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Sample records for quasinormal mode spectroscopy

  1. Quasinormal mode theory and modelling of electron energy loss spectroscopy for plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Understanding light-matter interactions using localized surface plasmons (LSPs) is of fundamental interest in classical and quantum plasmonics and has a wide range of applications. In order to understand the spatial properties of LSPs, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a common and powerful method of spatially resolving the extreme localized fields that can be obtained with metal resonators. However, modelling EELS for general shaped resonators presents a major challenge in computational electrodynamics, requiring the full photon Green function as a function of two space points and frequency. Here we present an intuitive and computationally simple method for computing EELS maps of plasmonic resonators using a quasinormal mode (QNM) expansion technique. By separating the contribution of the QNM and the bulk material, we give closed-form analytical formulas for the plasmonic QNM contribution to the EELS maps. We exemplify our technique for a split ring resonator, a gold nanorod, and a nanorod dimer structure. The method is accurate, intuitive, and gives orders of magnitude improvements over direct dipole simulations that numerically solve the full 3D Maxwell equations. We also show how the same QNM Green function can be used to obtain the Purcell factor (and projected local density of optical states) from quantum dipole emitters or two level atoms, and we demonstrate how the spectral features differ in general to the EELS spectrum.

  2. Quasinormal modes of a Schwarzschild white hole

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Nigel T.; Kubeka, Amos S.

    2009-09-15

    We investigate perturbations of the Schwarzschild geometry using a linearization of the Einstein vacuum equations within a Bondi-Sachs, or null cone, formalism. We develop a numerical method to calculate the quasinormal modes, and present results for the case l=2. The values obtained are different than those of a Schwarzschild black hole, and we interpret them as quasinormal modes of a Schwarzschild white hole.

  3. Stability, causality, and quasinormal modes of cosmic strings and cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, Alan B.; Abdalla, E.; Molina, C.

    2010-02-15

    In this work we consider the evolution of a massive scalar field in cylindrically symmetric space-times. Quasinormal modes have been calculated for static and rotating cosmic cylinders. We found unstable modes in some cases. Rotating as well as static cosmic strings, i.e., without regular interior solutions, do not display quasinormal oscillation modes. We conclude that rotating cosmic cylinder space-times that present closed timelike curves are unstable against scalar perturbations.

  4. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, Ru-Keng

    2005-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordström black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  5. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Chenggang; Wang Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su Rukeng

    2005-02-15

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordstroem black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  6. Quasinormal modes of extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richartz, Maurício

    2016-03-01

    The continued fraction method (also known as Leaver's method) is one of the most effective techniques used to determine the quasinormal modes of a black hole. For extremal black holes, however, the method does not work (since, in such a case, the event horizon is an irregular singular point of the associated wave equation). Fortunately, there exists a modified version of the method, devised by Onozawa et al. [Phys. Rev. D 53, 7033 (1996)], which works for neutral massless fields around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole. In this paper, we generalize the ideas of Onozawa et al. to charged massless perturbations around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole and to neutral massless perturbations around an extremal Kerr black hole. In particular, the existence of damped modes is analyzed in detail. Similarities and differences between the results of the original continued fraction method for near extremal black holes and the results of the new continued fraction method for extremal black holes are discussed. Mode stability of extremal black holes is also investigated.

  7. Quasinormal modes in de Sitter space: Plane wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza

    2014-09-01

    Recently, in the context of dS/CFT correspondence, quasinormal modes have been put forward to address certain features of this conjecture. In particular, it is argued that the dual states of quasinormal modes are in fact the states of CFT3 which are created by operator insertions. For a scalar field in dS4, quasinormal modes which are singular on the past horizon of the south pole and decay exponentially towards the future have been considered in [G. S. Ng and A. Strominger, Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 104002 (2013); D. L. Jafferis et al., arXiv:1305.5523]; these modes lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS4 isometry group. In this work, we present a simple group representation analysis of these modes so that the de Sitter invariance is obviously manifest. By making use of the so-called plane wave method, we will show that the quasinormal modes correspond to one class of the unitary irreducible representation of the de Sitter group. This consideration could be generalized straightforwardly for higher-spin fields and higher dimensions; in particular, we will study the quasinormal modes for gauge and spinor fields, and, in the case of a scalar field, the generalization to higher dimensions is also obtained.

  8. The Eikonal Quasinormal Modes of Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Zachary; Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-04-01

    Due to the complicated coupling between gravity and electromagnetism near a Kerr-Newman black hole, a master, separable equation governing gravitational or electromagnetic perturbations has yet to be discovered, impeding efforts to calculate the quasinormal modes of perturbed black holes with arbitrary spin and charge. Instead, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations are found to obey a pair of coupled, partial differential equations. To study the quasinormal modes, we examine these equations in the eikonal limit (where the waves are rapidly changing in space and time) via a newly developed WKB technique capable of handling coupled wave equations. Surprisingly, it turns out that an approximate master equation introduced by Dudley and Finley provides an accurate description of perturbations in the eikonal regime. These techniques allow the ``geometric correspondence'' between quasinormal modes and photon geodesics that is known to be true for Kerr black holes to be extended to Kerr-Newman black holes.

  9. Quasinormal modes of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaver, Edward W.

    1990-05-01

    A matrix-eigenvalue algorithm is presented for accurately computing the quasi-normal frequencies and modes of charged static blackholes. The method is then refined through the introduction of a continued-fraction step. The approach should generalize to a variety of nonseparable wave equations, including the Kerr-Newman case of charged rotating blackholes.

  10. Quasinormal modes of relativistic stars and interacting fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Caio F. B.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Pani, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The quasinormal modes of relativistic compact objects encode important information about the gravitational response associated with astrophysical phenomena. Detecting such oscillations would provide us with a unique understanding of the properties of compact stars and may give definitive evidence for the existence of black holes. However, computing quasinormal modes in realistic astrophysical environments is challenging due to the complexity of the spacetime background and of the dynamics of the perturbations. We discuss two complementary methods for computing the quasinormal modes of spherically symmetric astrophysical systems, namely, the direct integration method and the continued-fraction method. We extend these techniques to dealing with generic coupled systems of linear equations, with the only assumption being that the interaction between different fields is effectively localized within a finite region. In particular, we adapt the continued-fraction method to include cases where a series solution can be obtained only outside an effective region. As an application, we compute the polar quasinormal modes of boson stars by using the continued-fraction method for the first time. The methods discussed here can be applied to other situations in which the perturbations effectively couple only within a finite region of space.

  11. Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-12-15

    Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow.

  12. Quasinormal modes and the phase structure of strongly coupled matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Romuald A.; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to different first order phase transitions. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We focus on quantifying linearized level dynamical response of the system in the critical region of phase diagram. Generically non-hydrodynamic degrees of freedom are important for the low energy physics in the vicinity of a phase transition. For a model with linear confinement in the meson spectrum we find degeneracy of hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic modes close to the minimal black hole temperature, and we establish a region of temperatures with unstable non-hydrodynamic modes in a branch of black hole solutions.

  13. Dirac quasinormal modes of Chern-Simons and BTZ black holes with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécar, Ramón; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study Chern-Simons black holes in d dimensions and we calculate analytically the quasinormal modes of fermionic perturbations. Also, we consider as background the five-dimensional Chern-Simons black hole with torsion and the BTZ black hole with torsion. We have found that the quasinormal modes depend on the highest power of curvature present in the Chern-Simons theory, such as that which occurs for the quasinormal modes of scalar perturbations. We also show that the effect of the torsion is to modify the real part of the quasinormal frequencies, which modify the oscillation frequency of the field for the five-dimensional case. However, for the BTZ black hole with torsion, the effect is to modify the imaginary part of these frequencies, that is, the relaxation time for the decay of the black hole perturbation. The imaginary part of the quasinormal frequencies is negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under fermionic field perturbations.

  14. Computing black hole partition functions from quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Peter; Szepietowski, Phillip; Vaman, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method of computing one-loop determinants in black hole space-times (with emphasis on asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes) that may be used for numerics when completely-analytic results are unattainable. The method utilizes the expression for one-loop determinants in terms of quasinormal frequencies determined by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev in [1]. A numerical evaluation must face the fact that the sum over the quasinormal modes, indexed by momentum and overtone numbers, is divergent. A necessary ingredient is then a regularization scheme to handle the divergent contributions of individual fixed-momentum sectors to the partition function. To this end, we formulate an effective two-dimensional problem in which a natural refinement of standard heat kernel techniques can be used to account for contributions to the partition function at fixed momentum. We test our method in a concrete case by reproducing the scalar one-loop determinant in the BTZ black hole background. We then discuss the application of such techniques to more complicated spacetimes.

  15. Quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Daiske; Soda, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    We study quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity. We formulate the WKB method adapted to Lovelock gravity for the calculation of quasinormal frequencies (QNFs). As a demonstration, we calculate various QNFs of Lovelock black holes in seven and eight dimensions. We find that the QNFs show remarkable features depending on the coefficients of the Lovelock terms, the species of perturbations, and spacetime dimensions. In the case of the scalar field, when we increase the coefficient of the third order Lovelock term, the real part of QNFs increases, but the decay rate becomes small irrespective of the mass of the black hole. For small black holes, the decay rate ceases to depend on the Gauss-Bonnet term. In the case of tensor type perturbations of the metric field, the tendency of the real part of QNFs is opposite to that of the scalar field. The QNFs of vector type perturbations of the metric show no particular behavior. The behavior of QNFs of the scalar type perturbations of the metric field is similar to the vector type. However, available data are rather sparse, which indicates that the WKB method is not applicable to many models for this sector.

  16. Immirzi parameter and quasinormal modes in four and higher spacetime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Dong

    2016-08-01

    There is a one-parameter quantization ambiguity in loop quantum gravity, which is called the Immirzi parameter. In this paper, we fix this free parameter by considering the quasinormal mode spectrum of black holes in four and higher spacetime dimensions. As a consequence, our result is consistent with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole. Moreover, we also give a possible quantum gravity explanation of the universal ln 3 behavior of the quasinormal mode spectrum.

  17. Quasinormal modes for subtracted rotating and magnetized geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Saleem, Z. H.

    2014-12-01

    We obtain explicit separable solutions of the wave equation of massless minimally coupled scalar fields in the subtracted geometry of four-dimensional rotating and Melvin (magnetised) four-charge black holes of the STU model, a consistent truncation of maximally supersymmetric supergravity with four types of electromagnetic fields. These backgrounds possess a hidden SL (2 ,R )×SL (2 ,R )×SO (3 ) symmetry and faithfully model the near-horizon geometry of these black holes, but locate them in a confining asymptotically conical box. For each subtracted geometry we obtain two branches of quasinormal modes, given in terms of hypergeometric functions and spherical harmonics. One branch is over-damped and the other under-damped and they exhibit rotational splitting. No black hole bomb is possible because the Killing field which corotates with the horizon is everywhere timelike outside the black hole. A five-dimensional lift of these geometries is given locally by the product of a Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole with a two-sphere. This allows an explicit analysis of the minimally coupled massive five-dimensional scalar field. Again, there are two branches, both damped; however, now their oscillatory parts are shifted by the quantized wave number k along the fifth circle direction.

  18. Second-order quasinormal mode of the Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ioka, Kunihito

    2007-10-15

    We formulate and calculate the second-order quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH). Gravitational waves (GW) from a distorted BH, the so-called ringdowns, are well understood as QNMs in general relativity. Since QNMs from binary BH mergers will be detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio by GW detectors, it is also possible to detect the second perturbative order of QNMs, generated by nonlinear gravitational interaction near the BH. In the BH perturbation approach, we derive the master Zerilli equation for the metric perturbation to second order and explicitly regularize it at the horizon and spatial infinity. We numerically solve the second-order Zerilli equation by implementing the modified Leaver continued fraction method. The second-order QNM frequencies are found to be twice the first-order ones, and the GW amplitude is up to {approx}10% that of the first order for the binary BH mergers. Since the second-order QNMs always exist, we can use their detections (i) to test the nonlinearity of general relativity, in particular, the no-hair theorem, (ii) to remove fake events in the data analysis of QNM GWs, and (iii) to measure the distance to the BH.

  19. Mesonic quasinormal modes of the Sakai-Sugimoto model at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; Threlfall, Ed

    2008-06-15

    We examine the mesonic thermal spectrum of the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD by finding the quasinormal frequencies of the supergravity dual. If flavor is added using D8-D8 branes there exist embeddings where the D-brane world volume contains a black hole. For these embeddings (the high-temperature phase of the Sakai-Sugimoto model) we determine the quasinormal spectra of scalar and vector mesons arising from the world volume Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of the D-brane. We stress the importance of a coordinate change that makes the infalling quasinormal modes regular at the horizon allowing a simple numerical shooting technique. Finally we examine the effect of finite spatial momentum on quasinormal spectra.

  20. Thermodynamics, phase transition and quasinormal modes with Weyl corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Subhash

    2016-04-01

    We study charged black holes in D dimensional AdS space, in the presence of four derivative Weyl correction. We obtain the black hole solution perturbatively up to first as well as second order in the Weyl coupling, and show that first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied in all dimensions. We study its thermodynamic phase transition and then calculate the quasinormal frequencies of the massless scalar field perturbation. We find that, here too, the quasinormal frequencies capture the essence of black hole phase transition. Few subtleties near the second order critical point are discussed.

  1. Calculation, normalization, and perturbation of quasinormal modes in coupled cavity-waveguide systems.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2014-11-15

    We show how one can use a nonlocal boundary condition, which is compatible with standard frequency domain methods, for numerical calculation of quasinormal modes in optical cavities coupled to waveguides. In addition, we extend the definition of the quasinormal mode norm by use of the theory of divergent series to provide a framework for modeling of optical phenomena in such coupled cavity-waveguide systems. As example applications, we calculate the Purcell factor and study perturbative changes in the complex resonance frequency of a photonic crystal cavity coupled to a defect waveguide. PMID:25490468

  2. Quasinormal modes of Kerr-Newman black holes: Coupling of electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Emanuele; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2005-06-15

    We compute numerically the quasinormal modes of Kerr-Newman black holes in the scalar case, for which the perturbation equations are separable. Then we study different approximations to decouple electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of the Kerr-Newman metric, computing the corresponding quasinormal modes. Our results suggest that the Teukolsky-like equation derived by Dudley and Finley gives a good approximation to the dynamics of a rotating charged black hole for Q < or approx. M/2. Though insufficient to deal with Kerr-Newman based models of elementary particles, the Dudley-Finley equation should be adequate for astrophysical applications.

  3. Quasinormal-mode spectrum of Kerr black holes and its geometric interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Nichols, David A.; Zhang, Fan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Zhang, Zhongyang; Chen, Yanbei

    2012-11-01

    There is a well-known, intuitive geometric correspondence between high-frequency quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black holes and null geodesics that reside on the light ring (often called spherical photon orbits): the real part of the mode’s frequency relates to the geodesic’s orbital frequency, and the imaginary part of the frequency corresponds to the Lyapunov exponent of the orbit. For slowly rotating black holes, the quasinormal mode’s real frequency is a linear combination of the orbit’s precessional and orbital frequencies, but the correspondence is otherwise unchanged. In this paper, we find a relationship between the quasinormal-mode frequencies of Kerr black holes of arbitrary (astrophysical) spins and general spherical photon orbits, which is analogous to the relationship for slowly rotating holes. To derive this result, we first use the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to compute accurate algebraic expressions for large-l quasinormal-mode frequencies. Comparing our Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculation to the leading-order, geometric-optics approximation to scalar-wave propagation in the Kerr spacetime, we then draw a correspondence between the real parts of the parameters of a quasinormal mode and the conserved quantities of spherical photon orbits. At next-to-leading order in this comparison, we relate the imaginary parts of the quasinormal-mode parameters to coefficients that modify the amplitude of the scalar wave. With this correspondence, we find a geometric interpretation of two features of the quasinormal-mode spectrum of Kerr black holes: First, for Kerr holes rotating near the maximal rate, a large number of modes have nearly zero damping; we connect this characteristic to the fact that a large number of spherical photon orbits approach the horizon in this limit. Second, for black holes of any spins, the frequencies of specific sets of modes are degenerate; we find that this feature arises when the spherical photon orbits

  4. Quasinormal modes of a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole: gravitational and Dirac perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mahamat; Bouetou, Bouetou Thomas; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the Schwarzschild black hole are investigated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations. Gravitational and Dirac perturbations were considered for this case. The Regge-Wheeler gauge and the Dirac equation were used to derive the perturbation equations of the gravitational and Dirac fields respectively and the third order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation method is used for the computing of the quasinormal frequencies. The results show that due to the quantum fluctuations in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole, the QNMs of the black hole damp more slowly when increasing the quantum correction factor (a), and oscillate more slowly.

  5. Scalar waves in regular Bardeen black holes: Scattering, absorption and quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Caio F. B.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Oliveira, Ednilton S.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of massless scalar fields around a regular Bardeen black hole, namely absorption cross-section, scattering cross-section and quasinormal modes. We compare the Bardeen and Reissner-Nordström black holes, showing limiting cases for which their properties are similar.

  6. Quasinormal modes and greybody factors of a four-dimensional Lifshitz black hole with z=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Marcela; Cisternas, Eduardo; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2016-06-01

    We study scalar perturbations for a four-dimensional asymptotically Lifshitz black hole in conformal gravity with dynamical exponent z=0, and spherical topology for the transverse section, and we find analytically and numerically the quasinormal modes for scalar fields for some special cases. Then, we study the stability of these black holes under scalar field perturbations and greybody factors.

  7. Bifurcation of the quasinormal spectrum and zero damped modes for rotating dilatonic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2015-09-01

    It has been recently found that for the near extremal Kerr black holes appearing of zero damped modes (accompanied by quasinormal mode branching) signifies about inapplicability of the regime of small perturbations and the onset of turbulence. Here we show that this phenomenon is not limited by Kerr or Kerr-Newman solutions only, but also takes place for rotating dilatonic black holes for which we have found zero damped modes both numerically and analytically. We have also shown that, contrary to recent claims, there is no instability of a charged massive scalar field in the background of the rotating dilatonic black hole under physically adequate boundary conditions. Analytic expression for dominant quasinormal frequencies is deduced in the regime of large coupling q Q , where q and Q are the field and black hole charges, respectively.

  8. Quasinormal modes for single horizon black holes in generic 2D dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, Joanne; Kunstatter, Gabor; Medved, A. J. M.

    2004-12-01

    There has been some recent speculation that a connection may exist between the quasinormal-mode spectra of highly damped black holes and the fundamental theory of quantum gravity. This notion follows from a conjecture by Hod that the real part of the highly damped mode frequencies can be used to calibrate the semi-classical level spacing in the black-hole quantum area spectrum. However, even if the level spacing can be fixed in this manner, it still remains unclear whether this implies a physically significant 'duality' or merely a numerical coincidence. This tapestry of ideas serves as the motivation for the current paper. We utilize the 'monodromy approach' to calculate the quasinormal-mode spectra for a generic class of black holes in two-dimensional dilatonic gravity. Our results agree with the prior literature whenever a direct comparison is possible and provide the analysis of a much more diverse class of black-hole models than previously considered.

  9. On Quasi-Normal Modes, Area Quantization and Bohr Correspondence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2015-10-01

    In (Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. D 14, 181 2005), the author Khriplovich verbatim claims that "the correspondence principle does not dictate any relation between the asymptotics of quasinormal modes and the spectrum of quantized black holes" and that "this belief is in conflict with simple physical arguments". In this paper we analyze Khriplovich's criticisms and realize that they work only for the original proposal by Hod, while they do not work for the improvements suggested by Maggiore and recently finalized by the author and collaborators through a connection between Hawking radiation and black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNMs). This is a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Thus, QNMs can be really interpreted as BH quantum levels (the "electrons" of the "Bohr-like BH model").Our results have also important implications on the BH information puzzle.

  10. Quasinormal modes, scattering, and Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman black holes in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2011-01-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the spectrum of proper oscillations (quasinormal modes), transmission/reflection coefficients, and Hawking radiation for a massive charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an asymptotically homogeneous magnetic field. There are two main effects: the Zeeman shift of the particle energy in the magnetic field and the difference of values of an electromagnetic potential between the horizon and infinity, i.e. the Faraday induction. We have shown that 'turning on' the magnetic field induces a stronger energy-emission rate and leads to 'recharging' of the black hole. Thus, a black hole immersed in a magnetic field evaporates much quicker, achieving thereby an extremal state in a shorter period of time. Quasinormal modes are moderately affected by the presence of a magnetic field which is assumed to be relatively small compared to the gravitational field of the black hole.

  11. A brief study of quasi-normal modes in relativistic stars using algebraic computation

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, M. de

    2010-11-12

    The damped oscillations in relativistic stars generate gravitational waves that in the literature appear under the general denomination of quasi-normal modes. In this brief note we want offer some information about the use of algebraic computation to obtain the field equations and the perturbed version of them, in the context of general relativity theory, that is the framework to study gravitational waves in this work.

  12. Thermalization of Wightman functions in AdS/CFT and quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keränen, Ville; Kleinert, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    We study the time evolution of Wightman two-point functions of scalar fields in AdS3 -Vaidya, a spacetime undergoing gravitational collapse. In the boundary field theory, the collapse corresponds to a quench process where the dual 1 +1 -dimensional CFT is taken out of equilibrium and subsequently thermalizes. From the two-point function, we extract an effective occupation number in the boundary theory and study how it approaches the thermal Bose-Einstein distribution. We find that the Wightman functions, as well as the effective occupation numbers, thermalize with a rate set by the lowest quasinormal mode of the scalar field in the BTZ black hole background. We give a heuristic argument for the quasinormal decay, which is expected to apply to more general Vaidya spacetimes also in higher dimensions. This suggests a unified picture in which thermalization times of one- and two-point functions are determined by the lowest quasinormal mode. Finally, we study how these results compare to previous calculations of two-point functions based on the geodesic approximation.

  13. Linear mode stability of the Kerr-Newman black hole and its quasinormal modes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Óscar J C; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-04-17

    We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m=2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Reω=mΩH(ext) and Imω=0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s|≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩH(ext) the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement. PMID:25933301

  14. How close can we approach the event horizon of the Kerr black hole from the detection of gravitational quasinormal modes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, we show that the peak location (r_peak) of the potential, which determines the quasinormal mode frequency of the Kerr black hole, obeys an accurate empirical relation as a function of the specific angular momentum a and the gravitational mass M. If the quasinormal mode with a/M ˜ 1 is observed by gravitational wave detectors, we can confirm the black-hole space-time around the event horizon, r_peak=r_+ +O(√ {1-q}), where r_+ is the event horizon radius. However, if the quasinormal mode is different from that of general relativity, we are forced to seek the true theory of gravity and/or face the existence of the naked singularity.

  15. How close can we approach the event horizon of the Kerr black hole from the detection of gravitational quasinormal modes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, we show that the peak location (r_peak) of the potential, which determines the quasinormal mode frequency of the Kerr black hole, obeys an accurate empirical relation as a function of the specific angular momentum a and the gravitational mass M. If the quasinormal mode with a/M ˜ 1 is observed by gravitational wave detectors, we can confirm the black-hole space-time around the event horizon, r_peak=r_+ +O(√{1-q}), where r_+ is the event horizon radius. However, if the quasinormal mode is different from that of general relativity, we are forced to seek the true theory of gravity and/or face the existence of the naked singularity.

  16. Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M.

    2010-08-01

    We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.

  17. Highly damped quasinormal modes of generic single-horizon black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghigh, Ramin G.; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2005-10-01

    We calculate analytically the highly damped quasinormal mode spectra of generic single-horizon black holes using the rigorous WKB techniques of Andersson and Howls (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 1623). We thereby provide a firm foundation for previous analysis, and point out some of their possible limitations. The numerical coefficient in the real part of the highly damped frequency is generically determined by the behaviour of coupling of the perturbation to the gravitational field near the origin, as expressed in tortoise coordinates. This fact makes it difficult to understand how the famous ln(3) could be related to the quantum gravitational microstates near the horizon.

  18. Quasinormal modes, bifurcations, and nonuniqueness of charged scalar-tensor black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stefanov, Ivan Zh.

