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Sample records for quaternary ammonium chloride

  1. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives...

  3. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10479 Quaternary ammonium compounds... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as quaternary ammonium compounds,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10479 Quaternary ammonium compounds... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as quaternary ammonium compounds,...

  6. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by quaternary ammonium perrhenates in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhou, Mingdong; Yuan, Yuguo; Zhang, Quan; Fang, Xiangchen; Zang, Shuliang

    2015-12-01

    Quaternary ammonium perrhenates were applied as catalyst to promote the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). The quaternary ammonium perrhenates displayed good catalytic performance for cellulose hydrolysis. Water was also proven to be effective to promote cellulose hydrolysis. Accordingly, 97% of total reduced sugar (TRS) and 42% of glucose yields could be obtained under the condition of using 5mol% of tetramethyl ammonium perrhenate as catalyst, 70?L of water, ca. 0.6mmol of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 2.0g of [Amim]Cl as solvent under microwave irradiation for 30min at 150C (optimal conditions). The influence of quaternary ammonium cation on the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis was examined based on different cation structures of perrhenates. The mechanism on perrhenate catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is also discussed, whereas hydrogen bonding between ReO4 anion and hydroxyl groups of cellulose is assumed to be the key step for depolymerization of cellulose. PMID:26318245

  7. Removal and inactivation of Cryptosporidium and microbial indicators by a quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC)-treated zeolite in pilot filters.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Monteiro, Patricia; Ouwens, Rudolf N; Ryu, Hodon; Alum, Absar

    2006-01-01

    A set of pilot filters packed with Zeolite filter media treated with a quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) were evaluated to verify the proof of concept of their combined antimicrobial capabilities. Escherichia coli was removed and inactivated the most (2.83 log), followed by MS-2 (2.75 log), Klebsiella terriena (2.21 log), PRD-1 (1.95 log), Chlorella vulgaris (1.92 log), and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (1.78 log). Especially, inactivation of C. parvum oocysts (1.19 log) was higher than physical removal (0.54 log). The data suggest that QAC-treated Zeolite in the pilot filters has microbial inactivation capabilities and may have useful applications in other types of filter media. PMID:16760096

  8. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  13. The physiological and morphological phenotype of a yeast mutant resistant to the quaternary ammonium salt N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Obłak, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Adamski, Ryszard; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the action of the quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) called IM (N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Changes in the yeast cell ultrastructure were confirmed by electron microscopy. We treated resistant mutant cells with QAS, and confirmed destruction of the mutant cytoplasm, an increase in the thickness of the cell wall, separation of the cell wall from the cytoplasm, and the accumulation of numerous lipid droplets. We also observed a relatively high production of lipids in the cells of the parental wild-type strain Sigma1278b and in its IM-resistant (IM(R)) mutant in the presence of the QAS. The IM(R) mutant showed increased sensitivity to CaCl(2) and SDS, and resistance to ethidium bromide, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and osmotic shock. It also tolerated growth at low pH. We suggest that the resistance to IM could be connected with the level of permeability of the cell membrane because the IM(R) mutant was sensitive to this compound in vivo in the presence of SDS and guanidine hydrochloride, which cause increased permeability of the cell plasma membrane. PMID:20140761

  14. Synthesis and thermotropic properties of novel double-chained quaternary ammonium chlorides with symmetric and asymmetric hydrocarbon chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhaoyun; Hao, Aiyou

    2009-04-01

    A series of novel double-chained quaternary ammonium chlorides with symmetrical and asymmetrical hydrocarbon chain length R 1-O-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-N +(CH 3) 2-R 2·Cl - (R 1, R 2: C 12H 25, C 14H 29, C 16H 33) have been synthesized by the reaction of 1- O-alkyl glycidyl ether with N, N-dimethylalkylamine and N, N-dimethylalkylamine hydrochloride. Their chemical structures have been characterized through FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. Their thermotropic properties have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that the compounds with longer hydrocarbon chain length and being higher asymmetry in hydrocarbon chain length exhibit lower melting point ( Tm) , isotropization temperature ( Ti) and narrower mesophase temperature range. However, the hydrocarbon chain length and the symmetry in the hydrocarbon chain length have little influence on the type of liquid crystals. All compounds form cholesteric liquid crystal.

  15. Theoretical study of the reaction of chitosan monomer with 2,3-epoxypropyl-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chloride catalyzed by an imidazolium-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xueli; Yang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2016-08-01

    The molecular mechanism of the graft reaction of 2,3-epoxypropyl-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chloride with chitosan monomer was investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results show that the -NH2 group of chitosan monomer is more reactive than its -OH and -CH2OH groups, and the graft reaction on the -NH2 group is calculated to be exothermic by 20.5kcal/mol with a free energy barrier of 42.6kcal/mol. The reaction cannot benefit from the presence of the intruded water molecule, but can be considerably assisted by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl) ionic liquid. The reaction catalyzed by the ion-pair is calculated to be exothermic by 36.5kcal/mol and the barrier is reduced to 29.3kcal/mol, which are further corrected to 28.0 and 29.1kcal/mol by considering the solvent effect of [Amim]Cl ionic liquid. Calculated results verified the experimental finding that imidazolium-based ionic liquids can promote the reaction of chitosan with epoxy compounds. PMID:27112849

  16. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Obłąk, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczyński, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi. PMID:23827647

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  2. Bacterial metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Raymond, D; Alexander, M

    1977-01-01

    Of 10 quaternary ammonium compounds tested for biodegradation by the biological oxygen demand technique, only decyl- and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides were decomposed by organisms derived from sewage and soil. A mixture consisting of individual strains of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas grew in solutions containing decyltrimethylammonium bromide as sole carbon source. The xanthomonad metabolized this quaternary ammonium compound in the presence of other organic molecules. The products of this activity included 9-carboxynomyl- and 7-carboxyheptyltrimethylammonium, suggesting that the terminal carbon of the decyl moiety is oxidized and the resulting carboxylic acid is subject to beta-oxidation. PMID:879767

  3. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  4. Airway effects of inhaled quaternary ammonium compounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sren T; Verder, Henrik; Nielsen, Gunnar D

    2012-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) constitute a family of widely used chemical substances. The QAC benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has caused bronchoconstriction in human beings by poorly understood mechanisms and lung damage at high concentration as shown in a single rat study. This study evaluates acute airway effects in mice after inhalation of aerosols of the QACs, BAC, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTA), cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA). The QACs gave rise to concentration-dependent decreases in the tidal volume (VT) and a concomitant increase in respiratory rate indicating pulmonary irritation. The potencies of the QAC to induce these effects were in the order: BAC > HTA = CPC > DDA. Furthermore, inhalation of BAC and CPC aerosols gave rise to pulmonary inflammation as apparent from bronchoalveolar lavage. Stimulation of nasal trigeminal nerve endings by QAC, which may serve as a warning signal, was absent. PMID:22188809

  5. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  9. Photocurable, Antimicrobial Quaternary Ammonium-modified Nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Makvandi, P; Ghaemy, M; Ghadiri, A A; Mohseni, M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, novel, quaternary ammonium methacrylate-modified silica nanoparticles (QMSNs) were synthesized for the first time and proposed as possible antimicrobial particles for free-radical, photocurable monomers. Such monomers have the potential to polymerize with other methacrylate monomers and create antimicrobial polymers. The silica nanoparticles were modified by quaternary ammonium methacrylate functionality and incorporated at 0 to 10 wt% into a 1:1 (by mass) bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin. Thermal stability of the pristine and modified silica nanoparticles was examined by thermogravimetric analyses. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the size distribution and topography of the nanoparticles. For evaluation of the mechanical properties of the samples, flexural strength was measured using a 3-point bending test method. The flexural strength of the composites containing QMSNs increased with increasing modified silica content. The antimicrobial activity of samples was investigated against some standard microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans), and then cytotoxicity and viability were quantified. Incorporation of 2.5% to 10% (by mass) QMSNs into BisGMA/TEGDMA demonstrated antimicrobial activity, but ≥5 wt% significantly reduced cell viability. PMID:26276372

  10. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides....

  16. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  17. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan based dye containing quaternary ammonium group.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ruilin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Zhiming

    2016-03-30

    A new antimicrobial biopolymer dye was synthesized by reaction of quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan and reactive red x-3b. And quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan was produced by grafting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride on chitosan. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), solubility test and antimicrobial test. Results show that the antimicrobial biopolymer dye was combined by N(+)(CH3)3 of quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan and sulfonic group of reactive red x-3b. Water solubility of chitosan biopolymer dye was increased as well as pH value. In addition, antibacterial property of new synthesized dye was excellent, whose antibacterial rates of Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli were both bigger than 99%. These results may provide new perspectives on improving the decorative properties and antimicrobial properties in wood industry. PMID:26794962

  18. Quaternary ammonium biocides: efficacy in application.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  19. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  20. Structural Modifications to Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Coagulants to Inhibit N-Nitrosamine Formation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2016-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (Epi-DMA), are commonly used by water utilities to enhance removal of particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from raw waters. Unfortunately, chloramination of waters treated with quaternary ammonium polymers leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In this study, two approaches were developed to modify polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA to inhibit N-nitrosamine formation. The first approach involved treatment of polymers with methyl iodide (MeI), an alkylating agent, to convert polymer-bound tertiary amine groups to less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups. The second approach involved synthesis of polymers bearing less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups with dipropylamino (DPA) substituents. Treatment with MeI reduced NDMA formation from polymers by ∼75%, while synthesis of DPA-based polymers eliminated NDMA formation and formed N-nitrosodipropylamine, which is 10-fold less carcinogenic than NDMA, at 20-fold lower yields. Bench-scale jar tests demonstrated that both MeI-treated and DPA-based polymers achieved similar removal of particles and DOM as the original polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA at both low and high doses, but formed significantly less N-nitrosamines. This work demonstrates two approaches for modifying quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, which may enable water utilities to meet potential future regulations on N-nitrosamines while maintaining polymer usage to meet existing regulations. PMID:27096602

  1. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721.4467 Section 721.4467 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary...

  2. Microtitration of various anions with quaternary ammonium halides using solid-state electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1980-01-01

    Many solid-state electrodes were found to respond as endpoint detectors in the potentiometric titration of large inorganic and organic anions with quaternary ammonium halides. The best response was obtained with the iodide and cyanide electrodes although practically any electrode can function as endpoint sensor. The titrants were hexadecylpyridinium chloride and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and Hyamine 1622 may also be used. Some inorganic anions thus titratable are perrhenate, persulfate, ferricyanide, hexafluorophosphate, and hexachloroplatinate. Examples of organic anions titratable are nitroform, tetraphenylborate, cyanotriphenylborate, picrate, long-chain sulfates and sulfonates, and some soaps. The reverse titration of quaternary ammonium halides vs dodecylsulfate is also feasible. Some titrations are feasible in a partially nonaqueous medium.

  3. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Issues Encountered in an Environmental Services Department.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Sullivan, Linda; Booker, Arica; Baker, James

    2016-03-01

    We identified several factors affecting the use of quaternary ammonium-based (Quat) disinfectant in our facility. Microfiber wipers, cotton towels, and 1 of 2 types of disposable wipes soaked in a Quat disinfectant revealed significant binding of the disinfectant. Concentrations of Quat delivered by automated disinfectant dispensers varied widely. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):340-342. PMID:26821275

  4. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  12. Antimicrobial cotton containing N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups by grafting copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yin; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The monomer (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTMAC) was used to treat cotton fibers by grafting copolymerization. The grafted cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM image and FTIR spectra. The treated samples with quaternary ammonium groups could decrease 96.08% of Staphylococcus aureus and 48.74% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 30 min. After chlorination with dilute sodium hypochlorite, the treated cotton fabrics containing both N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups effectively inactivated 100% (log reduction 5.82) of S. aureus and 100% (log reduction 6.26) of E. coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time. The grafting process of cotton fabric has small effect on the thermal stability and tensile strength, which favors the practical application. Compared to the traditional pad-dry-cure method to produce antibacterial materials, the radical grafting copolymerization method occurred in water without any organic solvents involved in the whole treatment.

  13. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  14. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  15. Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles for treating bacterial contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-04-01

    This study highlights the potential application of antimicrobial quaternary ammonium nanomaterials for water disinfection. Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QA-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by polyethylenimine crosslinking and alkylation with octyl iodide followed by methyl iodide quaternization. Particles modified with octyldodecyl alkyl chains were also prepared and evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of QA-PEI NPs was studied after anchoring in non-leaching polymeric coatings and also in aqueous suspension. Particles at different loadings (w/w) were embedded in polyethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene methacrylic acid coatings and tested for antimicrobial activity against four representative strains of bacteria in static and dynamic modes. Coatings embedded with fluorescent labelled particles tracked by Axioscope fluorescence microscope during the antimicrobial test indicates no particles leaching out. Coatings loaded with 5% w/w QA-PEI exhibited strong antibacterial activity. Aqueous suspension was tested and found effective for bacterial decontamination at 0.1 ppm and maintains its activity for several weeks. PMID:25800358

  16. Composite aromatic boxes for enzymatic transformations of quaternary ammonium substrates.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gergely N; Marton, Lívia; Contet, Alicia; Ozohanics, Olivér; Ardelean, Laura-Mihaela; Révész, Agnes; Vékey, Károly; Irimie, Florin Dan; Vial, Henri; Cerdan, Rachel; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2014-12-01

    Cation-π interactions to cognate ligands in enzymes have key roles in ligand binding and enzymatic catalysis. We have deciphered the key functional role of both charged and aromatic residues within the choline binding subsite of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase from Plasmodium falciparum. Comparison of quaternary ammonium binding site structures revealed a general composite aromatic box pattern of enzyme recognition sites, well distinguished from the aromatic box recognition site of receptors. PMID:25283789

  17. Formation of gas-phase clusters monitored during electrospray mass spectrometry: a study of quaternary ammonium pesticides.

    PubMed

    Evans, C S; Startin, J R; Goodall, D M; Keely, B J

    2001-01-01

    Gas-phase cluster formation between the quaternary ammonium pesticides paraquat, diquat, difenzoquat, chlormequat and mepiquat, and chloride and acetate anions present in a liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phase, has been studied using electrospray mass spectrometry. The clusters of paraquat, mepiquat and chlormequat were revealed over the entire m/z range of the mass spectrometer, and their formation is dependent on the concentrations of both the cationic and the anionic species. Mepiquat and chlormequat form clusters of the type [2M(q)(+) + A(-)](+), where M(q)(+) is the quaternary ammonium cation and A(-) is the anion. Paraquat forms a cluster species with ammonia and also an ion-pair complex with chloride anions. Diquat and difenzoquat did not form observable ion-pair complexes or clusters with any of the anions studied. Competitive binding of acetate and chloride anions reflects the higher charge density of chloride, which forms the dominant clusters with mepiquat and chlormequat. The formation of cluster species has implications for the quantification of quaternary ammonium pesticides and may have an influence on the linearity of calibrations. PMID:11466795

  18. Thermal properties of quaternary ammonium and pyridinium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, V.P.; Khar'kov, S.N.; Logovotovskaya, V.D.; Belotserkovets, N.I.; Chegolya, A.S.

    1982-12-10

    In the present work an attempt was made at a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the chemical structure of a whole series of cation-active surfactants on the stability to temperature influences, and the general directions of the irreversible transformations at high temperature were established. As a result of a study of processes of thermal decomposition of quaternary ammonium and syridinium salts, quantitative correlations were established according to the influence of the chemical structure of the salts on the limits of thermal stability. On the basis of a detailed analysis of volatile pyrolysis products, concrete schemes of the conversions in the objects studied were proposed.

  19. High durability and low toxicity antimicrobial coatings fabricated by quaternary ammonium silane copolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairui; Bao, Hongqian; Bok, Ke Xin; Lee, Chi-Ying; Li, Bo; Zin, Melvin T; Kang, Lifeng

    2016-01-26

    Adhesion and subsequent growth of microorganisms on material surfaces are a major concern in many biomedical applications. Currently, various polymers are immobilized on material surfaces to prevent microbial colonization. However, there are several challenges with regard to the coating materials, including their inability to kill microorganisms, complexity of surface grafting, limited durability and toxicity towards humans. To address these challenges, we synthesize a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) antimicrobial copolymer to confer the antimicrobial effect via a simple thermal-curing coating process. The QAS copolymers were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than a commercial antimicrobial QAS monomeric agent, namely, dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]ammonium chloride (DTPAC). Moreover, the QAS coatings demonstrated superior antimicrobial efficacy and durability than those of the DTPAC coatings. In conclusion, the novel QAS copolymers are useful to prevent substrates from microbial infections, yet with low toxicity to humans and long durability. In addition, the synthetic process is potentially scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26535418

  20. Sampling and analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) traces in indoor atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Guillaume; Kopferschmitt-Kubler, Marie Christine; Mirabel, Philippe; Pauli, Gabrielle; Millet, Maurice

    2007-10-01

    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) are widely found in disinfectants used in hospitals. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) predominate in the disinfecting formulations. These compounds are strong irritants and can play a role in the induction of Occupational Asthma among the professionals of health and cleaning. In order to evaluate the potential health effect of these quaternary ammonium compounds to hospital employers, the development of an analytical method for their quantification in indoor air was developed. DDAC aerosols are trapped by adsorption on XAD-2 resin SKC tube. The air in hospital buildings was sampled using a constant debit Gillian pump at a flow of 1.0 l/min (+/-5%). Ion Chromatography (IC) was chosen for the analysis of DDAC especially for its high sensitivity and specificity. The Limit of Detection (LOD) by IC for DDAC is 0.56 mug/ml. Therefore the LOD of atmospheric DDAC is 28 microg/m(3) with an air volume of 100 l and a desorption volume of 5 ml. All DDAC air samples were lower than the LOD of the analytical method by IC. Under the standard conditions of use of the disinfecting solutions (Surfanios, Ampholysine Plus and Amphospray 41), the insignificant volatility of DDAC would not seem to be able to contaminate the indoor hospital atmosphere during the disinfection process. However, the DDAC can contaminate working atmospheres if it is put in suspension by aerosolisation. PMID:17180409

  1. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  2. Antibacterial effects of three experimental quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) monomers on bacteria associated with oral infections.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Ji-Hua; Fang, Ming; Xing, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ying-Jie; Li, Fang

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the antibacterial effects of three experimental quaternary ammonium salt monomers in order to evaluate their potential applications as dental materials. In vitro susceptibility testing of the monomers was performed by the broth dilution method on bacteria associated with oral infections: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 15987, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393. The time-kill kinetics of the monomer with relatively higher antibacterial activity against S. mutans were also investigated. It was found that all the tested bacteria strains were susceptible to the three monomers, among which methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) exhibited the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations, ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 microg/ml. The time-kill curve showed that DMAE-CB achieved 99.44% killing at 19.2 microg/ml (4 times the minimal bactericidal concentration) against S. mutans after 1 min and 100% killing within 10 min of contact. This result indicates that the quaternary ammonium salt monomer DMAE-CB may be a candidate antibacterial agent for incorporation into dental restorative materials. PMID:18818469

  3. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine. PMID:27083366

  4. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  5. Genotoxicity and biodegradation of quaternary ammonium salts in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Grabińska-Sota, Elżbieta

    2011-11-15

    Biodegradation tests were conducted for three groups of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) that differed in hydrophobic chain length or in hydrophilic properties. The degradation rate was influenced by the hydrocarbon chain length, the presence of aromatic or cyclic rings, and the occurrence of sulphur and oxygen atoms in the alkyl substituent. All tested QAS variants were biodegradable in an aquatic environment. The half life of the different QAS under these conditions ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 days and depended on the properties of the compound. Biodegradation intermediate products were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR). Both the initial preparations and their biodegradation products were not genotoxic. PMID:21880416

  6. A Novel Route to Recognizing Quaternary Ammonium Cations Using Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackman, Holly M.; Ding, Wei; Bolgar, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and elucidating structures is a commonplace and necessary activity in the pharmaceutical industry with mass spectrometry and NMR being the primary tools for analysis. Although many functional groups are readily identifiable, quaternary ammonium cations have proven to be difficult to unequivocally identify using these techniques. Due to the lack of an N-H bond, quaternary ammonium groups can only be detected in the 1H NMR spectra by weak signals generated from long-range 14N-H coupling, which by themselves are inconclusive evidence of a quaternary ammonium functional group. Due to their low intensity, these signals are frequently not detected. Additionally, ions cannot be differentiated in a mass spectrum as an M+ or [M + H]+ ion without prior knowledge of the compound's structure. In order to utilize mass spectrometry as a tool for determining this functionality, ion cluster formation of quaternary ammonium cations and non-quaternary amines was studied using electrospray ionization. Several mobile phase modifiers were compared; however, the addition of small amounts of trifluoroacetic acid proved superior in producing characteristic and intense [M +2TFA]- clusters for compounds containing quaternary ammonium cations when using negative electrospray. By fragmenting this characteristic ion using CID, nearly all compounds studied could be unambiguously identified as containing a quaternary ammonium cation or a non-quaternary amine attributable to the presence (non-quaternary amine) or absence (quaternary ammonium cation) of the resulting [2TFA + H]- ion in the product spectra. This method of analysis provides a rapid, novel, and reliable technique for indicating the presence of quaternary ammonium cations in order to aid in structural elucidation.

