation and propagation set-up consisting of a stimulation electrode and two bipolar measurement electrodes. Fifteen to thirty minutes after the injection of 5-10 mg/kg water-soluble chlorine photosensitizer, Talaporfin sodium (NPe6, LS11), the laser light at the wavelength of 663 nm with the total energy density of 50-200 J/cm2 was irradiated several times with 3- 7 mm in spot-size to make electrical block line in myocardial tissue across the conduction pathway between the bipolar measurement electrodes. The propagation delay time of the potential waveform increased with increasing the irradiated line length. The observation of Azan-stained specimens in the irradiated area two weeks after the procedure showed that the normal tissue was replaced to the scar tissue, which might become to be permanent tissue insulation. These results demonstrated the possibility of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrical conduction block for arrhythmia therapy by the photosensitization reaction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Arisa; Matsuo, Hiroki; Suenari, Tsukasa; Kajihara, Takuro; Kimura, Takehiro; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Arai, Tsunenori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2785Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-ray emission from Vela shrapnel E with Suzaku and XMM-Newton</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> X-rays from the ejecta fragment associated with the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). The ROSAT observation of the Vela SNR revealed six isolated fragment-like features, named shrapnels A to F, which have overrun the primary blast wave of the SNR. Given that the symmetry axis of each shrapnel's bow-shock front traces back to the SNR center, the shrapnels are suggested to be associated with the fossil material of the supernova explosion. In fact, the chemical compositions of shrapnels A, B, and D have been found to be abundant in heavy elements by recent observations. Using Suzaku and XMM-Newton, we have investigated the nature of another candidate of the ejecta fragment, shrapnel E. The bow-shock structure of the emission is clearly confirmed. We find that the trailing region of the shrapnel exhibits a thermal X-ray spectrum as that observed in the other fragments. On the other hand, the shrapnel's head is found to exhibit a featureless spectrum in the hard X-ray band of 2-8 keV. This spectrum is well represented by a power-law model with a photon index of 2-3, suggesting its synchrotron origin. Fluxes of point sources detected in the shrapnel's head are carefully estimated and are found to be less than 10% of the total flux in the 2-8 keV band. This is the first discovery of diffuse <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from an ejecta fragment of the Vela SNR. Since the age of the Vela SNR is estimated to be more than ten thousand years, our observation demonstrates that even an old system, compared to typical young SNRs, can be a site of efficient cosmic-ray acceleration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshii, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Katsuda, Satoru; Tamagawa, Toru; Hiraga, Junko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25795275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene over Mn, Ag and Ce modified HZSM-5 catalysts by periodical operation of adsorption and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma regeneration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ag/HZSM-5, Mn/HZSM-5, Ce/HZSM-5, Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 and Ce-Mn/HZSM-5 were prepared by impregnation method. Both their adsorption capacity and catalytic activity were investigated for the removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene by periodical operation of adsorption and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma regeneration. Results show that catalysts loaded with Ag (Ag/HZSM-5 and Ag-Mn/HZSM-5) had larger adsorption capacity for toluene than the other catalysts. And Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 displayed the best catalytic performance for both toluene oxidation by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma and byproducts suppression. On the other hand, the deactivated catalyst can be fully regenerated by calcining in air stream when its adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of the Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 catalyst was found to be decreased after 10 cycles of periodical adsorption and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> regeneration. PMID:25795275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Tianle; Fan, Xing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430326"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons at Aditya tokamak.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented. PMID:25430326</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purohit, S; Joisa, Y S; Raval, J V; Ghosh, J; Tanna, R; Shukla, B K; Bhatt, S B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85kE419P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons at Aditya tokamaka)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purohit, S.; Joisa, Y. S.; Raval, J. V.; Ghosh, J.; Tanna, R.; Shukla, B. K.; Bhatt, S. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/00/12/65/PDF/Bulgakov-APA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ccsd-00001265(version1):10Mar2004 Applied Physics A (2004) accepted Silicon clusters produced by femtosecond laser ablation: <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emission and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">was irradiated at a 45° incidence angle using a Ti:sapphire laser (Mai-Tai coupled with a TSA ampli- fier with the fixed target in order to investigate the effect of ac- cumulation of laser pulses at the same spot by femtosecond laser ablation: <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> emission and gas-phase condensation Alexander V. Bulgakov Institute</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0208314v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> transport of helium ions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> transport. The effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. R. Smith; C. Jordan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799L..12D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why is <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Line Broadening of Spectral Lines in the Lower Transition Region of the Sun Independent of Spatial Resolution?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona show broadening of spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> broadening is significant (5–30 km s?1) and correlated with intensity. Here we study spectra of the TR Si iv 1403 Å line obtained at high resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.?33) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2?) does not resolve the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> line broadening which, in most regions, remains at pre-IRIS levels of about 20 km s?1. This invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the processes behind the broadening occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the TR and can lead to significant <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> line broadening. This scenario is supported by MHD simulations. While these do not show enough <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> line broadening, they do reproduce the long-known puzzling correlation between <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> line broadening and intensity. This correlation is caused by the shocks, but only if non-equilibrium ionization is taken into account. In regions where the LOS is more perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and correlation with intensity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Pontieu, B.; McIntosh, S.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....130210M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Soft X-Ray Emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21893360"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined effect of selected <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> technologies on Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inactivation in an apple and cranberry juice blend and on product shelf life.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combination of novel, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> technologies for preservation purposes is a recent trend in food processing research. In the present study, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hurdles such as ultraviolet light (UV) (5.3 J/cm²), high intensity light pulses (HILP) (3.3 J/cm²), pulsed electric fields (PEF) (34 kV/cm, 18 Hz, 93 ?s) or manothermosonication (MTS) (4bar, 43 °C, 750 W, 20 kHz) were examined. The objective was to establish the potential of these technologies, applied individually or in paired sequences, to inactivate Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inoculated in a fresh blend of apple and cranberry juice. The shelf-life evaluation of selected <span class="hlt">non-thermally</span> treated samples was conducted over 35 days and compared to pasteurised samples and untreated juices. All treatments applied individually significantly reduced (1.8-6.0 log cfu/ml) microbial counts compared to the untreated sample (p<0.01). Furthermore, UV treatment produced significantly greater inactivation (p<0.05) for E. coli compared to P. fermentans. Combinations of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> hurdles consisting of UV or HILP followed by either PEF or MTS resulted in comparable reductions for both microorganisms (p ? 0.05) to those observed in thermally pasteurised samples (approx. 6 log cfu/ml). Thermally pasteurised samples had a shelf life exceeding 35 days, while that of UV+PEF and HILP+PEF-treated samples was 14 and 21 days, respectively. These results indicate that combinations of these <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> technologies could successfully reduce levels of E. coli and P. fermentans in apple and cranberry juice, although optimisation is required in order to further extend shelf life. PMID:21893360</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palgan, I; Caminiti, I M; Muñoz, A; Noci, F; Whyte, P; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Background Fluid on the Efficiency of Inactivating Yeast with <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media) on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose) were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH.) produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment) can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media. PMID:23799081</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryu, Young-Hyo; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jin-Young; Shim, Gun-Bo; Uhm, Han-Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25311730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma on the adhesion and durability of resin composite to dentin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the effect of low-power, <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma (NT-APP) treatments, in pulsed and conventional modes, on the adhesion of resin composite to dentin and on the durability of the bond between resin composite and dentin. A pencil-type NT-APP jet was applied in pulsed and conventional modes to acid-etched dentin. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of resin composite to dentin was evaluated at 24 h and after thermocycling in one control group (no plasma) and in two experimental groups (pulsed plasma and conventional plasma groups) using the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive System. Data were analyzed using two-factor repeated-measures anova and Weibull statistics. Fractured surfaces and the bonded interfaces were evaluated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope. Although there were no significant differences between the plasma treatment groups, the plasma treatment improved the MTBS compared with the control group. After thermocycling, the MTBS did not decrease in the control or conventional plasma group but increased in the pulsed plasma group. Thermocycling increased the Weibull moduli of plasma-treated groups. In conclusion, plasma treatment using NT-APP improved the adhesion of resin composite to dentin. Using a pulsed energy source, the energy delivered to the dentin was effectively reduced without any reduction in bond strength or durability. PMID:25311730</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Kim, Chang-Keun; Seo, Deog-Gyu; Son, Ho-Hyun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16129557"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 microm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions. PMID:16129557</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ye, Dan; Gao, Dengshan; Yu, Gang; Shen, Xianglin; Gu, Fan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47w5402L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air atmospheric pressure plasma jet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUS..313...43L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The link between broad emission line fluctuations and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> emission from the inner AGN jet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AGN reverberate when the broad emission lines respond to changes of the ionizing thermal continuum emission. Reverberation measurements have been commonly used to estimate the size of the broad-line region (BLR) and the mass of the central black hole. However, reverberation mapping studies have been mostly performed on radio-quiet sources where the contribution of the jet can be neglected. In radio-loud AGN, jets and outflows may affect substantially the relation observed between the ionizing continuum and the line emission. To investigate this relation, we have conducted a series of multi-wavelength studies of radio-loud AGN, combining optical spectral line monitoring with regular VLBI observations. Our results suggest that at least a fraction of the broad-line emitting material can be located in a sub-relativistic outflow ionized by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> continuum emission generated in the jet at large distances (> 1 pc) from the central engine of AGN. This finding may have a strong impact on black hole mass estimates based on measured widths of the broad emission lines and on the gamma-ray emission mechanisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">León-Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Lobanov, A.; Valtaoja, E.; Arshakian, T. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24513449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated flue gas at 110°C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg(0) was oxidized and 20.5?gkJ(-1) of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9JL(-1). A maximal Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O2, H2O, SO2, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N2 metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg(0) oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase. PMID:24513449</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Jiang, Yuze; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047127"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrostatic solitary structures in presence of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons and a warm electron beam on the auroral field lines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed by satellites in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere. These ESWs are found to be having both positive and negative electrostatic potentials. Using the Sagdeeev psuedo-potential technique, arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves/double layers are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of <span class="hlt">non-thermally</span> distributed hot electrons, fluid cold electrons, a warm electron beam, and ions. The inertia of the warm electrons, and not the beam speed, is essential for the existence of positive potential solitary structures. Existence domains for positive as well as negative potential electrostatic solitons/double layers are obtained. For the typical auroral region parameters, the electric field amplitude of the negative potential solitons is found to be in the range {approx}(3-30) mV/m and {approx}(5-80) mV/m for the positive potential solitons. For the negative potential solitons/double layers, the amplitudes are higher when their widths are smaller. On the other hand, the amplitude of the positive potential structures increase with their widths.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, S. V. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Pillay, S. R. [School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900002982&hterms=PLASMA+RELATIVISTIC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPLASMA%2BRELATIVISTIC"> <span id="translatedtitle">The behavior of beams of relativistic <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons under the influence of collisions and synchrotron losses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For many astrophysical situations, such as in solar flares or cosmic gamma-ray bursts, continuum gamma rays with energies up to hundreds of MeV were observed, and can be interpreted to be due to bremsstrahlung radiation by relativistic electrons. The region of acceleration for these particles is not necessarily the same as the region in which the radiation is produced, and the effects of the transport of the electrons must be included in the general problem. Hence it is necessary to solve the kinetic equation for relativistic electrons, including all the interactions and loss mechanisms relevant at such energies. The resulting kinetic equation for <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons, including the effects of Coulomb collisions and losses due to synchrotron emission, was solved analytically in some simple limiting cases, and numerically for the general cases including constant and varying background plasma density and magnetic field. New approximate analytic solutions are presented for collision dominated cases, for small pitch angles and all energies, synchrotron dominated cases, both steady-state and time dependent, for all pitch angles and energies, and for cases when both synchrotron and collisional energy losses are important, but for relativistic electrons. These analytic solutions are compared to the full numerical results in the proper limits. These results will be useful for calculation of spectra and angular distribution of the radiation (x rays, gamma-rays, and microwaves) emitted via synchrotron or bremsstrahlung processes by the electrons. These properties and their relevance to observations will be observed in subsequent papers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mctiernan, James M.; Petrosian, Vahe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25308660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of electricity on anthocyanin degradation during ohmic heating of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) juice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of electricity on anthocyanin degradation during ohmic heating of jaboticaba juice. For this, temperature profiles during conventional and ohmic heating processes were matched, and the degradation kinetics of anthocyanins were compared at temperatures ranging from 70 to 90°C. The monomeric anthocyanin content was quantified by UV-Visible spectroscopy using the pH-differential method. Anthocyanin degradation was fitted to a first-order model. The rate constants ranged from 1.7 to 7.5 × 10(-3)min(-1) and from 1.8 to 7.6 × 10(-3)min(-1) for ohmic and conventional heating, respectively. The analysis of variance (?=0.05) showed no significant differences between rate constants of the ohmic and conventional heating at the same temperatures. All kinetic and thermodynamic parameters evaluated showed similar values for both technologies. These results indicate that the presence of the oscillating electric field did not affect the degradation rates of anthocyanins during ohmic heating. PMID:25308660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mercali, Giovana Domeneghini; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Schmitz, Frederico; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ipparco.roma1.infn.it/pagine/deposito/1996/venezia.ps.gz"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods in the theory of <span class="hlt">quasi</span> <span class="hlt">periodic</span> motions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">on the theory of the Hamilton--Jacobi equation and the regularity of their solutions, in spite of the non regularity possible. x1 The Hamilton Jacobi equation. This review deals on the work developed in collaboration with F.Bonetto, G. Gen­ tile, V. Mastropietro. The Hamilton Jacobi equation for an invariant torus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roma "La Sapienza", Università di</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070018790&hterms=markowitz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmarkowitz"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-Periodic</span> Variability in NGC 5408 X-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of quasiperiodic variability in the 0.2 - 10 keV X-ray flux from the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1. The average power spectrum of all EPIC-pn data reveals a strong 20 mHz QPO with an average amplitude (rms) of 9%, and a coherence, Q identical with nu(sub 0)/sigma approximately equal to 6. In a 33 ksec time interval when the 20 mHz QPO is strongest we also find evidence for a 2nd QPO peak at 15 mHz, the first indication for a close pair of QPOs in a ULX source. Interestingly, the frequency ratio of this QPO pair is inconsistent with 3:2 at the 3 sigma level, but is consistent with a 4:3 ratio. A powerlaw noise component with slope near 1.5 is also present below 0.1 Hz with evidence for a break to a flatter slope at about 3 mHz. The source shows substantial broadband variability, with a total amplitude (rms) of about 30% in the 0.1 - 100 mHz frequency band, and there is strong energy dependence to the variability. The power spectrum of hard X-ray photons (greater than 2 keV) shows a "classic" flat-topped continuum breaking to a power law with index 1.5 - 2. Both the break and 20 mHz QPO are detected in the hard band, and the 20 mHz QPO is essentially at the break. The QPO is both strong and narrow in this band, having an amplitude (rms) of 15%, and Q approx. equal to 25. The energy spectrum is well fit by three components, a "cool" disk with kT = 0.15 keV, a steep power law with index 2.56, and a thermal plasma at kT = 0.87 keV. The disk, power law, and thermal plasma components contribute 35, 60, and 5% of the 0.3 - 10 keV flux, respectively. Both the timing and spectral properties of NGC 5408 X-1 are strikingly reminiscent of Galactic black hole systems at high inferred accretion rates, but with its characteristic frequencies (QPO and break frequencies) scaled down by a factor of 10 - 100. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of models for ULXs, and their implications for the object's mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa; Soria, Roberto; Uttley, Phil; Cropper, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820029715&hterms=Climate+CHange+Evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BCHange%2BEvidence"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Quasi-periodic</span> climatic changes on Mars and earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence of climatic changes on Mars and the earth due to geologic and astronomical variations is discussed. Finely striped ice-free bands in the Martian polar caps have been taken to indicate that long term variations in the orbit and axial tilt of Mars have precipitated these features at the rate of a mm/yr. Photogrammetric and photometric methods have contributed to measurements of the composition and depth of the Martian caps (14-46 m), and observations of higher solar energy absorption in the northern ice cap implies greater dust deposition in that region than on the south cap; however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. Comparisons of earth and Martian climatic variations data are made, noting a lack of information on the age intervals of marine and nonmarine sediments on the earth. The possibilities of using quantitative data other than layer thickness to constrain climate models are discussed, and the slope or albedo of layers, or the spacing of polar undulations are suggested.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cutts, J. A.; Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Howard, A. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-minimal Higgs inflation and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> leptogenesis in a supersymmetric Pati-Salam model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a supersymmetric (SUSY) Grand Unified Theory (GUT) based on the gauge group G{sub PS} = SU(4){sub C} × SU(2){sub L} × SU(2){sub R}, which incorporates non-minimal chaotic inflation, driven by a quartic potential associated with the Higgs fields involved in the spontaneous breaking of G{sub PS}. The inflationary model relies on renormalizable superpotential terms and does not lead to overproduction of magnetic monopoles. It is largely independent of the one-loop radiative corrections and can become consistent with the current observational data on the inflationary observables, with the symmetry breaking scale of G{sub PS} assuming its SUSY value. Within our model, the strong CP and the ? problems of the minimal SUSY standard model can be resolved via a Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Moreover baryogenesis occurs via <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> leptogenesis realized by the out-of-equilibrium decay of the right-handed neutrinos, which are produced by the inflaton's decay. We consider two versions of such a scenario, assuming that the inflaton decays to the lightest or to the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. Both scenaria can become compatible with the constraints arising from the baryon asymmetry of the universe, the gravitino limit on the reheating temperature and the upper bound on the light neutrino masses, provided that the gravitino is somehow heavy. In the second scenario, extra restrictions from the SU(4){sub C} GUT symmetry on the heaviest Dirac neutrino mass and the data on the atmospheric neutrino oscillations can be also met.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pallis, C.; Toumbas, N., E-mail: kpallis@auth.gr, E-mail: nick@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cellular Attachment and Differentiation on Titania Nanotubes Exposed to Air- or Nitrogen-Based <span class="hlt">Non-Thermal</span> Atmospheric Pressure Plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ), elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air), to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in cellular activity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this treatment leads to improved osseointegration in vitro. PMID:25420027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seo, Hye Yeon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Yu-Ri; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24613643"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects of pulsed ultrasound irradiation on the development of disuse muscle atrophy in rat gastrocnemius muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the effects of therapeutic pulsed ultrasound (US) on the development of disuse muscle atrophy in rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into control, immobilization (Im), sham US, and US groups. In the Im, sham US and US groups, the bilateral ankle joints of each rat were immobilized in full plantar flexion with a plaster cast for a 4-wk period. The pulsed US (frequency, 1 MHz; intensity, 1.0 W/cm(2); pulsed mode 1:4; 15 min) was irradiated to the gastrocnemius muscle in the US group over a 4-wk immobilization period. The pulsed US irradiation delivered only <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects to the muscle. In conjunction with US irradiation, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected subcutaneously to label the nuclei of proliferating satellite cells 1 h before each pulsed US irradiation. Immobilization resulted in significant decreases in the mean