    2010-09-15

    In the present paper, we study the scalar sector of the quasinormal modes of charged general relativistic, static, and spherically symmetric black holes coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and embedded in a class of scalar-tensor theories. We find that for a certain domain of the parametric space, there exists unstable quasinormal modes. The presence of instabilities implies the existence of scalar-tensor black holes with primary hair that bifurcate from the embedded general relativistic black-hole solutions at critical values of the parameters corresponding to the static zero modes. We prove that such scalar-tensor black holes really exist by solving the full system of scalar-tensor field equations for the static, spherically symmetric case. The obtained solutions for the hairy black holes are nonunique, and they are in one-to-one correspondence with the bounded states of the potential governing the linear perturbations of the scalar field. The stability of the nonunique hairy black holes is also examined, and we find that the solutions for which the scalar field has zeros are unstable against radial perturbations. The paper ends with a discussion of possible formulations of a new classification conjecture.

  19. Quasinormal modes of self-dual warped AdS3 black hole in topological massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2011-03-01

    We consider the scalar, vector and spinor field perturbations in the background of self-dual warped AdS3 black hole of topological massive gravity. The corresponding exact expressions for quasinormal modes are obtained by analytically solving the perturbation equations and imposing the vanishing Dirichlet boundary condition at asymptotic infinity. It is expected that the quasinormal modes agree with the poles of retarded Green’s functions of the CFT dual to self-dual warped AdS3 black hole. Our results provide a quantitative test of the warped AdS/CFT correspondence.

  20. Comment on ''Quasinormal modes in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime: A simple derivation of the level spacing of the frequencies''

    SciTech Connect

    Batic, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-05-15

    It is shown here that the extraction of quasinormal modes within the first Born approximation of the scattering amplitude is mathematically not well-founded. Indeed, the constraints on the existence of the scattering amplitude integral lead to inequalities for the imaginary parts of the quasinormal mode frequencies. For instance, in the Schwarzschild case, 0{<=}{omega}{sub I}<{kappa} (where {kappa} is the surface gravity at the horizon) invalidates the poles deduced from the first Born approximation method, namely, {omega}{sub n}=in{kappa}.

  1. The quasi-normal modes of charged scalar fields in Kerr-Newman black hole and its geometric interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiaoning; Sun, Zhao-Yong

    2015-11-01

    It is well-known that there is a geometric correspondence between high-frequency quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and null geodesics (spherical photon orbits). In this paper, we generalize such correspondence to charged scalar field in Kerr-Newman space-time. In our case, the particle and black hole are all charged, so one should consider non-geodesic orbits. Using the WKB approximation, we find that the real part of quasi-normal frequency corresponds to the orbits frequency, the imaginary part of the frequency corresponds to the Lyapunov exponent of these orbits and the eigenvalue of angular equation corresponds to carter constant. From the properties of the imaginary part of quasi-normal frequency of charged massless scalar field, we can still find that the QNMs of charged massless scalar field possess the zero damping modes in extreme Kerr-Newman spacetime under certain condition which has been fixed in this paper.

  2. Quasinormal modes of a scalar perturbation coupling with Einstein's tensor in the warped AdS3 black hole spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Weiping; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang

    2011-06-01

    We have studied the quasinormal modes of a massive scalar field coupling to Einstein’s tensor in the spacelike stretched AdS3 black hole spacetime. We find that both the right-moving and left-moving quasinormal frequencies depend not only on the warped parameter v of the black hole, but also on the coupling between the scalar field and Einstein’s tensor. Moreover, we also discuss the warped AdS/CFT correspondence from the quasinormal modes and probe the effects of the coupling on the left and right conformal weights hL and hR of the operators dual to the scalar field in the boundary.

  3. Axial quasinormal modes of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; González-Romero, Luis Manuel; Kunz, Jutta; Mojica, Sindy; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate axial quasinormal modes of realistic neutron stars in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity. We consider eight realistic equations of state containing nuclear, hyperonic, and hybrid matter. We focus on the fundamental curvature mode and compare the results with those of pure Einstein theory. We observe that the frequency of the modes is increased by the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton, while the impact on the damping time is typically smaller. Interestingly, we obtain that universal relations valid in pure Einstein theory still hold for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity, and we propose a method to use these phenomenological relations to constrain the value of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.

  4. Numerical stability of the electromagnetic quasinormal and quasibound modes of Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicova, Denitsa; Fiziev, Plamen

    2015-07-01

    The proper understanding of the electromagnetic counterpart of gravity-waves emitters is of serious interest to the multimessenger astronomy. In this article, we study the numerical stability of the quasinormal modes (QNM) and quasibound modes (QBM) obtained as solutions of the Teukolsky Angular Equation and the Teukolsky Radial Equation with appropriate boundary conditions. We use the epsilon-method for the system featuring the confluent Heun functions to study the stability of the spectra with respect to changes in the radial variable. We find that the QNM and QBM are stable in certain regions of the complex plane, just as expected, while the third ``spurious'' spectrum was found to be numerically unstable and thus unphysical. This analysis shows the importance of understanding the numerical results in the framework of the theory of the confluent Heun functions, in order to be able to distinguish the physical spectra from the numerical artifacts.

  5. Quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Uchikata, Nami; Yoshida, Shijun

    2011-03-15

    We investigate quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole both with analytical and numerical approaches. In the analytical approach, by using the small black hole approximation (r{sub +}<quasinormal mode frequencies in the limit of r{sub +}/L{yields}0, where r{sub +} and L stand for the black hole event horizon radius and the AdS scale, respectively. We then show that the small RN-AdS black hole is unstable if its quasinormal modes satisfy the superradiance condition and that the instability condition of the RN-AdS black hole in the limit of r{sub +}/L{yields}0 is given by Q>(3/eL)Q{sub c}, where Q, Q{sub c}, and e are the charge of the black hole, the critical (maximum) charge of the black hole, and the charge of the scalar field, respectively. In the numerical approach, we calculate the quasinormal modes for the small RN-AdS black holes with r{sub +}<quasinormal modes satisfy the superradiance condition. Our numerical results show that the RN-AdS black holes with r{sub +}=0.2L, 0.1L, and 0.01L become unstable against scalar perturbations with eL=4 when the charge of the black hole satisfies Q > or approx. 0.8Q{sub c}, 0.78Q{sub c}, and 0.76Q{sub c}, respectively.

  6. Maxwell perturbations on asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Generic boundary conditions and a new branch of quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sampaio, Marco O. P.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations of asymptotically anti-de-Sitter (AdS) spacetimes are often considered by imposing field vanishing boundary conditions (BCs) at the AdS boundary. Such BCs, of Dirichlet-type, imply a vanishing energy flux at the boundary, but the converse is, generically, not true. Regarding AdS as a gravitational box, we consider vanishing energy flux (VEF) BCs as a more fundamental physical requirement and we show that these BCs can lead to a new branch of modes. As a concrete example, we consider Maxwell perturbations on Kerr-AdS black holes in the Teukolsky formalism, but our formulation applies also for other spin fields. Imposing VEF BCs, we find a set of two Robin BCs, even for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. The Robin BCs on the Teukolsky variables can be used to study quasinormal modes, superradiant instabilities and vector clouds. As a first application, we consider here the quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. We find that one of the Robin BCs yields the quasinormal spectrum reported in the literature, while the other one unveils a new branch for the quasinormal spectrum.

  7. Damped and zero-damped quasinormal modes of charged, nearly extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Mark, Zachary

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent progress, the complete understanding of the perturbations of charged, rotating black holes as described by the Kerr-Newman metric remains an open and fundamental problem in relativity. In this study, we explore the existence of families of quasinormal modes of Kerr-Newman black holes whose decay rates limit to zero at extremality, called zero-damped modes in past studies. We review the nearly extremal and WKB approximation methods for spin-weighted scalar fields (governed by the Dudley-Finley equation) and give an accounting of the regimes where scalar zero-damped and damped modes exist. Using Leaver's continued fraction method, we verify that these approximations give accurate predictions for the frequencies in their regimes of validity. In the nonrotating limit, we argue that gravito-electromagnetic perturbations of nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes have zero-damped modes in addition to the well-known spectrum of damped modes. We provide an analytic formula for the frequencies of these modes, verify their existence using a numerical search, and demonstrate the accuracy of our formula. These results, along with recent numerical studies, point to the existence of a simple universal equation for the frequencies of zero-damped gravito-electromagnetic modes of Kerr-Newman black holes, whose precise form remains an open question.

  8. The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babb, James Patrick

    Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.

  9. Detecting quasinormal modes of binary black hole mergers with second-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-02-01

    Recent population synthesis simulations of Pop III stars suggest that the event rate of coalescence of ˜30 M⊙-30 M⊙ binary black holes can be high enough for the detection by the second generation gravitational wave detectors. The frequencies of chirp signal as well as quasinormal modes are near the best sensitivity of these detectors so that it would be possible to confirm Einstein's general relativity. Using the WKB method, we suggest that for the typical value of spin parameter a /M ˜0.7 from numerical relativity results of the coalescence of binary black holes, the strong gravity of the black hole space-time at around the radius 2 M , which is just ˜1.17 times the event horizon radius, would be confirmed as predicted by general relativity. The expected event rate with the signal-to-noise ratio >35 needed for the determination of the quasinormal mode frequency with a meaningful accuracy is 0.17 -7.2 events yr-1 [(SFRp/(1 0-2.5M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3)) .([fb/(1 +fb)]/0.33 ) ], where SFRp and fb are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. As for the possible optical counterpart, if the merged black hole of mass M ˜60 M⊙ is in the interstellar matter with n ˜100 cm-3 and the proper motion of the black hole is ˜1 km s-1 , the luminosity is ˜1040 erg s-1 which can be detected up to ˜300 Mpc , for example, by Subaru-HSC and LSST with the limiting magnitude 26.

  10. Quasinormal modes of black holes in anti-de Sitter space: A numerical study of the eikonal limit

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Jaqueline; Zanchin, Vilson T.; Cardoso, Vitor; Miranda, Alex S.; Molina, C.

    2009-07-15

    Using series solutions and time-domain evolutions, we probe the eikonal limit of the gravitational and scalar-field quasinormal modes of large black holes and black branes in anti-de Sitter backgrounds. These results are particularly relevant for the AdS/CFT correspondence, since the eikonal regime is characterized by the existence of long-lived modes which (presumably) dominate the decay time scale of the perturbations. We confirm all the main qualitative features of these slowly damped modes as predicted by Festuccia and Liu [G. Festuccia and H. Liu, arXiv:0811.1033.] for the scalar-field (tensor-type gravitational) fluctuations. However, quantitatively we find dimensional-dependent correction factors. We also investigate the dependence of the quasinormal mode frequencies on the horizon radius of the black hole (brane) and the angular momentum (wave number) of vector- and scalar-type gravitational perturbations.

  11. Quasinormal modes of (anti-)de Sitter black holes in the 1 /D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-04-01

    We use the inverse-dimensional expansion to compute analytically the frequencies of a set of quasinormal modes of static black holes of Einstein-(Anti-)de Sitter gravity, including the cases of spherical, planar or hyperbolic horizons. The modes we study are decoupled modes localized in the near-horizon region, which are the ones that capture physics peculiar to each black hole (such as their instabilities), and which in large black holes contain hydrodynamic behavior. Our results also give the unstable Gregory-Laflamme frequencies of Ricci-flat black branes to two orders higher in 1 /D than previous calculations. We discuss the limits on the accuracy of these results due to the asymptotic but not convergent character of the 1 /D expansion, which is due to the violation of the decoupling condition at finite D. Finally, we compare the frequencies for AdS black branes to calculations in the hydrodynamic expansion in powers of the momentum k. Our results extend up to k 9 for the sound mode and to k 8 for the shear mode.

  12. Self-force calculations with matched expansions and quasinormal mode sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Dolan, Sam; Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Accurate modeling of gravitational wave emission by extreme-mass ratio inspirals is essential for their detection by the LISA mission. A leading perturbative approach involves the calculation of the self-force acting upon the smaller orbital body. In this work, we present the first application of the Poisson-Wiseman-Anderson method of “matched expansions” to compute the self-force acting on a point particle moving in a curved spacetime. The method employs two expansions for the Green function, which are, respectively, valid in the “quasilocal” and “distant past” regimes, and which may be matched together within the normal neighborhood. We perform our calculation in a static region of the spherically symmetric Nariai spacetime (dS2×S2), in which scalar-field perturbations are governed by a radial equation with a Pöschl-Teller potential (frequently used as an approximation to the Schwarzschild radial potential) whose solutions are known in closed form. The key new ingredients in our study are (i) very high order quasilocal expansions and (ii) expansion of the distant past Green function in quasinormal modes. In combination, these tools enable a detailed study of the properties of the scalar-field Green function. We demonstrate that the Green function is singular whenever x and x' are connected by a null geodesic, and apply asymptotic methods to determine the structure of the Green function near the null wave front. We show that the singular part of the Green function undergoes a transition each time the null wave front passes through a caustic point, following a repeating fourfold sequence δ(σ), 1/πσ, -δ(σ), -1/πσ, etc., where σ is Synge’s world function. The matched-expansion method provides insight into the nonlocal properties of the self-force. We show that the self-force generated by the segment of the worldline lying outside the normal neighborhood is not negligible. We apply the matched-expansion method to compute the scalar self

  13. Quasi-normal modes of a massless scalar field around the 5D Ricci-flat black string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Molin; Liu, Hongya; Gui, Yuanxing

    2008-05-01

    As one candidate of the higher dimensional black holes, the 5D Ricci-flat black string is considered in this paper. By means of a non-trivial potential Vn, the quasi-normal modes of a massless scalar field around this black string space are studied. By using the classical third-order WKB approximation, we carefully analyze the evolution of frequencies in two aspects, one is the induced cosmological constant Λ and the other is the quantum number n. The massless scalar field decays more slowly because of the existence of the fifth dimension and the induced cosmological constant. If an extra dimension has in fact existed near the black hole, the quasi-normal frequencies may have some indication of it.

  14. Dynamical instabilities and quasi-normal modes, a spectral analysis with applications to black-hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutant, Antonin; Michel, Florent; Parentani, Renaud

    2016-06-01

    Black hole dynamical instabilities have been mostly studied in specific models. We here study the general properties of the complex-frequency modes responsible for such instabilities, guided by the example of a charged scalar field in an electrostatic potential. We show that these modes are square integrable, have a vanishing conserved norm, and appear in mode doublets or quartets. We also study how they appear in the spectrum and how their complex frequencies subsequently evolve when varying some external parameter. When working on an infinite domain, they appear from the reservoir of quasi-normal modes obeying outgoing boundary conditions. This is illustrated by generalizing, in a non-positive definite Krein space, a solvable model (Friedrichs model) which originally describes the appearance of a resonance when coupling an isolated system to a mode continuum. In a finite spatial domain instead, they arise from the fusion of two real frequency modes with opposite norms, through a process that closely resembles avoided crossing.

  15. Quasinormal modes of plane-symmetric anti-de Sitter black holes: A complete analysis of the gravitational perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Alex S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2006-03-15

    We study in detail the quasinormal modes of linear gravitational perturbations of plane-symmetric anti-de Sitter black holes. The wave equations are obtained by means of the Newman-Penrose formalism and the Chandrasekhar transformation theory. We show that oscillatory modes decay exponentially with time such that these black holes are stable against gravitational perturbations. Our numerical results show that in the large (small) black hole regime the frequencies of the ordinary quasinormal modes are proportional to the horizon radius r{sub +} (wave number k). The frequency of the purely damped mode is very close to the algebraically special frequency in the small horizon limit, and goes as ik{sup 2}/3r{sub +} in the opposite limit. This result is confirmed by an analytical method based on the power series expansion of the frequency in terms of the horizon radius. The same procedure applied to the Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter spacetime proves that the purely damped frequency goes as i(l-1)(l+2)/3r{sub +}, where l is the quantum number characterizing the angular distribution. Finally, we study the limit of high overtones and find that the frequencies become evenly spaced in this regime. The spacing of the frequency per unit horizon radius seems to be a universal quantity, in the sense that it is independent of the wave number, perturbation parity, and black hole size.

  16. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  17. Maxwell perturbations on Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes: Quasinormal modes, superradiant instabilities, and vector clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Scalar and gravitational perturbations on Kerr-anti-de Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black holes have been addressed in the literature and have been shown to exhibit a rich phenomenology. In this paper, we complete the analysis of bosonic fields on this background by studying Maxwell perturbations, focusing on superradiant instabilities and vector clouds. For this purpose, we solve the Teukolsky equations numerically, imposing the boundary conditions we have proposed in [1] for the radial Teukolsky equation. As found therein, two Robin boundary conditions can be imposed for Maxwell fields on Kerr-AdS black holes, one of which produces a new set of quasinormal modes even for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. Here, we show these different boundary conditions produce two different sets of superradiant modes. Interestingly, the "new modes" may be unstable in a larger parameter space. We then study stationary Maxwell clouds that exist at the threshold of the superradiant instability, with the two Robin boundary conditions. These clouds, obtained at the linear level, indicate the existence of a new family of black hole solutions at the nonlinear level, within the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS system, branching off from the Kerr-Newman-AdS family. As a comparison with the Maxwell clouds, scalar clouds on Kerr-AdS black holes are also studied, and it is shown there are Kerr-AdS black holes that are stable against scalar, but not vector, modes with the same "quantum numbers".

  18. Quantum dynamics of two quantum dots coupled through localized plasmons: An intuitive and accurate quantum optics approach using quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of two quantum dots (QDs) or artificial atoms coupled through the fundamental localized plasmon of a gold nanorod resonator. We derive an intuitive and efficient time-local master equation, in which the effect of the metal nanorod is taken into consideration self-consistently using a quasinormal mode (QNM) expansion technique of the photon Green function. Our efficient QNM technique offers an alternative and more powerful approach over the standard Jaynes-Cummings model, where the radiative decay, nonradiative decay, and spectral reshaping effect of the electromagnetic environment is rigorously included in a clear and transparent way. We also show how one can use our approach to compliment the approximate Jaynes-Cummings model in certain spatial regimes where it is deemed to be valid. We then present a study of the quantum dynamics and photoluminescence spectra of the two plasmon-coupled QDs. We first explore the non-Markovian regime, which is found to be important only on the ultrashort time scale of the plasmon mode which is about 40 fs. For the field free evolution case of excited QDs near the nanorod, we demonstrate how spatially separated QDs can be effectively coupled through the plasmon resonance and we show how frequencies away from the plasmon resonance can be more effective for coherently coupling the QDs. Despite the strong inherent dissipation of gold nanoresonators, we show that qubit entanglements as large as 0.7 can be achieved from an initially separate state, which has been limited to less than 0.5 in previous work for weakly coupled reservoirs. We also study the superradiance and subradiance decay dynamics of the QD pair. Finally, we investigate the rich quantum dynamics of QDs that are incoherently pumped, and study the polarization dependent behavior of the emitted photoluminescence spectrum where a double-resonance structure is observed due to the strong photon exchange interactions. Our general quantum plasmonics

  19. Possible confirmation of the existence of the ergoregion by the Kerr quasinormal mode in gravitational waves from a Population III massive black hole binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The existence of the ergoregion of the Kerr space-time has not yet been confirmed observationally. We show that the confirmation would be possible by observing the quasinormal mode in gravitational waves. As an example, using the recent population synthesis results of Population III (Pop III) binary black holes, we find that the peak of the final merger mass (M_f) is about 50 M_{⊙}, while the fraction of the final spin q_f = a_f/M_f > 0.7 needed for the confirmation of a part of the ergoregion is {˜ }77%. To confirm the frequency of the quasinormal mode, SNR > 35 is needed. The standard model of Pop III population synthesis tells us that the event rate for the confirmation of more than 50% of the ergoregion by second generation gravitational wave detectors is {˜ }2.3 events yr^{-1 (SFR_p/(10^{-2.5} M_⊙ yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3}))} \\cdot ([f_b/(1+f_b)]/0.33), where SFR_p and f_b are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively.

  20. Quasinormal modes and a new instability of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black holes in the de Sitter world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyubamba, M. A.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of time-domain profiles for gravitational perturbations shows that Gauss-Bonnet black holes in a de Sitter world possess a new kind of dynamical instability which does not take place for asymptotically flat Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black holes. The new instability is in the gravitational perturbations of the scalar type and is due to the nonvanishing cosmological constant. Analysis of the quasinormal spectrum in the stability sector shows that although the scalar type of gravitational perturbations alone does not obey Hod's conjectural bound, connecting the damping rate and the Hawking temperature, the vector and tensor types (and thereby the gravitational spectrum as a whole) do obey it.

  1. Merger of binary neutron stars to a black hole: Disk mass, short gamma-ray bursts, and quasinormal mode ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2006-03-01

    waves can be ≳5×10-21 at a distance of 50 Mpc, and hence, it may be detected by advanced laser-interferometers. For the black hole formation case, the black hole excision technique enables a long-term computation and extraction of ring-down gravitational waves associated with a black hole quasinormal mode. It is found that the frequency and amplitude are ≈6.5 7kHz and ˜10-22 at a distance of 50 Mpc for the binary of mass M≈2.7 2.9M⊙.

  2. Non-extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole: do asymptotic quasi-normal modes carry information about the quantum properties of the black hole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skákala, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the largely accepted formulas for the asymptotic quasi-normal frequencies of the non-extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole, (for the electromagnetic-gravitational/scalar perturbations). We focus on the question of whether the gap in the spacing in the imaginary part of the QNM frequencies has a well defined limit as n goes to infinity and if so, what is the value of the limit. The existence and the value of this limit has a crucial importance from the point of view of the currently popular Maggiore's conjecture, which represents a way of connecting the asymptotic behavior of the quasi-normal frequencies to the black hole thermodynamics. With the help of previous results and insights we will prove that the gap in the imaginary part of the frequencies does not converge to any limit, unless one puts specific constraints on the ratio of the two surface gravities related to the two spacetime horizons. Specifically the constraints are that the ratio of the surface gravities must be rational and such that it is given by two relatively prime integers n ± whose product is an even number. If the constraints are fulfilled the limit of the sequence is still not guaranteed to exist, but if it exists its value is given as the lowest common multiplier of the two surface gravities. At the end of the paper we discuss the possible implications of our results.

  3. Black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics: Quasinormal spectra and parity splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Claudia; Sarbach, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the quasinormal oscillations of black holes which are sourced by a nonlinear electrodynamic field. While previous studies have focused on the computation of quasinormal frequencies for the wave or higher spin equation on a fixed background geometry described by such black holes, here we compute for the first time the quasinormal frequencies for the coupled electromagnetic-gravitational linear perturbations. To this purpose, we consider a parametrized family of Lagrangians for the electromagnetic field which contains the Maxwell Lagrangian as a special case. In the Maxwell case, the unique spherically symmetric black hole solutions are described by the Reissner-Nordström family and in this case it is well known that the quasinormal spectra in the even- and odd-parity sectors are identical to each other. However, when moving away from the Maxwell case, we obtain deformed Reissner-Nordström black holes, and we show that in this case there is a parity splitting in the quasinormal mode spectra. A partial explanation for this phenomena is provided by considering the eikonal (high-frequency) limit.

  4. Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, R.; López-Ortega, A.; Vega-Acevedo, I.

    2012-04-01

    We calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of Klein-Gordon and Dirac test fields propagating in 2D uncharged Achucarro-Ortiz black hole. For both test fields we study whether the quasinormal frequencies are well defined in the massless limit. We use their values to discuss the classical stability of the quasinormal modes in uncharged Achucarro-Ortiz black hole and to check the recently proposed Time Times Temperature bound. Furthermore we extend some of these results to the charged Achucarro-Ortiz black hole.

  5. Quasinormal acoustic oscillations in the Michel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Morales, Manuel D.; Sarbach, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    We study spherical and nonspherical linear acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow, which describes the steady radial accretion of a perfect fluid into a nonrotating black hole. The dynamics of such perturbations are governed by a scalar wave equation on an effective curved background geometry determined by the acoustic metric, which is constructed from the spacetime metric and the particle density and four-velocity of the fluid. For the problem under consideration in this paper the acoustic metric has the same qualitative features as an asymptotically flat, static and spherically symmetric black hole, and thus it represents a natural astrophysical analogue black hole. As for the case of a scalar field propagating on a Schwarzschild background, we show that acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow exhibit quasinormal oscillations. Based on a new numerical method for determining the solutions of the radial mode equation, we compute the associated frequencies and analyze their dependency on the mass of the black hole, the radius of the sonic horizon and the angular momentum number. Our results for the fundamental frequencies are compared to those obtained from an independent numerical Cauchy evolution, finding good agreement between the two approaches. When the radius of the sonic horizon is large compared to the event horizon radius, we find that the quasinormal frequencies scale approximately like the surface gravity associated with the sonic horizon.