  7. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  8. Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Tomohiro; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Key, William O.; William, Brantley; Agee, Kelli A.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Cadenaro, Milena; Tay, Franklin R.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) to comonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This work evaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA (60:30:10) containing 0–15 mass% QAMs A–E (A:2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride; B:[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C:[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D:diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride; E:2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate. Methods Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film t 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from square hollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the other half were tested wet after 3 days of water storage. Results Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600s after light termination, with the exception of 5% MAPTAC (p<0.05). Increase of QAM content within a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young’s moduli of ~700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass% QAMs produced significant reductions in dry Young’s moduli except for 5% B or C. 15 mass% A, B and C lowered the wet Young’s moduli of the resin beams by more than 30%. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of control dry resin was 89±11 MPa. Addition of 5–10 mass% QAMs had no adverse effect on the dry UTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p<0.05), especially when 15 wt% QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of 0.88±0.1 MPa√m. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02±0.06 (p<0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85±0.08 at 5% QAMs to 0.49±0.05 at 15% QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02±0.06 MPa√m that fell to 0.23±0.01 at 15% QAMs. Significance Addition of 10% QAMs increased the degree of conversion of unfilled resins, but lowered wet toughness and UTS; addition of 15% QAMs lowered the mechanical properties of wet resins below acceptable levels. PMID:25199439

  9. Synergistic effect of heartwood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds on termite resistance of treated wood.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won-Joung; Kartal, S Nami; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the synergistic effect of wood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the resistance to termites of several treated wood species. Wood specimens from different natural durability classes were extracted with either hot water alone or hot water + ethanol/benzene. The extracted and unextracted wood specimens were treated with either didecyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) or commercial didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) solutions and then exposed to subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions. The results showed that extractives of the heartwood portions of the wood species contributed to increased resistance against termite attack in the presence of either DBF or DDAC wood preservatives. The synergistic effect of wood extractives and DBF was much clearer with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla Sarg wood samples. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the synergism between wood extractives and either DBF or DDAC using both the sapwood and heartwood portions of the same wood species. PMID:17054087

  10. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-02-04

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl/sub 4//sup -/, which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures.

  11. Quaternary ammonium derivatives as spasmolytics for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium derivatives such as cimetropium, n-butyl scopolammonium, otilonium and pinaverium bromide have been discovered and developed as potent spasmolytics of the gastrointestinal tract. Their pharmacological activity has been proven in both "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies of hypermotility. "In vitro" experiments showed that they possess antimuscarinic activity at nM level but only pinaverium and otilonium are endowed with calcium channel blocker properties. These latter compounds relaxed the gastrointestinal smooth muscle mainly through a specific inhibition of calcium ion influx through L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Molecular pharmacology trials have indicated that pinaverium and otilonium can bind specific subunits of the calcium channel in the external surface of the plasma membrane and in this way they block the machinery of the contraction. Recent evidence showed that otilonium is able to bind tachykinin NK(2) receptors and not only inhibits one of the major contractile agents but can reduce the activation of afferent nerves devoted to the passage of sensory signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thanks to their typical physico-chemical characteristics, they are poorly absorbed by the systemic circulation and generally remain in the gastrointestinal tract where they exert the muscle relaxant activity by a local activity. Some differences exists in the absorption among these compounds: both n-butyl scopolammonium and cimetropium are partially taken up in the bloodstream, pinaverium has a low absorption (8-10 %) but is endowed with an excellent hepato-biliary excretion and otilonium, which has the lowest absorption (3 %), is almost totally excreted by faeces. Quaternary ammonium derivatives are widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and recent meta-analyses have supported their efficacy in this disease. Due to its therapeutic index, the use of n-butyl scopolammonium is more indicated to treat acute colics than a chronic disease such as irritable bowel syndrome. Taking into consideration the published trials carried out with validated methodology in irritable bowel syndrome, cimetropium and otilonium are the best demonstrated drugs for the improvement in global assessment, pain and abdominal distension. PMID:15579053

  12. Tetracalcium phosphate composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate with antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Limkangwalmongkol, Penwadee; Hack, Gary D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Chen, Qianming; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Tooth caries is a carbohydrate-modified bacterial infectious disease, and recurrent caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure. The objective of this study was to develop a novel antibacterial composite using tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) fillers and bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, which is a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). QADM was synthesized using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate and incorporated into a resin. The resin was filled with 40% TTCP and 30% glass particles. The following QADM mass fractions in the composite were tested: 0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on the composites and the colony-forming units (CFUs), metabolic activity, and lactic acid production were measured. The TTCP-QADM composite had flexural strength and elastic modulus similar to those of two commercial composites (p > 0.1). Increasing the QADM content in TTCP composite greatly decreased the bacteria growth and biofilm matrix production. There were significantly more dead bacteria with increasing QADM content. TTCP composite containing 18% QADM had biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production about half of those without QADM. Inversely linear relationships were established between QADM mass fraction and S. mutans biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production, with correlation coefficients R2 ≥ 0.98. In conclusion, TTCP-QADM composites were developed and the effect of QADM mass fraction on the antibacterial properties of the composite was determined for the first time. The novel TTCP-QADM composites possessing a strong antibacterial capability, together with calcium phosphate ion release and good mechanical properties, are promising for dental restorations to reduce biofilm growth and recurrent caries. PMID:22190356

  13. The comparative effects of feeding ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride on urinary calcium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Cole, D E

    1987-11-01

    When either sulfate or chloride is added to the diet, the resulting acid load causes a rise in urinary calcium excretion. There is, however, the possibility that sulfate, which has been shown to complex renal tubular calcium, will further decrease renal calcium reabsorption and thus produce a greater calciuria than chloride. Because addition of a fixed cation (e.g., sodium) to the diet may also stimulate calciuresis, experiments were conducted using metabolizable ammonium to minimize cation effects. Ammonium salts of sulfate, chloride, and carbonate (control) were added to the diets of male rats at 0.3 mequiv./g weight of diet. Twenty-four hour excretion rates of calcium, sulfate, chloride, and net acid were measured at various intervals up to 1 month. As expected, the chloride and sulfate diets were both associated with significantly elevated urine calcium and net acid excretion as compared with controls. However, those fed sulfate exhibited significantly less calcium and acid excretion and absorbed a smaller proportion of the anion load than those given chloride. In a second experiment, the amounts of supplemental sulfate and chloride were adjusted so that total absorptions were similar. At 2 weeks, both calcium and acid excretions in the fixed anion groups were no longer significantly different. Thus, in chronic feeding trials, there appears to be no measurable difference in the calciuretic properties of sulfate and chloride anions. PMID:3449184

  14. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resulting from the production of ammonium chloride by the reaction of anhydrous ammonia with hydrogen... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resulting from the production of ammonium chloride by the reaction of anhydrous ammonia with hydrogen... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of...

  16. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resulting from the production of ammonium chloride by the reaction of anhydrous ammonia with hydrogen... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resulting from the production of ammonium chloride by the reaction of anhydrous ammonia with hydrogen... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of...

  18. Trospium chloride: an update on a quaternary anticholinergic for treatment of urge urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Guay, David RP

    2005-01-01

    Trospium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound, which is a competitive antagonist at muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Preclinical studies using porcine and human detrusor muscle strips demonstrated that trospium chloride was many-fold more potent than oxybutynin and tolterodine in inhibiting contractile responses to carbachol and electrical stimulation. The drug is poorly bioavailable orally (< 10%) and food reduces absorption by 70%– 80%. It is predominantly eliminated renally as unchanged compound. Trospium chloride, dosed 20 mg twice daily, is significantly superior to placebo in improving cystometric parameters, reducing urinary frequency, reducing incontinence episodes, and increasing urine volume per micturition. In active-controlled trials, trospium chloride was at least equivalent to immediate-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine in efficacy and tolerability. The most problematic adverse effects of trospium chloride are the anticholinergic effects of dry mouth and constipation. Comparative efficacy/tolerability data with long-acting formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine as well as other anticholinergics such as solifenacin and darifenacin are not available. On the basis of available data, trospium chloride does not appear to be a substantial advance upon existing anticholinergics in the management of urge urinary incontinence. PMID:18360555

  19. Evaluation of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Lin, Lexun

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt displays good antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics and it shows appreciable solubility in water. When added to the traditional denture material to form a resin base, it could promote good oral health by improving the oral environment. In this study, chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was added to the denture material following two different methods. After three months of immersion in artificial saliva, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and were scanned by electron microscope. The murine fibroblast cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties were also tested. The result showed no significant differences in the tensile strength and in the proliferation of murine L929 fibroblast cells. The two structures of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified denture material had different degrees of corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. These results indicate that chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material has the potential to become a new generation oral denture composite material. PMID:26718869

  20. Induction of contact drematitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanisms of antigen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, K.R.; Schulz, K.H.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites to the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable ion-pairs are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface.

  1. Antibacterial properties of poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-06-01

    We report excellent antibacterial effect induced by amine-functionalized gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles without external excitations. The idea originates from the excellent antibacterial property of quaternary ammonium salts. The effects of poly(quaternary ammonium) and polyacrylate sodium functional groups as nanoparticle surfactants are compared to show that poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups are the main cause of the induced antibacterial effect. 99.999% of E. coli can be destructed in 10 minutes by simply mixing bacteria with nanoparticle dispersions. The effect of nanoparticle concentrations on the antibacterial property is evaluated. Time required to significantly suppress bacteria growth is studied. The result indicates that the excellent antibacterial property can be introduced to any nanomaterials by using poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups as surfactants. The engineered nanoparticles can find enormous applications such as self-cleaning surfaces, waste water treatment, Lab-on-a-Chip devices and many more. PMID:22905506

  2. Induction of contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanism of antigen formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schallreuter, K U; Schulz, K H; Wood, J M

    1986-01-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of the eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites at the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable "ion-pairs" are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface. PMID:3830108

  3. Antibacterial Nanocomposite with Calcium Phosphate and Quaternary Ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L.; Weir, M.D.; Zhang, K.; Xu, S.M.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, X.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO4 release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:22403412

  4. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Chain Length on Antibacterial Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

  5. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.P.

    1987-05-01

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded K/sub i/ values of approx. 15 ..mu..M; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an /sup 18/O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo and in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA.

  6. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants: microbial adaptation, degradation and ecology.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-06-01

    Disinfectants play an important role in maintaining acceptable health standards by significantly reducing microbial loads as well as reducing, if not eliminating, pathogens. This review focuses on quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), a widely used class of organic disinfectants. Specifically, it reviews the occurrence, microbial adaptation, and degradation of QACs, focusing on recent reports on the ecology of QAC-degraders, the pathways and mechanisms of microbial adaptation which lead to resistance to QACs, as well as to antibiotics. With the help of culture-dependent and nonculture-dependent tools, as well as advanced analytical techniques, a better understanding of the fate and effect of QACs and their biotransformation products is emerging. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and conditions that result in QAC resistance and biodegradation will be instrumental in the prudent use of existing QAC formulations and foster the development of safer disinfectants. Development and implementation of (bio)technologies for the elimination of QACs from treated wastewater effluents will lessen adverse impacts to both humans and the environment. PMID:25864173

  7. Interaction of ochratoxin A with quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Szente, Lajos; Matisz, Gergely; Secenji, Györgyi; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely spread nephrotoxic food contaminant mycotoxin. Unfortunately, attenuation or prevention of the toxic effects of OTA is still an unresolved problem. Molecular inclusion of OTA by cyclodextrins (CDs) results in complexes with low stability. In the human organism, OTA exists mostly in the dianionic state (OTA(2-)). Therefore, our major goal was to develop a chemically modified cyclodextrin which gives a more stable complex with OTA than the previously published derivatives and which shows stronger preference towards OTA(2-). In our fluorescence spectroscopic study we demonstrate that quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin (QABCD) fulfils both of these requirements. The calculated stability constant of the QABCD-OTA(2-) complex was 28,840 M(-1) (about 200-fold higher than that of the β-CD-OTA(2-) complex). We hypothesize, that QABCD may be a suitable tool for the decontamination of different OTA-contaminated drinks; furthermore, for alleviation of the toxic effects of OTA, such complex formation may reduce its absorption from the intestine. PMID:25442535

  8. Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ventullo, Roy M.; Larson, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-chain (C12 to C18) quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the density, heterotrophic activity, and biodegradation capabilities of heterotrophic bacteria were examined in situ in a lake ecosystem. Monoalkyl and dialkyl substituted QACs were tested over a range of concentrations (0.001 to 10 mg/liter) in both acute (3 h) and chronic (21 day) exposures. In general, none of the QACs tested had significant adverse effects on bacterial densities in either acute or chronic studies. However, significant decreases in bacterial heterotrophic activity were noted in acute studies at QAC concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure of lake microbial communities to a specific monoalkyl QAC resulted in an adaptive response and recovery of heterotrophic activity. No-observable-effect level in the adapted populations was >10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure also resulted in significant increases in the number and activity of bacteria capable of biodegrading the material. The increase in biodegradation capability was observed at low (microgram per liter) concentrations which are approximately the same as realistic environmental levels. In general, our studies indicated that exposure of lake microbial communities to QACs results in the development of adapted communities which are less sensitive to potential toxic effects and more active in the biodegradation of these materials. PMID:16346991

  9. Influence of quaternary ammonium compounds on the microbial reductive dechlorination of pentachloroaniline.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Tezel, Ulas; Okutman Tas, Didem; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of two widely used quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)--alkyl benzyl dimethyl (AB) and hexadecyl trimethyl (HD) ammonium chloride--on fermentation, methanogenesis and pentachloroaniline (PCA) dechlorination was assessed using a mixed, methanogenic, PCA-dechlorinating culture amended with AB or HD at a concentration range from 5 to 70 μM. PCA dechlorination was inhibited at 5 μM AB and was completely inhibited at 25 or 5 μM by AB or HD, respectively. However, the PCA dechlorination pathway was the same in both the QACs-free and QACs-amended culture series. Fermentation (acidogenesis) and methanogenesis were inhibited by both AB and HD at and above 25 μM but to a lesser degree than PCA dechlorination. Overall, HD resulted in a more severe inhibition of the mixed culture than AB. Adsorption of both QACs to the mixed culture biomass followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption affinity of HD for the mixed culture biomass was significantly higher than that of AB, which may be related to the observed higher inhibitory effects of HD compared to AB. Both AB and HD were not degraded in the mixed, dechlorinating culture used in this study. PMID:24075473

  10. Inhibition of biofouling by modification of forward osmosis membrane using quaternary ammonium cation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang-Hee; Yu, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-01-01

    In the operation of the forward osmosis (FO) process, biofouling of the membrane is a potentially serious problem. Development of an FO membrane with antibacterial properties could contribute to a reduction in biofouling. In this study, quaternary ammonium cation (QAC), a widely used biocidal material, was conjugated with a silane coupling agent (3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride) and used to modify an FO membrane to confer antibacterial properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that the conjugated QAC was successfully immobilized on the FO membrane via covalent bonding. Bacterial viability on the QAC-modified membrane was confirmed via colony count method and visualized via bacterial viability assay. The QAC membrane decreased the viability of Escherichia coli to 62% and Staphylococcus aureus to 77% versus the control membrane. Inhibition of biofilm formation on the QAC modified membrane was confirmed via anti-biofilm tests using the drip-flow reactor and FO unit, resulting in 64% and 68% inhibition in the QAC-modified membrane against the control membrane, respectively. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified membrane in reducing bacterial viability and inhibiting biofilm formation, indicating the potential of QAC-modified membranes to decrease operation costs incurred by biofouling. PMID:26287832

  11. Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joe J.; Turner, Raymond J.; Joo, Daniel A.; Stan, Michelle A.; Chan, Catherine S.; Allan, Nick D.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are slimy aggregates of microbes that are likely responsible for many chronic infections as well as for contamination of clinical and industrial environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent hospital pathogen that is well known for its ability to form biofilms that are recalcitrant to many different antimicrobial treatments. We have devised a high-throughput method for testing combinations of antimicrobials for synergistic activity against biofilms, including those formed by P. aeruginosa. This approach was used to look for changes in biofilm susceptibility to various biocides when these agents were combined with metal ions. This process identified that Cu2+ works synergistically with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; specifically benzalkonium chloride, cetalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, myristalkonium chloride, and Polycide) to kill P. aeruginosa biofilms. In some cases, adding Cu2+ to QACs resulted in a 128-fold decrease in the biofilm minimum bactericidal concentration compared to that for single-agent treatments. In combination, these agents retained broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that also eradicated biofilms of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Cholerasuis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. To investigate the mechanism of action, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to show that Cu2+ and QACs do not interact in aqueous solutions, suggesting that each agent exerts microbiological toxicity through independent biochemical routes. Additionally, Cu2+ and QACs, both alone and in combination, reduced the activity of nitrate reductases, which are enzymes that are important for normal biofilm growth. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that Cu2+ and QACs are effective combinations of antimicrobials that may be used to kill bacterial biofilms. PMID:18519726

  12. Fusion and Thermal Degradation Behavior of Symmetric Sulfur-Containing Quaternary Ammonium Bromides.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thai L Y; Poiroux, Kaitlyn; O'Brien, Richard A; West, Kevin N; Davis, James H; West, Christy Wheeler

    2016-02-25

    Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in consumer products and industrial processes, where their instability at elevated temperatures limits their range of applications. In this work, the thermal behavior of a new class of quaternary ammonium salts was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. These salts contain a sulfur atom in each chain at the fourth position from the central nitrogen and are thus termed thiaquats. The temperatures at which these salts melt and thermally degrade were determined, and enthalpies and entropies of fusion were evaluated. Their melting points increase with chain lengths, in contrast to the behavior of traditional quaternary ammonium salts. Furthermore, they exhibit enthalpies and entropies of fusion significantly lower than corresponding tetraalkyl analogues. These trends provide physical insight into the molecular-level behavior of these salts, suggesting that they do not fully dissociate upon melting. The thiaquats also exhibit thermal stability to markedly higher temperatures than traditional quaternary ammonium bromides, a phenomenon that can be explained in by strong pairing between the quaternary cation and bromide anion, which inhibits possible decomposition mechanisms. This enhanced thermal stability may enable applications of these salts in processes where traditional salts are not viable, such as phase-transfer-catalyzed systems performed at elevated temperatures. PMID:26849572

  13. Dual action antimicrobials: nitric oxide release from quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Alexis W; Worley, Brittany V; Slomberg, Danielle L; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    The synthesis of quaternary ammonium (QA)-functionalized silica nanoparticles with and without nitric oxide (NO) release capabilities is described. Glycidyltrialkylammonium chlorides of varied alkyl chain lengths (i.e., methyl, butyl, octyl, and dodecyl) were tethered to the surface of amine-containing silica nanoparticles via a ring-opening reaction. Secondary amines throughout the particle were then functionalized with N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors to yield dual functional nanomaterials with surface QAs and total NO payloads of 0.3 μmol/mg. The bactericidal activities of singly (i.e., only NO-releasing or only QA-functionalized) and dual (i.e., NO-releasing and QA-functionalized) functional nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Particles with only NO release capabilities alone were found to be more effective against P. aeruginosa , while particles with only QA-functionalities exhibited greater toxicity toward S. aureus . The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of QA-functionalized particles decreased with increasing alkyl chain length against both microbes tested. Combining NO release and QA-functionalities on the same particle resulted in an increase in bactericidal efficacy against S. aureus ; however, no change in activity against P. aeruginosa was observed compared to NO-releasing particles alone. PMID:22998760

  14. Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from quaternary ammonium salts functionalized soybean oil based polyols.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Yari, Abbas; Saeedi-Eslami, Seyyed Nasirodin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a simple and versatile synthetic approach was developed to prepare bactericidal polyurethane coatings. For this purpose, introduction of both quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with well-known antibacterial activity, and reactive hydroxyl groups on to the backbone of soybean oil was considered. Epoxidized soybean oil was reacted with diethylamine and the intermediate tertiary amine containing polyol was reacted with two different alkylating agents, methyl iodide and benzyl chloride, to produce MQAP and BQAP, respectively. These functional polyols were reacted with different diisocyanate monomers to prepare polyurethane coatings. Depending on the structure of monomers used for the preparation of polyurethane coatings, initial modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of samples were in the ranges of 122-339 MPa, 4.6-12.4 MPa and 8.4-46%, respectively. Polyurethane coatings based on isophorone diisocyanate showed proper mechanical properties and adhesion strength (0.41 MPa) for coating application. Study of fibroblast cells interaction with prepared polyurethanes showed promising cells viability in the range of 78-108%. Meanwhile, MQAP based samples with higher concentration of QASs showed better adhesion strength, surface hydrophilicity and antibacterial activity (about 95% bacterial reduction). Therefore, these materials can find applications as bactericidal coating for biomedical devices and implants. PMID:25428057

  15. Development of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Linkers for Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Burke, Patrick J; Hamilton, Joseph Z; Pires, Thomas A; Setter, Jocelyn R; Hunter, Joshua H; Cochran, Julia H; Waight, Andrew B; Gordon, Kristine A; Toki, Brian E; Emmerton, Kim K; Zeng, Weiping; Stone, Ivan J; Senter, Peter D; Lyon, Robert P; Jeffrey, Scott C

    2016-05-01

    A quaternary ammonium-based drug-linker has been developed to expand the scope of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) payloads to include tertiary amines, a functional group commonly present in biologically active compounds. The linker strategy was exemplified with a β-glucuronidase-cleavable auristatin E construct. The drug-linker was found to efficiently release free auristatin E (AE) in the presence of β-glucuronidase and provide ADCs that were highly stable in plasma. Anti-CD30 conjugates comprised of the glucuronide-AE linker were potent and immunologically specific in vitro and in vivo, displaying pharmacologic properties comparable with a carbamate-linked glucuronide-monomethylauristatin E control. The quaternary ammonium linker was then applied to a tubulysin antimitotic drug that contained an N-terminal tertiary amine that was important for activity. A glucuronide-tubulysin quaternary ammonium linker was synthesized and evaluated as an ADC payload, in which the resulting conjugates were found to be potent and immunologically specific in vitro, and displayed a high level of activity in a Hodgkin lymphoma xenograft. Furthermore, the results were superior to those obtained with a related tubulysin derivative containing a secondary amine N-terminus for conjugation using previously known linker technology. The quaternary ammonium linker represents a significant advance in linker technology, enabling stable conjugation of payloads with tertiary amine residues. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 938-45. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26944920

  16. Different Virucidal Activities of Hyperbranched Quaternary Ammonium Coatings on Poliovirus and Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Era; de Koning, Martijn C.; Fundeanu, Irina; Beumer, Rijkelt

    2012-01-01

    Virucidal activity of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds (IQACs) coated onto glass and plastic surfaces was tested against enveloped influenza A (H1N1) virus and nonenveloped poliovirus Sabin1. The IQACs tested were virucidal against the influenza virus within 2 min, but no virucidal effect against poliovirus was found in 6 h. PMID:22287007

  17. Preparation of quaternary ammonium-Chlorella vulgaris and its adsorption of Ag(CN)2-.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Guo, Chencen; Xie, Tonghui; Zhou, Chengxianyi; Zhang, Yongkui

    2015-01-01

    A novel anion exchange resin, quaternary ammonium-Chlorella vulgaris (QACV), was prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups onto dried Chlorella vulgaris as base material. Degrees of epoxy, amine and quaternary ammonium groups of QACV were measured. Water retention, optical microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry were used to characterize QAVC. The adsorption behavior of QACV towards Ag(CN)2- in different conditions was studied carefully. The results showed that QAVC was efficient to adsorb Ag(CN)2- at pH 9-11, and adsorption equilibrium was almost reached in 30 min. Both kinetics and isotherm parameters in the adsorption process were obtained. The data indicated that the pseudo-second-order model provided a good correlation for adsorption of Ag(CN)2- on QACV and the calculated rate constant of the adsorption was 3.51 g/(mmol min). The equilibrium data fitted well in the Langmuir isotherm and the estimated maximum adsorption capacity qm was 1.96 mmol/g. The dimensionless separation factor RL was between 0 and 1, suggesting that the adsorption process of Ag(CN)2- using QACV was favorable. The QACV could be used successively three times without significantly affecting its adsorption efficiency. Chlorella vulgaris was a potential base material to be modified with quaternary ammonium groups to prepare an adsorbent for adsorption of Ag(CN)2-. PMID:26465316

  18. [Limiting tests of benzyle halides or heavy alkyles in tensioactive and antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salts].