diameters of type I, IIA and IIB muscle fibers of the gastrocnemius muscle in the Im, sham US and US groups compared with the control group. However, the degrees of muscle fiber atrophy for all types were significantly lower in the US group compared with the Im and sham US groups. Although the number of capillaries and the concentrations of insulin-like growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor did not change in the muscle, the number of BrdU-positive nuclei in the muscle was significantly increased by pulsed US irradiation in the US group. The results of this study suggest that pulsed US irradiation inhibits the development of disuse muscle atrophy partly via activation of satellite cells. PMID:24613643</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, Yoko; Nakano, Jiro; Oga, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hideki; Honda, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Junya; Okita, Minoru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0608281v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resonant Cyclotron Scattering in Three Dimensions and the Quiescent <span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> X-ray Emission of Magnetars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the surface of a magnetar is a source of bright thermal X-rays, its spectrum contains substantial <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> components. The X-ray emission is pulsed, with pulsed fractions that can be as high as ~ 70%. Several properties of magnetars indicate the presence of persistent, static currents flowing across the stellar surface and closing within the magnetosphere. The charges supporting these currents supply a significant optical depth to resonant cyclotron scattering in the 1-100 keV band. Here we describe a Monte Carlo approach to calculating the redistribution of thermal seed photons in frequency and angle by multiple resonant scattering in the magnetosphere. The calculation includes the full angular dependence of the cyclotron scattering cross section, the relativistic Doppler effect due to the motion of the charges, and allows for an arbitrary particle velocity distribution and magnetic field geometry. We construct synthetic spectra and pulse profiles for arbitrary orientations of the spin axis, magnetic axis, and line of sight, using a self-similar, twisted dipole field geometry, and assuming that the seed photons are supplied by single-temperature black body emission from the stellar surface. Pulse profiles and 1-10 keV spectra typical of AXPs are easily produced by this model, with pulsed fractions of ~ 50%. However, this model cannot reproduce the hard, rising energy spectra that are observed from SGRs during periods of activity, without overproducing the thermal emission peak. This suggests that the 1-100 keV emission of SGRs has a common origin with the hard X-ray emission detected from some AXPs above ~20 keV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodrigo Fernandez; Christopher Thompson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7380E..5DM"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atrial fibrillation treatment with photosensitization reaction: possibility of permanent electrical blockade in rat chronic model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrated a possibility of electrical conduction block by ex vivo and in vivo experiments using rat models to establish a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> treatment for atrial fibrillation by photosensitization reaction (PR). One hour after the injection of 2 mg/kg Talaporfin sodium to Wistar rat, the right ventricle (1.4 mmT) was extracted. Paced with a stimulation electrode, this tissue was placed in a tissue bath and immersed in irrigated Tyrode's solution of 37°C with 8 ?g/ml Talaporfin sodium and the gas mixture bubbling of 95% CO2 and 5% O2. The propagated electrical signal was measured by two bipolar electrodes. Exciting light of 670 nm in wavelength was irradiated to the tissue between the bipolar electrodes by the power density of 1 W/cm2. After this irradiation, propagation signal blockade was obtained and continued up to three hours. Rat atrioventricular (AV) node was employed as a target region for chronic model. The heart of Wistar rat was surgically exposed. External four-lead electrocardiogram of this rat was measured. Thirty minutes after the injection of 10 mg/kg Talaporfin sodium to the rat, exciting light of 663 nm in wavelength was irradiated to the AV node by the power density of 500 mW/cm2 for ten minutes. Acute AV block was obtained during the irradiation. Two weeks after this procedure, complete AV block was confirmed. The rat was sacrificed to obtain the tissue specimen. We found that the AV node was replaced by scarring tissue under the microscopic observation of the specimen. We verified possibility of permanent electrical conduction block using PR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuo, Hiroki; Ito, Arisa; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Soejima, Kyoko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Arai, Tsunenori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Ap%26SS.347...91I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and thermal radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated Hawking <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and purely thermal Radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. The spacetime background has taken as dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We have supposed that energy and angular momentum are conserved and have shown that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> and thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The results for RNAdS black hole is also in the same manner with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and explored the new result for Hawking radiation of RNAdS black hole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ilias Hossain, M.; Atiqur Rahman, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993A%26A...274..917F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostics of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> processes in chromospheric flares. 