  6. Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles: Numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2007-10-15

    Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles is discussed. The equation for sounds in a transonic flow is written into a Schroedinger-type equation with a potential barrier, and the quasinormal frequencies are calculated semianalytically. From the results of numerical simulations, it is shown that the quasinormal modes are actually excited when the transonic flow is formed or slightly perturbed, as well as in the real black hole case. In an actual experiment, however, the purely-outgoing boundary condition will not be satisfied at late times due to the wave reflection at the end of the apparatus, and a late-time ringing will be expressed as a superposition of boxed quasinormal modes. It is shown that the late-time ringing damps more slowly than the ordinary quasinormal ringing, while its central frequency is not greatly different from that of the ordinary one. Using this fact, an efficient way for experimentally detecting the quasinormal ringing of an acoustic black hole is discussed.

  7. Quasi-normal acoustic oscillations in the transonic Bondi flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Sarbach, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of nonspherical acoustic perturbations of the transonic Bondi flow, describing the steady radial accretion of a polytropic perfect fluid into a gravity center. The propagation of such perturbations can be described by a wave equation on the curved effective background geometry determined by the acoustic metric introduced by Unruh in the context of experimental black hole evaporation. We show that for the transonic Bondi flow, Unruh's acoustic metric describes an analogue black hole and that the acoustic perturbations undergo quasi-normal oscillations. The associated quasi-normal frequencies are computed and they are proven to scale like the surface gravity of the acoustic black hole. This provides an explanation for results given in an earlier work, where it was shown that the acoustic perturbations of a relativistic fluid accreted by a nonrotating black hole possess quasi-normal modes, and where it was found empirically that the associated frequencies scaled like the surface gravity of the analogue black hole in the limit where the radius of the sonic horizon is much larger than the Schwarzschild radius.

  8. Mode identification from spectroscopy of gravity-mode pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Brunsden, E.; Cottrell, P. L.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2014-02-01

    The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. For the MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury, we obtain extensive high-resolution echelle spectra of γ Dor stars from the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We analyze these to obtain the pulsational frequencies and identify these with the multiple pulsational modes excited in the star. A summary of recent results from our spectroscopic mode-identification programme is given.

  9. The detection rate of inspiral and quasi-normal modes of Population III binary black holes which can confirm or refute the general relativity in the strong gravity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Miyamoto, Akinobu; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Using our population synthesis code, we found that the typical chirp mass defined by (m1m2)3/5/(m1 + m2)1/5 of Population III (Pop III) binary black holes (BH-BHs) is ˜30 M⊙ with the total mass of ˜60 M⊙ so that the inspiral chirp signal as well as quasi-normal mode (QNM) of the merging black hole (BH) are interesting targets of KAGRA. The detection rate of the coalescing Pop III BH-BHs is ˜180 events yr- 1 (SFRp/(10-2.5 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3))([fb/(1 + fb)]/0.33)Errsys in our standard model, where SFRp, fb and Errsys are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate, the binary fraction and the systematic error with Errsys = 1 for our standard model, respectively. To evaluate the robustness of chirp mass distribution and the range of Errsys, we examine the dependence of the results on the unknown parameters and the distribution functions in the population synthesis code. We found that the chirp mass has a peak at ˜30 M⊙ in most of parameters and distribution functions as well as Errsys ranges from 0.046 to 4. Therefore, the detection rate of the coalescing Pop III BH-BHs ranges about 8.3-720 events yr- 1(SFRp/(10- 2.5 M⊙ yr- 1 Mpc- 3))([fb/(1 + fb)]/0.33). The minimum rate corresponds to the worst model which we think unlikely so that unless (SFRp/(10- 2.5 M⊙ yr- 1 Mpc- 3))([fb/(1 + fb)]/0.33) ≪ 0.1, we expect the Pop III BH-BHs merger rate of at least one event per year by KAGRA. Nakano, Tanaka & Nakamura show that if signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of QNM is larger than 35, we can confirm or refute the general relativity (GR) more than 5σ level. In our standard model, the detection rate of Pop III BH-BHs whose S/N is larger than 35 is 3.2 events yr- 1 (SFRp/(10- 2.5 M⊙ yr- 1 Mpc- 3))([fb/(1 + fb)]/0.33)Errsys. Thus, there is a good chance to check whether GR is correct or not in the strong gravity region.

  10. Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.

    2008-11-14

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.

  11. THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes.

    PubMed

    Markelz, Andrea; Whitmire, Scott; Hillebrecht, Jay; Birge, Robert

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the use of terahertz time domain spectroscopy for studies of conformational flexibility and conformational change in biomolecules. Protein structural dynamics are vital to biological function with protein flexibility affecting enzymatic reaction rates and sensory transduction cycling times. Conformational mode dynamics occur on the picosecond timescale and with the collective vibrational modes associated with these large scale structural motions in the 1-100 cm(-1) range. We have performed THz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) of several biomolecular systems to explore the sensitivity of TTDS to distinguish different molecular species, different mutations within a single species and different conformations of a given biomolecule. We compare the measured absorbances to normal mode calculations and find that the TTDS absorbance reflects the density of normal modes determined by molecular mechanics calculations, and is sensitive to both conformation and mutation. These early studies demonstrate some of the advantages and limitations of using TTDS for the study of biomolecules. PMID:12452570

  12. Black-hole quasinormal resonances: Wave analysis versus a geometric-optics approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2009-09-01

    It has long been known that null unstable geodesics are related to the characteristic modes of black holes—the so-called quasinormal resonances. The basic idea is to interpret the free oscillations of a black hole in the eikonal limit in terms of null particles trapped at the unstable circular orbit and slowly leaking out. The real part of the complex quasinormal resonances is related to the angular velocity at the unstable null geodesic. The imaginary part of the resonances is related to the instability time scale (or the inverse Lyapunov exponent) of the orbit. While this geometric-optics description of the black-hole quasinormal resonances in terms of perturbed null rays is very appealing and intuitive, it is still highly important to verify the validity of this approach by directly analyzing the Teukolsky wave equation which governs the dynamics of perturbation waves in the black-hole spacetime. This is the main goal of the present paper. We first use the geometric-optics technique of perturbing a bundle of unstable null rays to calculate the resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes in the eikonal approximation. We then directly solve the Teukolsky wave equation (supplemented by the appropriate physical boundary conditions) and show that the resultant quasinormal spectrum obtained directly from the wave analysis is in accord with the spectrum obtained from the geometric-optics approximation of perturbed null rays.

  13. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-09-07

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  14. Quasinormal frequencies of self-dual black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Victor; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-04-01

    One simplified black hole model constructed from a semiclassical analysis of loop quantum gravity (LQG) is called the self-dual black hole. This black hole solution depends on a free dimensionless parameter P known as the polymeric parameter and also on the a0 area related to the minimum area gap of LQG. In the limit of P and a0 going to zero, the usual Schwarzschild solution is recovered. Here we investigate the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of massless scalar perturbations in the self-dual black hole background. We compute the QN frequencies using the sixth-order WKB approximation method and compare them with numerical solutions of the Regge-Wheeler equation. Our results show that, as the parameter P grows, the real part of the QN frequencies suffers an initial increase and then starts to decrease while the magnitude of the imaginary one decreases for fixed area gap a0. This particular feature means that the damping of scalar perturbations in the self-dual black hole spacetimes is slower, and the oscillations are faster or slower according to the value of P .

  15. Quasinormal frequencies of black hole in the braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-06-01

    We study scalar, electromagnetic, axial, and polar gravitational perturbations of the four-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-like black holes with a tidal charge in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld in the first approximation when the tidal perturbations are not taken into account. The quasinormal modes of these perturbations have been studied in both normal and eikonal regimes. Calculations have shown that the black holes on the Randall-Sundrum brane are stable against all kinds of perturbations. Moreover, we determine the greybody factor, giving transmission and reflection of the scattered waves through the effective potentials. It has been shown that the scalar perturbative fields are the most favorite to reflect the wave as compared to the other fields. With increasing value of the tidal charge, the ability of the all perturbative potentials to reflect the waves decreases. Our calculations in low- and high-frequency regimes have shown that black holes on the braneworld always have a bigger absorption cross section of massless scalar waves than the Schwarzschild and standard Reissner-Nordström black holes.

  16. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.

    2013-12-01

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  17. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10−7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy. PMID:24448604

  18. Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.

    2015-08-31

    We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.

  19. Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, T.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.; Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.

    2015-08-01

    We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.

  20. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2013-12-02

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  1. Mid-infrared multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northern, Henry; O'Hagan, Seamus; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ewart, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy of ammonia and methane at 3.3 μm has been demonstrated using a source of multi-mode mid-infrared radiation based on difference frequency generation. Multi-mode radiation at 1.56 μm from a diode-pumped Er:Yb:glass laser was mixed with a single-mode Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal to produce multi-mode radiation in the region of 3.3 μm. Detection, by direct multi-mode absorption, of NH3 and CH4 is reported for each species individually and also simultaneously in mixtures allowing measurements of partial pressures of each species.

  2. Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. B.; Herz, L. M.; Khan, A. L. T.; Köhler, A.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2003-08-01

    Low-energy vibrational modes have been investigated in polycrystalline biphenyl, para-terphenyl, para-quaterphenyl and para-sexiphenyl using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). A number of both internal and external infrared-active modes were observed for wavenumbers ranging between 20 and 80 cm -1. The temperature dependence of these modes is consistent with structural phase transitions occurring in the molecular crystal, indicating that THz-TDS is a sensitive probe of the conformation of conjugated molecular systems.

  3. Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tittel, Frank K; Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Dong, Lei; Geras, Antonina; Starecki, Tomasz; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-21

    A detailed investigation of a set of custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs), operating in the fundamental and first overtone flexural modes is reported. Support losses are the dominant energy dissipation processes when the QTFs vibrate at the first overtone mode. These losses can be decreased by increasing the ratio between the prong length and its thickness. The QTFs were implemented in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based sensor operating in the near-IR spectral range and water vapor was selected as the gas target. QTF flexural modes having the highest quality factor exhibit the largest QEPAS signal, demonstrating that, by optimizing the QTF prongs sizes, overtone modes can provide a higher QEPAS sensor performance with respect to using the fundamental mode. PMID:27136886

  4. Rotationally-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Bending Modes of Deuterated Water Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jacob T.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of small gas-phase water clusters has provided a wealth of information regarding the intermolecular interactions between water molecules. Water dimer is of particular interest because high-resolution spectroscopy can yield detailed information about the water pair potential. While there have been extensive studies of water dimer throughout the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum, to date there has been no reported high-resolution spectrum of the intramolecular bending modes of water dimer. We have obtained rotationally-resolved spectra of the bending modes of deuterated water dimer (D_2O)_2, which are, to our knowledge, the first reported spectra of the bending modes of water dimer with rotational resolution. Dimers were produced in a supersonic expansion by bubbling Ar or He through D_2O and expanding the mixture through a 150 μm × 12 mm slit. The expansion was then probed using continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy with light generated by a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating near 8.5 μm. We have assigned the K_a = 1 ← 0 and K_a = 2 ← 1 sub-bands of the bending mode belonging to the hydrogen bond donor and have observed additional transitions which we attribute to the bending mode associated with the hydrogen bond acceptor.

  5. One-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for validation of CRDS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygan, Agata; Wójtewicz, Szymon; Zaborowski, Mikołaj; Wcisło, Piotr; Guo, Ruimin; Ciuryło, Roman; Lisak, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Detection of systematic errors of the measurement method is a demanding task, since it requires an independent, high-accuracy reference method for comparison. Here, we validate the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) in relation to the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy (1D-CMDS). The complex line-shape function is used for the first time in the simultaneous analysis of absorptive and dispersive spectra and its potential in accurate line-shape studies is indicated. A new approach providing insensitivity of the 1D-CMDS to the drift of the laser-to-cavity locking point is demonstrated.

  6. Magnetostatic spin wave modes in trilayer nanowire arrays probed using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the spin wave modes in asymmetric trilayer [N i80F e20(10 nm ) /Cu (tCu) /N i80F e20(30 nm ) ] nanowire structures as a function of the Cu thickness (tCu) in the range from 0 to 20 nm using perpendicular ferromagnetic resonance (pFMR) spectroscopy. For tCu=0 nm , corresponding to the 40 nm thick single layer N i80F e20 nanowires, both the fundamental and first order modes are observed in the saturation region. However, for the trilayer structures, two additional modes, which are the fundamental and first order optical modes, are observed. We also found that the resonance fields of these modes are markedly sensitive to the Cu thickness due to the competing effects of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic dipolar coupling. When the tCu≥10 nm , the fundamental optical mode is more pronounced. Our experimental results are in quantitative agreement with the dynamic micromagnetic simulations.

  7. Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Drumhead Modes in a Mesoscopic Trapped-Ion Crystal using Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Keith, Adam; Wang, Joseph; Freericks, James; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael; Bollinger, John

    2012-06-01

    Studies of quantum mechanics at intermediate scales between microscopic and mesoscopic regimes have recently focused on the observation of quantum coherent phenomena in optomechanical systems. We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement-induced decoherence as a method of transduction. Our system is a ˜400 μm-diameter planar crystal of several hundred ^9Be^+ ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the ^9Be^+ valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with an effective wavelength approaching the interparticle spacing (˜20 μm). Center-of-mass displacements of ˜120 pm are detected via entanglement of spin and motional degrees of freedom.

  8. Spectroscopy and thermometry of drumhead modes in a mesoscopic trapped-ion crystal using entanglement.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brian C; Britton, Joseph W; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C-C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-05-25

    We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement-induced decoherence as a method of transduction. Our system is a ~400 μm-diameter planar crystal of several hundred 9Be(+) ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the 9Be(+) valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with an effective wavelength approaching the interparticle spacing (~20 μm). Center-of-mass displacements below 1 nm are detected via the entanglement of spin and motional degrees of freedom. PMID:23003249

  9. Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Drumhead Modes in a Mesoscopic Trapped-Ion Crystal Using Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Brian C.; Britton, Joseph W.; Keith, Adam C.; Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Freericks, James K.; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J.; Bollinger, John J.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement-induced decoherence as a method of transduction. Our system is a ˜400μm-diameter planar crystal of several hundred Be+9 ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the Be+9 valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with an effective wavelength approaching the interparticle spacing (˜20μm). Center-of-mass displacements below 1 nm are detected via the entanglement of spin and motional degrees of freedom.

  10. Simulation of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy of Peptides Using Localized Normal Modes.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Husseini, Fouad S; Hirst, Jonathan D; Besley, Nicholas A

    2016-04-12

    Nonlinear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) is most commonly simulated within the framework of the exciton method. The key parameters for these calculations include the frequency of the oscillators within their molecular environments and coupling constants that describe the strength of coupling between the oscillators. It is shown that these quantities can be obtained directly from harmonic frequency calculations by exploiting a procedure that localizes the normal modes. This approach is demonstrated using the amide I modes of polypeptides. For linear and cyclic diamides and hexapeptide Z-Aib-L-Leu-(Aib)2-Gly-Aib-OtBu, the computed parameters are compared with those from existing schemes, and the resulting 2DIR spectra are consistent with experimental observations. The incorporation of conformational averaging of structures from molecular dynamics simulations is discussed, and a hybrid scheme wherein the Hamiltonian matrix from the quantum chemical local-mode approach is combined with fluctuations from empirical schemes is shown to be consistent with experiment. The work demonstrates that localized vibrational modes can provide a foundation for the calculation of 2DIR spectra that does not rely on extensive parametrization and can be applied to a wide range of systems. For systems that are too large for quantum chemical harmonic frequency calculations, the local-mode approach provides a convenient platform for the development of site frequency and coupling maps. PMID:26913672

  11. Interface Coupling in Twisted Multilayer Graphene by Resonant Raman Spectroscopy of Layer Breathing Modes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Bin; Hu, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Xin; Han, Wen-Peng; Lu, Yan; Shi, Wei; Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Ijiäs, Mari; Milana, Silvia; Ji, Wei; Ferrari, Andrea C; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2015-07-28

    Raman spectroscopy is the prime nondestructive characterization tool for graphene and related layered materials. The shear (C) and layer breathing modes (LBMs) are due to relative motions of the planes, either perpendicular or parallel to their normal. This allows one to directly probe the interlayer interactions in multilayer samples. Graphene and other two-dimensional (2d) crystals can be combined to form various hybrids and heterostructures, creating materials on demand with properties determined by the interlayer interaction. This is the case even for a single material, where multilayer stacks with different relative orientations have different optical and electronic properties. In twisted multilayer graphene there is a significant enhancement of the C modes due to resonance with new optically allowed electronic transitions, determined by the relative orientation of the layers. Here we show that this applies also to the LBMs, which can be now directly measured at room temperature. We find that twisting has a small effect on LBMs, quite different from the case of the C modes. This implies that the periodicity mismatch between two twisted layers mostly affects shear interactions. Our work shows that ultralow-frequency Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool to uncover the interface coupling of 2d hybrids and heterostructures. PMID:26062640

  12. Single mode waveguide platform for spontaneous and surface-enhanced on-chip Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Ashim; Peyskens, Frédéric; Clemmen, Stéphane; Raza, Ali; Wuytens, Pieter; Zhao, Haolan; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Baets, Roel

    2016-08-01

    We review an on-chip approach for spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent excitation of the analyte as well as evanescent collection of the Raman signal using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible single mode waveguides. The signal is either directly collected from the analyte molecules or via plasmonic nanoantennas integrated on top of the waveguides. Flexibility in the design of the geometry of the waveguide, and/or the geometry of the antennas, enables optimization of the collection efficiency. Furthermore, the sensor can be integrated with additional functionality (sources, detectors, spectrometers) on the same chip. In this paper, the basic theoretical concepts are introduced to identify the key design parameters, and some proof-of-concept experimental results are reviewed. PMID:27499842

  13. A study of the eigenvectors of the low-frequency vibrational modes in crystalline adenosine via high pressure Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A; Pinnick, David A; Anderson, A

    2014-12-01

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the vibrational modes of crystalline adenosine at 295 K by evaluating the logarithmic derivative of the vibrational frequency with respect to pressure: [Formula: see text]. Crystalline samples of molecular materials such as adenosine will have vibrational modes that are localized within a molecular unit ("internal" modes) as well as modes in which the molecular units vibrate against each other ("external" modes). The value of the logarithmic derivative is found to be a diagnostic probe of the nature of the eigenvector of the vibrational modes. Stretching modes which are predominantly internal to the molecule have low logarithmic derivatives while external modes have higher logarithmic derivatives. Particular interest is paid to the low-frequency (≤150 cm(-1)) modes. Based on the pressure dependence of its logarithmic derivative, a mode near 49 cm(-1) is identified as internal mode. The other modes below 400 cm(-1) have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being either (1) modes which are mainly external, meaning that the molecules of the unit cell vibrate against each other in translational or librational motions (or linear combinations thereof), or (2) torsional or bending modes involving a large number of atoms, mainly within a molecule. The modes above 400 cm(-1) all have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being mainly internal modes. PMID:24127792

  14. Characterizing Anharmonic Vibrational Modes of Quinones with Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Jenée D; Nite, Jacob M; Krummel, Amber T

    2015-07-23

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational modes of three quinones--benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone. The vibrations of interest were in the spectral range of 1560-1710 cm(-1), corresponding to the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. Coupling between the vibrational modes is indicated by the cross peaks in the 2D IR spectra. The diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicities range from 4.6 to 17.4 cm(-1) for the quinone series. In addition, there is significant vibrational coupling between the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. The diagonal anharmonicity, off-diagonal anharmonicity, and vibrational coupling constants are reported for benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone. PMID:25697689

  15. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: general dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-10-14

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip-sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques. PMID:27607339

  16. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify themore » findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.« less

  17. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE) for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR) channels and four voltage-readout (VR) channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm 2 , is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between -6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μ A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm 2 . The chip consumes between 530 μ A and 690 μ A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis. PMID:27463721

  18. Investigations of the Low Frequency Modes of Ferric Cytochrome c Using Vibrational Coherence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond vibrational coherence spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency vibrational dynamics of the electron transfer heme protein, cytochrome c (cyt c). The vibrational coherence spectra of ferric cyt c have been measured as a function of excitation wavelength within the Soret band. Vibrational coherence spectra obtained with excitation between 412 and 421 nm display a strong mode at ∼44 cm–1 that has been assigned to have a significant contribution from heme ruffling motion in the electronic ground state. This assignment is based partially on the presence of a large heme ruffling distortion in the normal coordinate structural decomposition (NSD) analysis of the X-ray crystal structures. When the excitation wavelength is moved into the ∼421–435 nm region, the transient absorption increases along with the relative intensity of two modes near ∼55 and 30 cm–1. The intensity of the mode near 44 cm–1 appears to minimize in this region and then recover (but with an opposite phase compared to the blue excitation) when the laser is tuned to 443 nm. These observations are consistent with the superposition of both ground and excited state coherence in the 421–435 nm region due to the excitation of a weak porphyrin-to-iron charge transfer (CT) state, which has a lifetime long enough to observe vibrational coherence. The mode near 55 cm–1 is suggested to arise from ruffling in a transient CT state that has a less ruffled heme due to its iron d6 configuration. PMID:24823442

  19. Enhanced optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy via detection of fluorophore absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Martin; Gabi, Michael; Textor, Marcus; Vörös, Janos; Grandin, H. Michelle

    2006-10-01

    A novel technique based on surface sensitive absorbance detection using an optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS) instrument is presented. The proof of concept for this extension of a standard technique is demonstrated by painting an increasing number of ink lines on a waveguide, perpendicular to the light path, while monitoring the outcoupled light intensity. Furthermore, by the adsorption of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) as a model system with contents of 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% labeled polymer, the in situ performance is demonstrated, and the absorbance signal is calibrated such that it can be converted into adsorbed mass. The simultaneous detection of labeled and label-free species allows for the study of complex experimental setups whereby monitoring of adsorption, desorption, and even exchange processes becomes possible. The sensitivity of the absorbance detection exceeds standard OWLS by one to two orders of magnitude.

  20. Mapping Inhibitor Binding Modes on an Active Cysteine Protease via NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gregory M.; Balouch, Eaman; Goetz, David H.; Lazic, Ana; McKerrow, James H.; Craik, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Cruzain is a member of the papain/cathepsin-L family of cysteine proteases, and the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. We report an auto-induction methodology that provides soluble-cruzain at high yields (> 30 mg per liter in minimal media). These increased yields provide sufficient quantities of active enzyme for use in NMR-based ligand mapping. Using CD and NMR spectroscopy, we also examined the solution-state structural dynamics of the enzyme in complex with a covalently bound vinyl sulfone inhibitor (K777). We report the backbone amide and side chain carbon chemical shift assignments of cruzain in complex with K777. These resonance assignments were used to identify and map residues located in the substrate binding pocket, including the catalytic Cys25 and His162. Selective 15N-Cys, 15N-His, and 13C-Met labeling was performed to quickly assess cruzain-ligand interactions for a set of eight low molecular weight compounds exhibiting micromolar binding or inhibition. Chemical shift perturbation mapping verifies that six of the eight compounds bind to cruzain at the active site. Three different binding modes were delineated for the compounds, namely covalent, non-covalent, and non-interacting. These results provide examples of how NMR spectroscopy can be used to screen compounds for fast evaluation of enzyme-inhibitor interactions in order to facilitate lead compound identification and subsequent structural studies. PMID:23181936

  1. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  2. Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy using a quantum cascade laser for simultaneous detection of NO and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, S.; Pinto, T.; Ewart, P.; Ritchie, G. A. D.

    2016-08-01

    Detection of multiple transitions in NO and H2O using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, with a quantum cascade laser, QCL, operating at 5.3 μm at scan rates up to 10 kHz is reported. The linewidth of longitudinal modes of the QCL is derived from pressure-dependent fits to experimental MUMAS data. Variations in the spectral structure of the broadband, multi-mode, output of the commercially available QCL employed are analysed to provide accurate fits of modelled MUMAS signatures to the experimental data.

  3. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  4. Assignment of the Internal Vibrational Modes of C70 by Inelastic Neutron Scattering Spectroscopy and Periodic-DFT.