    PubMed

    Willemot, J

    1995-01-01

    As working material at the final stage of the synthesis of tensioactive and antimicrobial quaternary ammoniums salts, the alcoyles halides residuums have been let aside. The author developed limiting tests about these impurities particularly on the benzododecinium bromide. Four alternative methods are thus proposed. PMID:7762947

  19. Synthesis of hierarchical zeolites using an inexpensive mono-quaternary ammonium surfactant as mesoporogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Rohling, Roderigh; Filonenko, Georgy; Mezari, Brahim; Hofmann, Jan P; Asahina, Shunsuke; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-12-01

    A simple amphiphilic surfactant containing a mono-quaternary ammonium head group (N-methylpiperidine) is effective in imparting substantial mesoporosity during synthesis of SSZ-13 and ZSM-5 zeolites. Highly mesoporous SSZ-13 prepared in this manner shows greatly improved catalytic performance in the methanol-to-olefins reaction compared to bulk SSZ-13. PMID:25316609

  20. Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E. ); Daniels, R.D. . School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1992-08-15

    Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.

  1. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... antimicrobial agent, as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied...

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Essa, M. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg−1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

  3. Molecular dynamics of the phase transition in compressible ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Trikha, S. K.

    Computer simulation studies are carried out to investigate the effects of pressure on the dynamical behavior of an NH4(+) ion near the phase transition, under the influence of its nearest chlorine neighbors. The Lennard-Jones potential is used as the representative interaction between NH4(+) and Cl(-) under pressures up to 10 kbar. The computed libration frequency of NH4(+) is estimated to be approximately 170, 182, and 210/cm at pressures of 1 atm, 3 and 10 kbar respectively, which is in agreement with the study of the Raman spectrum of ammonium chloride at high pressure by Ebisuzaki and Nicol (1969). The present calculations also indicate a decrease in the entropy of the compressible system in terms of the fluctuation of the potential and rotational kinetic energy of the NH4(+) ion.

  4. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride...

  5. Synthesis, antioxidant and cathepsin D inhibition activity of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Duan, Yunfei; Huang, Jianying; Zheng, Qunxiong

    2016-01-20

    Two (2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium and/or imidazole-based quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives (NHT-chitosan and Im-OHT-chitosan) were synthesized by using nucleophilic substitution reaction. These two synthesized chitosan derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectra, and UV-visible spectra. The applications as antioxidant agents and cathepsin D inhibitors were further investigated. Both of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives exhibited good antioxidant activity upon scavenging against hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the lipid peroxidation inhibition in the linoleic acid emulsion system. They also exhibited good inhibition activity of cathepsin D protease. NHT-chitosan and Im-OHT-chitosan are potential the natural, healthy and safe preservatives in food industry. PMID:26572425

  6. [Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of konjac glucomannan derivative with quaternary ammonium salts].

    PubMed

    Lei, Wan-Xue; Xu, Xia; Lin, Fang; Yang, Qin-Huan; Li, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Ting-You

    2008-05-01

    Methacryloxylethyl tetradecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide was grafted onto konjac glucomannan using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator, and the konjac glucomannan derivative with quaternary ammonium salts was obtained. The konjac glucomannan derivative was investigated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and Zeta sizer nano series. The antimicrobial properties of the konjac glucomannan derivative against selected microorganisms were tested by the quantitative suspension method. The results revealed that (1) methacryloxylethyl tetradecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide can be grafted onto the surface of the konjac glucomannan, and the percentage grafting increases with increasing the amount of methacryloxylethyl tetradecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide. (2) The Zeta potential showed that the isoelectric point of the konjac glucomannan and the modified konjac glucomannan is pH 4. 5 and pH 9. 9, respectively. The shift of the isoelectric point is due to the quaternary ammonium groups. (3) The obtained konjac glucomannan derivative has significant inhibition effect on the growth of microorganisms, and the bactericidal rates in 15 min for E. coil (8099), S. aureus (ATCC 6538) and C. albicans (ATCC10231) were 99.99%, 99.99% and 98.13%, respectively. PMID:18720795

  7. New synthetic aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts as anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Doona; Yang, Jee Sun; Oh, Changmok; Cui, Shuolin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Won, Misun; Lee, Jang-ik; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-11-01

    RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24095759

  8. High performance liquid chromatography separation of structurally related enkephalins on quaternary ammonium-embedded stationary phase in isocratic mode.

    PubMed

    Abbood, Ayat; Smadja, Claire; Taverna, Myriam; Herrenknecht, Christine

    2010-01-22

    Separation of twelve enkephalins was investigated on a quaternary ammonium-embedded stationary phase (Stability BS-C23). Variation of buffer pH of the mobile phase highlighted the complex relationship between repulsive/attractive electrostatic interactions and the reversed-phase partitioning mechanism. The effect of three different anions employed as additives (phosphate, chloride and perchlorate) was examined at various concentrations and two pH values (acidic and neutral). At pH 2.5, an increase in the anion eluent concentration resulted in a higher retention factors of positively charged enkephalins. This effect was more pronounced when perchlorate ions were added to the mobile phase rather than phosphate and chloride ions, due to chaotropic and ion-pairing effects. In contrast, at pH 7.5, retention factors of negatively charged enkephalins decreased when these salts were added, due to an anion-exchange mechanism. Perchlorate caused a sharper decrease than chloride and phosphate anions did. The results presented here provide insight into the possible adjustment of retention and separation of peptides on a mixed-mode stationary phase (BS-C23) by a careful control of the buffer pH, the nature and concentration of anions, added to the buffer, and organic modifier content. PMID:19962150

  9. Analysis of Trace Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) in Vegetables Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lei; Wang, Xiong-Ke; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-08-01

    A reliable, sensitive, and cost-effective method was developed for determining three quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) including dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, and didodecyldimethylammonium chloride in various vegetables using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The variety and acidity of extraction solvents, extraction times, and cleanup efficiency of sorbents were estimated to obtain an optimized procedure for extraction of the QACs in nine vegetable matrices. Excellent linearities (R(2) > 0.992) were obtained for the analytes in the nine matrices. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.7-6.0 and 2.3-20.0 ?g/kg (dry weight, dw) in various matrices, respectively. The recoveries in the nine matrices ranged from 70.5% to 108.0% with relative standard deviations below 18.0%. The developed method was applied to determine the QACs in 27 vegetable samples collected from Guangzhou in southern China, showing very high detection frequency with a concentration of 23-180 ?g/kg (dw). PMID:26165915

  10. Structure-Resistance Relationships: Interrogating Antiseptic Resistance in Bacteria with Multicationic Quaternary Ammonium Dyes.

    PubMed

    Forman, Megan E; Fletcher, Madison H; Jennings, Megan C; Duggan, Stephanie M; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial resistance toward commonly used biocides is a widespread yet underappreciated problem, one which needs not only a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which resistance proliferates, but also means for mitigation. To advance our understanding of this issue, we recognized a polyaromatic structural core analogous to activators of QacR, a negative transcriptional regulator of the efflux pump QacA, and envisioned a series of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) based on this motif. Using commercially available dye scaffolds, we synthesized and evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 52 novel QACs bearing 1-3 quaternary ammonium centers. Striking differences in antimicrobial activity against bacteria bearing QAC resistance genes have been observed, with up to a 125-fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for select structures against bacteria known to bear efflux pumps. Based on these findings, general trends in structure-resistance relationships have been identified, laying the groundwork for future mechanistic studies. PMID:27027389

  11. Preparation and antibacterial properties of gelatin grafted with an epoxy silicone quaternary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Li, Junying; Sha, Zuoliang; Zhang, Wenyu; Tao, Furong; Yang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin (GE) was modified with epoxy silicone quaternary ammonium salt (EPSiQA) under alkaline conditions (pH 10-11). Silyl and quaternary ammonium groups were linked to gelatin skeleton simultaneously. It was illustrated by XRD and DSC that the short-range order of GE is destroyed and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of GE drops 10 °C after modification. The measured contact angles and surface free energy calculated by Owens-Wendt equation showed that the surface energy of modified gelatin EPSiQA-GE is mainly contributed by the dispersive component of non-polarity silicone groups, the hydrophobility of EPSiQA-GE increases with the increase of grafted silicone units in gelatin. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration indicated that EPSiQA-GE has bactericidal property against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and has no antibacterial effect on mold. PMID:27093873

  12. Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts onto kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhua, Xu; Yuehua, Hu; Faqin, Dong; Hao, Jiang; Houqin, Wu; Zhen, Wang; Ruohua, Liu

    2015-06-01

    Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) onto kaolinite have been investigated by flotation tests. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were used as collectors for kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm, 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm, 0 ~ 0.045 mm). The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite have been further explained based on crystal structure considerations by adsorption tests and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the flotation recovery of kaolinite in all different particle size fractions decreases with an increase in pH. As the concentration of collectors increases, the flotation recovery increases. The longer the carbon chain of QAS is, the higher the recoveries of coarse kaolinite (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm and 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm) are. But the flotation recovery of the finest kaolinite (0 ~ 0.045 mm) decreases with chain lengths of QAS collectors increasing, which is consistent with the flotation results of unscreened kaolinite (0 ~ 0.075 mm). It is explained by the froth stability related to the residual concentration of QAS collector in mineral pulp. In lower residual concentration, the froth stability becomes worse. Within the range of flotation collector concentration, it's easy of CTAC to be completely adsorbed by kaolinite in the particle size fraction (0-0.045 mm), which led to lower flotation recovery. Moreover, it is interesting that the coarser particle size of kaolinite is, the higher flotation recovery is. The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite is rationalized based on crystal structure considerations. The results of MD simulations show that the (001) kaolinite surface has the strongest interaction with DTAC, compared with the (00 1) face, (010) and (110) edges. On the other hand, when particle size of kaolinite is altered, the number of basal planes and edge planes is changed. It is observed that the finer kaolinite particles size become, the greater relative surface area of edges and the more the number of edges are. It means that fine kaolinite particles have more edges to adsorb fewer cationic colletors than that of coarse kaolinite particles, which is responsible for the poorer floatability of fine kaolinite.

  13. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T.; Pentecost, G.

    1993-12-01

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  14. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-10-01

    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10 mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. PMID:25303389

  15. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  16. 75 FR 40729 - Residues of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, N-Alkyl (C12-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Exemption In the Federal Register of November 28, 2007 (72 FR... 12-18 ) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. (73 FR 49101) (August 20, 2008). The commenter mistakenly... Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted...

  17. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y.

    2007-01-01

    A one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms is described for a widely used bioactive drug: chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. After conversion to its free base, the parent drug was methylated using substoichiometric amounts of methyl iodide dissolved in ether; the charged quaternary

  18. Ammonium chloride and chloroquine inhibit rabies virus infection in neuroblastoma cells. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Tsiang, H; Superti, F

    1984-01-01

    Two lysosomotropic agents, ammonium chloride and chloroquine inhibit the infection of murine neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus. The experiments indicate that rabies virus infects the neuronal cells through an endosome pH dependent entry pathway. PMID:6148053

  19. Development of antibacterial quaternary ammonium silane coatings on polyurethane catheters.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Stefano; Polissi, Alessandra; Maccagni, Elisa A; Dell'Orto, Elisa C; Liberatore, Chiara; Riccardi, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Polyurethene (PU) catheters were coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride (QAS) by means of a multistep process which involved a vapor phase plasma-induced graft-polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc). The AAc coating, whose stability in aqueous media was assessed by immersion in Phospate Buffer Saline (PBS), was characterized by means of Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, the COOH surface density was evaluated by a colorimetric assay with Methylene Blue. Carrying a negative charge at neutral pH, AAc coatings were proficient in positively charged molecules (like QAS) adsorption. ATR/FTIR spectroscopy and a colorimetric assay with Bromophenol Blue allowed us to verify the presence and the uniformity of the QAS coating on the PU catheters and the positive effect of the AAc graft-polymerization on the QAS adsorption. Morphological characterization of the QAS-modified catheters was performed by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). QAS-coated catheters displayed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterial cells. PMID:25890115

  20. Microbial Community Degradation of Widely Used Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R.; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K.; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Spain, Jim C.

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments. PMID:24951783

  1. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)-Directed Detoxification of Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride (DMAE-CB).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Wang, Yingjie; Tian, Min; Yang, Yanwei; Sun, Jinlong; Ban, Jinghao; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) is a polymerizable antibacterial monomer and has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve bioactive bonding with reliable bacterial inhibitory effects. However, the toxicity of DMAE-CB may hamper its wide application in clinical situations. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of DMAE-CB and explore the possible protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that chemical binding of NAC and DMAE-CB occurred in a time dependent manner. Pre-incubation of fourty-eight hours is required for adequate reaction between DMAE-CB and NAC. DMAE-CB reduced human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) viability in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effects of DMAE-CB were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. NAC alleviated DMAE-CB-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that DMAE-CB induced apoptosis. Collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 were also observed after DMAE-CB treatment. NAC rescued hDPCs from DMAE-CB-induced apoptosis, accompanied by lower level of MMP loss and caspase-3 activity. This study assists to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of DMAE-CB and provides theoretical supports for the searching of effective strategies to reduce toxicity of quaternary ammonium dental monomers. PMID:26274909

  2. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)-Directed Detoxification of Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride (DMAE-CB)

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lequn; Wang, Yingjie; Tian, Min; Yang, Yanwei; Sun, Jinlong; Ban, Jinghao; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) is a polymerizable antibacterial monomer and has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve bioactive bonding with reliable bacterial inhibitory effects. However, the toxicity of DMAE-CB may hamper its wide application in clinical situations. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of DMAE-CB and explore the possible protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that chemical binding of NAC and DMAE-CB occurred in a time dependent manner. Pre-incubation of fourty-eight hours is required for adequate reaction between DMAE-CB and NAC. DMAE-CB reduced human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) viability in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effects of DMAE-CB were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. NAC alleviated DMAE-CB-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that DMAE-CB induced apoptosis. Collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 were also observed after DMAE-CB treatment. NAC rescued hDPCs from DMAE-CB-induced apoptosis, accompanied by lower level of MMP loss and caspase-3 activity. This study assists to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of DMAE-CB and provides theoretical supports for the searching of effective strategies to reduce toxicity of quaternary ammonium dental monomers. PMID:26274909

  3. Immobilization of quaternary ammonium salts on grafting particle polystyrene/SiO 2 and preliminary study of application performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Qi, Changsheng; Liu, Qing

    2008-04-01

    Polystyrene (PSt) was grafted on the surface of silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from" in a solution polymerization system, and grafting particles PSt/SiO 2 was obtained. The chloromethylation reaction of the grafted polystyrene was performed using a novel chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which is un-carcinogenic, and grafting particles CMPS/SiO 2 was gained. Subsequently, grafted CMPS was quaternized (denoted as QPS) using tertiary amine, and finally functional composite-type particles QPS/SiO 2, on which quaternary ammonium groups were immobilized, were prepared. The catalysis activity of the particle QPS/SiO 2 as a triphase catalyst in phase-transfer catalysis systems and its antibacterial activity as a water-insoluble antibacterial material were studied preliminarily. The experimental results show that the particle QPS/SiO 2 exhibits higher catalysis activity as a triphase catalyst for the reaction between benzyl chloride in organic phase and sodium acetate in aqueous phase to form benzyl acetate, and under a mild condition of 60 °C for 7 h of reaction time a conversion of 66% for benzyl chloride can be obtained. The particle QPS/SiO 2 has high antibacterial activity as a water-insoluble antibacterial material against Escherichia coli ( E. coli).