1. Hoe and Call K line profiles of an atmosphere bombarded by 10-500 keV electrons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The significance of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> excitation and ionization of hydrogen and CaII, by an electron beam, on the line profiles of H? and CaII K line has been investigated. Non-LTE Hot and CaII K line profiles have been calculated for the temperature distributions of semi-empirical flares models F1 and F2 (Machado et al. t980). For reasonable values of the beam energy flux and power index, the hydrogen lines are greatly strengthened and broadened, and an obvious central reversal appears. The effects are weaker for the CaII K line. These effects can be used to diagnose electron beam bombardment during a solar flare, especially at its early phase. Any semi-empirical flare model that does not take into account <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> effects overestimates the heating of the solar atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, C.; Henoux, J. C.; Gan, W. Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, atmospheric-pressure, plasma brush on conversion of model self-etch adhesive formulations compared to conventional photo-polymerization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span>, atmospheric plasmas for inducing polymerization of model dental self-etch adhesives. Methods The monomer mixtures used were bis-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), with mass ratios of 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70. Water was added to the above formulations: 10–30 wt%. These monomer/water mixtures were treated steadily for 40 s under a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 32° to 35°C. For comparison, photo-initiators were added to the above formulations for photo-polymerization studies, which were light-cured for 40 s. The degree of conversion (DC) of both the plasma- and light-cured samples was measured using FTIR spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance attachment. Results The <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma brush was effective in inducing polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. The presence of water did not negatively affect the DC of plasma-cured samples. Indeed, DC values slightly increased, with increasing water content in adhesives: from 58.3% to 68.7% when the water content increased from 10% to 30% in the adhesives with a 50/50 (2MP/HEMA) mass ratio. Conversion values of the plasma-cured groups were higher than those of light-cured samples with the same mass ratio and water content. Spectral differences between the plasma- and light-cured groups indicate subtle structural distinctions in the resultant polymer networks. Significance This research if the first to demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma brush induces polymerization of model adhesives under clinical settings by direct/indirect energy transfer. This device shows promise for polymerization of dental composite restorations having enhanced properties and performance. PMID:23018084</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Mingsheng; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Xiaomei; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52291095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation and dynamics of plasma bullets in a <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma jet: influence of the high-voltage parameters on the plume characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> plasma jets in open air are composed of ionization waves commonly known as 'plasma bullets' propagating at high velocities. We present in this paper an experimental study of plasma bullets produced in a dielectric barrier discharge linear-field reactor fed with helium and driven by microsecond high-voltage pulses. Two discharges were produced between electrodes for every pulse (at the rising</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julien Jarrige; Mounir Laroussi; Erdinc Karakas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18882687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient models for photoionization produced by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> gas discharges in air based on radiative transfer and the Helmholtz equations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents formulation of computationally efficient models of photoionization produced by <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> gas discharges in air based on three-group Eddington and improved Eddington (SP3) approximations to the radiative transfer equation, and on effective representation of the classic integral model for photoionization in air developed by Zheleznyak et al (1982) by a set of three Helmholtz differential equations. The reported</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Bourdon; V. P. Pasko; N. Y. Liu; S. Célestin; P. Ségur; E. Marode</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55871067"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher-order growth rate of instability of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén and ion-acoustic solitons in a magnetized <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The higher-order growth rate of instability for obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén and ion-acoustic solitons in a magnetized <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> plasma have been obtained by the multiple-scale perturbation expansion method developed by Allen and Rowlands (1993). The growth rate of instability is obtained correct to order k2, where k is the wave number of a long-wavelength plane-wave perturbation. The corresponding lowest-order stability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anup Bandyopadhyay; K. P. Das</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19454589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion-acoustic solitons and double-layers in a plasma consisting of positive and negative ions with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this research paper, the authors have studied the properties of ion-acoustic solitons and double-layers in a plasma consisting of warm positive and negative ions with different concentration of masses, charged states and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> electrons using small amplitude approximation. Reductive perturbation method is used to derive KdV and m-KdV equations. Existence of ion-acoustic solitons and double-layer is explored over a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. S. Gill; P. Bala; H. Kaur; N. S. Saini; S. Bansal; J. Kaur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23408366"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of thermal and <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> pasteurisation on the microbial inactivation and phenolic degradation in fruit juice: a mini-review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fruit juice has been traditionally preserved by thermal pasteurisation. However, the applied heat can cause detrimental effects on health-promoting components such as phenolic compounds. Several <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> technologies such as membrane filtration, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are promising methods developed for liquid food preservation. In particular, the combination of UV and PEF has proven to be more effective for microbial inactivation and maintaining nutritional quality of fruit juice compared with individual applications. PMID:23408366</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Yougui; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084047"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of specific methane yield of perennial ryegrass prepared by thermal drying versus <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> drying in small-scale batch digestion tests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dried milled biomass samples are frequently utilised in small-scale batch digestion tests. However, herbage chemical composition can be altered by thermal drying, and this may affect specific methane (CH4) yields. Thus, the specific CH4 yield of herbage pre- and post-ensiling, prepared by two preparation methods were compared. Perennial ryegrass samples were either <span class="hlt">non-thermally</span> dried (i.e. subject to cryogenic conditions, -196 °C) or thermally dried (40 °C), prior to milling. Specific CH4 yield was subsequently determined in a small-scale batch digestion test. Herbage pre-ensiling yielded 204 and 243 L CH4 kg(-1)VS(added) and herbage post-ensiling yielded 212 and 188 L CH4 kg(-1)VS(added) with <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> dried and thermal dried sample preparation methods, respectively. Due to opposing effects of thermal drying on CH4 yields of herbage either pre- or post-ensiling, it is not recommended to use thermal drying. Instead, it is recommended that <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> dried herbage samples are used in small-scale batch digestion tests. PMID:25084047</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nolan, P; McEniry, J; Doyle, E M; O'Kiely, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22133881"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE LOCATION OF <span class="hlt">NON-THERMAL</span> VELOCITY IN THE EARLY PHASES OF LARGE FLARES-REVEALING PRE-ERUPTION FLUX ROPES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Non-thermal</span> velocity measurements of the solar atmosphere, particularly from UV and X-ray emission lines have demonstrated over the decades that this parameter is important in understanding the triggering of solar flares. Enhancements have often been observed before intensity enhancements are seen. However, until the launch of Hinode, it has been difficult to determine the spatial location of the enhancements to better understand the source region. The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer has the spectral and spatial resolution to allow us to probe the early stages of flares in detail. We analyze four events, all of which are GOES M- or X-classification flares, and all are located toward the limb for ease of flare geometry interpretation. Three of the flares were eruptive and one was confined. In all events, pre-flare enhancement in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocity at the base of the active region and its surroundings has been found. These enhancements seem to be consistent with the footpoints of the dimming regions, and hence may be highlighting the activation of a coronal flux rope for the three eruptive events. In addition, pre-flare enhancements in <span class="hlt">non-thermal</span> velocity were found above the looptops for the three eruptive events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. L. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Building/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Hara, Hirohisa, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="h