    PubMed

    Refson, Keith; Parker, Stewart F

    2015-10-01

    The fullerene C70 may be considered as the shortest possible nanotube capped by a hemisphere of C60 at each end. Vibrational spectroscopy is a key tool in characterising fullerenes, and C70 has been studied several times and spectral assignments proposed. Unfortunately, many of the modes are either forbidden or have very low infrared or Raman intensity, even if allowed. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy is not subject to selection rules, and all the modes are allowed. We have obtained a new INS spectrum from a large sample recorded at the highest resolution available. An advantage of INS spectroscopy is that it is straightforward to calculate the spectral intensity from a model. We demonstrate that all previous assignments are incorrect in at least some respects and propose a new assignment based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) that successfully reproduces the INS, infrared, and Raman spectra. PMID:26491642

  5. Assignment of the Internal Vibrational Modes of C70 by Inelastic Neutron Scattering Spectroscopy and Periodic-DFT

    PubMed Central

    Refson, Keith; Parker, Stewart F

    2015-01-01

    The fullerene C70 may be considered as the shortest possible nanotube capped by a hemisphere of C60 at each end. Vibrational spectroscopy is a key tool in characterising fullerenes, and C70 has been studied several times and spectral assignments proposed. Unfortunately, many of the modes are either forbidden or have very low infrared or Raman intensity, even if allowed. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy is not subject to selection rules, and all the modes are allowed. We have obtained a new INS spectrum from a large sample recorded at the highest resolution available. An advantage of INS spectroscopy is that it is straightforward to calculate the spectral intensity from a model. We demonstrate that all previous assignments are incorrect in at least some respects and propose a new assignment based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) that successfully reproduces the INS, infrared, and Raman spectra. PMID:26491642

  6. Simulating two-dimensional infrared-Raman and Raman spectroscopies for intermolecular and intramolecular modes of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-21

    Full classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two-dimensional (2D) infrared-Raman and 2D Raman spectroscopies of liquid water were carried out to elucidate a mode-mode coupling mechanism using a polarizable water model for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational spectroscopy (POLI2VS). This model is capable of describing both infrared and Raman spectra. Second-order response functions, which consist of one molecular polarizability and two molecular dipole moments for 2D IR-Raman and three molecular polarizabilities for 2D Raman spectroscopies, were calculated using an equilibrium-non-equilibrium hybrid MD approach. The obtained signals were analyzed using a multi-mode Brownian oscillator (BO) model with nonlinear system-bath interactions representing the intramolecular OH stretching, intramolecular HOH bending, hydrogen bonded (HB)-intermolecular librational motion and HB-intermolecular vibrational (translational) motion of liquid water. This model was applied through use of hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations. The qualitative features of the peak profiles in the 2D spectra obtained from the MD simulations are accurately reproduced with the BO model. This indicates that this model captures the essential features of the intermolecular and intramolecular motion. We elucidate the mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling, the nonlinearities of the polarizability and dipole moment, and the vibrational dephasing processes of liquid water even in the case that the 2D spectral peaks obtained from the MD simulation overlap or are unclear. The mode coupling peaks caused by electrical anharmonic coupling (EAHC) and mechanical anharmonic coupling (MAHC) are observed in all of the 2D spectra. We find that the strength of the MAHC between the OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational modes is comparable to that between the OH-stretching and HOH bending modes. Moreover, we find that this OH-stretching and HB

  7. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang Chuji

    2012-09-15

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 0} in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 10{sup 9} (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 10{sup 6} (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (<50 ppm) and higher concentration ranges (>50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 0} is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 10{sup 12} (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min{sup -1}; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements

  8. Optical impedance spectroscopy with single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-02-01

    An optical impedance spectroscopy (OIS) technique based on a single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) was developed to investigate electron-transfer processes of redox adsorbates. A highly sensitive single-mode EA-IOW device was used to optically follow the time-dependent faradaic current originated from a submonolayer of cytochrome c undergoing redox exchanges driven by a harmonic modulation of the electric potential at several dc bias potentials and at several frequencies. To properly retrieve the faradaic current density from the ac-modulated optical signal, we introduce here a mathematical formalism that (i) accounts for intrinsic changes that invariably occur in the optical baseline of the EA-IOW device during potential modulation and (ii) provides accurate results for the electro-chemical parameters. We are able to optically reconstruct the faradaic current density profile against the dc bias potential in the working electrode, identify the formal potential, and determine the energy-width of the electron-transfer process. In addition, by combining the optically reconstructed faradaic signal with simple electrical measurements of impedance across the whole electrochemical cell and the capacitance of the electric double-layer, we are able to determine the time-constant connected to the redox reaction of the adsorbed protein assembly. For cytochrome c directly immobilized onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, we measured a reaction rate constant of 26.5 s(-1). Finally, we calculate the charge-transfer resistance and pseudocapacitance associated with the electron-transfer process and show that the frequency dependence of the redox reaction of the protein submonolayer follows as expected the electrical equivalent of an RC-series admittance diagram. Above all, we show here that OIS with single-mode EA-IOW's provide strong analytical signals that can be readily monitored even for small surface-densities of species involved in the redox

  9. Optical Impedance Spectroscopy with Single-Mode Electro-Active-Integrated Optical Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An optical impedance spectroscopy (OIS) technique based on a single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) was developed to investigate electron-transfer processes of redox adsorbates. A highly sensitive single-mode EA-IOW device was used to optically follow the time-dependent faradaic current originated from a submonolayer of cytochrome c undergoing redox exchanges driven by a harmonic modulation of the electric potential at several dc bias potentials and at several frequencies. To properly retrieve the faradaic current density from the ac-modulated optical signal, we introduce here a mathematical formalism that (i) accounts for intrinsic changes that invariably occur in the optical baseline of the EA-IOW device during potential modulation and (ii) provides accurate results for the electro-chemical parameters. We are able to optically reconstruct the faradaic current density profile against the dc bias potential in the working electrode, identify the formal potential, and determine the energy-width of the electron-transfer process. In addition, by combining the optically reconstructed faradaic signal with simple electrical measurements of impedance across the whole electrochemical cell and the capacitance of the electric double-layer, we are able to determine the time-constant connected to the redox reaction of the adsorbed protein assembly. For cytochrome c directly immobilized onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, we measured a reaction rate constant of 26.5 s–1. Finally, we calculate the charge-transfer resistance and pseudocapacitance associated with the electron-transfer process and show that the frequency dependence of the redox reaction of the protein submonolayer follows as expected the electrical equivalent of an RC-series admittance diagram. Above all, we show here that OIS with single-mode EA-IOW’s provide strong analytical signals that can be readily monitored even for small surface-densities of species involved in the redox

  10. Modeling vibrational dephasing and energy relaxation of intramolecular anharmonic modes for multidimensional infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2006-08-28

    Starting from a system-bath Hamiltonian in a molecular coordinate representation, we examine an applicability of a stochastic multilevel model for vibrational dephasing and energy relaxation in multidimensional infrared spectroscopy. We consider an intramolecular anharmonic mode nonlinearly coupled to a colored noise bath at finite temperature. The system-bath interaction is assumed linear plus square in the system coordinate, but linear in the bath coordinates. The square-linear system-bath interaction leads to dephasing due to the frequency fluctuation of system vibration, while the linear-linear interaction contributes to energy relaxation and a part of dephasing arises from anharmonicity. To clarify the role and origin of vibrational dephasing and energy relaxation in the stochastic model, the system part is then transformed into an energy eigenstate representation without using the rotating wave approximation. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared spectra are then calculated by solving a low-temperature corrected quantum Fokker-Planck (LTC-QFP) equation for a colored noise bath and by the stochastic theory. In motional narrowing regime, the spectra from the stochastic model are quite different from those from the LTC-QFP. In spectral diffusion regime, however, the 2D line shapes from the stochastic model resemble those from the LTC-QFP besides the blueshifts caused by the dissipation from the colored noise bath. The preconditions for validity of the stochastic theory for molecular vibrational motion are also discussed. PMID:16965023

  11. Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (≤ 32 cm−1) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm−1. Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

  12. Empirical mode decomposition-based motion artifact correction method for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yue; Han, Junxia; Liang, Zhenhu; Yan, Jiaqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising technique for monitoring brain activity. However, it is sensitive to motion artifacts. Many methods have been developed for motion correction, such as spline interpolation, wavelet filtering, and kurtosis-based wavelet filtering. We propose a motion correction method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which is applied to segments of data identified as having motion artifacts. The EMD method is adaptive, data-driven, and well suited for nonstationary data. To test the performance of the proposed EMD method and to compare it with other motion correction methods, we used simulated hemodynamic responses added to real resting-state fNIRS data. The EMD method reduced mean squared error in 79% of channels and increased signal-to-noise ratio in 78% of channels. Moreover, it produced the highest Pearson's correlation coefficient between the recovered signal and the original signal, significantly better than the comparison methods (p<0.01, paired t-test). These results indicate that the proposed EMD method is a first choice method for motion artifact correction in fNIRS.

  13. Spatially resolved localized vibrational mode spectroscopy of carbon in liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown gallium arsenide wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Waifan.

    1988-04-01

    Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, 1.1 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, and 2.2 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs.

  14. Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehravar, S.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.; Kieu, K.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-comb technique has enabled exciting applications in high resolution spectroscopy, precision distance measurements, and 3D imaging. Major advantages over traditional methods can be achieved with dual-comb technique. For example, dual-comb spectroscopy provides orders of magnitude improvement in acquisition speed over standard Fourier-transform spectroscopy while still preserving the high resolution capability. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for complex and expensive ultrafast laser systems. Here, we present a simple and robust dual-comb system that employs a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser operating at telecommunication wavelength. Two femtosecond frequency combs (with a small difference in repetition rates) are generated from a single laser cavity to ensure mutual coherent properties and common noise cancellation. As the result, we have achieved real-time absorption spectroscopy measurements without the need for complex servo locking with accurate frequency referencing, and relatively high signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and nucleotide bases for target bacterial vibrational mode identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Argue, Leanne; Hyre, Aaron; Jacobson, Michele; Christesen, Steven D.

    2006-05-01

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of bacteria have reported a wide range of vibrational mode assignments associated with biological material. We present Raman and SER spectra of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, cysteine, alanine, proline, methionine, asparagine, threonine, valine, glycine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and the nucleic acid bases adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine to better characterize biological vibrational mode assignments for bacterial target identification. We also report spectra of the bacteria Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Yersinia rhodei along with band assignments determined from the reference spectra obtained.

  16. Studying Kittel-like modes in a 3D YIG disk using Torque-mixing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Losby, Joseph; Grandmont, Dylan; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Hiebert, Wayne; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory; Thomson, Douglas; Freeman, Mark

    We report a study of ferrimagnetic resonance in a mesoscopic, single-crystalline YIG disk using torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy (TMRS). The Kittel model for magnetic resonance is a touchstone in measuring fundamental magnetic properties for magnetic films, which does not significantly depend on the film size. In 3D structures, ladders of confined resonance modes are observed, and these can exhibit the non-monotonic evolution of frequency with field familiar from Kittel modes. TMRS is a tool uniquely suited for observing this physics in individual 3D structures, on account of its combination of high sensitivity and broadband capability coupled with fine frequency resolution.

  17. Optical Dark-Field and Electron Energy Loss Imaging and Spectroscopy of Symmetry-Forbidden Modes in Loaded Nanogap Antennas.

    PubMed

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew A; Long, James P; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, B S

    2015-06-23

    We have produced large numbers of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanogap antennas using a scalable electrochemical approach and systematically characterized the spectral and spatial character of their plasmonic modes with optical dark-field scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy with principal component analysis, and full wave simulations. The coordination of these techniques reveal that these nanostructures support degenerate transverse modes which split due to substrate interactions, a longitudinal mode which scales with antenna length, and a symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode. This gap-localized transverse mode arises from mode splitting of transverse resonances supported on both antenna arms and is confined to the gap load enabling (i) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material and (ii) the possibility of tuning the antenna resonance via active modulation of the gap material's optical properties. The resonant position of this symmetry-forbidden mode is sensitive to gap size, dielectric strength of the gap material, and is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multifunctional components many seek. PMID:25961937

  18. Quasi-normal phase chromatography of nitrogen-containing adamantane derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, S. V.; Tyrina, E. V.; Davankov, V. A.; Il'in, M. M.; Kurbatova, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chromatographic retention of adamantyl-containing amidrazones and triazoles is studied under the conditions of quasi-normal phase (QNP) and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography using partially sulfonated hypercrosslinked polystyrene as a stationary phase. The considerable effect of the sorbent-sorbate π interactions on the retention factor of the analytes, particularly under conditions of QNP chromatography, is revealed.

  19. Vibrational mode Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with a diamond anvil cell: Modes of the Si DX center and S related centers in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.; Haller, E.E. |; Heyman, J.N.; Jeanloz, R.; Beeman, J.W.; Guitron, J.G.; Bourret, E.D.; Walukiewicz, W.W.

    1992-12-31

    The authors report the first use of the diamond anvil cell to observe the local modes of impurities in GaAs under large hydrostatic pressure by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. These observations were accomplished by constructing a monolithic assembly which has a light concentrating cone in front of the diamond anvil cell and a Ge:Be photoconductor detector designed to operate at low photon fluxes mounted directly behind the cell. This technique has been used to discover a local vibrational mode of the DX center in GaAs:Si and, in combination with Hall effect and resistivity analysis, to infer that the charge state of this defect is negative. This new spectroscopic tool has also been used to identify new LVMs in heavily doped GaAs:S which are due to sulfur related centers.

  20. Edge mode spectroscopy and imaging for film edge properties in magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Lithography is an act of violence. Often, films are almost entirely obliterated by patterning, leaving only nanostructures behind with film edges that have borne the brunt of the damage, edges that carry with them the scars of energetic ion bombardment, reactive ions, liftoff and exposure to ambient conditions. In this talk, I will present a variation on ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy that can provide insight into the magnetic properties of film edges in magnetic nanostructures. The method relies on the non-uniformity of the magnetic field in patterned-film nanostructures that are magnetized in-plane, specifically, the low-field regions that form near where the magnetization is directed normal to the edge. In these regions, localized precession forms as trapped spin wave modes, and the resonance condition of these modes serves as an indicator of the edge properties. I will present modeling and measurements on a 500 nm diameter, 25 nm thick Permalloy disk to illustrate the method. Micromagnetic modeling of this disk predicts a main mode that is nearly uniform across the sample and three localized edge modes with higher resonance fields. The spectra measured with various tip positions and mode imaging are consistent with the modeling results. In addition to a strong center mode, three distinct edge modes are observed when the tip is near the disk edge. For a symmetric disk, the modeling predicts that the edge mode resonances are identical on the two opposite edges. However, the measured edge mode resonances on opposite edges of the disk are detected at different resonance fields, suggesting inhomogeneity of the edge properties. By rotating the applied field, we control the position of the localized edge mode along the edge of the disk and confirm that the edge mode resonance field has a strong angular dependence, showing that edge mode properties can vary significantly in a nominally circular disk.

  1. Multi-species sensing using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared interband cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, S.; Northern, J. H.; Gras, B.; Ewart, P.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Canedy, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    The application of an interband cascade laser, ICL, to multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the mid-infrared region is reported. Measurements of individual mode linewidths of the ICL, derived from the pressure dependence of lineshapes in MUMAS signatures of single, isolated, lines in the spectrum of HCl, were found to be in the range 10-80 MHz. Multi-line spectra of methane were recorded using spectrally limited bandwidths, of approximate width 27 cm-1, defined by an interference filter, and consist of approximately 80 modes at spectral locations spanning the 100 cm-1 bandwidth of the ICL output. Calibration of the methane pressures derived from MUMAS data using a capacitance manometer provided measurements with an uncertainty of 1.1 %. Multi-species sensing is demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene and formaldehyde in a gas mixture. Individual partial pressures of the three gases are derived from best fits of model MUMAS signatures to the data with an experimental error of 10 %. Using an ICL, with an inter-mode interval of ~10 GHz, MUMAS spectra were recorded at pressures in the range 1-10 mbar, and, based on the data, a potential minimum detection limit of the order of 100 ppmv is estimated for MUMAS at atmospheric pressure using an inter-mode interval of 80 GHz.

  2. Soft modes and anharmonicity in H3[Co (CN )6] : Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. K.; Chandra, Sharat; Salke, Nilesh P.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.; Rao, Rekha

    2015-10-01

    In situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopy and ab initio calculations are carried out to investigate the phase stability and the thermal expansion behavior of H3[Co (CN )6] . Raman studies at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell identify soft phonons and phase instability at 2.3 GPa. Evidence of pressure-induced amorphization is found at 11 GPa. The phonon frequencies and eigenvectors obtained from ab initio calculation are used to complement the observed phonon spectra and for assignment of Raman modes. The computed eigenvector displacement patterns indicate that the soft modes correspond to the CN-librational vibrations (Eg mode) of the Co-CN-H-NC-Co linkages and their Grüneisen parameters are found to be negative, in agreement with our measured values. The thermal expansion coefficient (15.6 ×10-6K-1 ) calculated using our computed mode Grüneisen parameters is found to be in good agreement with the reported value (20 ×10-6K-1 ). Temperature-dependent phonon spectra down to 77 K are used to obtain the anharmonicities of different modes.

  3. Zero-mode clad waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2005-07-12

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  4. Dispersive Fourier transform using few-mode fibers for real-time and high-speed spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yi; Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersive Fourier Transform (DFT) is a powerful technique for real-time and high-speed spectroscopy. In DFT, the spectral information of an optical pulse is mapped into time using group velocity dispersion (GVD) in the dispersive fibers with an ultrafast real-time spectral acquisition rate (>10 MHz). Typically, multi-mode fiber (MMF) is not recommended for performing DFT because the modal dispersion, which occurs simultaneously with GVD, introduces the ambiguity in the wavelength-to-time mapping during DFT. Nevertheless, we here demonstrate that a clear wavelength-to-time mapping in DFT can be achieved by using the few-mode fibers (FMFs) which, instead of having hundreds of propagation modes, support only a few modes. FMF-based DFT becomes appealing when it operates at the shorter wavelengths e.g. 1-μm range, a favorable spectral window for biomedical diagnostics, where low-cost single mode fibers (SMFs) and high-performance dispersion-engineered fibers are not readily available for DFT. By employing the telecommunication SMFs (e.g. SMF28), which are in effect FMFs in the 1-μm range as their cut-off wavelength is ~1260 nm, we observe that a 3nm wide spectrum can be clearly mapped into time with a GVD as high as -72ps/nm and a loss of 5 dB/km at a spectral acquisition rate of 20 MHz. Moreover, its larger core size than the high-cost 1-μm SMFs renders FMFs to exhibit less nonlinearity, especially high-power amplification is implemented during DFT to enhance the detection sensitivity without compromising the speed. Hence, FMF-based DFT represents a cost-effective approach to realize high-speed DFT-based spectroscopy particularly in the biomedical diagnostics spectral window.

  5. XAFS data acquisition with 2D-detectors: Transmission mode XAFS and grazing incidence EXAFS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Gasse, J.-C.; Bögel, R.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    XAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection modes have been performed using a Pilatus 100K pixel detector. Transmission mode XAFS spectra from a Co metal foil and Co3O4 were recorded to evaluate the data quality offered by this 2D-detector. Furthermore, the pixel detector was also used to measure reflection mode grazing incidence EXAFS data. Using different regions of interest in the collected scattering patterns, we will show that the diffuse scattering can be separated for the different contributing surfaces and interfaces, allowing simultaneous investigations of surfaces and buried interfaces within multi-layered samples.

  6. Physisorption versus chemisorption in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy: Mode position, intensity, and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawronski, Heiko; Morgenstern, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Local vibrational spectra of meta-dichlorobenzene molecules adsorbed on different parts of the Au(111) reconstruction are investigated using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The spectra show substantial variations on subnanometer length scale. While for the molecule physisorbed on either the hcp or the fcc domain of the reconstruction only low-energy modes are beyond the detection limit, higher-energy modes are observed for the molecule chemisorbed at the elbow site. The different adsorption strengths of the molecules manifest themselves in an energy shift of the modes. These shifts are used to identify through which part the molecule is bonded to the surface.

  7. Vibrationally highly excited molecules and intramolecular mode coupling through high-overtone spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.S.; Moore, C.B.

    1981-08-01

    High overtone spectra of organic molecules can be interpreted using the local mode model for absorptions by the inequivalent C-H bonds. The spectra can be assigned using either observed C-H bond lengths or isolated fundamental frequencies. The spectra of trihalomethanes indicate that the dominant intramolecular mode coupling for the C-H stretching overtones is Fermi resonance with combination states with one less C-H stretching quantum plus two quanta of the C-H bending vibrations.

  8. Mid-infrared multi-mode absorption spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers for multi-species sensing.

    PubMed

    Northern, J H; O'Hagan, S; Fletcher, B; Gras, B; Ewart, P; Kim, C S; Kim, M; Merritt, C D; Bewley, W W; Canedy, C L; Abell, J; Vurgaftman, I; Meyer, J R

    2015-09-01

    An interband cascade laser (ICL) operating at 3.7 μm has been used to perform multimode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, at scan rates up to 10 kHz. Line widths of individual modes in the range 10-80 MHz were derived from isolated lines in the MUMAS signatures of HCl. MUMAS data for methane covering a spectral range of 30 nm yielded a detection level of 30 μbar·m for 1 s measurement time at 100 Hz. Simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene, and formaldehyde in a gas mixture containing all three species is reported. PMID:26368743

  9. Effect of multipole excitations in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of surface plasmon modes in silver nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiuli; Norris, Theodore B.; Hörl, Anton; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Herzing, Andrew A.

    2014-12-14

    We have characterized the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in silver nanowires using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Non-symmetric EELS spectra due to high-k SPR propagation along the nanowire and spectral shifts due to higher-order mode excitation are observed when the beam is positioned near the tip of the nanowire. When the beam is far from the tip region and on the side of nanowire, no spectral shifts are observed as the beam is scanned in the radial direction of the nanowire. The experimental spectra are compared with three different theoretical approaches: direct numerical calculation of the energy loss, analytical models for energy loss, and numerical simulations using an optical model. All three models reproduce the spectral shifts as the electron beam approaches the cap of the nanowire. The analytical model reveals the origin of the shifts in high-order plasmon mode excitation.

  10. Anharmonic phonons in few-layer MoS2: Raman spectroscopy of ultralow energy compression and shear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhicha, Mohamed; Calandra, Matteo; Measson, Marie-Aude; Lancry, Ophelie; Shukla, Abhay

    2013-05-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for making two-dimensional crystals and flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale. MoS2 flakes can show high mobilities and have even been integrated in nanocircuits. A fundamental requirement for such use is efficient thermal transport. Electronic transport generates heat which needs to be evacuated, more crucially so in nanostructures. Anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering is the dominant intrinsic limitation to thermal transport in insulators. Here, using appropriate samples, ultralow energy Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, we provide a full experimental and theoretical description of compression and shear modes of few-layer (FL) MoS2. We demonstrate that the compression modes are strongly anharmonic with a marked enhancement of phonon-phonon scattering as the number of layers is reduced, most likely a general feature of nanolayered materials with weak interlayer coupling.

  11. Universality of the quasinormal spectrum of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-06-01

    Our current knowledge about the quasinormal resonance spectrum of charged and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes is quite poor. This unsatisfactory situation is a direct consequence of the fact that all attempts to decouple the gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of generic Kerr-Newman black holes have failed thus far. Recently, Zilhão et al. (Phys Rev D 90:12, 124088, 2014. arXiv:1410.0694) have studied the nonlinear stability of Kerr-Newman black holes. We show here that their numerical results for the time evolutions of the spacetime deformations of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes are described extremely well by a simple and universal analytical formula for the quasinormal resonances of the black holes. This formula is expressed in terms of the black-hole physical parameters: the horizon angular velocity and the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature.

  12. Asymptotic quasinormal frequencies for black holes in nonasymptotically flat space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Natário, José; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    The exact computation of asymptotic quasinormal frequencies is a technical problem which involves the analytic continuation of a Schrödinger-type equation to the complex plane and then performing a method of monodromy matching at several poles in the plane. While this method was successfully used in asymptotically flat space-time, as applied to both the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrøm solutions, its extension to nonasymptotically flat space-times has not been achieved yet. In this work it is shown how to extend the method to this case, with the explicit analysis of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and large Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes, both in four dimensions. We obtain, for the first time, analytic expressions for the asymptotic quasinormal frequencies of these black hole space-times, and our results match previous numerical calculations with great accuracy. We also list some results concerning the general classification of asymptotic quasinormal frequencies in d-dimensional space-times.