  4. Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries. PMID:24722581

  5. Syntheses and Applications of (Thio)Urea-Containing Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Salt Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Johanna; Waser, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We herein report our efforts to obtain a new class of systematically modified bifunctional (thio)urea-containing quaternary ammonium salts based on easily obtainable chiral backbones. Among the different classes of catalysts that were successfully synthesized, those based on trans-1,2-cyclohexane diamine were found to be the most powerful for the asymmetric α-fluorination of β-keto esters. Selectivities up to 93:7 could be obtained by using only 2 mol-% of the optimized catalyst. The importance of the bifunctional nature of these catalysts was demonstrated by control experiments using simplified monofunctional catalyst analogues, which gave almost racemic product only. PMID:25339849

  6. The association effect of quaternary ammonium salt on carboxymethyl cellulose and its analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Chanjuan; Yang, Shengke

    2015-01-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) has been extensively used in petroleum, geology, common household chemicals, food, medicine and other industries, owing to its excellent water-soluble, emulsifying, water retention and film forming properties. It is known as 'industrial monosodium glutamate'. However, the research of the test method on CMC is far behind the research of its actual application value. This study showed that, weak acid or weak basic medium, the carboxyl groups dissociated from CMC, existing as a big negative ion, which can form ion-association complexes with some quaternary ammonium cations through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The absorption spectrum changes and Triton-X100 can increase the sensitivity of the system. The maximum absorption wavelengths are, respectively, about 256 nm for dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (LTAB), 244 nm for tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB) and 240 nm for cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) with CMC. The reactions show very high sensitivities and the maximum molar absorption coefficients are 1.10 × 10(4) L/(mol·cm) for LTAB system, 1.24 × 10(6) L/(mol·cm) for TTAB system and 1.78 × 10(6) L/(mol·cm) for CTAB system. This method is simple and rapid, and can be applied for the spectrophotometric determination of trace CMC in the supernatant of centrifuged drilling mud. PMID:26360741

  7. N-Chlorotaurine and ammonium chloride: an antiseptic preparation with strong bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Arnitz, Roland; Nagl, Markus

    2007-04-20

    The bactericidal activity of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) is significantly enhanced in the presence of ammonium chloride which induces the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) whose strong bactericidal activity is well known. In this study the properties of NCT plus ammonium chloride have been investigated. The reaction of active chlorine compounds like chloramine-T (N-chlorotoluene-sulfonamide sodium), chloroisocyanuric acid derivatives, hypochlorites (NaOCl, CaOCl(2)) with ammonium chloride did not stop at the stage of monochloramine, and the pungent smelling by-products di- and trichloramine, NHCl(2) and NCl(3), were also formed. This was not the case with NCT where only monochloramine was generated. The equilibrium constant of the reaction of NCT with ammonium was found to be [Formula: see text] , which allows to estimate the equilibrium concentration of monochloramine in aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride. At concentrations each ranging between 0.01% and 1.0% it comes to [NH(2)Cl]=3.5-254 ppm. As an unexpected result the monochloramine containing formulation turned out to be most stable in plain water without buffer additives. Quantitative killing assays revealed complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7)CFU/mL of seven bacterial strains by 0.1% NCT plus 0.1% ammonium chloride within 5 min, while with plain 0.1% NCT an incubation time of 2-4h was needed to achieve the same effect. The highly significant increase of bactericidal activity (200-300-fold) could be assigned to the presence of monochloramine which could be isolated by vacuum distillation. Aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride provide a highly effective and well tolerable antiseptic preparation appropriate to a treatment cycle of at least 1 month if stored in the refrigerator. PMID:17196346

  8. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  9. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells. PMID:26447826

  10. Theoretical studies on CO2 capture behavior of quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Kun; Chen, Kexian; Hou, Chenglong; Fang, Mengxiang

    2016-05-14

    Quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) are novel CO2 sorbents as they have high capacity, high stability and high binding energy. Moreover, the binding energy of ionic pairs to CO2 is tunable by changing the hydration state so that the sorbent can be regenerated through humidity adjustment. In this study, theoretical calculations were conducted to reveal the mechanism of the humidity swing CO2 adsorption, based on model compounds of quaternary ammonium cation and carbonate anions. The electrostatic potential map demonstrates the anion, rather than the cation, is chemically preferential for CO2 adsorption. Further, the proton transfer process from water to carbonate at the sorbent interface is successfully depicted with an intermediate which has a higher energy state. By determining the CO2 adsorption energy and activation energy at different hydration states, it is discovered that water could promote CO2 adsorption by reducing the energy barrier of proton transfer. The adsorption/desorption equilibrium would shift to desorption by adding water, which constitutes the theoretical basis for humidity swing. By analyzing the hydrogen bonding and structure of the water molecules, it is interesting to find that the CO2 adsorption weakens the hydrophilicity of the sorbent and results in release of water. The requirement of latent heat for the phase change of water could significantly reduce the heat of adsorption. The special "self-cooling" effect during gas adsorption can lower the temperature of the sorbent and benefit the adsorption isotherms. PMID:27115032

  11. [Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of nano-fumed silica derivative with quaternary ammonium salts].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Yang, Qin-huan; Lei, Wan-xue; Li, Zheng-jun; He, Zhuang-zhi; Lin, Fang; Zhang, Ting-you

    2006-03-01

    Nano-fumed silica reacted with gamma-chlopropyltrimethoxysilane as a coupling agent, and then by quaternization with N,N-dimethyl-n-tetradecylamine, finally the nano-fumed silica derivative with quaternary ammonium salts was obtained. The nano-fumed silica derivative was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and Zeta sizer nano series. The antimicrobial properties of the nano-fumed silica derivative against selected microorganisms were tested by the quantitative suspension method. The results revealed that (1) gamma-chlopropyltrimethoxysilane can be bound to the surface of the nano-fumed silica With increasing the amount of gamma-chlopropyltrimethoxysilane, the amount of surface hydroxyl groups of nano-fumed silica decreases. (2) The Zeta potential showed that the isoelectric point of the nano-fumed silica and the modified nano-fumed silica is pH 4.8 and pH 10.5, respectively. The shift of the isoelectric point is due to the quaternary ammonium groups. (3) The obtained nano-fumed silica derivative has significant inhibition effect on the growth of microorganisms, and the bactericidal rates in 15 min for E. coil (8099), S. aureus (ATCC6538) and C. albicans(ATCC10231) were 99.99%,, 99.99% and 94.12%, respectively. PMID:16830751

  12. Reversible hemostatic properties of sulfabetaine/quaternary ammonium modified hyperbranched polyglycerol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiying; Weinhart, Marie; Lai, Benjamin; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran; Brooks, Donald E

    2016-04-01

    A library of hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) functionalized with different mole fractions of zwitterionic sulfabetaine and cationic quaternary ammonium ligands was synthesized and characterized. A post-polymerization method was employed that utilized double bond moieties on the dendritic HPG for the coupling of thiol-terminated ligands via UV initiated thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The proportions of different ligands were precisely controlled by varying the ligand concentration during the irradiation process. The effect of the polymer library on hemostasis was investigated using whole human blood. It was found that polymer with ≥40% of alkenes converted to positive charges and the remainder to sulfabetaines caused hemagglutination at ≥1 mg/mL, without causing red blood cell lysis. The quaternary ammonium groups can interact with the negative charged sites on the membranes of erythrocytes, which provides the bioadhesion. The zwitterionic sulfabetaine evidently provides a hydration layer to partially mask the adverse effects that are likely to be caused by cationic moieties. The polymer was also found able to enhance platelet aggregation and activation in a concentration and positive charge density-dependent manner, which would contribute to initiating hemostasis. In a variety of other assays the material was found to be largely biocompatible. The polymer-induced hemostasis is obtained by a process independent of the normal blood clotting cascade but dependent on red blood cell agglutination, where the polymers promote hemostasis by linking erythrocytes together to form a lattice to entrap the cells. PMID:26885776

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane-polymethacrylate block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Zhou, Fang; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    Block copolymers PDMS-b-PDMAEMA were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization involving N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) macro-chain transfer agent. And, the tertiary amino groups in PDMAEMA were quaternized with n-octyliodide to provide quaternary ammonium salts (QPDMAEMA). The well-defined copolymers generated composition variation and morphology evolvement on film surfaces, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that the enrichment of QPDMAEMA brought about lower elemental ratios of Si/N on the film surfaces. The surface morphologies evolved with the variations of QPDMAEMA content, and the variation trend of film roughness was exactly opposite to that of water contact angle hysteresis. With regard to structure-antimicrobial relationships, the copolymer films had more evident antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis, and the surfaces with heterogeneous morphology and higher N+ content presented better antimicrobial activity. The functionalized copolymers based PDMS and quaternary ammonium salts materials have the potential applications as antimicrobial coatings.

  14. [The genetic action of ammonium molybdate and cadmium chloride and iodide].

    PubMed

    Chopikashvili, L V; Bobyleva, L A; Shapiro, A N

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium molybdate cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride have been studied in test for their genotoxic effect on induction of DNA-cellular bonding, extrasynthesis of DNA in spermatozoa of mice as well as in test to estimate a fertility criterion of Drosophila males. Ammonium molybdate, cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride are stated to be able to induce injuries of native DNA in test on induction of DNA-cellular bonding and DNA-sex cells of mice and Drosophila melanogaster in dominant-lethal test and in experiments on estimation of a fertility coefficient of Drosophila males, respectively. PMID:1796505

  15. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Sekhavat Pour, Zahra; Makvandi, Pooyan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2015-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing antibacterial polymeric materials. In the present work, novel antibacterial cross-linked blend films were prepared based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary ammonium starch (ST-GTMAC) using citric acid (CA) as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linker. The ST-GTMAC was successfully synthesized from reaction between water-soluble oxidized starch and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). The effect of ST-GTMAC, CA and GA contents on the swelling, solubility, mechanical and thermal properties of the films was investigated. It was found that incorporation of ST-GTMAC reduced UV-transmittance and provided antibacterial properties, increasing GA content increased tensile strength and decreased solubility and swelling degree of the films, while CA acted as plasticizer when its concentration was above 10 wt%. The results showed that ST-GTMAC/PVA/CA/GA film has fair antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These results suggest that the prepared film might be used as potential antibacterial material in medical and packaging applications. PMID:26188297

  16. The Listeria monocytogenes transposon Tn6188 provides increased tolerance to various quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Zaiser, Andreas; Wieser, Cornelia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Tolerance of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of disinfectants has been frequently reported. Particularly, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are often used in disinfectants and also as antiseptics in food industry and hospitals. Recently, we described Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes harbouring the transporter QacH, a molecular mechanism leading to increased tolerance to BC. In this study, we investigated the presence of Tn6188 within the genus Listeria spp. Our screening indicates that the distribution of Tn6188 may be limited to L. monocytogenes. We confirm that QacH is responsible for the observed increase in tolerance by complementation of a qacH deletion mutant and introducing qacH in a Tn6188 negative strain. We investigated the transporter's substrate spectrum by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and showed that QacH also confers higher tolerance towards other QACs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). This result was supported by increased expression of qacH in the presence of the various substrates as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we detected expression of a Tn6188 transposase gene and circular forms of Tn6188, suggesting activity and possible transfer of this transposon. PMID:25312720

  17. Crystal structures of three new N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L.; Toscano, Rubén A.; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN+·I−, (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di­phenyl­but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], C20H25IN+·I−, (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di­phenyl­pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN+·I−, (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di­phenyl­hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I− inter­actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an ‘enanti­opure’ compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯I− and C—H⋯π inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C—H⋯I− inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I− inter­actions, there are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present. PMID:26594414

  18. Crystal structures of three new N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L; Toscano, Rubén A; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-10-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN(+)·I(-), (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di-phenyl-but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], C20H25IN(+)·I(-), (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di-phenyl-pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN(+)·I(-), (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di-phenyl-hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I(-) inter-actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an 'enanti-opure' compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯I(-) and C-H⋯π inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C-H⋯I(-) inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present. PMID:26594414

  19. Combined Hydrous Ferric Oxide and Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Tailoring of Granular Activated Carbon for Concurrent Arsenate and Perchlorate Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, M.; Cannon, F; Parette, R; Yoon, S; Chen, W

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was tailored with both iron and quaternary ammonium surfactants so as to concurrently remove both arsenate and perchlorate from groundwater. The iron (hydr)oxide preferentially removed the arsenate oxyanion but not perchlorate; while the quaternary ammonium preferentially removed the perchlorate oxyanion, but not the arsenate. The co-sorption of two anionic oxyanions via distinct mechanisms has yielded intriguing phenomena. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) with these dually prepared media employed synthetic waters that were concurrently spiked with arsenate and perchlorate; and these trial results showed that the quaternary ammonium surfactants enhanced arsenate removal bed life by 25-50% when compared to activated carbon media that had been preloaded merely with iron (hydr)oxide; and the surfactant also enhanced the diffusion rate of arsenate per the Donnan effect. The authors also employed natural groundwater from Rutland, MA which contained 60 microg/L As and traces of silica, and sulfate; and the authors spiked this with 40 microg/L perchlorate. When processing this water, activated carbon that had been tailored with iron and cationic surfactant could treat 12,500 bed volumes before 10 microg/L arsenic breakthrough, and 4500 bed volumes before 6 microg/L perchlorate breakthrough. Although the quaternary ammonium surfactants exhibited only a slight capacity for removing arsenate, these surfactants did facilitate a more favorably positively charged avenue for the arsenate to diffuse through the media to the iron sorption site (i.e. via the Donnan effect).

  20. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y.

    2007-01-01

    A one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms is described for a widely used bioactive drug: chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. After conversion to its free base, the parent drug was methylated using substoichiometric amounts of methyl iodide dissolved in ether; the charged quaternary…

  1. High levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 using ammonium chloride as the sole nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Kekez, B D; Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Jakovljevic, D M; Stefanovic Kojic, J R; Markovic, M D; Beskoski, V P; Vrvic, M M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 isolated from a petroleum sludge sample was investigated. High levan yield was obtained in a wide range of sucrose concentrations (up to 400 g/L) and, contrary to most levan-producing strains, using ammonium chloride as the sole N source. Interaction between sucrose, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium in a low sucrose (60-200 g/L) and a high sucrose (300-400 g/L) system was analyzed by response surface methodology. According to the calculated model in the low sucrose system, maximum predicted levan yield was 47.8 g/L (sucrose 196.8 g/L, ammonium chloride 2.4 g/L, pH 7.0), while in the high sucrose system, levan yield was 99.2 g/L (sucrose 397.6 g/L, ammonium chloride 4.6 g/L, pH 7.4). In addition, protective effect of microbial levan against copper toxicity to Daphnia magna is observed for the first time. The acute toxicity (48 h EC50) of copper decreased from 0.14 to 0.44 mg/L by levan in concentration of 50 ppm. PMID:25592434

  2. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on differently pretreated nonwoven cotton substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  3. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  4. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  5. Efflux pump induction by quaternary ammonium compounds and fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Tattevin, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance. PMID:26674470

  6. Low Temperature Double-Layer Capacitors Using Asymmetric and Spiro-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J. (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors capable of operating at extremely low temperatures (e.g., as low as -80.degree. C.) are disclosed. Electrolyte solutions combining a base solvent (e.g., acetonitrile) and a cosolvent are employed to lower the melting point of the base electrolyte. Example cosolvents include methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, propionitrile, butyronitrile, and 1,3-dioxolane. A quaternary ammonium salt including at least one of triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) and spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF.sub.4), is used in an optimized concentration (e.g., 0.10 M to 0.75 M), dissolved into the electrolyte solution. Conventional device form factors and structural elements (e.g., porous carbon electrodes and a polyethylene separator) may be employed.

  7. Critical review on the environmental fate of quaternary ammonium herbicides in soils devoted to vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pateiro-Moure, Mirian; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-05-21

    Quaternary Ammonium Herbicides (QUATs) are nonselective contact herbicides, widely used at weed emergence to protect a wide range of crops. The benefits achieved by the use of these herbicides are indisputable. In soils devoted to vineyards, their uses increase the yield and the quality of the grapes for winemaking. However, several environmental dangers have emerged from the overuse of these compounds. Therefore, there has been a great interest in the presence of these compounds in soils, water, and food. Once in the soil, the mobility of these agrochemicals plays an important role in their fate and transport in the environment. This is why we mainly focused our review on (a) their physical and chemical properties and their activity, (b) the factors affecting their mobility in soils, (c) the quality of surrounding waters, and (d) the measures to reduce their contamination, especially in the case of agricultural soils devoted to vineyards. PMID:23614668

  8. Preparation and characterization of quaternary ammonium chitosan hydrogel with significant antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Yang, Jing; Wu, Huan; Hu, Zhihai; Yi, Jiayan; Tong, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan (HACC)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogels were prepared using gamma radiation. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was characterized using FT-IR. The results revealed that HACC, PVA and PEO were perfectly compatible and interacted via the hydrogen bonds. As revealed by SEM, scaffolds with a homogeneous interconnected pore structure were obtained after lyophilizing the hydrogels. The influence of different radiation doses and weight ratios on properties including gel content, swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties were investigated. It indicated that the hydrogels had the good swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties. In vitro antibacterial activity assessment, the hydrogels exhibited a pronounced inhibitory effect against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Therefore, the hydrogels showed a promising potential to be applied as wound dressing. PMID:25895959

  9. Bio-based ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts: properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Renjith; Rao, Talasila P; Devaki, Sudha J

    2014-03-26

    In the present work, we describe the preparation, properties, and applications of novel ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts (QSs) of 3-pentadecylphenol, a bio-based low-cost material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. Amphotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in QSs was characterized using a combination of techniques, such as DSC, PLM, XRD, SEM, and rheology, which revealed the formation of one, two, and three dimensionally ordered mesophases in different length scales. On the basis of these results, a plausible mechanism for the formation of specific modes of packing in various mesophases was proposed. Observation of anisotropic ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability suggests their application as a solid electrolyte. PMID:24571658

  10. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  11. Synthesis and characterization of dimethacrylates containing quaternary ammonium functionalities for dental applications

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Joseph M.; Zeiger, Diana N.; Tang, Kathy; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Fowler, Bruce O.; Lin, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The widespread incidence of recurrent caries highlights the need for improved dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to synthesize low viscosity ionic dimethacrylate monomers (IDMAs) that contain quaternary ammoniums groups (antimicrobial functionalities) and are compatible with existing dental dimethacrylate-based monomers. Such monomers have the potential to copolymerize with other methacrylate monomers and produce antibacterial polymers. Methods Two monomers (IDMA-1 and IDMA-2) were synthesized using the Menschutkin reaction and incorporated at 0% to 30% (by mass) into a 1:1 (by mass) bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA):triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin. Resin viscosity was quantified using rheology, and polymer degree of conversion (DC) and surface charge density were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescein binding, respectively. Effects of IDMA-1 on initial attachment of Streptococcus mutans and on viability and enzymatic activity (formazan reduction) of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells were quantified. Results IDMA-1 and IDMA-2 were prepared and characterized. IDMA-1 was miscible with BisGMA:TEGDMA and slightly increased the resin viscosity and DC. As expected, polymeric surface charge density increased with increasing IDMA-1. Incorporation of 10% IDMA-1 into BisGMA:TEGDMA reduced bacterial colonization without affecting viability or enzymatic activity of mammalian cells. Increasing IDMA-1 up to 30% had no additional effect on bacterial coverage, but ≥ 20% IDMA-1 significantly reduced macrophage density, viability, and enzymatic activity. Leachables from polymers containing IDMA-1 were not cytotoxic. Significance The Menschutkin reaction provides a facile, convenient means to synthesize new monomers with quaternary ammonium groups for dental and medical applications. PMID:22035983

  12. Dental primer and adhesive containing a new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Arola, Dwayne D.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main reason for restoration failure is secondary caries caused by biofilm acids. Replacing the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all operative work. The objectives of this study were to incorporate a new quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg) into a primer and an adhesive, and to investigate their effects on antibacterial and dentin bonding properties. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) served as control. DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated with NAg into primer/adhesive. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the new DMADDM were orders of magnitude lower than those of a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Uncured primer with DMADDM had much larger inhibition zones than QADM (p<0.05). Cured primer/adhesive with DMADDM-NAg greatly reduced biofilm metabolic activity (p<0.05). Combining DMADDM with NAg in primer/adhesive resulted in less CFU than DMADDM alone (p<0.05). Lactic acid production by biofilms was reduced by 20-fold via DMADDM-NAg, compared to control. Incorporation of DMADDM and NAg into primer/adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. Conclusions A new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated into primer/adhesive for the first time. The bonding agents are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at tooth-restoration margins to inhibit caries. DMADDM and NAg are promising for use into a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:23353068

  13. Cationic curdlan: Synthesis, characterization and application of quaternary ammonium salts of curdlan.

    PubMed

    Suflet, Dana M; Popescu, Irina; Pelin, Irina M; Nicolescu, Alina; Hitruc, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble curdlan derivatives containing quaternary ammonium groups with a degree of substitution up to 0.15 were synthesized using different cationic agents in alkaline medium. The chemical structure of curdlan derivatives was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The influence of some reaction conditions (temperature, time, and molar ratio) on the degree of substitution and the viscosimetic behaviour were studied. The degree of substitution increased with the amount of the cationization agent per anhydroglucose unit and was higher when the glycidyl reagents were used, compared with the case when the reagents contained chloro-hydroxypropyl groups. The viscosity behaviour of these new derivatives of curdlan in aqueous solutions and the values of intrinsic viscosities calculated using different semi-empirical equations denote a high hydrodynamic dimension of the macromolecular coils. The interaction of these cationic curdlan derivatives with an anionic curdlan (monobasic curdlan phosphate) was studied in situ by turbidimetric measurements and after 24h by optical density and dynamic light scattering. The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes was influenced by the degree of substitution, the nature of the quaternary substituent, and by the ionic strength of the aqueous solution. The morphology of the polyelectrolyte complexes particles in dry state was examined by atomic force microscopy. PMID:25843873

  14. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  15. Quaternary ammonium salts with tetrafluoroborate anion: Phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact of four quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TEA][BF4], tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TBA][BF4], tetrahexylammonium tetrafluoroborate [THA][BF4], and tetraoctylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TOA][BF4] on the growth and development of spring barley and common radish. Analogous tests were performed with the inorganic salt ammonium tetrafluoroborate [A][BF4] for comparison purposes. Results indicated that the phytotoxicity of the QAS applied is dependent on the concentration of the substance and their number of carbon atoms. The most toxic compound was [TBA][BF4], causing the greatest drop in fresh weight of both study plants, similar to the phytotoxic effects of [A][BF4]. All the tested compounds caused oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish seedlings due to a drop in the chlorophyll content. Stress was also observed in plants, which was indicated by the increased level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) such as H2O2 and lipid peroxidation of MDA (malondialdehyde). Due to the stress, both plants displayed changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that changes in chlorophyll levels and peroxidase activity are the best biomarkers to determine oxidative stress in plants. PMID:26551221

  16. Effect of ten quaternary ammonium cations on tetrachloromethane sorption to clay from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The mineral surface of Wyoming bentonite (clay) was modified by replacing inorganic ions by each of 10 quaternary ammonium compounds, and tetrachloromethane sorption to the modified sorbents from water was studied. Tetrachloromethane sorption from solution to clay modified with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, benzyltrimethyl-, or benzyltriethylammonium cations generally is characterized by relatively high solute uptake, isotherm nonlinearity, and competitive sorption (with trichloroethene as the competing sorbate). For these sorbents, the ethyl functional groups yield reduced sorptive capacity relative to methyl groups, whereas the benzyl group appears to have a similar effect on sorbent capacity as the methyl group. Sorption of tetrachloromethane to clay modified with dodecyldimethyl(2-phenoxyethyl)-, dodecyltrimethyl-, tetradecyltrimethyl-, hexadecyltrimethyl-, or benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide is characterized by relatively low solute uptake, isotherm linearity, and noncompetitive sorption. For these sorbents, an increase in the size of the nonpolar functional group(s) causes an increase in the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc). No measurable uptake of tetrachloromethane sorption by the unmodified clay or clay modified by ammonium bromide was observed. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  17. Surface structures of PDMS incorporated with quaternary ammonium salts designed for antibiofouling and fouling release applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuwei; Leng, Chuan; Chisholm, Bret; Stafslien, Shane; Majumdar, Partha; Chen, Zhan

    2013-03-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials have been extensively shown to function as excellent fouling-release (FR) coatings in the marine environment. The incorporation of biocide moieties, such as quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), can impart additional antibiofouling properties to PDMS-based FR coating systems. In this study, the molecular surface structures of two different types of QAS-incorporated PDMS systems were investigated in different chemical environments using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Specifically, a series of PDMS coatings containing either a QAS with a single ammonium salt group per molecule or a quaternary ammonium-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (Q-POSS) were measured with SFG in air, water, and artificial seawater (ASW) to investigate the relationships between the interfacial surface structures of these materials and their antifouling properties. Although previous studies have shown that the above-mentioned materials are promising contact-active antifouling coatings, slight variations of the QAS structure can lead to substantial differences in the antifouling performance. Indeed, the SFG results presented here indicated that the surface structures of these materials depend on several factors, such as the extent of quaternization, the molecular weight of the PDMS component, and the functional groups of the QAS used for incorporation into the PDMS matrix. It was concluded that in aqueous environments a lower extent of Q-POSS quaternization and the use of ethoxy (instead of methoxy) functional groups for QAS incorporation facilitated the extension of the alkyl chains away from the nitrogen atom of the QAS on the surface. The SFG results correlated well with the antifouling activity studies that indicated that the coatings exhibiting a lower concentration of longer alkyl chains protruding out of the surface can neutralize microorganisms more effectively, ultimately leading to better antifouling performance. Furthermore, the results of this study provide additional evidence that incorporated QAS exert their antimicrobial activity through a two-step interaction. The first step is the adsorption of the bacteria on the surface as a result of the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged microorganisms and the positively charged QAS nitrogen atoms on the surface. The second step is the disruption of the cell membranes by the penetration of the QAS long, extended alkyl chains. PMID:23394402

  18. Star-shaped trimeric quaternary ammonium bromide surfactants: adsorption and aggregation properties.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Kusano, Takumi; Iwase, Hiroki; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Kurata, Hiroki

    2012-06-26

    Novel star-shaped trimeric surfactants consisting of three quaternary ammonium surfactants linked to a tris(2-aminoethyl)amine core were synthesized. Each ammonium had two methyls and a straight alkyl chain of 8, 10, 12, or 14 carbons. The adsorption and aggregation properties of these tris(N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammoniumethyl)amine bromides (3C(n)trisQ, in which n represents alkyl chain carbon number) were characterized by equilibrium and dynamic surface tension, rheology, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) techniques. 3C(n)trisQ showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) 1 order of magnitude lower than that of the corresponding gemini surfactants with an ethylene spacer and the corresponding monomeric surfactants. The logarithm of the CMC decreased linearly with increasing hydrocarbon chain length for 3C(n)trisQ. The slope of the line, which is well-known as Klevens equation, was larger than those of the monomeric and gemini surfactants; however, considering the total carbon number in the chains, the slope was shallower than the monomeric and was close to the gemini. Through the results such as surface tensions at the CMC (32-34 mN m(-1)) and the parameters of standard free energy, CMC/C(20) and pC(20), it was found that 3C(n)trisQ could adsorb densely at the air/water interface despite the strong electrostatic repulsion between multiple quaternary ammonium headgroups. Moreover, dynamic surface tension measurements showed that the kinetics of adsorption for 3C(n)trisQ to the air/water interface was slow because of their bulky structures. Furthermore, the results of rheology, SANS, and cryo-TEM determined that 3C(n)trisQ with n = 10 and 12 formed ellipsoidal micelles at low concentrations in solution and the structures transformed to threadlike micelles with very few branches for n = 12 as the concentration increased, but for n = 14 threadlike micelles formed at relatively low concentrations. PMID:22642550

  19. Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

    2014-11-26

    Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

  20. Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Carboxymethylchitosan on Release Rate In-vitro of Aspirin Sustained-release Matrix Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Teng, Zhongqiu; Zheng, Nannan; Meng, Weiwei; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a derivative of chitosan as pharmaceutical excipient used in sustained-release matrix tablets of poorly soluble drugs. A water-soluble quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan was synthesized by a two-step reaction with carboxymethylchitosan (CMCTS), decylalkyl dimethyl ammonium and epichlorohydrin. The elemental analysis showed that the target product with 10.27% of the maximum grafting degree was obtained. To assess the preliminary safety of this biopolymer, cell toxicity assay was employed. In order to further investigate quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan application as pharmaceutical excipient, aspirin was chosen as model drug. The effect of quaternary ammonium CMCTS on aspirin release rate from sustained-release matrix tablets was examined by in-vitro dissolution experiments. The results showed that this biopolymer had a great potential in increasing the dissolution of poorly soluble drug. With the addition of CMCTS-CEDA, the final cumulative release rate of drug rose up to 90%. After 12 h, at the grade of 10, 20 and 50 cps, the drug release rate increased from 58.1 to 90.7%, from 64.1 to 93.9%, from 69.3 to 96.1%, respectively. At the same time, aspirin release rate from sustainedrelease model was found to be related to the amount of quaternary ammonium CMCTS employed. With the increase of CMCTS-CEDA content, the accumulated release rate increased from 69.1% to 86.7%. The mechanism of aspirin release from sustained-release matrix tablets was also preliminary studied to be Fick diffusion. These data demonstrated that the chitosan derivative has positive effect on drug release from sustained-release matrix tablets. PMID:24250627

  1. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-15

    A new borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}(i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) N{sup +} cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents. - Graphical abstract: The new quaternary ammonium borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 17}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] contains a 3D supramolecular network formed by hydrogen bond linked [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions and shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, excitation light, and solvents. Highlights: ► A novel quaternary ammonium borate was synthesized. ► It possesses a supramolecular network fomed by H-bonded [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions. ► This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating treatment, excitation light, and solvents.

  2. Synthesis of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Salts and Their in Vitro Antileishmanial Activity and U-937 Cell Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Duque-Benítez, Sandra M; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L; Jones, Marjorie A; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of a series of quaternary ammonium salts and the assessment of their in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity. A preliminary discussion on a structure-activity relationship of the compounds is also included. Three series of quaternary ammonium salts were prepared: (i) halomethylated quaternary ammonium salts (series I); (ii) non-halogenated quaternary ammonium salts (series II) and (iii) halomethylated choline analogs (series III). Assessments of their in vitro cytotoxicity in human promonocytic cells U-937 and antileishmanial activity in axenic amastigotes of L. (Viannia) panamensis (M/HOM/87/UA140-pIR-eGFP) were carried out using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) micromethod. Antileishmanial activity was also tested in intracellular amastigotes of L. (V) panamensis using flow cytometry. High toxicity for human U937 cells was found with most of the compounds, which exhibited Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) values in the range of 9 to 46 μg/mL. Most of the compounds evidenced antileishmanial activity. In axenic amastigotes, the antileishmanial activity varied from 14 to 57 μg/mL, while in intracellular amastigotes their activity varied from 17 to 50 μg/mL. N-Chloromethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(4,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-yl)ammonium iodide (1a), N-iodomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(4,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-yl)ammonium iodide (2a), N,N,N-trimethyl-N-(4,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-yl)ammonium iodide (3a) and N,N,N-trimethyl-N-(5,5-diphenylpent-4-en-1-yl)ammonium iodide (3b) turned out to be the most active compounds against intracellular amastigotes of L. (V) panamensis, with EC50 values varying between 24.7 for compound 3b and 38.4 μg/mL for compound 1a. Thus, these compounds represents new "hits" in the development of leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:27043509

  3. A study of a high-power, ammonium chloride zinc/manganese dioxide dry battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiyong; An, Hongmei; Chen, Shenhao

    A high-power, ammonium chloride zinc/manganese dioxide dry cell is prepared by modification to the components of the electrolyte and the cathode. Detailed studies are carried out on the effect of some factors which include the electrolyte, the moisture content, and the ratio of acetylene black to graphite. The cathode product is analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Specifications are given for the high-power cell.

  4. The Nature of Excess Intercalation of a Quaternary Ammonium Compound in Smectite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafer, D. A.; Giese, R.

    2010-12-01

    Particular clay minerals, such as the French green clay used by Brunet de Courssou in the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans, have intrinsic antibacterial properties that surpass those of most conventional antibiotic treatments. The antimicrobial properties of the French green clay, comprised of 24% Fe-illite and 50% Fe-smectite, have been reproduced by a synthetically generated organically modified smectite (organoclay). The quaternary ammonium compound hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) must undergo a cation exchange process in excess of the calculated cation exchange capacity (CEC) to render the clay antimicrobial. This work explores the position of the excess bonding within the clay lattice so as to challenge the hydrophobic bonding hypothesis proposed by Zhao et al (2003) concerning excess intercalation. After determining the CEC of BP smectite, organoclays were produced containing concentrations of one, two, and three times the CEC of HDTMA. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) on a scale of 2 to 20 degrees 2theta was conducted on each of the three organoclays to infer the loading capacity of the smectite by means of the clay’s d-spacing as a proxy for expansion. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitatively determined the surfactant retained on the clay by measuring the residual HDTMA in solution after extracting the organoclay. The d-spacing of the three organoclays implied that the first CEC of HDTMA entered the interlayer as an anion by means of a cation exchange process while the second and third CEC were incorporated into the clay lattice by means of a “hydrophobic bonding” mechanism in which the excess surfactants formed associations with the counterion Br+. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra will be collected to determine the specific attachment of the excess bonding within the clay structure.

  5. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri; Roman, Audrey; Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  6. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: theoretical modeling and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, Andrey V; Tarasov, Peter A; Semianov, Konstantin A; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-03-01

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, elasticity and critical tension of membrane) through their sphering and lysis measured by a scanning flow cytometer (SFC). SFC allows measuring the light-scattering pattern (indicatrix) of an individual cell over the angular range from 10 degrees to 60 degrees . Comparison of the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated light scattering patterns allows discrimination of spherical from non-spherical erythrocytes and evaluation of volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual spherical cells. Three different processes were applied for erythrocytes sphering: (1) colloid osmotic lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride, (2) isovolumetric sphering in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and albumin in neutrally buffered isotonic saline, and (3) osmotic fragility test in hypotonic media. For the hemolysis in ammonium chloride, the evolution of distributions of sphered erythrocytes on volume and hemoglobin content was monitored in real-time experiments. The analysis of experimental data was performed in the context of a statistical approach, taking into account that parameters of erythrocytes vary from cell to cell. PMID:18083194

  7. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of drugs with an aliphatic tertiary amine group.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Hawes, E M; McKay, G; Midha, K K

    1992-11-01

    A synthetic approach was developed to make the quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of compounds with an aliphatic tertiary amine group. The key step involved quaternization of the compound with methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide)uronate and sodium bicarbonate in a two-phase system of water and an organic solvent. The synthetic approach successfully yielded quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides of 20 drugs and two of their phase I metabolites. The drugs were from various pharmacological classes: H1 antihistamines, antipsychotic agents, and tricyclic antidepressants. Physical data such as HPLC retention times, and diagnostic fast-atom bombardment mass spectra and 1H NMR spectra were obtained. These should aid in the characterization of compounds in samples isolated from biological media. PMID:1447708

  9. Rapid visual detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based on hydrophobic effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost colorimetric method for detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The quaternary ammonium surfactants induce the aggregation of Ag NPs through the hydrophobic effect, which is a novel aggregation mechanism of Ag NPs. The addition of cationic surfactant results in color change of Ag NPs solution from yellow to red and finally to colorless, which is due to the broadening of the surface plasmon band. The color change was monitored using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The LOD of different cationic surfactants was in the range of 0.5-5 µM. More importantly, this detection method was successfully utilized to the disinfectant residual sample. PMID:24274274

  10. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of bactericidal quaternary ammonium thin layers on stainless steel and cellulose surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jampala, Soujanya N; Sarmadi, M; Somers, E B; Wong, A C L; Denes, F S

    2008-08-19

    We have investigated bottom-up chemical synthesis of quaternary ammonium (QA) groups exhibiting antibacterial properties on stainless steel (SS) and filter paper surfaces via nonequilibrium, low-pressure plasma-enhanced functionalization. Ethylenediamine (ED) plasma under suitable conditions generated films rich in secondary and tertiary amines. These functional structures were covalently attached to the SS surface by treating SS with O 2 and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma prior to ED plasma treatment. QA structures were formed by reaction of the plasma-deposited amines with hexyl bromide and subsequently with methyl iodide. Structural compositions were examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and surface topography was investigated with atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements. Modified SS surfaces exhibited greater than a 99.9% decrease in Staphylococcus aureus counts and 98% in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The porous filter paper surfaces with immobilized QA groups inactivated 98.7% and 96.8% of S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This technique will open up a novel way for the synthesis of stable and very efficient bactericidal surfaces with potential applications in development of advanced medical devices and implants with antimicrobial surfaces. PMID:18646726

  11. Effect of polyelectrolytes and quaternary ammonium compounds on the anaerobic biological treatment of poultry processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Ulas; Pierson, John A; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2007-03-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and polyelectrolytes are extensively used in poultry processing facilities as sanitizing agents and flocculants, respectively. These chemicals may affect the performance of biological treatment systems resulting in low effluent quality. The impact of these chemicals on the anaerobic treatment of poultry processing wastewater (PPWW) samples, collected before and after a solids separation process, was tested in batch assays using a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. The results of this study showed that Vigilquat (VQ), a commercial mixture of four QACs, has a high affinity for the organic solids in the PPWW. Cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes, alone or in combination, did not have any adverse effect on the anaerobic biodegradation of PPWW at concentrations typically used in poultry processing facilities (20 and 5 mg/L, respectively). In spite of the high affinity of VQ for the PPWW solids, VQ at a concentration of 50mg/L and above adversely affected the anaerobic degradation of the PPWW, which resulted in a significantly reduced methane production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. In the absence of any inhibition, the methane yield varied from 0.76 to 0.98 L methane at STP per g volatile solids added. VQ was not biodegraded under the batch, methanogenic conditions used in this study. PMID:17287000

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-na; Gong, Shi-qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures. PMID:26903314

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the focus of quaternary ammonium surfactant toxicity to mammalian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Ângela S; Costa, Gabriel N; Domingues, Neuza S; Santos, Maria S; Moreno, António J M; Vaz, Winchil L C; Vieira, Otília V

    2013-06-01

    Surfactants have long been known to have microbicidal action and have been extensively used as antiseptics and disinfectants for a variety of general hygiene and clinical purposes. Among surfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are known to be the most useful antiseptics and disinfectants. However, our previous toxicological studies showed that QAC are also the most toxic surfactants for mammalian cells. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie QAC toxicity is a crucial first step in their rational use and in the design and development of more effective and safer molecules. We show that QAC-induced toxicity is mediated primarily through mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian columnar epithelial cell cultures in vitro. Toxic effects begin at sublethal concentrations and are characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. At very low concentrations, several QAC act on mitochondrial bioenergetics through a common mechanism of action, primarily by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration initiated at complex I and, to a lesser extent, by slowing down coupled ADP phosphorylation. The result is a reduction of cellular energy charge which, when reduced below 50% of its original value, induces apoptosis. The lethal effects are shown to be primarily a result of this process. At higher doses (closer to the critical micellar concentration), QAC induce the complete breakdown of cellular energy charge and necrotic cell death. PMID:23529737

  14. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-Na; Gong, Shi-Qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures. PMID:26903314

  15. Controlling wettability and hydrophobicity of organoclays modified with quaternary ammonium surfactants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kinjal J; Mishra, Manish Kumar; Shukla, Atindra D; Imae, Toyoko; Shah, Dinesh O

    2013-10-01

    The montmorillonite clays were modified with quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) having different alkyl chain lengths and a benzyl substitute group. The modified organoclays were characterized by different analytical techniques. The wettability and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the modified clays was evaluated using water or oil penetration (adsorption) and contact angle measurements. The loading of QASs was in the range of 0.60-0.75 mmol/g per clay, irrespective of the type of QAS used for the modification of the clay. From the analytical investigations, it was elucidated that the modification of clay with QAS affected the structural, textural, and surface properties. Moreover, it should be noted that the modification with QAS having benzyl substitute group resulted in water-non-wettable and superhydrophobic surface, whereas clays modified with QAS without benzyl substitute group became more water-wettable and hydrophilic than the pristine clay. The presence of benzyl groups on the clay prevents water from penetration into the inter-clay or interlayer spacing, which yields the hydrophobic surface. These behaviors can arise from molecular arrangement of QAS on clay but not be attributable to the amount of QASs, and the surface area, size, and zeta potential of particles. PMID:23830282

  16. Alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium cations for alkaline fuel cell membranes and ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Marino, M G; Kreuer, K D

    2015-02-01

    The alkaline stability of 26 different quaternary ammonium groups (QA) is investigated for temperatures up to 160 °C and NaOH concentrations up to 10 mol L(-1) with the aim to provide a basis for the selection of functional groups for hydroxide exchange membranes in alkaline fuel cells and of ionic-liquid cations stable in basic conditions. Most QAs exhibit unexpectedly high alkaline stability with the exception of aromatic cations. β-Protons are found to be far less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than previously suggested, whereas the presence of benzyl groups, nearby hetero-atoms, or other electron-withdrawing species promote degradation reactions significantly. Cyclic QAs proved to be exceptionally stable, with the piperidine-based 6-azonia-spiro[5.5]undecane featuring the highest half-life at the chosen conditions. Absolute and relative stabilities presented herein stand in contrast to literature data, the differences being ascribed to solvent effects on degradation. PMID:25431246

  17. CO2 capture from simulated fuel gas mixtures using semiclathrate hydrates formed by quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Seo, Yongwon

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies were undertaken on the semiclathrate hydrates formed from a fuel gas mixture of H2 (60%) + CO2 (40%) in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and fluoride (TBAF). The inclusion of QASs demonstrated significantly stabilized hydrate dissociation conditions. This effect was greater for TBAF than TBAB. However, due to the presence of dodecahedral cages that are partially filled with water molecules, TBAF showed a relatively lower gas uptake than TBAB. From the stability condition measurements and compositional analyses, it was found that with only one step of semiclathrate hydrate formation with the fuel gas mixture from the IGCC plants, 95% CO2 can be enriched in the semiclathrate hydrate phase at room temperature. The enclathration of both CO2 and H2 in the cages of the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and the structural transition that results from the inclusion of QASs were confirmed through Raman and (1)H NMR measurements. The experimental results obtained in this study provide the physicochemical background required for understanding selective partitioning and distributions of guest gases in the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and for investigating the feasibility of a semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture process. PMID:23718261

  18. Ionic Compatibilization of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Quaternary Ammonium Salt and Their Melt Extrusion with Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmaiah, Malladi; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    On account to their high mechanical properties along with high reinforcing capacity, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) could be the ultimate choice for polymer nanocomposites as filler. Recently, different strategies have been investigated for the melt extrusion of CNC-based polymer nanocomposites because it is a solvent-free process and because this technique is more viable for commercial industrialization. However, most thermoplastic polymers are processed at high temperatures, and sulfuric acid preparation of CNC limits the processing because of surface sulfate groups degradation. In this study we profitably used these negatively charged groups, and quaternary ammonium salt was ionically adsorbed on CNC by a simple aqueous method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize adsorbed CNC, and changes in polarity were investigated by contact angle measurements. Modified CNC was extruded with polypropylene at 190 °C, and the ensuing composites were characterized in terms of mechanical (by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests), thermal (by differential scanning calorimetry), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy) properties. The melt rheology of PP-based nanocomposites was also reported. PMID:26990597

  19. Antimicrobial evaluation of quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Agustín; Farah, Shady; Tranque, Pedro; Ocaña, Ana V; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Beyth, Nurit; Gómez-Roldán, Carmen; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Domb, Abraham J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco C; Pérez-Martínez, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Peritonitis is a disease caused by bacterial strains that have become increasingly resistant to many antibiotics. The development of alternative therapeutic compounds is the focus of extensive research, so novel nanoparticles (NPs) with activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria should be developed. In this study, the antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI) NPs was evaluated against Streptococcus viridans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Escherichia coli. To appraise the antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration and bactericidal assays were utilised with different concentrations (1.56-100 µg/ml) of QA-PEI NPs. Moreover, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and annexin V/propidium iodide toxicity assays were performed in cell cultures. MICs for S. maltophilia and E. coli isolates were 12.5 and 25 µg/ml, respectively, whereas the MIC for S. viridans was 100 µg/ml. Furthermore, the growth curve assays revealed that these QA-PEI NPs at a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml significantly inhibited bacterial growth for the bacterial isolates studied. On the other hand, QA-PEI NPs lacked significant toxicity for cells when used at concentrations up to 50 μg/ml for 48 h. The present findings reveal the potential therapeutic value of this QA-PEI NPs as alternative antibacterial agents for peritonitis, especially against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26647809

  20. Fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fang; Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-01

    Symmetrically structured fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) were sequentially synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chain transfer agent with dithiocarbonate groups at both ends. Then, the CBABC-type block copolymers were quaternized with n-octyliodide to tether quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) groups in the PDMAEMA blocks for the antimicrobial use. The obtained fluorosilicone copolymers showed clear variations in the C-N+ composition and surface morphology on their films depending on the content of the PHFBMA blocks, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the symmetrical CBABC structure favored PDMS and QAS tethered blocks migrating to the film surface. With the mass percentage of the PHFBMA increased from 0 to 32.5%, the surface roughness of the copolymer film decreased gradually with a tendency to form a smooth surface. Owing to the surface properties, fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing a certain amount of PHFBMA with higher C-N+ content and relatively smooth morphology demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. The functionalized multi-block copolymers based on fluorosilicone and QAS groups would have potential applications in antimicrobial coatings.