  13. Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

  14. Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

  15. Measuring acetic acid dimer modes by ultrafast time-domain Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Ismael A; Mazur, Kamila; Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Tominaga, Keisuke; Meech, Stephen R

    2011-09-14

    Acetic acid is capable of forming strong multiple hydrogen bonds and therefore different dimeric H-bonded structures in neat liquid phase and in solutions. The low frequency Raman spectra of acetic acid (neat, in aqueous solution and as a function of temperature) were obtained by ultrafast time and polarization resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) measurements. Isotropic OKE measurements clearly reveal a specific totally symmetric mode related to the dimeric structure H-bond stretching mode. The effects of isotope substitution, water dilution and temperature on this mode were investigated. These results together with anisotropic OKE measurements and density functional theory calculations for a number of possible dimers provide strong evidence for the cyclic dimer structure being the main structure in liquid phase persisting down to acetic acid concentrations of 10 M. Some information about the dimer structure and concentration dependence was inferred. PMID:21625711

  16. Individual and collective modes of surface magnetoplasmon in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles studied by MCD spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Shiratsu, Taisuke

    2016-05-01

    Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiol (DT)-, azobenzenethiol (ABT)-, and ABT/DT mixed-monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles. ABT-protected Ag nanoparticles are somewhat aggregated and thus exhibit a broad, collective mode of plasmonic absorption, whereas other samples with highly-dispersed nanoparticles show an individual mode of LSPR absorption. In all Ag nanoparticles, a derivative-like MCD signal is observed under an applied magnetic field of 1.6 T, which can be explained in terms of two circular modes of magnetoplasmon caused by the increase (or decrease) in the Lorentz force imparted on the free electrons that oscillate in the left (or right) circular orbits in the nanosphere. For the Ag nanoparticles exhibiting an individual LSPR mode, in particular, simultaneous deconvolution analysis of UV-vis absorption and MCD spectra reveal that (i) the amplitude of the magnetoplasmonic component with lower frequency (ω-), resulting from the reduction in the confinement strength of collective electrons by the Lorentz force, is stronger than that with a higher frequency (ω+) (ii) the accurate shift or cyclotron frequency between two magnetoplasmonic modes (ωc = ω+ - ω-) is size-dependent, and presents a very large value with implications for the apparent enhancement of the local magnetic-field in the Ag nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the Ag-thiolate layer or Ag-S bonding on the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role in the MO enhancement.Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD

  17. Individual and collective modes of surface magnetoplasmon in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles studied by MCD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hiroshi; Shiratsu, Taisuke

    2016-06-01

    Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiol (DT)-, azobenzenethiol (ABT)-, and ABT/DT mixed-monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles. ABT-protected Ag nanoparticles are somewhat aggregated and thus exhibit a broad, collective mode of plasmonic absorption, whereas other samples with highly-dispersed nanoparticles show an individual mode of LSPR absorption. In all Ag nanoparticles, a derivative-like MCD signal is observed under an applied magnetic field of 1.6 T, which can be explained in terms of two circular modes of magnetoplasmon caused by the increase (or decrease) in the Lorentz force imparted on the free electrons that oscillate in the left (or right) circular orbits in the nanosphere. For the Ag nanoparticles exhibiting an individual LSPR mode, in particular, simultaneous deconvolution analysis of UV-vis absorption and MCD spectra reveal that (i) the amplitude of the magnetoplasmonic component with lower frequency (ω-), resulting from the reduction in the confinement strength of collective electrons by the Lorentz force, is stronger than that with a higher frequency (ω+); (ii) the accurate shift or cyclotron frequency between two magnetoplasmonic modes (ωc = ω+-ω-) is size-dependent, and presents a very large value with implications for the apparent enhancement of the local magnetic-field in the Ag nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the Ag-thiolate layer or Ag-S bonding on the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role in the MO enhancement. PMID:27188783

  18. Investigation of the binding modes between AIE-active molecules and dsDNA by single molecule force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Ma, Ke; Hu, Ting; Jiang, Bo; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing; Sun, Jing Zhi; Zhang, Wenke

    2015-05-01

    AIE (aggregation-induced emission)-active molecules hold promise for the labeling of biomolecules as well as living cells. The study of the binding modes of such molecules to biomolecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins, will shed light on a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of molecular interactions and eventually facilitate the design/preparation of new AIE-active bioprobes. Herein, we studied the binding modes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with two types of synthetic AIE-active molecules, namely, tetraphenylethene-derived dicationic compounds (cis-TPEDPy and trans-TPEDPy) and anthracene-derived dicationic compounds (DSAI and DSABr-C6) using single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental data indicate that DSAI can strongly intercalate into DNA base pairs, while DSABr-C6 is unable to intercalate into DNA due to the steric hindrance of the alkyl side chains. Cis-TPEDPy and trans-TPEDPy can also intercalate into DNA base pairs, but the binding shows strong ionic strength dependence. Multiple binding modes of TPEDPy with dsDNA have been discussed. In addition, the electrostatic interaction enhanced intercalation of cis-TPEDPy with dsDNA has also been revealed.AIE (aggregation-induced emission)-active molecules hold promise for the labeling of biomolecules as well as living cells. The study of the binding modes of such molecules to biomolecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins, will shed light on a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of molecular interactions and eventually facilitate the design/preparation of new AIE-active bioprobes. Herein, we studied the binding modes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with two types of synthetic AIE-active molecules, namely, tetraphenylethene-derived dicationic compounds (cis-TPEDPy and trans-TPEDPy) and anthracene-derived dicationic compounds (DSAI and DSABr-C6) using single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The

  19. Terahertz imaging of composite materials in reflection and transmission mode with a time-domain spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørgârd, Trygve R.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Haakestad, Magnus W.

    2016-02-01

    A fiber-coupled Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system based on photoconductive antennas, pumped by a 100-fs fiber laser, has been used to characterize materials in transmission and reflection mode. THz images are acquired by mounting the samples under investigation on an x-y stage, which is stepped through the beam while the transmitted or reflected THz waveform is captured. The samples include a carbon fiber epoxy composite and a sandwich-structured composite panel with an aramid fiber honeycomb core in between two skin layers of fiberglass reinforced plastic. The former has an artificially induced void, and from a comparison of recorded reflected time-domain signals, with and without the void, a simple model for the structure of the composite is proposed that describes the time-domain signals reasonably well.

  20. Examining Substrate-Induced Plasmon Mode Splitting and Localization in Truncated Silver Nanospheres with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Cherqui, Charles; Wu, Yueying; Bigelow, Nicholas W; Simmons, Philip D; Rack, Philip D; Masiello, David J; Camden, Jon P

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the need to study the size dependence of nanoparticle-substrate systems, we present a combined experimental and theoretical electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) study of the plasmonic spectrum of substrate-supported truncated silver nanospheres. This work spans the entire classical range of plasmonic behavior probing particles of 20-1000 nm in diameter, allowing us to map the evolution of localized surface plasmons into surface plasmon polaritons and study the size dependence of substrate-induced mode splitting. This work constitutes the first nanoscopic characterization and imaging of these effects in truncated nanospheres, setting the stage for the systematic study of plasmon-mediated energy transfer in nanoparticle-substrate systems. PMID:26266735

  1. Guided-Mode Resonance Grating with Self-Assembled Silver Nanoparticles for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Xinyuan; Fan, Donglei; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Ray T.; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated guided-mode resonance (GMR) gratings on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film to generate a significantly enhanced local electric field for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were self-assembled onto the surface of the grating, which can provide a large amount of “hot-spots” for SERS sensing. The ITO gratings also exhibit excellent tolerance to fabrication deviations due to the large refractive index contrast of the ITO grating. Quantitative experimental results of 5,5’-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) demonstrate the best enhancement factor of ~14× on ITO gratings when compared with Ag NPs on a flat ITO film, and the limit of detection (LOD) of DTNB is as low as 10 pM. PMID:26958546

  2. An Analytical Model for Top-Hat Long Transient Mode-Mismatched Thermal Lens Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaeian, M.; Rezaei, H.

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that a top-hat excitation beam gives rise to a more sensitive signal for the thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). Recently, a numerical model has been presented for a top- hat excitation beam in a dual-beam mod-mismatched TLS [Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1464-1466 (2008)]. In this work, we present a full analytical version of this model. Our model was based on a new solution of time-dependent heat equation for a finite radius cylindrical sample exposed to a top-hat excitation laser beam. The Fresnel diffraction integration method was then used to calculate on-axis probe-beam intensity variations due to thermal lensing by taking the aberrant nature of the thermal lens into account. The model was confirmed with experimental data of LSCAS-2 with an excellent agreement.

  3. New results for electromagnetic quasinormal and quasibound modes of Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicova, Denitsa; Fiziev, Plamen

    2015-07-01

    The perturbations of the Kerr metric and the miracle of their exact solutions play a critical role in the comparison of predictions of general relativity with astrophysical observations of compact massive objects. The differential equations governing the late-time ring-down of the perturbations of the Kerr metric, the Teukolsky Angular Equation and the Teukolsky Radial Equation, can be solved analytically in terms of confluent Heun functions. In this article, we solve numerically the spectral system formed by those exact solutions and we obtain the electromagnetic (EM) spectra of the Kerr black hole.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy and mode identification in non-radially pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Wright, D. J.; Zima, W.; Cottrell, P. L.; De Cat, P.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopic data of a sample of non-radially pulsating stars with the HERCULES spectrograph on the 1.0-m telescope at the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We have developed and used a new technique which cross- correlates stellar spectra with scaled delta function templates to obtain high signal-to-noise representative spectral line profiles for further analysis. Using these profiles, and employing the Fourier Parameter Fit method, we have been able to place constraints on the degree, ℓ, and azimuthal order, m, of the non-radial pulsation modes in one β Cephei star, V2052 Oph and two γ Doradus stars, QW Pup and HD 139095.

  5. Direct single-mode fibre-coupled miniature White cell for laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, Benjamin; Höh, Matthias; Wagner, Steven; Ebert, Volker

    2016-02-01

    We present the design, setup, and characterization of a new lens-free fibre-coupled miniature White cell for extractive gas analysis using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS). The construction of this cell is based on a modified White cell design and allows for an easy variation of the absorption length in the range from 29 cm to 146 cm. The design avoids parasitic absorption paths outside the cell by using direct, lensless fibre coupling and allows small physical cell dimensions and cell volumes. To characterize the cell performance, different H2O and CH4 concentration levels were measured using dTDLAS. Detection limits of 2.5 ppm ṡ m for CH4 (at 1.65 μm) and 1.3 ppm ṡ m for H2O (at 1.37 μm) were achieved. In addition, the gas exchange time and its flow-rate dependence were determined for both species and found to be less than 15 s for CH4 and up to a factor of thirteen longer for H2O.

  6. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, G J; Friensehner, A F; Glebov, V Y; Hargrove, D R; Hatchett, S P; Izumi, N; Lerche, R A; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Sibernagel, C; Stoeckl, C

    2001-06-19

    As part of a laser fusion diagnostic development program, we have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.8 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.5 mA/W at 1000 V/mm (2 to 6x times higher than reported values for natural Type IIa diamond). These detector characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to TCC, and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and y rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. However, the data we have taken show that the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) noise could be a limiting factor in performance. Determining the degree to which this noise can be shielded will be an important subject of future tests.

  7. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

    2001-07-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio.

  8. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  9. Inspiral-merger-ringdown (2, 0) mode waveforms for aligned-spin black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    Based on spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition, the (2,+/- 2) modes dominate the gravitational waveforms generated by binary black holes. Several recent works found that other modes including (l,0) ones are also important to gravitational wave data analysis. For aligned-spin binaries, these (l,0) modes are related to the memory effect of gravitational wave. Based on the post-Newtonian analysis, quasi-normal modes analysis and the results of numerical relativity simulations, we present a full inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for the (2,0) mode generated by binary black holes. Our model includes the quasinormal ringing part and includes the effect of a black hole’s spin. It is complementary to the previous results.

  10. Optical spectroscopy with a near-single-mode fiber-feed and adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Angel, J. Roger P.; Shelton, J. Christopher

    1998-07-01

    We report on first astronomical results with a cross-dispersed optical echelle spectrograph fed by a near single-mode fiber. We also present on a novel design of a new adaptive optics (AO) optimized fiber-fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph. The spectrograph is designed to match with AO corrected images in the optical bands provided by such as the Mt. Wilson 100 inch, Starfire Optical Range 3.5 m AO telescopes. Ultimately, it will be installed at the 6.5 m MMT, when this has high resolution AO correcting the optical spectrum. The spectrograph, fed by a 10 micron fused silica fiber, is unique in that the entire spectrum from 0.4 micron to 1.0 micron will be almost completely covered at resolution 200,000 in one exposure. The detector is a 2k X 4k AR coated back illuminated CCD with 15 micron pixel size. The close order spacing allowed by the sharp AO image makes the full cover possible. A 250 X 125 mm(superscript 2) Milton Roy R2 echelle grating with 23.2 grooves mm(superscript -1) and a blaze angle of 63.5 deg provides main dispersion. A double pass BK7 prism with 21 deg wedge angle provides cross dispersion, covering the spectrum from order 193 to 77. The spectrograph is used in the quasi- Littrow configuration with an off-axis Maksutov collimator/camera. The fiber feeds the AO corrected beams from the telescope Cassegrain focus to the spectrograph, which is set up on an optical bench. The spectrograph will be used mainly to study line profiles of solar type stars, to explore problems of indirect detection of planets and also study interstellar medium, circumstellar medium and metal abundance and isotopic ratios of extremely metal-poor stars.

  11. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy Slit-Jet Cooled Hydroxymethyl Radical (CH_2OH): CH Symmetric Stretching Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxymethyl radical (CH_2OH) plays an important role in combustion and environmental chemistry as a reactive intermediate. Reisler's group published the first rotationally resolved spectroscopy of CH_2OH with determined band origins for fundamental CH symmetric stretch state, CH asymmetric stretch state and OH stretch state, respectively. Here CH_2OH was first studied via sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy in a slit-jet supersonic discharge expansion source. Rotationally resolved direct absorption spectra in the CH symmetric stretching mode were recorded. As a result of the low rotational temperature and sub-Doppler linewidths, the tunneling splittings due to the large amplitude of COH torsion slightly complicate the spectra. Each of the ground vibration state and the CH symmetric stretch state includes two levels. One level, with a 3:1 nuclear spin statistic ratio for Ka=0+/Ka=1+, is labeled as ``+". The other tunneling level, labeled as ``-", has Ka=0-/Ka=1- states with 1:3 nuclear spin statistics. Except for the Ka=0+ ← 0+ band published before, more bands (Ka=1+ ← 1+, Ka=0- ← 0- and Ka=1- ← 1-) were identified. The assigned transitions were fit to a Watson A-reduced symmetric top Hamiltonian to improve the accuracy of the band origin of CH symmetric state. The rotational parameters for both ground and CH symmetric stretch state were well determined. L. Feng, J. Wei and H. Reisler, J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol. 108. M. A. Roberts, E. N. Sharp-Williams and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 7042-7049

  12. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with a backward-forward trajectories sampling for multidimensional infrared spectroscopy of molecular vibrational modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Taisuke; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2008-02-01

    A full molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach to calculate multidimensional third-order infrared (IR) signals of molecular vibrational modes is proposed. Third-order IR spectroscopy involves three-time intervals between three excitation and one probe pulses. The nonequilibrium MD (NEMD) simulation allows us to calculate molecular dipoles from nonequilibrium MD trajectories for different pulse configurations and sequences. While the conventional NEMD approach utilizes MD trajectories started from the initial equilibrium state, our approach does from the intermediate state of the third-order optical process, which leads to the doorway-window decomposition of nonlinear response functions. The decomposition is made before the second pump excitation for a two-dimensional case of IR photon echo measurement, while it is made after the second pump excitation for a three-dimensional case of three-pulse IR photon echo measurement. We show that the three-dimensional IR signals are efficiently calculated by using the MD trajectories backward and forward in time for the doorway and window functions, respectively. We examined the capability of the present approach by evaluating the signals of two- and three-dimensional IR vibrational spectroscopies for liquid hydrogen fluoride. The calculated signals might be explained by anharmonic Brownian model with the linear-linear and square-linear system-bath couplings which was used to discuss the inhomogeneous broadening and dephasing mechanism of vibrational motions. The predicted intermolecular librational spectra clearly reveal the unusually narrow inhomogeneous linewidth due to the one-dimensional character of HF molecule and the strong hydrogen bond network.

  13. Non-linear infrared spectroscopy of the water bending mode: Direct experimental evidence of hydration shell reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Chuntonov, Lev; Kumar, Revati

    2014-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of liquid water are further studied by investigating the bend vibrational mode of HDO/D2O and pure H2O via two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) and linear absorption. The experimental findings and theoretical calculations support a picture in which the HDO bend is localized and the H2O bend is delocalized. The HDO and H2O bends present a loss of the frequency-frequency correlation in subpicosecond time scale. While the loss of correlation for the H2O bend is likely to be associated with the vibrational dynamics of a delocalized transition, the loss of the correlation in the localized HDO bend appears to arise from the fluctuations/rearrangements of the local environment. Interestingly, analysis of the HDO 2D-IR spectra shows the presence of multiple overlapping inhomogeneous distributions of frequencies that interchange in a few picoseconds. Theoretical calculations allow us to propose an atomistic model of the observed vibrational dynamics in which the different in homogeneous distributions and their interchange are assigned to water molecules with different hydrogen-bond states undergoing chemical exchange. The frequency shifts as well as the concentration of the water molecules with single and double hydrogen-bonds as donors derived from the theory are in good agreement with our experimental findings. PMID:24871901

  14. Monte Carlo simulation for Multi-Mode Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy of crystalline materials: Effects of surface structure and excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzza, B.; Chelda, S.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Bideux, L.; Monier, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-Mode Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (MM-EPES) analysis is confined to incoherent electron elastic scattering and the use of variable primary energy. This experimental method is very sensitive to the surface region of the sample. However, for quantitative interpretation, the MM-EPES method needs jointly a Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulation of electron trajectories in the solid. In the present work, we proposed a new approach to calculate the percentage η e of elastic reflected electrons by the surface of a sample. This simulation takes into account the surface effects (i.e. surface plasmon), and the atoms arrangement in the substrate. The concept of the surface excitation parameter (SEP) is also presented. Computer simulations were performed on the three low index single crystals of Cu, Au, Si and Ag. The results confirm that the distribution of substrate atoms, according to the crystallographic structure, influences the intensity measured by EPES. A simple prediction formula was proposed to calculate η e for elastic electrons entering in a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) spectrometer which is the apparatus giving experimentally numerical values of the percentage η e.

  15. Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herink, G.; Jalali, B.; Ropers, C.; Solli, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Mode-locked lasers have enabled some of the most precise measurements ever performed, from attosecond time-domain spectroscopy to metrology with frequency combs. However, such extreme precision belies the complexity of the underlying mode-locking dynamics. This complexity is particularly evident in the emergence of the mode-locked state, an intrinsically singular, non-repetitive transition. Many details of mode-locking are well understood, yet conventional spectroscopy cannot resolve the nascent dynamics in passive mode-locking on their natural nanosecond timescale, the single pulse period. Here, we capture the pulse-resolved spectral evolution of a femtosecond pulse train from the initial fluctuations, recording ∼900,000 consecutive periods. We directly observe critical phenomena on timescales from tens to thousands of roundtrips, including the birth of the broadband spectrum, accompanying wavelength shifts and transient interference dynamics described as auxiliary-pulse mode-locking. Enabled by the time-stretch transform, the results may impact laser design, ultrafast diagnostics and nonlinear optics.

  16. Universal quantum computation with Majorana fermion edge modes through microwave spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cold gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe how microwave spectroscopy of cold fermions in quasi-1D traps can be used to detect, manipulate, and entangle exotic nonlocal qubits associated with "Majorana" edge modes. We present different approaches to generate the p-wave superfluidity which is responsible for these topological zero-energy edge modes. We find that the edge modes have clear signatures in the microwave spectrum and that the line shape distinguishes between the degenerate states of a qubit encoded in these edge modes. Moreover, the microwaves rotate the system in its degenerate ground-state manifold. We use these rotations to implement a set of universal quantum gates, allowing the system to be used as a universal quantum computer.

  17. Softening of infrared-active mode of perovskite BaZrO{sub 3} proved by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Helal, M. A.; Mori, T.; Kojima, S.

    2015-05-04

    The low-frequency infrared-active optical modes were studied in a barium zirconate, BaZrO{sub 3}, single crystal with the perovskite structure using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were accurately determined in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.7 THz. Upon cooling from room temperature to 8 K, the lowest-frequency TO1 mode at 2.32 THz showed a pronounced softening to 1.94 THz. The real part of the dielectric constant at 0.5 THz determined by THz-TDS obeys Barrett's relation, and the existence of a plateau confirms that the quantum effects lead to saturation of the soft mode frequencies of the TO1 and TO2 modes below ≈20 K. This is reminiscent of incipient ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure such as CaTiO{sub 3}.

  18. Broadband Spectroscopy of CO_2 Bands Near 2 μm Using a Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Andrew; Maser, Daniel L.; Ycas, Gabriel; Diddams, Scott; Newbury, Nathan R.; Coddington, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The optical frequency comb provided in the output of a femtosecond, mode-locked laser has been employed for many applications, including broadband spectroscopic measurements of trace gases using a variety of detection techniques. One environmentally significant trace gas is CO_2, which has characteristic absorption bands near 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. Continuous wave (cw) lasers have typically been used to measure CO_2 at atmospheric-level concentrations. However, a broadband frequency comb source can provide rapid, simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple transitions without the need for mechanical scanning or frequency tuning. Previously, precision broadband spectroscopy was performed on CO_2 bands near 1.6 μm. However, the CO_2 absorption bands near 2 μm have nearly a ten-fold increase in line strength compared to the bands near 1.6 μm, making the 2 μm bands attractive candidates for precision measurements of CO_2 with improved signal-to-noise and reduced uncertainty. Here, broadband quantitative spectroscopy of CO_2 bands near 2 μm is pursued. The source that was developed consists of an Er:fiber oscillator, Er:doped fiber amplifier, and highly nonlinear optical fiber, which generates a broadband spectrum spanning from 1 to 2.2 μm with an average power of 270 mW. Over 70 mW of the optical power is contained in the 1.8-2.2 μm region relevant to the CO_2 measurement. After generation, the laser light is passed through laboratory gas cells or open air where the absorption features from the sample gas are imprinted onto the laser light. Initial detection efforts involve a virtually imaged phased array- (VIPA-)based spectrometer whose output is subsequently imaged on a InSb array detector. The bandwidth of the measured spectrum is 50 nm, limited by the size of the detector array. The characteristics of the spectrometer, including the detection limits and temporal resolution, will be presented. In addition, the progress towards the use of the present

  19. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  20. 6-GHz, Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:Lu2O3 ceramic laser for comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Endo, Mamoru; Ozawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2013-11-01

    A laser diode (LD)-pumped, 6-GHz repetition rate, ytterbium (Yb)-doped Lu2O3 ceramic Kerr-lens mode-locked laser is described. A bow-tie ring cavity enabled the generation of femtosecond pulses centered at a wavelength of 1076 nm with an average power of 10 mW. The pulse duration after an amplifier was 161 fs whereas the transform-limited pulse duration directly from the oscillator was 148 fs. The repetition frequency was sufficiently high for each longitudinal mode to be spectrally resolved by a commercially available optical spectrum analyzer. The developed laser was successfully applied to the absorption spectroscopy of metastable helium4 and demonstrated the suitability of the system as a source for comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy. PMID:24177130

  1. Decoding Mode-mixing in Black-hole Merger Ringdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal extraction of information from gravitational-wave observations of binary black-hole coalescences requires detailed knowledge of the waveforms. Current approaches for representing waveform information are based on spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition. Higher-order harmonic modes carrying a few percent of the total power output near merger can supply information critical to determining intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the binary. One obstacle to constructing a full multi-mode template of merger waveforms is the apparently complicated behavior of some of these modes; instead of settling down to a simple quasinormal frequency with decaying amplitude, some |m| = modes show periodic bumps characteristic of mode-mixing. We analyze the strongest of these modes the anomalous (3, 2) harmonic mode measured in a set of binary black-hole merger waveform simulations, and show that to leading order, they are due to a mismatch between the spherical harmonic basis used for extraction in 3D numerical relativity simulations, and the spheroidal harmonics adapted to the perturbation theory of Kerr black holes. Other causes of mode-mixing arising from gauge ambiguities and physical properties of the quasinormal ringdown modes are also considered and found to be small for the waveforms studied here.

  2. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording. PMID:27026651

  3. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  4. Hybrid plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled dimers and their physical origins revealed by polarization resolved dark field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled nanosphere monomers and dimers. Together with full-wave numerical simulation results, it is found that while the monomer-film system supports two hybridized dipole-like plasmon modes having different oscillating orientations and resonance strengths, the scattering spectrum of the dimer-film system features two additional peaks, one strong yet narrow resonant mode corresponding to a bonding dipolar moment and one hybridized higher order resonant mode, both polarized along the dimer axis. In particular, we demonstrate that the polarization dependent scattering radiation of the film-coupled nanosphere dimer can be used to optically distinguish from monomers and concurrently determine the spatial orientation of the dimer with significantly improved accuracy at the single-particle level, illustrating a simple yet highly sensitive plasmon resonance based nanometrology method.Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film

  5. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCl[subscript 4] v[subscript 1] Mode: Theoretical Prediction of Isotopic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…

  6. Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Sam Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah

    2014-07-07

    Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer α emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical γ discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

  7. Study of collective radial breathing-like modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes: combination of continuous two-dimensional membrane theory and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshov, Dmitry I.; Avramenko, Marina V.; Than, Xuan-Tinh; Michel, Thierry; Arenal, Raul; Paillet, Matthieu; Rybkovskiy, Dmitry V.; Osadchy, Alexander V.; Rochal, Sergei B.; Yuzyuk, Yuri I.; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Radial breathing modes (RBMs) are widely used for the atomic structure characterization and index assignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from resonant Raman spectroscopy. However, for double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), the use of conventional ωRBM(d) formulas is complicated due to the van der Waals interaction between the layers, which strongly affects the frequencies of radial modes and leads to new collective vibrations. This paper presents an alternative way to theoretically study the collective radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of DWNTs and to account for interlayer interaction, namely the continuous two-dimensional membrane theory. We obtain an analytical ωRBLM(do,di) relation, being the equivalent of the conventional ωRBM(d) expressions, established for SWNTs. We compare our theoretical predictions with Raman data, measured on individual index-identified suspended DWNTs, and find a good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, we show that the interlayer coupling in individual DWNTs strongly depends on the interlayer distance, which is manifested in the frequency shifts of the RBLMs with respect to the RBMs of the individual inner and outer tubes. In terms of characterization, this means that the combination of Raman spectroscopy data and predictions of continuous membrane theory may give additional criteria for the index identification of DWNTs, namely the interlayer distance.

  8. Optical dark field and electron energy loss imaging and spectroscopy of symmetry-forbidden modes in loaded nanogap antennas (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew; Long, James P.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, Blake S.

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical work has identified a new type of hybrid nanoresonator akin to a loaded-gap antenna, wherein the gap between two collinearly aligned metal nanorods is filled with active dielectric material. The gap optical load has a profound impact on resonances supported by such a "nanogap" antenna, and thus provides opportunity for (i) active modulation of the antenna resonance and (ii) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material. To this end, we have (i) used a bottom-up technique to fabricate nanogap antennas (Au/CdS/Au); (ii) characterized the optical modes of individual antennas with polarization- and wavevector-controlled dark-field microscopy; (iii) mapped the spatial profiles of the dominant modes with electron energy loss spectroscopy and imaging; and (iv) utilized full-wave finite-difference time-domain simulations to reveal the nanoscopic origin of the radiating modes supported on such nanogap antennas. In addition to conventional transverse and longitudinal resonances, these loaded nanogap antennas support a unique symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode arising from the splitting of degenerate transverse modes located on the two gap faces. This previously unobserved mode is strong (E2 enhanced ~20), tightly localized in the nanoscopic (~30 nm separation) gap region, and is shown to red-shift with decreased gap size and increased gap dielectric constant. In fact, the mode is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multi-functional components many seek.

  9. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-11-15

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (l=2, m={+-}2) perturbations and odd-parity (l=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that--in contrast to previous predictions in the literature--the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  10. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: Effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Tominaga, Keisuke E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp; Hayashi, Michitoshi E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp Wang, Houng-Wei; Kambara, Ohki; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi E-mail: tominaga@kobe-u.ca.jp

    2014-05-07

    The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D{sup *} have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D{sup *} simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D{sup *} data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D{sup *} produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D{sup *}.

  11. A surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of aminothiophenol and aminothiophenol-C{sub 60} self-assembled monolayers: Evolution of Raman modes with experimental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Delafosse, G.; Patrone, L.; Merlen, A.; Clair, S.

    2012-05-21

    P-aminothiophenol (PATP) is a well-known molecule for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers on gold via its thiol functional group. After adsorption, it has been demonstrated that this molecule is anchored to gold through its thiol group, and standing nearly upright at the surface with the amino functional group on top. This molecule has been extensively studied by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy but its exact SERS spectrum remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that it can be strongly affected by at least two experimental parameters: laser power and layer density. Those features are discussed in terms of a dimerization of the PATP molecules. The free amino group affords the adsorption of other molecules such as C{sub 60}. In this case, a complex multilayer system is formed and the question of its precise characterisation remains a key point. In this article, we demonstrate that surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with x ray photoelectron spectroscopy can bring very important information about the organization of such a self-assembled multilayer on gold. In our study, the strong evolution of Raman modes after C{sub 60} adsorption suggests a change in the organization of aminothiophenol molecules during C{sub 60} adsorption. These changes, also observed when the aminothiophenol layer is annealed in toluene, do not prevent the adsorption of C{sub 60} molecules.

  12. Sub-Doppler Jet-Cooled Infrared Spectroscopy of ND2H2+ and ND3H+ in the NH Stretch Fundamental Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David

    2014-06-01

    Sub-Doppler jet-cooled rovibrational spectra of ND3H+, ND2H2+, and NDH3+ ions in various fundamental NH modes were observed and analyzed using difference frequency generation infrared spectroscopy. The ions were generated in the concentration-modulation slit-jet expansion via a H3+ proton transfer mechanism in a discharge mixture of ND3/H2O and H2 gases. NH mode excitation in ND3H+ ion yielded a prominent Q branch feature and parallel band rotational structure. Rotational transitions were confirmed unambiguously by four-line ground state combination differences within frequency measurement accuracy (10 MHz). The band origin was determined to be 3316.8413(9) cm-1. Perturbation in the upper state was observed from analysis of residuals. In the case of ND2H2+, both NH symmetric (b-type) and anti-symmetric (c-type) modes were observed and assigned for the first time, yielding band origins of 3297.5440(1) and 3337.9050(1) cm-1, respectively. The intensity for the two fundamental bands was interpreted with simple context of a bond-dipole model. The present study provided high precision ground state rotational constants (A"=4.85675(4), B"=3.96829(4), C"=3.44667(6) cm-1), which should facilitate microwave searches for isotope-substituted ammonium ions in the regions of interstellar medium, such as dense molecular clouds or younger stellar objects.

  13. Guided-mode-resonance-coupled plasmonic-active SiO2 nanotubes for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Hasan, Dihan; Wang, Lei; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Alan X.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate by integrating plasmonic-active SiO2 nanotubes into Si3N4 gratings. First, the dielectric grating that is working under guided mode resonance (GMR) provides enhanced electric field for localized surface plasmon polaritons on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. Second, we use SiO2 nanotubes with densely assembled silver nanoparticles to provide a large amount of “hot spots” without significantly damping the GMR mode of the grating. Experimental measurement on Rhodamine-6G shows a constant enhancement factor of 8 ∼ 10 in addition to the existing SERS effect across the entire surface of the SiO2 nanotubes. PMID:22685345

  14. Dynamics of the slow mode in the family of six-carbon monosaccharides monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Kaminska, E.; Wlodarczyk, P.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Grzybowska, K.; Paluch, M.

    2010-09-01

    Broadband dielectric measurements performed on D-glucose, L-sorbose, D-fructose and D-galactose revealed that, except for the structural relaxation process, one can detect in the liquid phase of these carbohydrates a much slower relaxation mode. Recently we have demonstrated that in D-glucose this relaxation mode might be related to the long range correlation of density fluctuations (LRCDF), also called Fischer clusters (FC). Based on the dielectric data obtained for the four monosaccharides we were able to make a more general conclusion about the characteristic dielectric features of the slow mode in the whole family of carbohydrates. We found out that the timescale separation between structural and considered relaxation reaches up to six decades at the glass transition temperature and the dielectric strength decreases significantly with lowering temperature. Another very interesting feature of the slow process is that it can be described by an almost exponential response function. We have found out that the fragility of the slow process lies within the range m = 44-50. Finally, we have also shown that there is a close link between structural and slow relaxation.

  15. [Quantitative Measurement of Equivalence Ratios of Methane/Air Mixture by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: the Effects of Detector Gated Mode and Laser Wavelength].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Peng; Li, Bo; Yan, Bei-bei; Li, Zhong-shan; Yao, Ming-fa

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been increasingly used in combustion diagnostics as a novel spectral analysis method in recent years. The quantitative local equivalence ratio of methane/air mixture is determined by LIBS using different emission intensity ratios of H/O and H/N. The comparison between calibration curves of H₆₅₆/O₇₇₇ and H₆₅₆/N₇₄₆ is performed in gated mode, which shows that H₆₅₆/O₇₇₇ can achieve better prediction accuracy and higher sensitivity. More spectral intensity ratios (H₆₅₆/O₇₇₇, H₆₅₆/N₅₀₀⁺, H₆₅₆/N₅₆₇ and H₆₅₆/N₇₄₆) can be used to make calibration measurements in ungated mode and H₆₅₆/O₇₇₇ is also tested best among them. The comparison between gated and ungated detection modes shows that gated mode offers better accuracy and precision. In addition, the effects of different laser wavelengths (1064, 532 and 355 nm) on LIBS spectra and calibration curves are investigated with laser focal point size and laser fluence kept constant. The results show that with longer laser wavelength, the peak intensity and SNR of H, O and N lines increase, as well as the slope of calibration curve of H₆₅₆/O₇₇₇. Among these three wavelengths, 1064 nm laser is best suited to measure the equivalence ratio of CH₄/air mixture by LIBS. The experimental results are explained in terms of plasma electron density and temperature, which have a significant impact on the emission intensity and the partition function of hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. PMID:26978894

  16. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  17. Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (IXS) of a Transition Metal Complex (FeCl4−)– Vibrational Spectroscopy for All Normal Modes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Dong, Weibing; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Fettinger, James C.; Nix, Jay; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q. R.; Dowty, Eric; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The tetraethylammonium salt of the transition metal complex (FeCl4−) has been examined using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) with 1.5 meV resolution (12 cm−1) at 21.747 keV. This sample serves as a feasibility test for more complex transition metal complexes. The IXS spectra were compared with previously recorded infrared, Raman, and NRVS spectra, revealing the same normal modes but with less strict selection rules. Calculations with a previously derived Urey Bradley force field were used to simulate the expected Q and orientation dependence of the IXS intensities. The relative merits of IXS, as compared to other photon based vibrational spectroscopies such as NRVS, Raman, and IR are discussed. PMID:23668798

  18. Development of a rapid Buffer-exchange system for time-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with the step-scan mode

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Yuji; Kimura, Tetsunari; Okamoto, Kido

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy has been widely used to probe protein structural changes under various stimuli, such as light absorption, voltage change, and ligand binding, in aqueous conditions. Time-resolved measurements require a trigger, which can be controlled electronically; therefore, light and voltage changes are suitable. Here we developed a novel, rapid buffer-exchange system for time-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the ligand- or ion-binding re-action of a protein. By using the step-scan mode (time resolution; 2.5 ms), we confirmed the completion of the buffer-exchange reaction within ∼25 ms; the process was monitored by the infrared absorption change of a nitrate band at 1,350 cm−1. We also demonstrated the anion-binding reaction of a membrane protein, Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (pHR), which binds a chloride ion in the initial anion-binding site near the retinal chromophore. The formation of chloride- or nitrate-bound pHR was confirmed by an increase of the retinal absorption band at 1,528 cm−1. It also should be noted that low sample consumption (∼1 µg of protein) makes this new method a powerful technique to understand ligand–protein and ion–protein interactions, particularly for membrane proteins. PMID:27493550

  19. Neutron emission spectroscopy results for internal transport barrier and mode conversion ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Sunden, E. Andersson; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2008-10-15

    The effect of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on ({sup 3}He)D plasmas at JET was studied with the time of flight optimized rate (TOFOR) spectrometer dedicated to 2.5 MeV dd neutron measurements. In internal transport barrier (ITB) plasma experiments with large {sup 3}He concentrations (X({sup 3}He)>15%) an increase in neutron yield was observed after the ITB disappeared but with the auxiliary neutral beam injection and ICRH power still applied. The analysis of the TOFOR data revealed the formation of a high energy (fast) D population in this regime. The results were compared to other mode conversion experiments with similar X({sup 3}He) but slightly different heating conditions. In this study we report on the high energy neutron tails originating from the fast D ions and their correlation with X({sup 3}He) and discuss the light it can shed on ICRH-plasma power coupling mechanisms.

  20. Far-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Phonon Modes in Amorphous and Crystalline Epitaxial GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragaglia, V.; Holldack, K.; Boschker, J. E.; Arciprete, F.; Zallo, E.; Flissikowski, T.; Calarco, R.

    2016-06-01

    A combination of far-infrared and Raman spectroscopy is employed to investigate vibrational modes and the carrier behavior in amorphous and crystalline ordered GeTe-Sb2Te3 alloys (GST) epitaxially grown on Si(111). The infrared active GST mode is not observed in the Raman spectra and vice versa, indication of the fact that inversion symmetry is preserved in the metastable cubic phase in accordance with the Fm3 space group. For the trigonal phase, instead, a partial symmetry break due to Ge/Sb mixed anion layers is observed. By studying the crystallization process upon annealing with both the techniques, we identify temperature regions corresponding to the occurrence of different phases as well as the transition from one phase to the next. Activation energies of 0.43 eV and 0.08 eV for the electron conduction are obtained for both cubic and trigonal phases, respectively. In addition a metal-insulator transition is clearly identified to occur at the onset of the transition between the disordered and the ordered cubic phase.

  1. Far-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Phonon Modes in Amorphous and Crystalline Epitaxial GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys.

    PubMed

    Bragaglia, V; Holldack, K; Boschker, J E; Arciprete, F; Zallo, E; Flissikowski, T; Calarco, R

    2016-01-01

    A combination of far-infrared and Raman spectroscopy is employed to investigate vibrational modes and the carrier behavior in amorphous and crystalline ordered GeTe-Sb2Te3 alloys (GST) epitaxially grown on Si(111). The infrared active GST mode is not observed in the Raman spectra and vice versa, indication of the fact that inversion symmetry is preserved in the metastable cubic phase in accordance with the Fm3 space group. For the trigonal phase, instead, a partial symmetry break due to Ge/Sb mixed anion layers is observed. By studying the crystallization process upon annealing with both the techniques, we identify temperature regions corresponding to the occurrence of different phases as well as the transition from one phase to the next. Activation energies of 0.43 eV and 0.08 eV for the electron conduction are obtained for both cubic and trigonal phases, respectively. In addition a metal-insulator transition is clearly identified to occur at the onset of the transition between the disordered and the ordered cubic phase. PMID:27340085

  2. Far-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Phonon Modes in Amorphous and Crystalline Epitaxial GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bragaglia, V.; Holldack, K.; Boschker, J. E.; Arciprete, F.; Zallo, E.; Flissikowski, T.; Calarco, R.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of far-infrared and Raman spectroscopy is employed to investigate vibrational modes and the carrier behavior in amorphous and crystalline ordered GeTe-Sb2Te3 alloys (GST) epitaxially grown on Si(111). The infrared active GST mode is not observed in the Raman spectra and vice versa, indication of the fact that inversion symmetry is preserved in the metastable cubic phase in accordance with the Fm3 space group. For the trigonal phase, instead, a partial symmetry break due to Ge/Sb mixed anion layers is observed. By studying the crystallization process upon annealing with both the techniques, we identify temperature regions corresponding to the occurrence of different phases as well as the transition from one phase to the next. Activation energies of 0.43 eV and 0.08 eV for the electron conduction are obtained for both cubic and trigonal phases, respectively. In addition a metal-insulator transition is clearly identified to occur at the onset of the transition between the disordered and the ordered cubic phase. PMID:27340085

  3. Assessment of the mode of action of polyhexamethylene biguanide against Listeria innocua by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Chadeau, Elise; Dumas, Emilie; Adt, Isabelle; Degraeve, Pascal; Noël, Claude; Girodet, Christophe; Oulahal, Nadia

    2012-12-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a cationic biocide. The antibacterial mode of action of PHMB (at concentrations not exceeding its minimal inhibitory concentration) upon Listeria innocua LRGIA 01 was investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy analysis. Fourier transformed infrared spectra of bacteria treated with or without PHMB presented some differences in the lipids region: the CH(2)/CH(3) (2924 cm(-1)/2960 cm(-1)) band areas ratio significantly increased in the presence of PHMB. Since this ratio generally reflects membrane phospholipids and membrane microenvironment of the cells, these results suggest that PHMB molecules interact with membrane phospholipids and, thus, affect membrane fluidity and conformation. To assess the hypothesis of PHMB interaction with L. innocua membrane phospholipids and to clarify the PHMB mode of action, we performed fluorescence anisotropy experiments. Two probes, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and its derivative 1-[4-(trimethyl-amino)-phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene (TMA-DPH), were used. DPH and TMA-DPH incorporate inside and at the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. When PHMB was added, an increase of TMA-DPH fluorescence anisotropy was observed, but no changes of DPH fluorescence anisotropy occurred. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHMB molecules perturb L. innocua LRGIA 01 cytoplasmic membrane by interacting with the first layer of the membrane lipid bilayer. PMID:23210992

  4. High resolution spectroscopy of jet cooled phenyl radical: The ν1 and ν2 a1 symmetry C-H stretching modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J.

    2016-07-01

    A series of CH stretch modes in phenyl radical (C6H5) has been investigated via high resolution infrared spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution (˜60 MHz) in a supersonic discharge slit jet expansion. Two fundamental vibrations of a1 symmetry, ν1 and ν2, are observed and rotationally analyzed for the first time, corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch excitation at the ortho/meta/para and ortho/para C atoms with respect to the radical center. The ν1 and ν2 band origins are determined to be 3073.968 50(8) cm-1 and 3062.264 80(7) cm-1, respectively, which both agree within 5 cm-1 with theoretical anharmonic scaling predictions based on density functional B3LYP/6-311g++(3df,3dp) calculations. Integrated band strengths for each of the CH stretch bands are analyzed, with the relative intensities agreeing remarkably well with theoretical predictions. Frequency comparison with previous low resolution Ar-matrix spectroscopy [A. V. Friderichsen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001)] reveals a nearly uniform Δν ≈ + 10-12 cm-1 blue shift between gas phase and Ar matrix values for ν1 and ν2. This differs substantially from the much smaller red shift (Δν ≈ - 1 cm-1) reported for the ν19 mode, and suggests a simple physical model in terms of vibrational mode symmetry and crowding due to the matrix environment. Finally, the infrared phenyl spectra are well described by a simple asymmetric rigid rotor Hamiltonian and show no evidence for spectral congestion due to intramolecular vibrational coupling, which bodes well for high resolution studies of other ring radicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In summary, the combination of slit jet discharge methods with high resolution infrared lasers enables spectroscopic investigation of even highly reactive combustion and interstellar radical intermediates under gas phase, jet-cooled (Trot ≈ 11 K) conditions.

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of jet cooled phenyl radical: The ν1 and ν2 a1 symmetry C-H stretching modes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J

    2016-07-28

    A series of CH stretch modes in phenyl radical (C6H5) has been investigated via high resolution infrared spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution (∼60 MHz) in a supersonic discharge slit jet expansion. Two fundamental vibrations of a1 symmetry, ν1 and ν2, are observed and rotationally analyzed for the first time, corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch excitation at the ortho/meta/para and ortho/para C atoms with respect to the radical center. The ν1 and ν2 band origins are determined to be 3073.968 50(8) cm(-1) and 3062.264 80(7) cm(-1), respectively, which both agree within 5 cm(-1) with theoretical anharmonic scaling predictions based on density functional B3LYP/6-311g++(3df,3dp) calculations. Integrated band strengths for each of the CH stretch bands are analyzed, with the relative intensities agreeing remarkably well with theoretical predictions. Frequency comparison with previous low resolution Ar-matrix spectroscopy [A. V. Friderichsen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001)] reveals a nearly uniform Δν ≈ + 10-12 cm(-1) blue shift between gas phase and Ar matrix values for ν1 and ν2. This differs substantially from the much smaller red shift (Δν ≈ - 1 cm(-1)) reported for the ν19 mode, and suggests a simple physical model in terms of vibrational mode symmetry and crowding due to the matrix environment. Finally, the infrared phenyl spectra are well described by a simple asymmetric rigid rotor Hamiltonian and show no evidence for spectral congestion due to intramolecular vibrational coupling, which bodes well for high resolution studies of other ring radicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In summary, the combination of slit jet discharge methods with high resolution infrared lasers enables spectroscopic investigation of even highly reactive combustion and interstellar radical intermediates under gas phase, jet-cooled (Trot ≈ 11 K) conditions. PMID:27475358

  6. Strong overtones modes in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with cross-conjugated molecules: a prediction from theory.

    PubMed

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2013-10-22

    Cross-conjugated molecules are known to exhibit destructive quantum interference, a property that has recently received considerable attention in single-molecule electronics. Destructive quantum interference can be understood as an antiresonance in the elastic transmission near the Fermi energy and leading to suppressed levels of elastic current. In most theoretical studies, only the elastic contributions to the current are taken into account. In this paper, we study the inelastic contributions to the current in cross-conjugated molecules and find that while the inelastic contribution to the current is larger than for molecules without interference, the overall behavior of the molecule is still dominated by the quantum interference feature. Second, an ongoing challenge for single molecule electronics is understanding and controlling the local geometry at the molecule-surface interface. With this in mind, we investigate a spectroscopic method capable of providing insight into these junctions for cross-conjugated molecules: inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). IETS has the advantage that the molecule interface is probed directly by the tunneling current. Previously, it has been thought that overtones are not observable in IETS. Here, overtones are predicted to be strong and, in some cases, the dominant spectroscopic features. We study the origin of the overtones and find that the interference features in these molecules are the key ingredient. The interference feature is a property of the transmission channels of the π system only, and consequently, in the vicinity of the interference feature, the transmission channels of the σ system and the π system become equally transmissive. This allows for scattering between the different transmission channels, which serves as a pathway to bypass the interference feature. A simple model calculation is able to reproduce the results obtained from atomistic calculations, and we use this to interpret these findings

  7. Strong Overtones Modes in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy with Cross-Conjugated Molecules: A Prediction from Theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cross-conjugated molecules are known to exhibit destructive quantum interference, a property that has recently received considerable attention in single-molecule electronics. Destructive quantum interference can be understood as an antiresonance in the elastic transmission near the Fermi energy and leading to suppressed levels of elastic current. In most theoretical studies, only the elastic contributions to the current are taken into account. In this paper, we study the inelastic contributions to the current in cross-conjugated molecules and find that while the inelastic contribution to the current is larger than for molecules without interference, the overall behavior of the molecule is still dominated by the quantum interference feature. Second, an ongoing challenge for single molecule electronics is understanding and controlling the local geometry at the molecule-surface interface. With this in mind, we investigate a spectroscopic method capable of providing insight into these junctions for cross-conjugated molecules: inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). IETS has the advantage that the molecule interface is probed directly by the tunneling current. Previously, it has been thought that overtones are not observable in IETS. Here, overtones are predicted to be strong and, in some cases, the dominant spectroscopic features. We study the origin of the overtones and find that the interference features in these molecules are the key ingredient. The interference feature is a property of the transmission channels of the π system only, and consequently, in the vicinity of the interference feature, the transmission channels of the σ system and the π system become equally transmissive. This allows for scattering between the different transmission channels, which serves as a pathway to bypass the interference feature. A simple model calculation is able to reproduce the results obtained from atomistic calculations, and we use this to interpret these findings

  8. Fifth- and higher-order off-resonant spectroscopy from anharmonic vibrational modes of molecules in the condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.; Tanimura, Y.