  1. The anti-bacterial poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) as drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Mengtian; Hu, Shaodong; Lu, Aijing; Cai, Mengtan; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-04-01

    Anti-bacterial materials play significant role in biomedical field. Researches and applications of new anti-bacterial materials are necessary. Novel linear and star-shaped copolymers of poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) (PCL-PJDMA) were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. The structures of the copolymers were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The copolymers self-assembled into ball-shaped micelles with low critical micelle concentration (10(-4)∼10(-3) mg/ml). An anti-bacterial drug, triclosan, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the potential application of the copolymers in drug-controlled release. The anti-bacterial experiments against Escherichia coli indicated that all the copolymer micelles had anti-bacterial ability and drug-loaded star-shaped PCL-PJDMA micelles were the best. The slow release of the drug from the drug-loaded micelles prolonged anti-bacterial effect. Therefore, PCL-PJDMA themselves have not only anti-bacterial ability but also the copolymer micelles can be used as carriers for anti-bacterial drugs. PMID:26615398

  2. Antibacterial Activity, in Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Cell Cycle Arrest of Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Ding, Shiping; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xuerui; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-11-10

    Twelve gemini quaternary ammonium surfactants have been employed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity. The antibacterial effects of the gemini surfactants are performed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 2.8 to 167.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis results show that these surfactants interact with the bacterial cell membrane, disrupt the integrity of the membrane, and consequently kill the bacteria. The data recorded on C6 glioma and HEK293 human kidney cell lines using an MTT assay exhibit low half inhibitory concentrations (IC50). The influences of the gemini surfactants on the cell morphology, the cell migration ability, and the cell cycle are observed through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, cell wound healing assay, and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. Both the values of MIC and IC50 decrease against the growth of the alkyl chain length of the gemini surfactants with the same spacer group. In the case of surfactants 12-s-12, the MICs and IC50s are found to decrease slightly with the spacer chain length changing from 2 to 8 and again to increase at higher spacer length (s = 10-12). All of the gemini surfactants show great antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity, and they might exhibit potential applications in medical fields. PMID:26474336

  3. A novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized lesions in tooth enamel around orthodontic brackets are caused by acids from cariogenic biofilm. This study aimed to develop a novel antibacterial orthodontic cement by incorporating a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) into a commercial orthodontic cement, and to investigate the effects on microcosm biofilm response and enamel bond strength. DMADDM, a recently-synthetized antibacterial monomer, was incorporated into orthodontic cement at 0%, 1.5%, 3% and 5% mass fractions. Bond strength of brackets to enamel was measured. A microcosm biofilm model was used to measure metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and colony-forming units (CFU) on orthodontic cements. Shear bond strength was not reduced at 3% DAMDDM (p > 0.1), but was slightly reduced at 5% DMADDM, compared to 0% DMADDM. Biofilm viability was substantially inhibited when in contact with orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM. Biofilm metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and CFU were much lower on orthodontic cement containing DMADDM than control cement (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM inhibited oral biofilms without compromising the enamel bond strength, and is promising to reduce or eliminate demineralization in enamel around orthodontic brackets. PMID:25035230

  4. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review on occurrence, fate and toxicity in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Cui, Fang; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zhong-zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang; Zhu, Meng-ying; Shen, Liu-qing

    2015-06-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely applied in household and industrial products. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. Although QACs are considered to be aerobically biodegradable, the degradation is affected by its chemical structures, dissolved oxygen concentration, complexing with anionic surfactants, etc. High abundance of QACs has been detected in sediment and sludge samples due to its strong sorption and resistance to biodegradation under anoxic/anaerobic conditions. QACs are toxic to a lot of aquatic organisms including fish, daphnids, algae, rotifer and microorganisms employed in wastewater treatment systems. And antibiotic resistance has emerged in microorganisms due to excessive use of QACs in household and industrial applications. The occurrence of QACs in the environment is correlated with anthropogenic activities, such as wastewater discharge from WWTPs or single source polluters, and sludge land application. This article also reviews the analytical methods for determination of QACs in environmental compartments including surface water, wastewater, sewage sludge and sediments. PMID:25770948

  5. Identification and composition of emerging quaternary ammonium compounds in municipal sewage sludge in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ting; Song, Shanjun; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Runzeng; Lin, Yongfeng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have raised considerable attention due to their wide commercial applications and recent discovery of unknown persistent analogues in aqueous environment. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of alkyltrimethylammonium (ATMAC), benzylakyldimethylethylammonium (BAC) and dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) homologues were investigated in fifty-two municipal sewage sludge samples. ATMAC C10-18, BAC C8-18 and paired DADMAC C8:8-C18:18 as well as emerging homologues such as ATMAC-20, 22 and mixed DADMAC-16:18 and 14:16 were present. Furthermore, paired DADMAC-20:20 and mixed DADMAC-14:18, 18:20 were identified for the first time by nontarget qualitative strategies. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer quantification method was also initially verified with the aid of laboratory synthesized standards for the analysis of the mixed DADMACs with no certificated commercial standards currently available. The total concentrations of ATMACs, BACs and DADMACs were in the range of 0.38-293, 0.09-191 and 0.64-344 μg/g dry weight, respectively, and particularly, mixed DADMACs constituted 39 ± 7% of total DADMAC concentrations. The concentrations and profiles of individual homologues further suggested different QAC applications and fate in China. Significant correlations were also found among the concentrations of various QAC homologues as well as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) characteristics (total organic carbon contents and daily treatment volumes). PMID:24654682

  6. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is the Focus of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Toxicity to Mammalian Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Costa, Gabriel N.; Domingues, Neuza S.; Santos, Maria S.; Moreno, António J. M.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants have long been known to have microbicidal action and have been extensively used as antiseptics and disinfectants for a variety of general hygiene and clinical purposes. Among surfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are known to be the most useful antiseptics and disinfectants. However, our previous toxicological studies showed that QAC are also the most toxic surfactants for mammalian cells. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie QAC toxicity is a crucial first step in their rational use and in the design and development of more effective and safer molecules. We show that QAC-induced toxicity is mediated primarily through mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian columnar epithelial cell cultures in vitro. Toxic effects begin at sublethal concentrations and are characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. At very low concentrations, several QAC act on mitochondrial bioenergetics through a common mechanism of action, primarily by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration initiated at complex I and, to a lesser extent, by slowing down coupled ADP phosphorylation. The result is a reduction of cellular energy charge which, when reduced below 50% of its original value, induces apoptosis. The lethal effects are shown to be primarily a result of this process. At higher doses (closer to the critical micellar concentration), QAC induce the complete breakdown of cellular energy charge and necrotic cell death. PMID:23529737

  7. The controlled synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles in quaternary ammonium ionic liquids by simple heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Shimou; Liu, Yusheng; Fu, Haiying; Wu, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    Stable gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colloids were synthesized in a class of quaternary ammonium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (QAILs), [Me3NC2H4OH] + [ZnnCl2n + 1] - (n = 1 or 2), by heating in air at 135-145 °C. The QAIL was employed as a solvent, a reducing agent, and as a stabilizer. The size of the QAIL-AuNPs can be varied between 20 and 40 nm by changing the reaction temperature. A symproportionation reaction was employed to further decrease the size of the AuNPs by the addition of Au3 + ions. The surface covering of QAIL on the AuNPs had a significant impact on their surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which was red-shifted. The AuNPs synthesized by this simple and environmentally friendly reaction can be realized in several minutes and also exhibit high stability and good reproducibility, providing a new facile approach to metal nanoparticle preparation.

  8. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  9. Degradation of imidazolium- and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 °C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 °C but much lower stability at 80 °C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed. PMID:23067022

  10. Effect of charge density of bonding agent containing a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate on antibacterial and bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Quaternary amine charge density is important because when the negatively-charged bacteria contact the positive quaternary amine charge, the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could be disrupted. There has been no report on the effects of charge density on the antibacterial efficacy of dental bonding agents. The objective of this study was to synthesize a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate, and investigate the effects of charge density of bonding agent on bacteria early-attachment, biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) and dentin bond strength. Methods Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) with an alkyl chain length of 16 was synthesized and mixed into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer (SBMP) at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. A microtensile dentin bond test was performed. The density of quaternary ammonium groups was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) early-attachment was examined at 4 hours, and biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results All groups had similar microtensile bonding strengths (mean ± sd; n = 40) of about 60 MPa (p > 0.1). Quaternary amine charge density of bonding agents monotonically increased with increasing DMAHDM mass fraction. Bacteria early-attachment coverage greatly decreased with increasing DMAHDM content in the resin. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by almost 5 log, compared to SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent was inversely proportional to bacteria early-attachment coverage and biofilm CFU. Significance Increasing the quaternary amine charge density of dentin bonding agent resin was shown to greatly reduce S. mutans attachment and decrease biofilm CFU by four orders of magnitude, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The new DMAHDM is promising for use in bonding agents and other antibacterial restorative materials to inhibit caries. PMID:24534376

  11. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric; Xu, Sarah M.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. Methods The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Results Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (p<0.05). Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci CFU counts (mean±sd; n=6) on composite control was 6-fold those on NACP+17.5% QADM nanocomposite. Composite control had long strings of cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO4 or antibacterial activity. Significance A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical properties matched those of a commercial composite. NACP-QADM nanocomposite with calcium phosphate fillers, good mechanical properties and a strong antibacterial activity may have potential for anti-biofilm and anti-caries restorations. PMID:22578992

  12. Characterization and bioactivity of novel calcium antagonists - N-methoxy-benzyl haloperidol quaternary ammonium salt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhu, Wei; Zhong, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Fu-Chun; Gao, Fen-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Han; Zheng, Yan-Shan; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. The possible working mechanisms of these haloperidol derivatives were also explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Novel calcium antagonists were synthesized by amination. Compounds were screened for their activity of vasodilation on isolated thoracic aortic ring of rats. Their cardiac side effects were explored. The patch-clamp, confocal laser microscopy and the computer-fitting molecular docking experiments were employed to investigate the possible working mechanisms of these calcium antagonists. RESULTS The novel calcium antagonists, X1, X2 and X3 showed stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect than that of classical calcium antagonists. They blocked L-type calcium channels with an potent effect order of X1 > X2 > X3. Consistently, X1, X2 and X3 interacted with different regions of Ca2+-CaM-CaV1.2 with an affinity order of X1 > X2 > X3. CONCLUSIONS The new halopedidol derivatives X1, X2 and X3 are novel calcium antagonists with stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect. They could have wide clinical application. PMID:26544729

  13. Effect of siloxane spacer length on organosilicon bi-quaternary ammonium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chuanming; Cui, Yuezhi; Yang, Pengfei; Zhang, Huayong; Mao, Dejiang; Cui, Xiao; Li, Junying

    2015-04-01

    A series of organosilicon Bola-form bi-quaternary ammonium amphiphiles, [OH5C3(C2H5)2N+-(CH2)3-Si(CH2)3-O-(Si(CH3)2O)n-Si(CH2)3⋯(CH2)3-N+(C2H5)2C3H5O]Cl2- (SinN2Cl2, n=0, 4, 6, 8), with the same headgroups and different length of hydrophobic linkage has been synthesized. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of each amphiphiles was determined by equilibrium surface tension. With the increased length of hydrophobic siloxane spacer, the CMC values follow the order of Si8N2Cl2

  14. Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Ledder, Ruth G.; Moore, Louise E.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Gilbert, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as adjuncts to hygiene in domestic cleaning products. Current concern that the increased use of such biocides in consumer products might contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of a QAC-containing domestic cleaning fluid on the population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of domestic sink drain biofilm communities. QAC susceptibilities of numerically dominant, culturable drain bacteria (15 genera, 17 species) were determined in vitro before and after repeated QAC exposure (14 passages). A fully characterized drain microcosm was then exposed to short-term (12 days) and long-term (3 months) dosing with a QAC-containing domestic detergent (QD). QAC exposure of isolated cultures caused both increases (three species) and circa twofold decreases (six species) in QAC susceptibility. The susceptibility of Ralstonia sp. was considerably decreased following 14 consecutive QAC passages. Control drain microcosm biofilms maintained dynamic stability, as evidenced by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Bacterial population densities were largely unaffected during short-term exposure to use levels of QD, although 50% QD caused circa 10-fold viability reductions. DGGE analysis supported these observations; identified the major microcosm genera as Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Erwinia, and Enterobacter, and showed that aeromonads increased in abundance under 10 to 50% QD. Long-term exposure of the microcosms to QD did not significantly alter the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility. These data demonstrate the recalcitrance of domestic drain biofilms toward QAC and that although repeated QAC exposure of drain isolates in pure culture results in susceptibility change in some test bacteria, such changes do not necessarily occur within complex communities. PMID:15184143

  15. Comparing effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a quaternary ammonium salt surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration.

    PubMed

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-01-24

    Natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations. Natural gas is coproduced with water from the subsurface forming gas hydrates. Hydrate formation may result in shutdown of onshore and offshore operations. Industry practice has been usage of alcohols--which have undesirable environmental impacts--to affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative to alcohols is changing the surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5-3 wt % of coproduced water. One group of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are anti-agglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, reported work on hydrate anti-agglomeration is very limited. In this paper, our focus is on the use of two vastly different surfactants as anti-agglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. We examine the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium salt (i.e., quat). Visual observation measurements show that a small concentration of the quat (0.01%) can prevent agglomeration. However, a quat is not a green chemical and therefore may be undesirable. We show that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant can be effective to a concentration of 0.05 wt %. One difference between the two surfactants is the stability of the water-in-oil emulsions created. The biosurfactant forms a less stable emulsion, which makes it very desirable for hydrate application. PMID:18171051

  16. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Menghang; Shahane, Sampada A.; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially leads to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC{sub 50} potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 {mu}M. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC{sub 50} value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo.

  17. Sanitizing in Dry-Processing Environments Using Isopropyl Alcohol Quaternary Ammonium Formula.

    PubMed

    Kane, Deborah M; Getty, Kelly J K; Mayer, Brian; Mazzotta, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Dry-processing environments are particularly challenging to clean and sanitize because introduced water can favor growth and establishment of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of an isopropyl alcohol quaternary ammonium (IPAQuat) formula for eliminating potential Salmonella contamination on food contact surfaces. Clean stainless steel coupons and conveyor belt materials used in dry-processing environments were spot inoculated in the center of coupons (5 by 5 cm) with a six-serotype composite of Salmonella (approximately 10 log CFU/ml), subjected to IPAQuat sanitizer treatments with exposure times of 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, and then swabbed for enumeration of posttreatment survivors. A subset of inoculated surfaces was soiled with a breadcrumb-flour blend and allowed to sit on the laboratory bench for a minimum of 16 h before sanitation. Pretreatment Salmonella populations (inoculated controls, 0 s treatment) were approximately 7.0 log CFU/25 cm(2), and posttreatment survivors were 1.31, 0.72, and < 0.7 (detection limit) log CFU/25 cm(2) after sanitizer exposure for 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, respectively, for both clean (no added soil) and soiled surfaces. Treatment with the IPAQuat formula using 30-s sanitizer exposures resulted in 5.68-log reductions, whereas >6.0-log reductions were observed for sanitizer exposures of 1 and 5 min. Because water is not introduced into the processing environment with this approach, the IPAQuat formula could have sanitation applications in dry-processing environments to eliminate potential contamination from Salmonella on food contact surfaces. PMID:26735036

  18. Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically-strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Methods The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. Ng was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tertbutylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2×2×25 mm (n = 6). Composite disks (diameter = 9 mm, thickness = 2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n = 6). Two commercial composites were used as controls. Results Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p > 0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p < 0.05). Significance QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly-antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have the double benefits of remineralization and antibacterial capabilities to inhibit dental caries. PMID:22305716

  19. Synthesis of new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer for incorporation into CaP nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenchen; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Deng, Dongmei; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Composites are the principal material for tooth cavity restorations due to their esthetics and direct-filling capabilities. However, composites accumulate biofilms in vivo, and secondary caries due to biofilm acids is the main cause of restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to: (1) synthesize new antibacterial monomers; and (2) develop nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and antibacterial monomer. Methods Two new antibacterial monomers were synthesized: dimethylaminohexane methacrylate (DMAHM) with a carbon chain length of 6, and dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) with a chain length of 12. A spray-drying technique was used to make NACP. DMADDM was incorporated into NACP nanocomposite at mass fractions of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3%. A flexural test was used to measure composite strength and elastic modulus. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to measure viability, metabolic activity, and lactic acid production of biofilms on composites. Results The new DMAHM was more potent than a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). DMADDM was much more strongly antibacterial than DMAHM. The new DMADDM-NACP nanocomposite had strength similar to that of composite control (p > 0.1). At 3% DMADDM in the composite, the metabolic activity of adherent biofilms was reduced to 5% of that on composite control. Lactic acid production by biofilms on composite containing 3% DMADDM was reduced to only 1% of that on composite control. Biofilm colony-forming unit (CFU) counts on composite with 3% DMADDM were reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Significance New antibacterial monomers were synthesized, and the carbon chain length had a strong effect on antibacterial efficacy. The new DMADDM-NACP nanocomposite possessed potent anti-biofilm activity without compromising load-bearing properties, and is promising for antibacterial and remineralizing dental restorations to inhibit secondary caries. PMID:23768794

  20. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Paula A.; Lemos, Madalena; Mergulhão, Filipe; Melo, Luís; Simões, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies. PMID:26904590

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  2. Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: Elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Coker, A; Kümmerer, K

    2008-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectants, detergents and fabric softeners. Anionic detergents are one of the most widely used chemical substances. QACs and anionic surfactants can form ionic pairs. In the present study we investigated the biodegradability of QACs in the presence of different anionic surfactants. The biodegradability of three QACs, namely benzalkonium chloride (BAC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC) and ethacridine lactate (EL), when applied as single substances and in combination with anionic surfactants such as benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), LAS, naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) was studied applying the closed bottle test (CBT) [OECD 301D, 1992. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Closed bottle test. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris] at a ratio of 1:1 (mol:mol). Biodegradation was monitored by measuring oxygen concentration in the test vessels with an oxygen electrode in accordance with international standard methods [ISO 5414, 1990. Water quality - determination of dissolved oxygen. In: German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, New York, Basel Cambridge]. Primary elimination of the QACs and of LAS was monitored by LC-MS/MS. There was little biodegradability of the QACs as either single compounds or in the presence of organic counter ions. The biodegradability of the organic counter ions was lower in the presence of QACs as compared to the single substances. Primary elimination of the QACs by sorption took place. PMID:18439651

  3. Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes to Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers Is Mediated by a Novel Efflux Pump Encoded by emrE.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Ziegler, Jennifer; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Reimer, Aleisha; Kitts, David D; Gilmour, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    A novel genomic island (LGI1) was discovered in Listeria monocytogenes isolates responsible for the deadliest listeriosis outbreak in Canada, in 2008. To investigate the functional role of LGI1, the outbreak strain 08-5578 was exposed to food chain-relevant stresses, and the expression of 16 LGI1 genes was measured. LGI1 genes with putative efflux (L. monocytogenes emrE [emrELm]), regulatory (lmo1851), and adhesion (sel1) functions were deleted, and the mutants were exposed to acid (HCl), cold (4°C), salt (10 to 20% NaCl), and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (QACs). Deletion of lmo1851 had no effect on the L. monocytogenes stress response, and deletion of sel1 did not influence Caco-2 and HeLa cell adherence/invasion, whereas deletion of emrE resulted in increased susceptibility to QACs (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the MICs of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, acriflavine, and triclosan. In the presence of the QAC benzalkonium chloride (BAC; 5 μg/ml), 14/16 LGI1 genes were induced, and lmo1861 (putative repressor gene) was constitutively expressed at 4°C, 37°C, and 52°C and in the presence of UV exposure (0 to 30 min). Following 1 h of exposure to BAC (10 μg/ml), upregulation of emrE (49.6-fold), lmo1851 (2.3-fold), lmo1861 (82.4-fold), and sigB (4.1-fold) occurred. Reserpine visibly suppressed the growth of the ΔemrELm strain, indicating that QAC tolerance is due at least partially to efflux activity. These data suggest that a minimal function of LGI1 is to increase the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to QACs via emrELm. Since QACs are commonly used in the food industry, there is a concern that L. monocytogenes strains possessing emrE will have an increased ability to survive this stress and thus to persist in food processing environments. PMID:26590290

  4. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. PMID:27045632

  5. Effectiveness of sanitation with quaternary ammonium compound or chlorine on stainless steel and other domestic food-preparation surfaces.