    1997-03-01

    After the pioneering work by Tanimura and Mukamel [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9496 (1993)], the fifth-order off-resonant experiment or the two dimensional Raman spectroscopy has been actively performed around the world. In the original theory the nonlinear dependence of the polarizability on nuclear coordinates is the origin of the fifth- and higher-order signals. These high order off-resonant signals, however, may arise from anharmonicity of adiabatic potentials instead of the nonlinear polarizability. Profiles of the signals should reflect relative importance of the two effects ---the anharmonicity and the nonlinearity. Using the novel Feynman rule on the unified time path, which has been developed extensively by the authors, we succeeded in taking the effects of anharmonicities into the previous theory to obtain reasonably compact analytical expressions for the signals. Comparison of our results for the fifth-order with the experimental data on CS2 suggests some signs of anharmonicity in CS_2. The analytical expression is also obtained for the general (2n+1)th-order if the polarizability is linear. The expression is proportional g_n+1 where gn is the coefficient of the anharmonic potential V(q)= g_3q^3 + g_4q^4 +\\cdots . Here q is the nuclear coordinate. This fact opens a way to detect the (n+1)th-order anharmonicity directly from the (2n+1)th-order experiment. Click here for the abstracts of the full papers (http://fuji.ims.ac.jp/okumura/abst.htm)

  9. Empirical mode decomposition analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy muscular signals to assess the effect of physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Joy Martis, Roshan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Meiburger, Kristen M; De Luca, Riccardo; Petraroli, Giuliana; Liboni, William

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that may cause major problems to several physiological systems. Exercise has proven to be very effective in the prevention, management and improvement of this pathology in patients. Muscle metabolism is often studied with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a noninvasive technique that can measure changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb) and reduced hemoglobin (HHb) of tissues. These NIRS signals are highly non-stationary, non-Gaussian and nonlinear in nature. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used as a nonlinear adaptive model to extract information present in the NIRS signals. NIRS signals acquired from the tibialis anterior muscle of controls and type 2 diabetic patients are processed by EMD to yield three intrinsic mode functions (IMF). The sample entropy (SE), fractal dimension (FD), and Hurst exponent (HE) are computed from these IMFs. Subjects are monitored at the beginning of the study and after one year of a physical training programme. Following the exercise programme, we observed an increase in the SE and FD and a decrease in the HE in all diabetic subjects. Our results show the influence of physical exercise program in improving muscle performance and muscle drive by the central nervous system in the patients. A multivariate analysis of variance performed at the end of the training programme also indicated that the NIRS metabolic patterns of controls and diabetic subjects are more similar than at the beginning of the study. Hence, the proposed EMD technique applied to NIRS signals may be very useful to gain a non-invasive understanding of the neuromuscular and vascular impairment in diabetic subjects. PMID:25658504

  10. Jet-cooled infrared spectroscopy in slit supersonic discharges: symmetric and antisymmetric CH2 stretching modes of fluoromethyl (CH2F) radical.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Erin S; Dong, Feng; Nesbitt, David J

    2006-08-01

    The combination of shot noise-limited direct absorption spectroscopy with long-path-length slit supersonic discharges has been used to obtain first high-resolution infrared spectra for jet-cooled CH2F radicals in the symmetric (nu1) and antisymmetric (nu5) CH2 stretching modes. Spectral assignment has yielded refined lower- and upper-state rotational constants and fine-structure parameters from least-squares fits to the sub-Doppler line shapes for individual transitions. The rotational constants provide indications of large amplitude vibrational averaging over a low-barrier double minimum inversion-bending potential. This behavior is confirmed by high-level coupled cluster singles/doubles/triples calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and adiabatically corrected for zero point energy. The calculations predict a nonplanar equilibrium structure (theta approximately 29 degrees, where theta is defined to be 180 degrees minus the angle between the C-F bond and the CH2 plane) with a 132 cm(-1) barrier to planarity and a vibrational bend frequency (nu(bend) approximately 276 cm(-1)), in good agreement with previous microwave estimates (nu(bend) = 300 (30) cm(-1)) by Hirota and co-workers [Y. Endo et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1605 (1983)]. The nearly 2:1 ratio of absorption intensities for the symmetric versus antisymmetric bands is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations, but in sixfold contrast with simple local mode CH2 bond dipole predictions of 1:3. This discrepancy arises from a surprisingly strong dependence of the symmetric stretch intensity on the inversion bend angle and provides further experimental support for a nonplanar equilibrium structure. PMID:16942210

  11. A quasi-normal scale elimination model of turbulence and its application to stably stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukoriansky, S.; Galperin, B.; Perov, V.

    2006-02-01

    Models of planetary, atmospheric and oceanic circulation involve eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity, KM and KH, that account for unresolved turbulent mixing and diffusion. The most sophisticated turbulent closure models used today for geophysical applications belong in the family of the Reynolds stress models. These models are formulated for the physical space variables; they consider a hierarchy of turbulent correlations and employ a rational way of its truncation. In the process, unknown correlations are related to the known ones via "closure assumptions'' that are based upon physical plausibility, preservation of tensorial properties, and the principle of the invariant modeling according to which the constants in the closure relationships are universal. Although a great deal of progress has been achieved with Reynolds stress closure models over the years, there are still situations in which these models fail. The most difficult flows for the Reynolds stress modeling are those with anisotropy and waves because these processes are scale-dependent and cannot be included in the closure assumptions that pertain to ensemble-averaged quantities. Here, we develop an alternative approach of deriving expressions for KM and KH using the spectral space representation and employing a self-consistent, quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE) algorithm. More specifically, the QNSE procedure is based upon the quasi-Gaussian mapping of the velocity and temperature fields using the Langevin equations. Turbulence and waves are treated as one entity and the effect of the internal waves is easily identifiable. This model implies partial averaging and, thus, is scale-dependent; it allows one to easily introduce into consideration such parameters as the grid resolution, the degree of the anisotropy, and spectral characteristics, among others. Applied to turbulent flows affected by anisotropy and waves, the method traces turbulence anisotropization and shows how the dispersion

  12. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. K.; Konovalov, A. N.; Ul'yanov, V. A.

    2014-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 102) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues.

  13. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, A K; Konovalov, A N; Ul'yanov, V A

    2014-04-28

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 10{sup 2}) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Defect levels in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 solar cells probed by current-mode deep level transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sandip; Chaudhuri, Sandeep K.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2014-05-01

    Defect levels in kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have been investigated by current-mode deep level transient spectroscopy. Experiments were carried out on two CZTSSe cells with photoconversion efficiencies of 4.1% and 7.1% measured under AM 1.5 illumination. The absorber layer of the 4.1% efficiency cell was prepared by annealing evaporated ZnS/Cu/Sn stacked precursor under S/Se vapor, while the absorber of the 7.1% efficiency cell was prepared by co-evaporation of the constituent elements. The 4.1% efficiency CZTSSe cell with a S/(S + Se) ratio of 0.58 exhibited two dominant deep acceptor levels at Ev + 0.12 eV, and Ev + 0.32 eV identified as CuZn(-/0) and CuSn(2-/-) antisite defects, respectively. The 7.1% efficiency cell with purely Se composition S/(S + Se) = 0 showed only one shallow level at Ev + 0.03 eV corresponding to Cu-vacancy (VCu). Our results revealed that VCu is the primary defect center in the high-efficiency kesterite solar cell in contrast to the detrimental CuZn and CuSn antisites found in the low efficiency CZTSSe cells limiting the device performance.

  15. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  16. Phonon Mode Transformation across the Orthohombic-Tetragonal Phase Transition in a Lead-Iodide Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3: a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Elbert E. M.; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Grant No. SCI58-003), Singapore MOE Tier 1 (RG13/12, RG123/14), ONR, ARO, NTU Biophysics Center, LANL LDRD, LANL CINT.

  17. Probing Heat Transfer Through Infrared (IR), Near-IR, and Visible Spectroscopy of Lattice Modes, Overtones, Hydrogen Species, and Electronic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.

    2006-05-01

    Thermal conductivity (k, or its close relative, thermal diffusivity D = k/density.heat capacity) governs the flow of heat in minerals and high pressure phases. Quantifying the dependence of k on temperature, pressure, composition and phase is important because these variations largely control mantle convection, and dictate lithospheric conduction. One component (klat) arises from the microscopic phenomena of vibrations, as recognized by Debye and Einstein. Not only are absolute values of klat grossly uncertain, due to contact losses of heat, but systematic errors exist in the temperature derivatives due to contact plus unwanted, direct radiative transfer. Due to inaccuracies in k data, problems in acoustic models are under-recognized. Recent advances in engineering provide accurate measurements of minerals via the laser-flash technique (specifically radiative transfer effects and contact are eliminated in this IR method). New laser-flash data gathered in our laboratory on D(T) of olivine, garnet, spinel, quartz and other minerals are best described by the optic model based on damped harmonic analysis of quantitative IR and Raman spectra (Hofmeister 2001 Am Min; 2006 PCM), not by acoustic models. Theoretical considerations, and comparing spectroscopic and heat transport measurements shows that 1/D is closely related to heat capacity, which is controlled by optic modes above room T. As a consequence, D and klat asymptote to constants at high T, and values inside Earth are governed by pressure behavior. Accurate measurement of klat and D are limited to low pressure, and thus spectroscopy at high pressure in conjunction with optic models are essential to provide mantle values. The optic model could be made even more robust if vibrational spectra studies at T and P examined peak widths as well as peak positions. Inside Earth, heat is transported diffusively by radiative transfer (kPrad,dif). This process involves sequential emission, absorption and reemission of light

  18. Comparative study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission, attenuated total reflection, and total reflection modes for the analysis of plastics in the cultural heritage field.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Marcello; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Galeotti, Monica; Marchiafava, Veronica; Pizzo, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed within the framework of two research projects dealing with the conservation of contemporary artworks. The first is the Seventh Framework Project (FP7) of the European Union, Preservation of Plastic ARTefacts in Museum Collections (POPART), spanning years 2008-2012, and the second is the Italian project funded by the Tuscan Region, Preventive Conservation of Contemporary Art (Conservazione Preventiva dell'Arte Contemporanea (COPAC)), spanning 2011-2013. Both of these programs pointed out the great importance of having noninvasive and portable analytical techniques that can be used to investigate and characterize modern and contemporary artworks, especially those consisting of synthetic polymers. Indeed, despite the extensive presence of plastics in museum collections, there is still a lack of analytical tools for identifying, characterizing, and setting up adequate conservation strategies for these materials. In this work, the potentials of in situ and noninvasive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, implemented by means of portable devices that operate in reflection mode, are investigated with a view to applying the results in large-scale surveys of plastic objects in museums. To this end, an essential prerequisite are the reliability of spectral data acquired in situ and the availability of spectral databases acquired from reference materials. A collection of polymeric samples, which are available commercially as ResinKit, was analyzed to create a reference spectral archive. All the spectra were recorded using three FT-IR configurations: transmission (trans), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and total reflection (TR). A comparative evaluation of the data acquired using the three instrumental configurations is presented, together with an evaluation of the similarity percentages and a discussion of the critical cases. PMID:24694694

  19. High-frequency behavior of w-mode pulsations of compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. J.; Wu, J.; Leung, P. T.

    2011-03-15

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of w-mode pulsations of compact stars in the high-frequency regime. We observe that both the axial and polar w-mode QNMs attain similar asymptotic behaviors in spite of the fact that they are described by two totally different differential equation systems. We obtain robust asymptotic formulas relating w-mode QNMs of different polarities and different angular momenta. To explore the physical reason underlying such similarity, we first derive a high-frequency approximation for the polar w-mode oscillations to unify the descriptions for both cases. Then, we develop WKB-type analyses for them and quantitatively explain the observed asymptotic behaviors for polytropic stars and quark stars. We also point out that such asymptotic behaviors for realistic stars are strongly dependent on the equation of state near the stellar surface.

  20. Vibrational mode deactivation rates for gaseous discharge-excited nitrogen(2) on selected surfaces measured with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, John Walter, Jr.

    2000-09-01

    The disposal rate of nitrogen molecule internal-mode energy, kv , by deactivation in the presence of various surfaces was studied at low pressure and at approximately room temperature using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Deactivation is the process whereby vibrational energy is lost one quantum or a few quanta at a time rather than all at once as in quenching. Deactivation coefficients, γv, or loss probabilities, of vibrationally-excited N2(X1Σg +,v) on gold, Pyrex, Teflon and alloys of aluminum, stainless steel and titanium, were calculated from the wall deactivation rate coefficients for the hot band quantum numbers v = 1 to 4 or 5. Vibration states were populated with a 1.5 cm diameter water-cooled-in- glass positive column discharge where the residence time was estimated to be about 60 ms in the tube. The flow rate and pressure were adjusted to optimize the populations and the observed decay. Subsequently, the excited gas was presented via a source tube to a tubular reactor. For precisely controlled residence times, the excited nitrogen would communicate with the reactor interior surface. Only the gas that had been exposed to the surface was measured upon exit from the reactor by a CARS system in the 3-D BOXCARS configuration. Extensive measurements on Pyrex gave γ 1 values between 2.4 × 10-4 and 6.7 × 10-4 depending on the treatment history of the surface. The values for γ4 ranged from 2.9 × 10-4 for the AMS 4943D alloy of titanium to approximately unity for the AMS 312 stainless steel alloy. The low value for titanium can be attributed to the oxide layer. The variation of kv with v was linear or nearly linear in all cases with slopes lower in most cases than the rate of increase of the vibration-translation V-T exchange rate with v. Direct measurement of rates, in this way, detects losses due to homogeneous gas collisions as well as heterogeneous collisions with the surface. An attempt to extract the true value of γv from the data was

  1. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) spectroscopy of localized spin wave modes engineered by applied dipole-field localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Pu, Yong; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    Maintaining efficient spin-Hall anti-damping torque in micron-scale devices is challenging near the critical current for auto-oscillation, likely due to spin wave mode degeneracies and nonlinear magnon scattering between them. Localized spin wave modes confined by the strongly inhomogeneous dipole magnetic field of a nearby micro-spherical magnet provides a potentially powerful tool to study these multi-mode interactions by allowing systematic tunability while avoiding potential spurious effects arising from imperfections in fabricating microscopic structures. We demonstrate electrical ST-FMR detection of well-resolved localized modes in a Py/Pt stripe. We find that magnon spectral engineering by means of a micromagnetic particle enables clear observation of damping control and significant reduction of linewidth by means of the anti-damping torque arising from an imposed DC current. The observed linewidth variation suggests that localized modes can be controlled as effectively as the uniform mode.

  2. Characteristics of Low-Frequency Molecular Phonon Modes Studied by THz Spectroscopy and Solid-State ab Initio Theory: Polymorphs I and III of Diflunisal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi

    2016-03-01

    THz absorption spectra of two polymorphs of diflunisal, form I and form III, exhibit distinct features due to the influence of packing conformations on the frequency distributions and IR activities of gamma point phonon modes within the 100 cm(-1) region. In order to understand the origins of these THz modes, we perform a detailed mode analysis. The result shows that although the spectral features are different, these low-frequency phonon modes of the two molecular polymorphs have similar vibrational characteristics in terms of harmonic couplings of intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations. PMID:26808927

  3. Experimental demonstration of mode-selective phonon excitation of 6H-SiC by a mid-infrared laser with anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2013-10-28

    Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.

  4. Strongly localized modes in one-dimensional defect-free magnonic quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. H.; Qiu, R. Z.; Chang, C. H.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2014-08-15

    Signal storage in magnonic quasicrystals using a slow spin-wave mode, rather than the quasinormal mode of traditional periodic magnonic crystals, is proposed, which is analogous to the slow light mode in the field of optics. Compared to traditional materials, richer and more wavelength-selective sharp resonances are achieved using the quasicrystals with a fewer number of layers, because of the peculiar fractal transmission spectra of quasicrystals. The number of sharp resonance and the quality factor for the sharp resonances in the transmission spectra also increases as the generation order of the magnonic quasicrystal increases. This generic nature allows the storage of signals using spin wave, for a wide range of quasiperiodic systems.

  5. Determination of coordination modes and estimation of the 31P-31P distances in heterogeneous catalyst by solid state double quantum filtered 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Yong; Wang, Mei-Tao; Liu, Qing-Hua; Hu, Bing-Wen; Chen, Qun; Li, He-Xing; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2011-04-01

    To overcome the separation difficulty of the palladium-based homogeneous catalyst, the palladium complex can be anchored on various supports such as silica. However, it is difficult to determine the amounts of the two coordination modes of the Pd nucleus, that is, Pd coordinates with one phosphorus atom and Pd coordinates with two phosphorus atoms. Here a (31)P double-quantum filtered (DQ-filtered) method in solid-state NMR is introduced for the palladium-based heterogenous catalyst system. With the DQ-filtered method, we can not only determine the amounts of the two different kinds of palladium coordination modes, we can also estimate the interatomic distance of two (31)P nuclei bonded to a palladium nucleus. With the help of this method, we can quickly estimate interatomic distances in our designed system and accurately re-design the palladium system to accommodate either one (31)P or two (31)P. PMID:21301702

  6. Light-scattering spectroscopy of the liquid-glass transition in CaKNO[sub 3] and in the molecular glass Salol: Extended-mode-coupling-theory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, H.Z.; Du, W.M. ); Fuchs, M.; Goetze, W.; Hildebrand, S.; Latz, A. ); Li, G.; Tao, N.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Recently reported light-scattering studies of CaKNO[sub 3] and Salol are reanalyzed, using the extended version of the mode-coupling theory of the liquid-glass transition including activated transport or hopping effects. Problems found in the original fits due to the neglect of hopping terms are largely corrected, and quantitative predictions for the susceptibility minimum below the crossover temperature [ital T][sub [ital c

  7. Phonon mode spectroscopy, electron-phonon coupling, and the metal-insulator transition in quasi-one-dimensional M2Mo6Se6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, A. P.; Lortz, R.; Santi, G.; Decroux, M.; Monnard, H.; Fischer, Ø.; Boeri, L.; Andersen, O. K.; Kortus, J.; Salloum, D.; Gougeon, P.; Potel, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present electronic-structure calculations, electrical resistivity data, and the first specific-heat measurements in the normal and superconducting states of quasi-one-dimensional M2Mo6Se6 (M=Tl,In,Rb) . Rb2Mo6Se6 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at ˜170K : electronic-structure calculations indicate that this is likely to be driven by the formation of a dynamical charge-density wave. However, Tl2Mo6Se6 and In2Mo6Se6 remain metallic down to low temperature, with superconducting transitions at Tc=4.2K and 2.85 K, respectively. The absence of any metal-insulator transition in these materials is due to a larger in-plane bandwidth, leading to increased interchain hopping which suppresses the density wave instability. Electronic heat-capacity data for the superconducting compounds reveal an exceptionally low density of states DEF=0.055 states eV-1atom-1 , with BCS fits showing 2Δ/kBTc≥5 for Tl2Mo6Se6 and 3.5 for In2Mo6Se6 . Modeling the lattice specific heat with a set of Einstein modes, we obtain the approximate phonon density of states F(ω) . Deconvolving the resistivity for the two superconductors then yields their electron-phonon transport coupling function αtr2F(ω) . In Tl2Mo6Se6 and In2Mo6Se6 , F(ω) is dominated by an optical “guest ion” mode at ˜5meV and a set of acoustic modes from ˜10 to 30 meV. Rb2Mo6Se6 exhibits a similar spectrum; however, the optical phonon has a lower intensity and is shifted to ˜8meV . Electrons in Tl2Mo6Se6 couple strongly to both sets of modes, whereas In2Mo6Se6 only displays significant coupling in the 10-18 meV range. Although pairing is clearly not mediated by the guest ion phonon, we believe it has a beneficial effect on superconductivity in Tl2Mo6Se6 , given its extraordinarily large coupling strength and higher Tc compared to In2Mo6Se6 .

  8. The missing asymptotic sector of rotating black-hole spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Uri; Ben-Meir, Arnon

    2014-10-01

    The rotation of a Kerr black hole splits its low-frequency spectrum in two, so it was so far unclear why the known highly-damped resonances show no splitting. We find the missing, split sector, with spin s quasinormal modes approaching the total reflection frequencies ω (n ∈ N) = - ΩΔJ - iκ (n - s), where Ω, κ and ΔJ are the horizon's angular velocity, surface gravity, and induced change in angular momentum. Surprisingly, the new sector is at least partly polar, and corresponds to reversible J transitions. Its fundamental branch converges quickly, possibly affecting gravitational wave signals. A simple interpretation of the Carter constant of motion is proposed.

  9. Broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and ferroelectric soft-mode response in the Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) solid solution.

    PubMed

    Ostapchuk, T; Petzelt, J; Hlinka, J; Bovtun, V; Kužel, P; Ponomareva, I; Lisenkov, S; Bellaiche, L; Tkach, A; Vilarinho, P

    2009-11-25

    Ceramic Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) (BST-0.6) samples were studied in the broad spectral range of 10(6)-10(14) Hz by using several dielectric techniques in between 20 and 800 K. The dominant dielectric dispersion mechanism in the paraelectric phase was shown to be of strongly anharmonic soft-phonon origin. The whole soft-mode response in the vicinity of the ferroelectric transition was shown to consist of two coupled overdamped THz excitations, which show classical features of a coupled soft and central mode, known from many ferroelectric crystals with a dynamics near the displacive and order-disorder crossover. Similar behaviour has been recently revealed and theoretically simulated in pure BaTiO(3) (see Ponomareva et al 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 012102 and Hlinka et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 167402). Also for the BST system, this feature was confirmed by the theory based on molecular dynamics simulations with an effective first-principles Hamiltonian. In all the ferroelectric phases, additional relaxation dispersion appeared in the GHz range, assigned to ferroelectric domain-wall dynamics. The microwave losses were analysed from the point of view of applications. The paraelectric losses above 1 GHz are comparable with those in single crystals and appear to be of intrinsic multi-phonon origin. The ceramic BST system is therefore well suited for applications in the whole microwave range. PMID:21832494

  10. Enhanced Light Scattering of the Forbidden longitudinal Optical Phonon Mode Studied by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy on Single InN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Schafer-Nolte, E.O.; Stoica T.; Gotschke, T.; Limbach, F.A.; Sutter, P.; Grutzmacher, D.; Calarco, R.

    2010-08-06

    In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E2 phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.

  11. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II. PMID:23129631

  12. Time-resolved pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of helium using a mode-locked laser synchronized with synchrotron radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoursière, Jean; Meyer, Michael; Nahon, Laurent; Morin, Paul; Larzillière, Michel

    1994-12-01

    We report a new experimental setup consisting in the synchronization of 74.9094 MHz pulses from a mode-locked Ar + laser with 8.32 MHz pulses of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation from the Super-ACO storage ring of the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnétique (LURE). The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated in a time-resolved pump-probe (VUV + visible) experiment in which free helium atoms are resonantly ionized via the short-lived 1s3p ( 1P) state. This experiment allowed us to obtain the value of 1.12 ns for the temporal resolution (FWHM) of the experimental setup and to show the relevance of this technique for the investigation of nanosecond dynamics on gas phase species.

  13. Basaltic glass formed from hydrovolcanism and impact processes: Characterization and clues for detection of mode of origin from VNIR through MWIR reflectance and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Wright, S. P.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument on-board the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has measured a consistent X-ray amorphous component in drill core samples examined to-date, clearly demonstrating that X-ray amorphous materials are a significant fraction of the martian surface layer. Glasses are potential components of this amorphous material and in this study, basaltic tephras from several hydro- and glaciovolcanic centers, as well as impact melts from India's Lonar Crater, were examined using thin section petrography, visible and near-infrared reflectance and mid-wave infrared emission spectroscopy as well as measuring major and minor element chemistry of representative samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The objectives of this study have been to look for distinguishing characteristics between volcanic and impact glasses and to determine features that indicate whether the glasses are fresh or altered using methods available on current and planned Mars rovers. Spectral features in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) that can be used as indicators of alteration include the development of hydration features at 1.9 and ∼3 μm and a feature attributed to ferric oxide development at 0.48 μm. In the mid-wave infrared, it was observed that glass-rich tephra field samples did not display a broad, disordered glass feature near 9-10 μm (as is observed in pristine basaltic glasses) but rather a doublet with centers near 9.5 and 11 μm attributed in earlier work to incipient devitrification into SiO4 chain and sheet structures respectively. A tentative observation was made that the Si-O bending feature, observed in all the sample spectra near 22 μm was broader in the hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass samples than in the impact glass samples. Hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass-rich tephra samples were used as library spectra in linear deconvolution analyses of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) surface spectral types. These

  14. Effects of sodium chloride on the properties of chlorophyll a submonolayer adsorbed onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces using broadband spectroscopy with single-mode integrated optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigated the effects of sodium chloride on the molar absorptivity and surface density of a submonolayer of chlorophyll a adsorbed onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic solid/liquid interfaces. Those investigations were made possible by a broadband spectroscopic platform based on single-mode, integrated optical waveguides, which allows for extremely sensitive spectroscopic detection of analytes immobilized at submonolayer levels. Chlorophyll a with a constant bulk concentration (1.4 μM) was dissolved in phosphate buffer solutions (7 mM) of neutral pH, but with different sodium chloride concentrations. For a buffer solution of 1 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.209 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.125 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. For a phosphate buffer solution of 10 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.528 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.337 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. Additionally, a hypsochromic shift of the Soret band was observed for the adsorbed pigment in correlation with an increase in buffer ionic strength. The adsorption of chlorophyll a onto different surfaces can play an important role to elucidate several processes found in nature and provide a rationale for bio-inspired new material technologies.

  15. MHD Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Fasoli, A; Testa, D; Sharapov, S; Berk, H L; Breizman, B; Gondhalekar, A; Mantsinen, M

    2004-03-23

    Experiments are conducted on the JET tokamak to assess the diagnostic potential of MHD active and passive spectroscopy, for the plasma bulk and its suprathermal components, using Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes (AEs) excited by external antennas and by energetic particles. The measurements of AE frequencies and mode numbers give information on the bulk plasma. Improved equilibrium reconstruction, in particular in terms of radial profiles of density and safety factor, is possible from the comparison between the antenna driven spectrum and that calculated theoretically. Details of the time evolution of the non-monotonic safety factor profile in advanced scenarios can be reconstructed from the frequency of ICRH-driven energetic particle modes. The plasma effective mass can be inferred from the resonant frequency of externally driven AEs in discharges with similar equilibrium profiles. The stability thresholds and the nonlinear development of the instabilities can give clues on energy and spatial distribution of the fast particle population. The presence of unstable AEs provides lower limits in the energy of ICRH generated fast ion tails. Fast ion pressure gradients and their evolution can be inferred from the stability of AEs at different plasma radial positions. Finally, the details of the AE spectrum in the nonlinear stage can be used to obtain information about the fast particle velocity space diffusion.

  16. FTIR spectroscopy of borate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Beregi, E.; Polgar, K.; Peter, A.

    1999-03-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the vibrational modes in various borate crystals, the electronic transitions of Nd3+ ions in NYAB, and the stretching vibration of hydroxyl ions in CLBO crystals.

  17. Space qualification of an antireflection coating on the surface of a ruled grating prism: increasing the throughput of the single-object slitless spectroscopy mode of NIRISS onboard JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Loïc.; Doyon, René; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Little, Steve L.; Enzor, Greg S.; Maszkiewicz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Grating prisms (grism) designed for near-infrared spectroscopy typically make use of high-refractive index materials such as zinc selenide (ZnSe), at the expense of large Fresnel losses ( 18%). Part of the loss can be recovered by using anti-reflection (AR) coatings. The technique is however considered risky when applied on the ruled surface of a grating, especially for a space application at cryogenic temperature. Such a grism, made of ZnSe and machined at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is mounted in the Near-Infrared Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its Single Object Slitless Spectrograph (SOSS) observing mode uses the ZnSe grism and a cross-dispersing prism to produce R=700 spectra in orders 1 and 2 to cover the 0.6 to 2.5 microns spectral domain. The ZnSe grism is blazed at 1.23 microns, has a density of 54 lines/mm and its triangular grooves have a depth of 700 nm, a base of 18 microns, with facets angled at 1.9 degrees. Here, an AR coating produced by Thin Film Lab (TFL) and deposited on the ruled surface of a ZnSe grism sample was space qualified. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed no groove profile change pre/post coating despite the large relative thickness of the AR coating to that of the groove depth ( 35%). Also, the wavefront error map remained almost unchanged at lambda/8 (peak-to-valley at 632 nm) and survived unscathed through a series of three cryogenic cycles to 20 K. Finally, the transmission gain across our operating spectral range was almost as high as that for a unruled surface covered with the same AR coating (10-15%).

  18. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10‑16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  19. Quarkonium spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Scharre, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    Recent experimental investigations of heavy quark-antiquark bound state systems are reviewed. Results from SPEAR on charmonium spectroscopy and from DORIS and CESR on bottomonium spectroscopy are presented. The current status of the search for top is also discussed.

  20. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  1. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  2. Mossbauer Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John G.; Bowen, Lawrence H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews current research in Mossbauer spectroscopy, including instrumentation and experimental techniques, spectral analysis, catalysts and surfaces, environmental studies, medical applications and atmospheric air studies. Cites 346 references. (CS)

  3. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  4. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation.

  5. Edge Mode Coupling within a Plasmonic Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hohenau, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

    2016-08-10

    The coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles can strongly modify their optical properties. Here, we show that the coupling of the edges within a single rectangular particle leads to mode splitting and the formation of bonding and antibonding edge modes. We are able to unambiguously designate the modes due to the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy-based electron energy loss spectroscopy and the comparison with numerical simulations. Our results provide simple guidelines for the interpretation and the design of plasmonic mode spectra. PMID:27427962

  6. Local and normal modes: A classical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Charles; Brumer, Paul

    1980-12-01

    Normal and local mode behavior in molecular systems and the transition between them is explored using nonlinear mechanics techniques. Significant insight into this behavior and into the structure of phase space results from a generalized definition of local and normal modes and the associated identification of normal modes as a (1:1) resonance between local zeroth order oscillators. In addition to qualitative insight, this approach yields a simple formula [Eq. (28)] for the level of excitation at which local modes become possible. Applications to H2O and to the overtone spectroscopy of the dihalomethanes, benzene, and TMS are provided.

  7. Cryogenic resonant acoustic spectroscopy of bulk materials (CRA spectroscopy).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Nawrodt, Ronny; Koettig, Torsten; Neubert, Ralf; Thürk, Matthias; Vodel, Wolfgang; Seidel, Paul; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    The capability to measure Q factors at cryogenic temperatures enhances the ability to study relaxation processes in solids. Here we present a high-precision cryogenic setup with the ability to measure Q factors of at least 10(9). This level of sensitivity offers new potential for analyzing relaxation processes in solids and for correlating mode shape and relaxation strength. Our improved method of mechanical spectroscopy, cryogenic resonant acoustic spectroscopy of bulk materials, is verified by identifying relaxation processes in low-loss quartz crystals. For the first time, we observe additional damping peaks. The mechanical Q factors of different modes of cylindrical crystalline quartz substrates were measured from 300 down to 6 K. Resonant modes with frequencies between 10 and 325 kHz were excited without contact to the substrates and the ring down of the amplitudes was recorded using an interferometric vibration readout. PMID:17614624

  8. Charm and Charm Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, Valentina; /Ferrara U.

    2011-11-23

    Recent developements in D mixing physics and charm spectroscopy will be discussed. Focus will be on the BaBar experimental results for the D mixing: first evidence of the D{sup 0}-mixing (hadronic D{sup 0} decays), lifetime difference and time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}. Then, recent results on charm spectroscopy will be presented with particular focus on the new Ds states that have been discovered in the last few years. Some of these states were not expected theoretically: their masses, widths, quantum numbers, and decay modes do not fit the existing spectroscopic classication, which is based mostly on potential model calculations.

  9. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  10. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Doppler-limited H2O and HF absorption spectroscopy by sweeping the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate using a single-mode MEMS-tunable VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, B. A.; Jayaraman, V.; Jiang, J. Y.; Cable, A.; Sanders, S. T.

    2012-09-01

    A single longitudinal mode micro-electro-mechanical system-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was used to measure H2O and HF absorption spectra in the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate (˜ 740 MHz/ns tuning rate). Pulse delay referencing was used to achieve an absorbance noise level of 0.004 (RMS), within a factor of 2.6 of the shot noise limit. The measured linewidths approach the low-pressure feature linewidths (˜790 MHz) characteristic of the gases studied, highlighting the single-mode nature of the VCSEL throughout each rapid wavelength sweep. At even higher tuning rates, molecular features became asymmetric and broad, consistent with rapid passage and Fourier effects.

  12. Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, Jiří

    The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.

  13. Low-frequency vibrational modes of glutamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution terahertz absorption and Raman spectra of glutamine in the frequency region 0.2 THz-2.8 THz are obtained by using THz time domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. Based on the experimental and the computational results, the vibration modes corresponding to the terahertz absorption and Raman scatting peaks are assigned and further verified by the theoretical calculations. Spectral investigation of the periodic structure of glutamine based on the sophisticated hybrid density functional B3LYP indicates that the vibrational modes come mainly from the inter-molecular hydrogen bond in this frequency region.

  14. Hidden modes in open disordered media: analytical, numerical, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Yury P.; Freilikher, Valentin; Shi, Z.; Genack, A. Z.; Nori, Franco

    2015-11-01

    We explore numerically, analytically, and experimentally the relationship between quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and transmission resonance (TR) peaks in the transmission spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) and quasi-1D open disordered systems. It is shown that for weak disorder there exist two types of the eigenstates: ordinary QNMs which are associated with a TR, and hidden QNMs which do not exhibit peaks in transmission or within the sample. The distinctive feature of the hidden modes is that unlike ordinary ones, their lifetimes remain constant in a wide range of the strength of disorder. In this range, the averaged ratio of the number of transmission peaks {N}{{res}} to the number of QNMs {N}{{mod}}, {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}}, is insensitive to the type and degree of disorder and is close to the value \\sqrt{2/5}, which we derive analytically in the weak-scattering approximation. The physical nature of the hidden modes is illustrated in simple examples with a few scatterers. The analogy between ordinary and hidden QNMs and the segregation of superradiant states and trapped modes is discussed. When the coupling to the environment is tuned by an external edge reflectors, the superradiance transition is reproduced. Hidden modes have been also found in microwave measurements in quasi-1D open disordered samples. The microwave measurements and modal analysis of transmission in the crossover to localization in quasi-1D systems give a ratio of {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} close to \\sqrt{2/5}. In diffusive quasi-1D samples, however, {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} falls as the effective number of transmission eigenchannels M increases. Once {N}{{mod}} is divided by M, however, the ratio {N}{{res}}/{N}{{mod}} is close to the ratio found in 1D.

  15. Synthesis and vibrational spectroscopy of 57Fe-labeled models of [NiFe] hydrogenase: first direct observation of a nickel–iron interaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, spectral data, computational chemistry details, animated vibrational modes as GIFs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc04572f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Wang, Hongxin; Meier, Florian; Gee, Leland B.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kaupp, Martin; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    A new route to iron carbonyls has enabled synthesis of 57Fe-labeled [NiFe] hydrogenase mimic (OC)3 57Fe(pdt)Ni(dppe). Its study by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy revealed Ni–57Fe vibrations, as confirmed by calculations. The modes are absent for [(OC)3 57Fe(pdt)Ni(dppe)]+, which lacks Ni–57Fe bonding, underscoring the utility of the analyses in identifying metal–metal interactions. PMID:25237680

  16. Nuclear Inelastic Scattering and Mössbauer Spectroscopy as Local Probes for Ligand Binding Modes and Electronic Properties in Proteins: Vibrational Behavior of a Ferriheme Center Inside a β-Barrel Protein

    PubMed Central

    Moeser, Beate; Janoschka, Adam; Wolny, Juliusz A.; Paulsen, Hauke; Filippov, Igor; Berry, Robert E.; Zhang, Hongjun; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Walker, F. Ann; Schünemann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a study of the influence of the protein matrix on its ability to tune the binding of small ligands such as NO, cyanide (CN-) and histamine to the ferric heme iron center in the NO-storage and -transport protein Nitrophorin 2 (NP2) from the salivary glands of the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus. Conventional Mössbauer spectroscopy shows a diamagnetic ground state of the NP2-NO complex and Type I and II electronic ground states of the NP2-CN- and NP2-histamine complex, respectively. The change in the vibrational signature of the protein upon ligand binding has been monitored by Nuclear Inelastic Scattering (NIS), also called Nuclear Resonant Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS). The NIS data thus obtained have also been calculated by quantum mechanical (QM) density functional theory (DFT) coupled with Molecular Mechanics (MM) methods. The calculations presented here show that the heme ruffling in NP2 is a consequence of the interaction with the protein matrix. Structure optimizations of the heme and its ligands with DFT retain the characteristic saddling and ruffling only if the protein matrix is taken into account. Furthermore, simulations of the NIS data by QM/MM calculations suggest that the pH dependence of the binding of NO, but not of CN– and histamine, might be a consequence of the protonation state of the heme carboxyls. PMID:22295945

  17. Space spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-02-01

    Los Alamos researchers have developed a technique to determine the composition of rock samples despite weather-induced mineral varnish deposited on the rocks. Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), the researchers determined the true elemental composition of a Mojave Desert rock sample with a thick weather-induced deposit on it. (AIP) (c)

  18. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  19. The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer in polycarbonate by application of an online coupling of size exclusion chromatography in stopped flow mode with pyrolysis gas chromatography time of flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brander, Eric; Wold, Christian

    2014-10-01

    The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer (Uvinul 3030™) in an unknown polycarbonate sample was achieved through the application of SEC-Py-TOF-GCMS. A size exclusion column optimized to achieve resolution in the lower mass range was applied to allow the fractionation of an individual additive peak. A commercially available sampling interface was operated in stop flow mode and fractions were pyrolyzed to allow chromatographic separation of the fragments of the otherwise non-volatile stabilizer. After identification on the basis of accurate mass and elemental composition of the additive the quantification was compared using the available SEC-UV and SEC-PY-GC-TOFMS data. The resulting method provided a high degree of certainty in identification and flexibility in quantification expected to be applicable to other additives of similar volatilities or functional class. PMID:25160954

  20. Grain Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  1. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    The period of this review is from late 1983 to late 1985. During this time over 5000 papers have appeared in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to several new areas of study. As in the previous review in this series most of the applications relevant to solids are covered in one or other of the ten categories, which are the same as those used previously. However, aspects relating to solids which are not covered elsewhere include general reviews and the specific field of semiconductors. This is an area of great current interest in terms of Raman spectroscopy and the characterization of semiconductor materials and surfaces has been reported. Raman scattering also provides a new probe for the elucidation of structural properties of microcrystalline silicon and resonance Raman scattering in silicon at elevated temperatures has been studied. Many studies on carbon have also appeared in the literature including that of the various types of carbon, the use of Raman scattering to investigate disorder and crystallite formation in annealed carbon, in situ studies of intercalation kinetics, structural aspects of cokes and coals, and instrumentation for coal gasification. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to such diverse systems as organic crystals, the determination of modifications in layered crystals, the detection of explosives on silica gel or carbon, diagnostics of heterogeneous chemical processes, and a study of tungsten-halogen bulbs. Laser Raman spectroscopy has also been coupled with liquid chromatography and phase-resolved background suppression has been used to enhance Raman spectra. 397 references.

  2. Femtosecond resolution of soft mode dynamics in structural phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Thomas P.; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Nelson, Keith A.; Garrett, Mark H.; Jensen, Hans P.; Warde, Cardinal

    1992-01-01

    The microscopic pathway along which ions or molecules in a crystal move during structural phase transition can often be described in terms of a collective vibrational mode of the lattice. In many cases, this mode, called a 'soft' phonon mode because of its characteristically low frequency near the phase transition temperature, is difficult to characterize through conventional frequency-domain spectroscopies such as light or neutron scattering. A femtosecond time-domain analog of light-scattering spectroscopy called impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) has been used to examine the soft modes of two perovskite ferroelectric crystals. The low-frequency lattice dynamics of KNbO3 and BaTiO3 are clarified in a manner that permits critical evaluation of microscopic models for their ferroelectric transitions. The results illustrate the advantages of ISRS over conventional Raman spectroscopy of low-frequency, heavily damped soft modes.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, H.; Yoneda, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Shimizu, F.

    2010-02-01

    Anderson localization of matter-waves in a controlled disorder: a quantum simulator? / A. Aspect ... [et al.] -- Squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Gross ... [et al.] -- New physics in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates / Y. Kawaguchi, H. Saito, and M. Ueda -- Observation of vacuum fluctuations in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Klempt ... [et al.] -- Negative-index media for matter waves / F. Perales ... [et al.] -- Entanglement of two individual atoms using the Rydberg blockade / A. Browaeys ... [et al.] -- Array of mesoscopic ensembles on a magnetic atom chip / A. F. Tauschinsky ... [et al.] -- Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to primary clock / A. Amy-Klein ... [et al.] -- Metastable helium: lifetime measurements using cold atoms as a test of QED / K. G. H. Baldwin ... [et al.] -- Optical lattice clocks with single occupancy bosons and spin-polarized fermions toward 10[symbol] accuracy / M. Takamoto ... [et al.] -- Frequency measurements of Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical standards / W. M. Itano ... [et al.] -- Switching of light with light using cold atoms inside a hollow optical fiber / M. Bajcsy ... [et al.] -- Room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry / K. Jensen ... [et al.] -- Components for multi-photon non-classical state preparation and measurement / G. Puentes ... [et al.] -- Quantum field state measurement and reconstruction in a cavity by quantum nondemolition photon counting / M. Brune ... [et al.] -- XUV frequency comb spectroscopy / C. Gohle ... [et al.] -- Ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse train with absolute-phase control produced by an adiabatic raman process / M. Katsuragawa ... [et al.] -- Strongly correlated bosons and fermions in optical lattices / S. Will ... [et al.] -- Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold bose gases in optical lattices / L. Fallani ... [et al.] -- Synthetic quantum many-body systems / C. Guerlin ... [et al

  4. Berreman mode and epsilon near zero mode.

    PubMed

    Vassant, Simon; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of an electromagnetic mode propagating in a thin dielectric film deposited on a metallic film at the particular frequency such that the dielectric permittivity vanishes. We discuss the remarkable properties of this mode in terms of extreme subwavelength mode confinment and its potential applications. We also discuss the link between this mode, the IR absorption peak on a thin dielectric film known as Berreman effect and the surface phonon polariton mode at the air/dielectric interface. Finally, we establish a connection with the polarization shift occuring in quantum wells. PMID:23188363

  5. (15)N NMR spectroscopy unambiguously establishes the coordination mode of the diimine linker 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) in Ru(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Battistin, Federica; Balducci, Gabriele; Demitri, Nicola; Iengo, Elisabetta; Milani, Barbara; Alessio, Enzo

    2015-09-21

    We investigated the reactivity of three Ru(ii) precursors -trans,cis,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(dmso-O)2], cis,fac-[RuCl2(dmso-O)(dmso-S)3], and trans-[RuCl2(dmso-S)4] - towards the diimine linker 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) or its parent compound 4-methyl-2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine ligand (mpp), in which a methyl group replaces the carboxylic group on the pyrimidine ring. In principle, both cppH and mpp can originate linkage isomers, depending on how the pyrimidine ring binds to ruthenium through the nitrogen atom ortho (N(o)) or para (N(p)) to the group in position 4. The principal aim of this work was to establish a spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing the coordination mode of cppH/mpp also in the absence of an X-ray structural characterization. By virtue of the new complexes described here, together with the others previously reported by us, we successfully recorded {(1)H,(15)N}-HMBC NMR spectra at natural abundance of the (15)N isotope on a consistent number of fully characterized Ru(ii)-cppH/mpp compounds, most of them being stereoisomers and/or linkage isomers. Thus, we found that (15)N NMR chemical shifts unambiguously establish the binding mode of cppH and mpp - either through N(o) or N(p)- and can be conveniently applied also in the absence of the X-ray structure. In fact, coordination of cppH to Ru(ii) induces a marked upfield shift for the resonance of the N atoms directly bound to the metal, with coordination induced shifts (CIS) ranging from ca.-45 to -75 ppm, depending on the complex, whereas the unbound N atom resonates at a frequency similar to that of the free ligand. Similar results were found for the complexes of mpp. This work confirmed our previous finding that cppH has no binding preference, whereas mpp binds exclusively through N(p). Interestingly, the two cppH linkage isomers trans,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(cppH-κN(p))] (5) and trans,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(cppH-κN(o))] (6) were easily obtained in pure form by exploiting their different

  6. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1988-06-15

    The period of this review is from late 1985 to late 1987. During this time over 6000 papers have been published in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to new areas of study. This article covers only those papers that are relevant to the analytical chemist and this necessitates a highly selective approach. There are some areas that have been the subject of many papers with relatively few being of analytical interest. In such cases the reader is referred to appropriate reviews which are detailed in this section.

  7. Hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi, O. Hashimoto, J.J. LeRose, P. Markowitz, S.N. Nakamura, J. Reinhold, L. Tang

    2011-06-01

    A program of hypernuclear spectroscopy experiments encompassing many hypernuclei has been undertaken in both Halls A and C using complimentary approaches. Spectra with sub-MeV resolution have been obtained for Li, B, and N in Hall A, while results from Hall C include He, B, and Al with new data still under analysis for He, Li, Be, B and V. High resolution and high precision in the determination of the single Λ binding energy at various shell levels has been the key success of these experiments using the (e,e'K+) reaction to produce Λ hypernuclei.

  8. Attosecond Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Attosecond spectroscopy is enabled by the advent of intense ultrashort light pulses comprising merely a few wave cycles. Manipulating the hyperfast-varying electric field evolution of these pulses permits the manipulation and tracking of the atomic-scale motion of electrons. A striking implication of this ability is the generation and characterization of isolated attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light and their characterization. Spectroscopic techniques making use of the unprecedented temporal resolution that attosecond XUV pulses offer can track and control electron dynamics in the interior of atoms, molecules as well as in solids and provide insight in the evolution of ultrafast electronic population dynamics and related coherent processes. Attosecond technology in combination with conventional electron spectroscopy, dubbed ``attosecond streaking'' investigates the timing of photoemission and electronic transport processes on solid surfaces. The extension of transient absorption measurement schemes makes coherent electronic dynamics accessible and the effects that ultrastrong and -short laser electric fields exert on the electronic structure of matter and the band structure population dynamics.

  9. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  10. Density functional theory and Raman spectroscopy applied to structure and vibrational mode analysis of 1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro- benzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide and its aggregate.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Metin; Dede, Özge; Akins, Daniel L

    2011-02-14

    We have measured electronic and Raman scattering spectra of 1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-benzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (TTBC) in various environments, and we have calculated the ground state geometric and spectroscopic properties of the TTBC cation in the gas and solution phases (e.g., bond distances, bond angles, charge distributions, and Raman vibrational frequencies) using density functional theory. Our structure calculations have shown that the ground state equilibrium structure of a cis-conformer lies ∼200 cm(-1) above that of a trans-conformer and both conformers have C(2) symmetry. Calculated electronic transitions indicate that the difference between the first transitions of the two conformers is about 130 cm(-1). Raman spectral assignments of monomeric- and aggregated-TTBC cations have been aided by density functional calculations at the same level of the theory. Vibrational mode analyses of the calculated Raman spectra reveal that the observed Raman bands above 700 cm(-1) are mainly associated with the in-plane deformation of the benzimidazolo moieties, while bands below 700 cm(-1) are associated with out-of-plane deformations of the benzimidazolo moieties. We have also found that for the nonresonance excited experimental Raman spectrum of aggregated-TTBC cation, the Raman bands in the higher-frequency region are enhanced compared with those in the nonresonance spectrum of the monomeric cation. For the experimental Raman spectrum of the aggregate under resonance excitation, however, we find new Raman features below 600 cm(-1), in addition to a significantly enhanced Raman peak at 671 cm(-1) that are associated with out-of-plane distortions. Also, time-dependent density functional theory calculations suggest that the experimentally observed electronic transition at ∼515 nm (i.e., 2.41 eV) in the absorption spectrum of the monomeric-TTBC cation predominantly results from the π → π∗ transition. Calculations are further interpreted