    PubMed

    Frank, J F; Chmielewski, R A

    1997-01-01

    The relative ability of various materials used for domestic and/or food-service sinks and countertops to be sanitized was determined. Both smooth (unused) and abraded surfaces were tested by exposure to 200 mg of quaternary ammonium compound per liter or 200 mg of sodium hypochlorite per liter. Surface materials tested included mechanically polished (type 304, #4 finish) and electropolished stainless steel, polycarbonate, and mineral resin. Surfaces were prepared for testing by allowing attachment of a Staphylococcus aureus culture for 4 h to achieve an initial attached population of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/cm2. The test procedure involved immersion of the surface in sanitizer solution followed by wiping with a sanitizer-saturated cloth. Residual staphylococci were detected by overlaying agar directly on the treated surface. Results indicated that the stainless steels and the smooth polycarbonate, which had 0.5 log CFU/cm2 or fewer of residual staphylococci, were more readily sanitized by quaternary ammonium compound than were either the mineral resin surfaces, which had nearly 2.0 log CFU/cm2 of residual staphylococci, or the abraded polycarbonate which had nearly 1.0 log CFU/cm2 of residual staphylococci. Chlorine was most effective on the mechanically polished stainless steel, the unabraded electropolished stainless steel, and the polycarbonate surfaces, reducing cell populations to less than 1.0 log CFU/cm2. Chlorine was less effective on abraded electropolished stainless steel and mineral resin surfaces, where populations remained greater than 1.0 log CFU/cm2. Sanitation with quaternary ammonium compound or chlorine reduced S. aureus populations more than 1,000-fold on all surfaces except unabraded mineral resin. PMID:10465039

  6. Design of chiral urea-quaternary ammonium salt hybrid catalysts for asymmetric reactions of glycine Schiff bases†

    PubMed Central

    Tiffner, Maximilian; Novacek, Johanna; Busillo, Alfonso; Gratzer, Katharina; Massa, Antonio; Waser, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional chiral urea-containing quaternary ammonium salts can be straightforwardly synthesised in good yield and with high structural diversity via a scalable and operationally simple highly telescoped sequence starting from trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine. These novel hybrid catalysts were systematically investigated for their potential to control glycine Schiff bases in asymmetric addition reactions. It was found that Michael addition reactions and the herein presented aldol-initiated cascade reaction can be carried out to provide enantiomeric ratios up to 95 : 5 and good yields under mild conditions at room temperature. PMID:26504516

  7. Corrosion inhibition of iron in acidic solutions by alkyl quaternary ammonium halides: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Lin; Zhang, Hu; Wei, Fenghua; Wu, Suxiang; Cao, Xiaoli; Liu, Pengpeng

    2005-12-01

    The corrosion inhibition of iron in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 solutions by alkyl quaternary ammonium halides (AQAH) inhibitors has been studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The correlation between inhibition efficiency and molecular structure of the AQAH compounds is investigated. The results show that besides the concentration, the structure of alkyl groups and the type of halide ions of these AQAH inhibitors greatly influence the inhibition efficiency. Data obtained from EIS measurements are analyzed to model the corrosion inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit models.

  8. Antioxidant Potential of Momordica Charantia in Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thenmozhi, A. Justin; Subramanian, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia fruit extract (MCE) in ammonium chloride-induced (AC) hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced in adult male Wistar rats (180–200 g) by intraperitoneal injections of ammonium chloride (100 mg kg−1 body weight) thrice a week. The effect of oral administration (thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks) of MCE (300 mg kg−1 body weight) on blood ammonia, plasma urea, serum liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in normal and experimental animals was analyzed. Hyperammonemic rats showed a significant increase in the activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and liver markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were decreased in the liver and brain tissues. Treatment with MCE normalized the above-mentioned changes in hyperammonemic rats by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC-induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Our results indicate that MCE exerting the antioxidant potentials and maintaining the cellular integrity of the liver tissue could offer protection against AC-induced hyperammonemia. However, the exact underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated, and examination of the efficacy of the active constituents of the M. charantia on hyperammonemia is desirable. PMID:20047891

  9. Cooperative Binding of Divalent Diamides by N-Alkyl Ammonium Resorcinarene Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Beyeh, N Kodiah; Ala-Korpi, Altti; Pan, Fangfang; Jo, Hyun Hwa; Anslyn, Eric V; Rissanen, Kari

    2015-06-22

    N-Alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides, stabilized by an intricate array of hydrogen bonds leading to a cavitand-like structure, bind amides. The molecular recognition occurs through intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen and the amide hydrogen of the guests and the cation-anion circular hydrogen-bonded seam of the hosts, as well as through CH⋅⋅⋅π interactions. The N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides cooperatively bind a series of di-acetamides of varying spacer lengths ranging from three to seven carbons. Titration data fit either a 1:1 or 2:1 binding isotherm depending on the spacer lengths. Considering all the guests possess similar binding motifs, the first binding constants were similar (K1:10(2)  M(-1)) for each host. The second binding constant was found to depend on the upper rim substituent of the host and the spacer length of the guests, with the optimum binding observed with the six-carbon spacer (K2:10(3)  M(-2)). Short spacer lengths increase steric hindrance, whereas longer spacer lengths increase flexibility thus reducing cooperativity. The host with the rigid cyclohexyl upper rim showed stronger binding than the host with flexible benzyl arms. The cooperative binding of these divalent guests was studied in solution through (1)H NMR titration studies and supplemented by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), X-ray crystallography, and mass spectrometry. PMID:26014834

  10. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent mixture of acetonitrile (AN) and methyl formate (MF) enables double-layer capacitor cells to operate well below -40 C with a relatively low ESR. Typically, a less than twofold increase in ESR is observed at -65 C relative to room-temperature values, when these modified electrolyte blends are used in prototype cells. Double-layer capacitor coin cells filled with these electrolytes have displayed the lowest measured ESR for an organic electrolyte to date at low temperature (based on a wide range of electrolyte screening studies at JPL). The cells featured high-surface-area (approximately equal to 2,500 m/g) carbon electrodes that were 0.50 mm thick and 1.6 cm in diameter, and coated with a thin layer of platinum to reduce cell resistance. A polyethylene separator was used to electrically isolate the electrodes.

  11. The Soret absorption band of isolated chlorophyll a and b tagged with quaternary ammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Stockett, Mark H; Musbat, Lihi; Kjær, Christina; Houmøller, Jørgen; Toker, Yoni; Rubio, Angel; Milne, Bruce F; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2015-10-21

    We have performed gas-phase absorption spectroscopy in the Soret-band region of chlorophyll (Chl) a and b tagged by quaternary ammonium ions together with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. This band is the strongest in the visible region of metalloporphyrins and an important reporter on the microenvironment. The cationic charge tags were tetramethylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, and acetylcholine, and the dominant dissociation channel in all cases was breakage of the complex to give neutral Chl and the charge tag as determined by photoinduced dissociation mass spectroscopy. Two photons were required to induce fragmentation on the time scale of the experiment (microseconds). Action spectra were recorded where the yield of the tag as a function of excitation wavelength was sampled. These spectra are taken to represent the corresponding absorption spectra. In the case of Chl a we find that the tag hardly influences the band maximum which for all three tags is at 403 ± 5 nm. A smaller band with maximum at 365 ± 10 nm was also measured for all three complexes. The spectral quality is worse in the case of Chl b due to lower ion beam currents; however, there is clear evidence for the absorption being to the red of that of Chl a (most intense peak at 409 ± 5 nm) and also a more split band. Our results demonstrate that the change in the Soret-band spectrum when one peripheral substituent (CH3) is replaced by another (CHO) is an intrinsic effect. First principles TD-DFT calculations agree with our experiments, supporting the intrinsic nature of the difference between Chl a and b and also displaying minimal spectral changes when different charge tags are employed. The deviations between theory and experiment have allowed us to estimate that the Soret-band absorption maxima in vacuo for the neutral Chl a and Chl b should occur at 405 nm and 413 nm, respectively. Importantly, the Soret bands of the isolated species are significantly blueshifted compared to those of solvated Chl and Chl-proteins. The protein microenvironment is certainly not innocent of perturbing the electronic structure of Chls. PMID:25873157

  12. Improvement of the adsorption of quaternary ammonium on polypropylene affinity membrane through the control of its surface properties.

    PubMed

    Hachache, Naima; Bal, Youcef; Debarnot, Dominique; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    Polypropylene fiber meshes were plasma-treated in order to attach new chemical functions corresponding to acidic or basic groups without altering the roughness of such thin material. An almost complete wettability of these plasma-treated materials is obtained. Because of the plasma-grafting of acid or amino moieties, such surface treatment allows increasing the adsorption rate of quaternary ammonium molecule like Aliquat 336. This increase was explained by specific interactions of ammonium head of the Aliquat 336 and hydrophilic group of plasma-treated PP, followed by the adsorption of a further layer of Aliquat 336 through hydrophobic interactions of its hydrocarbon chain. These interactions between the carrier and the polymeric surface were characterized leading to physisorption mechanism. Such new material could be applied to the extraction process since no evidence of aging was given. PMID:24411392

  13. The competition of charge remote and charge directed fragmentation mechanisms in quaternary ammonium salt derivatized peptides--an isotopic exchange study.

    PubMed

    Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    Derivatization of peptides as quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) is a promising method for sensitive detection by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (Cydzik et al. J. Pept. Sci. 2011, 17, 445-453). The peptides derivatized by QAS at their N-termini undergo fragmentation according to the two competing mechanisms - charge remote (ChR) and charge directed (ChD). The absence of mobile proton in the quaternary salt ion results in ChR dissociation of a peptide bond. However, Hofmann elimination of quaternary salt creates an ion with one mobile proton leading to the ChD fragmentation. The experiments on the quaternary ammonium salts with deuterated N-alkyl groups or amide NH bonds revealed that QAS derivatized peptides dissociate according to the mixed ChR-ChD mechanism. The isotopic labeling allows differentiation of fragments formed according to ChR and ChD mechanisms. PMID:21972014

  14. The Competition of Charge Remote and Charge Directed Fragmentation Mechanisms in Quaternary Ammonium Salt Derivatized Peptides—An Isotopic Exchange Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    Derivatization of peptides as quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) is a promising method for sensitive detection by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (Cydzik et al. J. Pept. Sci. 2011, 17, 445 -453). The peptides derivatized by QAS at their N-termini undergo fragmentation according to the two competing mechanisms - charge remote (ChR) and charge directed (ChD). The absence of mobile proton in the quaternary salt ion results in ChR dissociation of a peptide bond. However, Hofmann elimination of quaternary salt creates an ion with one mobile proton leading to the ChD fragmentation. The experiments on the quaternary ammonium salts with deuterated N-alkyl groups or amide NH bonds revealed that QAS derivatized peptides dissociate according to the mixed ChR-ChD mechanism. The isotopic labeling allows differentiation of fragments formed according to ChR and ChD mechanisms.

  15. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  16. Synthesis, degradation, and cytotoxicity of multiblock poly(epsilon-caprolactone urethane)s containing gemini quaternary ammonium cationic groups.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingming; Li, Jiehua; Fu, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jian; Tan, Hong; Gu, Qun; Fu, Qiang

    2009-10-12

    Novel cationic biodegradable multiblock poly(epsilon-caprolactone urethane)s that contain gemini quaternary ammonium side groups on the hard segments were developed. To obtain these polyurethanes, a new L-lysine-derivatized diamine containing gemini quaternary ammonium side groups (GA8) was first synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and high-resolution mass spectra (HRMS). Then a series of gemini poly(epsilon-caprolactone urethane)s were designed and prepared using L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) diols, 1,4-butandiol (BDO), and GA8 and were terminated by methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol) (m-PEG). The obtained polyurethanes were fully characterized by (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FTIR, and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. The gemini polyurethane shows a rapid rate of hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation, as demonstrated by weight loss and polarizing light microscopy (PLM) observations. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis suggests that both the polyurethanes and their degradation products do not show significant inhibition effect against fibroblasts. Our work provides a new way to synthesize nontoxic and amphiphilic multiblock polyurethanes with rapid degradation rate, and these new materials could be good candidates as biodegradable carriers for drug and gene delivery. PMID:19817491

  17. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to... 1990, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  18. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to... 1990, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  19. A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion. PMID:21446721

  20. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. 878.4015 Section 878.4015 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. 878.4015 Section 878.4015 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC...

  5. Introduction of poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid)] branches onto starch for cotton warp sizing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhifeng; Liu, Fengdan

    2016-03-15

    An attempt has been made to reveal the effect of amphoteric poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-co-acrylic acid) [P(ATAC-co-AA)] branches grafted onto the backbones of starch upon the adhesion-to-cotton, film properties, and desizability of maize starch for cotton warp sizing. Starch-g-poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid) [S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA)] was prepared by the graft copolymerization of 2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ATAC) and acrylic acid (AA) with acid-converted starch (ACS) in aqueous medium using Fe(2+)-H2O2 initiator. The adhesion was evaluated in term of bonding strength according to the FZ/T 15001-2008 whereas the film properties considered included tensile strength, work and percentage elongation at break. The evaluation was undertaken through the comparison of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) with ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride). It was found that the amphoteric branch was able to significantly improve the adhesion and mitigate the brittleness of starch film. Zeta potential of cooked S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) paste, depending on the mole ratio of ATAC to AA units on P(ATAC-co-AA) branches, had substantial effect on the adhesion and desizability. Increasing the mole ratio raised the potential, which favored the adhesion but disfavored the removal of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) from sized cotton warps. Electroneutral S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) was superior to negatively grafted starch in adhesion and to positively grafted starch in desizability. Generally, it showed better sizing property than ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), and had potential in the application of cotton warp sizing. PMID:26794764

  6. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment. PMID:21067131

  7. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  8. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents: a route for the mass production of graphane.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Amr M; Patten, Hollie V; Li, Zheling; Chen, Yiqiang; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-14

    We demonstrate a facile and scalable electrochemical approach to exfoliate graphite, which permits in situ hydrogenation of the resultant graphene via a solvated NR(4+) graphite compound in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp(3) C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphene. The resulting materials consist of micrometre-sized and predominantly monolayer to few layers thick hydrogenated graphenic flakes. A large band gap (∼4 eV) further establishes the high level of hydrogenation. It is also possible to tune the band gap introduced to the graphene by controlling the level of hydrogenation. The mechanism of the exfoliation and hydrogenation is also discussed. PMID:26074262

  9. Gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and a novel quaternary ammonium salt for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guiqiang . E-mail: wgqiang@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen; Li Mingyu; Zhang Jinbo; Kang Junjia; Lin Yuan . E-mail: a1703@iccas.ac.cn; Fang Shibi; Xiao Xurui

    2004-11-02

    Gel polymer electrolytes were prepared by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a mixture of polysiloxane with quaternary ammonium side groups (PSQAS), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and iodine. The influence of PAN content on the ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes and the charge-transfer kinetic performance in counterelectrode-electrolyte interface was investigated. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the gel polymer electrolyte containing 5 wt.% PAN showed the best photovoltaic performance; a maximum incident photon conversion efficiency of 63% at 520 nm was obtained, the short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}), the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the fill factor (FF) were 7 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.565 V and 0.65, respectively. The corresponding overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) is 4.3%.

  10. Synthesis, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation of novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Solano, Lucas N; Nelson, Grady L; Ronayne, Conor T; Lueth, Erica A; Foxley, Melissa A; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Gurrapu, Shirisha; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2015-12-15

    Novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids have been synthesized from piperazinyl curcuminoids and Baylis-Hillman reaction derived allyl bromides. These molecules are found to be highly water soluble with increased cytotoxicity compared to native curcumin against three cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2, MDA-MB-231, and 4T1. Preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of a representative curcuminoid 5a in healthy mice indicates that this molecule is well tolerated based on normal body weight gains compared to control group. Furthermore, the efficacy of 5a has been tested in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model of MIAPaCa-2 and has been found to exhibit good tumor growth inhibition as a single agent and also in combination with clinical pancreatic cancer drug gemcitabine. PMID:26561365

  11. A universal fixation method based on quaternary ammonium salts (RNAlater) for omics-technologies: Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study.

    PubMed

    van Eijsden, Rudy G E; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Bapat, Prashant M; Siewers, Verena; Goossens, Katty V Y; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R; Van Hummelen, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2013-06-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and fluxomics are powerful omics-technologies that play a major role in today's research. For each of these techniques good sample quality is crucial. Major factors contributing to the quality of a sample is the actual sampling procedure itself and the way the sample is stored directly after sampling. It has already been described that RNAlater can be used to store tissues and cells in a way that the RNA quality and quantity are preserved. In this paper, we demonstrate that quaternary ammonium salts (RNAlater) are also suitable to preserve and store samples from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for later use with the four major omics-technologies. Moreover, it is shown that RNAlater also preserves the cell morphology and the potential to recover growth, permitting microscopic analysis and yeast cell culturing at a later stage. PMID:23417260

  12. Synthesis of quaternary ammonium salts of 16E-[4-(2-alkylaminoethoxy)-3-methoxybenzylidene]androstene derivatives as skeletal muscle relaxants.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ranju; Guleria, Sheetal; Young, Louise C; Harvey, Alan L

    2011-02-01

    Synthesis of eighteen new quaternary ammonium salts of 16E-arylidene androstene derivatives as skeletal muscle relaxants is reported in the present study. The effects of possibly extended interonium distances on muscle relaxant activity are discussed. All the quaternary ammonium steroids produced reduction in the twitch responses, when screened for in vitro neuromuscular blocking activity using isolated chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation. However, the variable interonium distance, which is believed to range from 11 to 17 ? in these quaternary compounds and is associated with the built in flexibility of these structures about the single bonds on the moieties linked to ring D of the steroid skeleton, resulted in varied degrees of muscle relaxant activity. Some of the compounds also inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in low concentrations so that they would not be directly suitable for use as muscle relaxants. PMID:21115024

  13. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved. PMID:26674548

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grellner, Wolfgang; Rochholz, Gertrud; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-03-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds pose an analytical challenge. Mebezonium, a muscle-relaxing agent contained in veterinary euthanasia solution T61, was analyzed in body fluids, organs, and injection sites of a veterinarian by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. Additionally, embutramide and tetracaine, which are two other active ingredients contained in T61, methadone, xylazine, and analgesics were detected by LC-MS-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection methods. For detection of mebezonium a solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ionpairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid was developed. Separation was achieved on Phenomenex Synergi Hydro RP C(18) column combined with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile (pH 3.5). To enrich other drugs, liquid-liquid extraction procedures were used. Most of these drugs were separated on a Restek Allure PFP Propyl column using the mentioned mobile phase. Mebezonium and embutramide were detected in femoral vein serum in concentrations of 10.9 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of xylazine and methadone in serum was 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. The LC-MS-MS method with SPE combined with an ion-pairing reagent allowed the quantitation of mebezonium. Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death. PMID:21396233

  15. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of new aromatic quaternary ammonium bromides: precursors for ionic liquids and complexation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Ropponen, Jarmo; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2004-10-01

    Series of new aromatic R2R‧2N+Br- (R=benzyl, 4-methylbenzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl; R‧=ethyl, methyl, isopropyl) or RR‧2NH+Br--type (R=benzyl, R‧=isopropyl) quaternary ammonium bromides were prepared by using novel synthetic route in which a formamide (N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-diisopropylformamide) is treated with aralkyl halide in presence of a weak base. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Structures of the crystalline compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction, and in addition the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. Three of the compounds crystallized in monoclinic, two in orthorhombic and one in triclinic crystal system, showing ion pairs, which are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds and weak π - π interactions between the phenyl rings. Three of the compounds appeared as viscous oil or waxes. Finally, TG/DTA and DSC methods were used to analyze thermal properties of the prepared compounds. The lowest melting points were obtained for diethyldi-(2-phenylethyl)ammonium bromide (122.2 °C) and for diethyldi-(3-phenylpropyl)-ammonium bromide (109.1 °C). In general, decomposition of the compounds started at 170-190 °C without identifiable cleavages, thus liquid ranges of 30-70 °C were observed for some of the compounds.

  16. Efficacy of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride on suppression of Physalospora vaccinii in laboratory assays.

    PubMed

    Tubajika, K M

    2006-10-01

    Growth of Physalospora vaccinii on inoculated agar growth medium and cranberries treated with 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ppm of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) was investigated in the laboratory. In vitro growth assays, the colony diameter, and mycelial dry weight of P. vaccinii was reduced at 1,000 ppm ADBAC. Mild or no reduction of fungal growth and mycelial dry weight was observed at concentrations less than 100 ppm when compared with the nonamended control. Growth of P. vaccinii on inoculated cranberries was inhibited by treatment with 10 and 100 ppm ADBAC. Complete inhibition of fungus growth was also achieved at 1,000 ppm ADBAC. Area under the disease progress curve values in wounded fruits were 75, 77, and 100% at 10, 100, and 1,000 ppm ADBAC, respectively, whereas area under the disease progress curve values in fruits immersed in ADBAC and pathogen were reduced 47 to 100% compared with the untreated fruits used as controls. No P. vaccinii or other fungi were detected on the control fruits inoculated with sterile distilled water. This is the first report on the use of ADBAC to control a field and storage rotting fungus, P. vaccinii. ADBAC is likely to be an important component to any integrated approach for reducing the risks associated with the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in or on foods. PMID:17066928

  17. O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunxiao; Kang, Hong; Yang, Wanqiu; Sun, Jinyan; Liu, Chunlong; Cheng, Guogang; Rong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    A novel complex chitosan derivative, O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (O-2'-HACC), was synthesized and used to make nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. We found that O-2'-HACC had high antimicrobial activity, low toxicity, and a high safety level. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was then encapsulated in the O-2'-HACC nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs) by the ionic crosslinking method, and the properties of the resulting nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs had regular spherical morphologies and high stability, with an encapsulation efficiency of 95.68 ± 2.2% and a loading capacity of 58.75 ± 4.03%. An in vitro release assay indicated that release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs occurred slowly. Specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs intranasally had much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than did those immunized intramuscularly or with live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs are a novel drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications. PMID:26076628

  18. Counterion effects on interaction of amphiphilic quaternary ammonium salts with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Rózycka-Roszak, B; Zyłka, R; Kral, T; Przyczyna, A

    2001-01-01

    The micellization as well as the interaction with model membranes of dodecyltrimethylammonium halides (DTAX) and N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-benzylammonium halides (DBeAX) were studied at 298K and 313K by means of titration calorimetry. The calorimetric curves reflect both the counterion and benzyl group effects on the interaction of the surfactants studied with the lipid bilayer. Bromide as counterion enhanced the interactions more than chloride of both DTAX and DBeAX compounds with model membranes. Further, we studied the influence of DTAX and DBeAX on calcium ion desorption from the liposome membrane using a radioactive tracer method. DBeAX proved more efficient in desorption of calcium than DTAX. Iodides of these compounds enhanced this process more than bromides and chlorides. PMID:11421457

  19. Effects of dietary ammonium chloride and variations in calcium to phosphorus ratio on silica urolithiasis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S R; Emerick, R J; Pritchard, R H

    1991-05-01

    Ammonium chloride was added to diets varying in Ca content to evaluate its potential in preventing silica urolith formation in sheep. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment involved wether lambs with ad libitum access to a diet of 50% grass hay and 50% ground oats plus supplement. The basal diet contained on a DM basis 3.3% SiO2, .31% Ca, .22% P, 11.6% CP, and 26% ADF. Treatments (38 to 39 lambs/treatment) consisted of a control (C), limestone to increase dietary calcium to .6% (L), 1% ammonium chloride (A), and L + A (LA). After a 118-d experimental period, siliceous kidney deposits were found only in C and L, with silica making up 93% to 95% of the urolithic ash. Urolith incidences were 13% (C) and 18% (L), respectively. The lack of urolith development in lambs fed A and LA (ammonium chloride effect, P less than .01) and a trend toward a lower urolith incidence in C vs L (P less than .02) support the hypothesis that acid-forming effects of the diet and a reduction in the dietary Ca to P ratio reduce silica urolith formation. PMID:1648554

  20. Dental plaque microcosm response to bonding agents containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates with different chain lengths and charge densities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to combat bacteria and caries at tooth-restoration margins. The objectives of this study were to incorporate new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) to bonding agent and determine the effects of alkyl chain length (CL) and quaternary amine charge density on dental plaque microcosm bacteria response for the first time. Methods Six QAMs were synthesized with CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 18. Each QAM was incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP). To determine the charge density effect, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM, CL = 16) was mixed into SBMP at mass fraction = 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%. Charge density was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Dental plaque microcosm using saliva from ten donors was tested. Bacteria were inoculated on resins. Early-attachment was tested at 4 hours. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacteria early-attachment. Microcosm biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent increased with DMAHDM content. Bacteria early-attachment decreased with increasing charge density. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by 4 log. The killing effect was similarly-strong against total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. Conclusions Increasing alkyl chain length and charge density of bonding agent was shown for the first time to decrease microcosm bacteria attachment and reduce biofilm CFU by 4 orders of magnitude. Novel antibacterial resins with tailored chain length and charge density are promising for wide applications in bonding, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit biofilms and caries. PMID:23948394

  1. Physical and chemical properties of an antimicrobial Bis-GMA free dental resin with quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Ting; He, Jing-Wei; Lin, Zheng-Mei; Liu, Fang; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity, physicochemical properties of the quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomer N,N-bis[2-(3-(methacryloyloxy)propanamido)-ethyl]-N-methylhexadecyl ammonium bromide (IMQ-16) containing diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/tricyclodecane dimethanol diacrylate (SR833s) resin system and compare with bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin system. It was hypothesized that the physical and chemical properties of the experimental polymers would be comparable with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA polymer and IMQ-16 monomer could endow the UDMA/SR833s resin with antibacterial activity. Double bond conversion (DC) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mechanical properties including flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM) were measured by three-point bending test with bars of 2mm×2mm×25mm. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL) were also investigated. Antibacterial activity of obtained polymers against Streptococcus mutans Ingbitt (S. mutans) was tested through direct contact test (DCT). The presence of antibacterial activity due to soluble components was also investigated by agar diffusion test (ADT). All of the polymers containing IMQ-16 exhibited improvements in WS and WSL, while maintaining equivalent DC and FS relative to the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA control system. Incorporation of 17% and 20% of IMQ-16 into UDMA/SR833s resin reduced the viable counts of S. mutans after incubation on the surface of the materials and produced no inhibition zones around the cured discs in ADT. UDMA/SR833s resin system is promising to formulate an antibacterial polymer with equivalent or even higher physicochemical properties relative to Bis-GMA/TEGDMA formulation. IMQ-16 is capable to endow UDMA/SR833s resin system with significant antibacterial activity when the mass ratio is 17% or 20%. PMID:26688422

  2. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  3. Environmental assessment of an alkyl dimethyl benyzl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) based mollusicide using laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, M.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C.; Petrille, J.C.

    1995-06-01

    A series of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental impact of n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) when used to control zebra mussels and other types of macrofouling organism in industrial cooling systems. The ADBAC-based molluscicide was tested as pure product and often detoxification with bentonite clay. Six flow-through acute tests were conducted to estimate the toxicity of ADBAC. In addition three chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of complexing the ADBAC-based molluscicide with a bentonite clay as a detoxification strategy. A 29-day CO{sub 2} Production test was also conducted to evaluate the biodegradability of the molluscicide. Of the six species tested in acute flow-through experiments, D. magna (LC{sub 50} = 0.02 mg ADBAC/L) was the most sensitive species followed by Mysidopsis bahia (LC{sub 50} = 0.08 mg ADBAC/L), Menidia beryllina (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), P. promelas (LC{sub 50} = 0.36 mg ADBAC/L), Cyprinodon variegatus (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (LC{sub 50} = 1.01 mg ADBAC/L). In the detoxification studies the three test species were exposed to treatment levels of: 0:0, 2.5:0, 2.5:25, 2.5:37.5, 2.5:50, 2.5:75, and 0:75 as mg/L ADBAC:clay. Bentonite clay was found to be an effective detoxification agent for this molluscicide at all treatment levels, except for the 2.5:25 treatment. In addition, a biodegradation study showed that the ADBAC-based molluscicide was readily biodegradable by unacclimated activated sludge microorganisms releasing 65.9% of the theoretical possible CO{sub 2} after 29 days.

  4. Comparative thermodynamic studies of aqueous glutaric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at high humidity.

    PubMed

    Hanford, Kate L; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L; Topping, David O; McFiggans, Gordon B

    2008-10-01

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to simultaneously characterize and compare the hygroscopic properties of two aerosol droplets, one containing inorganic and organic solutes and the second, referred to as the control droplet, containing a single inorganic salt. The inorganic solute is either sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate and the organic component is glutaric acid. The time variation in the size of each droplet (3-7 microm in radius) is recorded with 1 s time resolution and with nanometre accuracy. The size of the control droplet is used to estimate the relative humidity with an accuracy of better than +/-0.09%. Thus, the Kohler curve of the multicomponent inorganic/organic droplet, which characterizes the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity, can be determined directly. The measurements presented here focus on high relative humidities, above 97%, in the limit of dilute solutes. The experimental data are compared with theoretical treatments that, while ignoring the interactions between the inorganic and organic components, are based upon accurate representations of the activity-concentration relationships of aqueous solutions of the individual salts. The organic component is treated by a parametrized fit to experimental data or by the UNIFAC model and the water activity of the equilibrium solution droplet is calculated using the approach suggested by Clegg, Seinfeld and Brimblecombe or the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson approximation. It is shown that such an experimental strategy, comparing directly droplets of different composition, enables highly accurate measurements of the hygroscopic properties, allowing the theoretical treatments to be rigorously tested. Typical deviations of the experimental measurements from theoretical predictions are shown to be around 1% in equilibrium size, comparable to the variation between the theoretical frameworks considered. PMID:18593140

  5. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mündel, Toby; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hawke, Emma; Leikis, Murray; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% V˙O2peak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P<0.05). During the PLA condition, the mRNA content of mitochondrial- and glucose-regulating proteins was elevated immediately following exercise (P<0.05). In the early phase (0–2 h) of post-exercise recovery during ACID, PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome C, FOXO1, GLUT4, and HKII mRNA levels were not different from resting levels (P>0.05); the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08). Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle. PMID:26656911

  6. Assay of 1-ammonium-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole and its determination in mixtures with ammonium nitrate. [Titrant - cetylpyridinium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1981-07-01

    Work is in progress at this Laboratory on the detonation calorimetry of ammonium dinitrotriazole (ADNT) and mixtures of ADNT and ammonium nitrate (AN). Our analytical requirements were therefore, twofold: (1) the assay of ADNT, and (2) the determination of ADNT in admixture with AN. The first requirement was straightforward and was accomplished by nonaqueous titration of ADNT, either as an acid or as a base. The second requirement, however, proved more difficult. It was accomplished by using cetypyridinium chloride (CPC), a new titrant recently introduced at this Laboratory to determine the ADNT in the mixture. Various liquid-membrane electrodes such as the fluoroborate, perchlorate, and nitrate ion-selective electrodes (ISE's) may be used as endpoint sensors. We have found that the solid-state cyanide (or iodide) ISE also senses the endpoint of this titration, although considerably smaller endpoint breaks are obtained. Nevertheless, the mean values obtained using the fluoroborate and cyanide ISE's differed by only 0.09%. The method can also be used for the assay of some ammonium salts of other nitroheterocycles. It cannot differentiate, however, between the various compounds.

  7. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 1. Separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-02-15

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt has been investigated. The retention mechanism of aromatic carboxylic acids was discussed on the basis of both ion-pair partition model and ion-exchange model. The retention behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids possessing one (or two) carboxylic acid group(s) followed the ion-pair partition model, where linear free energy relationship was observed between the capacity factor and the extraction equilibrium constants of benzoic acid and naphthalene carboxylic acid. Besides, the retention behavior followed ion-exchange model with increasing the number of carboxylic acids, where the capacity factor of benzene polycarboxylic acids is proportional to the association constants between aromatic acids and quaternary ammonium ions calculated on the basis of an electrostatic interaction model.

  8. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 2. Application for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.

  9. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity.

    PubMed

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates. PMID:25699691

  10. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  11. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  12. Structures of KcsA in complex with symmetrical quaternary ammonium compounds reveal a hydrophobic binding site.

    PubMed

    Lenaeus, Michael J; Burdette, Dylan; Wagner, Tobias; Focia, Pamela J; Gross, Adrian

    2014-08-19

    Potassium channels allow for the passive movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane and are instrumental in controlling the membrane potential in all cell types. Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds block potassium channels and have long been used to study the functional and structural properties of these channels. Here we describe the interaction between three symmetrical hydrophobic QAs and the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. The structures demonstrate the presence of a hydrophobic pocket between the inner helices of KcsA and provide insight into the binding site and blocking mechanism of hydrophobic QAs. The structures also reveal a structurally hidden pathway between the central cavity and the outside membrane environment reminiscent of the lateral fenestration observed in sodium channels that can be accessed through small conformational changes in the pore wall. We propose that the hydrophobic binding pocket stabilizes the alkyl chains of long-chain QA molecules and may play a key role in hydrophobic drug binding in general. PMID:25093676

  13. Sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries labeled by quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Bąchor, Remigiusz; Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Kluczyk, Alicja; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and straightforward method for high-throughput analysis of single resin beads from one-bead-one-compound combinatorial libraries with high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The application of an efficient method of peptide derivatization by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) formation increases ionization efficiency and reduces the detection limit, allowing analysis of trace amounts of compounds by ESI-MS. Peptides, synthesized on solid support, contain a new cleavable linker composed of a Peg spacer (9-aza-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-10-on-heptadecanoic acid), lysine with ɛ-amino group marked by the N,N,N-triethylglycine salt, and methionine, which makes possible the selective cleavage by cyanogen bromide. Even a small portion of peptides derivatized by QAS cleaved from a single resin bead is sufficient for sequencing by HR ESI-MS/MS experiments. The developed strategy was applied to a small training library of α chymotrypsin substrates. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed method in combinatorial chemistry. PMID:22740104

  14. Structures of KcsA in Complex with Symmetrical Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Reveal a Hydrophobic Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potassium channels allow for the passive movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane and are instrumental in controlling the membrane potential in all cell types. Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds block potassium channels and have long been used to study the functional and structural properties of these channels. Here we describe the interaction between three symmetrical hydrophobic QAs and the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. The structures demonstrate the presence of a hydrophobic pocket between the inner helices of KcsA and provide insight into the binding site and blocking mechanism of hydrophobic QAs. The structures also reveal a structurally hidden pathway between the central cavity and the outside membrane environment reminiscent of the lateral fenestration observed in sodium channels that can be accessed through small conformational changes in the pore wall. We propose that the hydrophobic binding pocket stabilizes the alkyl chains of long-chain QA molecules and may play a key role in hydrophobic drug binding in general. PMID:25093676

  15. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40 min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates.

  16. Antibiofouling Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membrane Modified by Quaternary Ammonium Compound: Direct Contact-Killing versus Induced Indirect Contact-Killing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingran; Ma, Jinxing; Tang, Chuyang Y; Wang, Zhiwei; Ng, How Yong; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-05-17

    Widespread applications of membrane technology call for the development of antibiofouling membranes. For the traditional contact-killing strategy, the antibacterial action is restricted to the surface: the membrane loses its antibiofouling efficacy once its surface is completely covered with a fouling layer. However, in this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes blended with quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) exhibited a surprisingly lasting antimicrobial activity in the vicinity of the membrane surface. The results indicated that QAC was capable of driving surface segregation with a high structural stability, and the QAC modified membrane shows clear antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Covering the modified membrane surface by an abiotic alginate layer resulted in a loss of antibacterial efficiency by 86.2%. In contrast, the antibacterial efficiency was maintained after developing a biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus of 30 μm in thickness. The current study may suggest that bacteria affected by contact-killing might interact with other bacteria in the vicinity, resulting in retarded biofilm growth. The antibiofouling effect and associated mechanism of the QAC modified membrane were further validated in a membrane bioreactor during long-term operation. PMID:27104660

  17. Characterisation and discrimination of various types of lac resin using gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques with quaternary ammonium reagents.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, K; del Ro, J C

    2014-04-18

    A variety of lac resin samples obtained from artists' suppliers, industrial manufacturers, and museum collections were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and reactive pyrolysis GCMS with quaternary ammonium reagents. These techniques allowed a detailed chemical characterisation of microgram-sized samples, based on the detection and identification of derivatives of the hydroxy aliphatic and cyclic (sesquiterpene) acids that compose the resin. Differences in composition could be related to the nature of the resin, e.g. wax-containing (unrefined), bleached, or aged samples. Furthermore, differences in the relative abundances of aliphatic hydroxyacids appear to be associated with the biological source of the resin. The diagnostic value of newly characterised lac components, including 8-hydroxyacids, is discussed here for the first time. Identification of derivatised components was aided by AMDIS deconvolution software, and discrimination of samples was enhanced by statistical evaluation of data using principal component analysis. The robustness of the analyses, together with the minimal sample size required, make these very powerful approaches for the characterisation of lac resin in museum objects. The value of such analyses for enhancing the understanding of museum collections is illustrated by two case studies of objects in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art: a restorer's varnish on a painting by Luca Signorelli, and a pictorial inlay in an early nineteenth-century High Chest by George Dyer. PMID:24642395

  18. Quaternary ammonium compounds in urban estuarine sediment environments--a class of contaminants in need of increased attention?

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    The distributions of wastewater-derived quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were determined in surficial sediments (n = 47) collected from the urbanized lower Hudson River basin. The most abundant class of QACs were dialkyldimethylammonium compounds (DADMACs, with C8 to C18 carbon chain lengths; median ΣDADMAC = 26 μg/g), followed by benzylalkyldimethylammonium compounds (BAC, C12-C18; 1.5 μg/g), and alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMAC, primarily C16 and C18; 0.52 μg/g). The concentrations of total QACs are higher than those of other conventional organic contaminants determined on the same samples (e.g., median ΣPAH level of 2.1 μg/g). Comparatively high concentrations, correlations with sewage derived contaminants, and the relatively constant compositions of QACs observed over large areas suggest that many sediment-sorbed QACs can be relatively persistent in receiving waters. Unusually large concentration-dependent sorption is considered as a mechanism that likely affects persistence of these intrinsically biodegradable chemicals under field conditions. There has been comparatively little field-based research on these classes of cationic surfactants; given the levels of QACs observed here, it is suggested that further investigation is warranted. PMID:20804121

  19. A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

  20. New lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels containing quaternary ammonium salt with superabsorbent capacity for organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2014-09-10

    Water and soil pollution by organic pollutants from petrochemical plants has become one of the major environmental problems in recent years. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels with ionic groups dissociable in nonpolar organic solvents show an enhanced swelling ability in a corresponding media attributed to the electrostatic repulsion and osmotic pressure provided by dissociated ionic groups. Here, we synthesized new lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels based on an easily available electrolyte monomer, methacryloxyethyl dimethyloctane ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (MODAT), and a lipophilic neutral monomer, dodecyl acrylate by radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking. The resultant lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels could absorb plenty of organic solvents with dielectric constants lower than 20 and exhibited a high absorbing ability at a wide range of temperatures (0-40 °C). The maximum swelling degree could reach as high as 200 g/g in some media, such as 1,2-dichloroethane (199.4 g/g) and dichloromethane (204 g/g), which was much higher than that of the nonionic gel without the addition of MODAT. Moreover, the resultant lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels could release most of the absorbed solvents within several hours and then be reused. It is expected that this new type of lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels may be a suitable candidate as organic pollutant absorbents. PMID:25134413

  1. Retention behavior of long chain quaternary ammonium homologues and related nitroso-alkymethylamines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Several chromatographic methods have been utilized to study the retentionbehavior of a homologous series of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides (ABDAC) and the corresponding nitroso-n-alkylmethylamines (NAMA). Linear correlation of the logarithmic capacity factor (k') with the number of carbons in the alkyl chain provides useful information on both gas chromatographic (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatographich (HPLC) retention parameters of unknown components. Under all conditions empolyed, GC methodology has proved effective in achieving complete resolution of the homologous mixture of NMA despite its obvious inadequacy in the separation of E-Z configurational isomers. Conversely, normal-phase HPLC on silica demonstrates that the selectivity (a) value for an E-Z pair is much higher than that for an adjacent homologous pair. In the reversed-phase HPLC study, three different silica-based column systems were examined under various mobile phase conditions. The extent of variation in k' was found to be a function of the organic modifier, counter-ion concentration, eluent pH, nature of counter-ion, and the polarity and type of stationary phase. The k'—[NaClO4] profiles showed similar trends between the ABDAC and the NAMA series, supporting the dipolar electronic structures of the latter compounds. Mobile phase and stationary phase effects on component separation are described. The methodology presented establishes the utility of HPLC separation techniques as versatile analytical tools for practical application.

  2. On-chip cell lysis by antibacterial non-leaching reusable quaternary ammonium monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Aly Saad Aly, Mohamed; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

    2016-02-01

    Reusable antibacterial non-leaching monolithic columns polymerized in microfluidic channels designed for on-chip cell lysis applications were obtained by the photoinitiated free radical copolymerization of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) in the presence of a porogenic solvent. The microfluidic channels were fabricated in cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrates by laser micromachining. The monolithic columns have the ability to inhibit the growth of, kill and efficiently lyse Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) (ATCC 4698) and Kocuria rosea (ATCC 186), and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 12633) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) by mechanically shearing the bacterial membrane when forcing the cells to pass through the narrow pores of the monolithic column, and simultaneously disintegrating the cell membrane by physical contact with the antibacterial surface of the column. Cell lysis was confirmed by off-chip PCR without the need for further purification. The influence of the cross-linking monomer on bacterial growth inhibition, leaching, lysis efficiency of the monolithic column and its mechanical stability within the microfluidic channel were investigated and analyzed for three different cross-linking monomers: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (1,6-HDDMA). Furthermore, the bonding efficiency of two X-PMMA substrates with different cross-linking levels was studied. The monolithic columns were shown to be stable, non-leaching, and reusable for over 30 lysis cycles without significant performance degradation or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between lysis cycles. PMID:26671610

  3. Identification of Environmental Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Direct Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Herron, Josi; Reese, Rosalyn C; Tallman, Keri A; Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Porter, Ned A; Xu, Libin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to identify environmental molecules that can inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, potentially leading to the same biochemical defects as observed in cholesterol biosynthesis disorders, which are often characterized by congenital malformations and developmental delay. Using the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network developed by EPA, we first carried out in silico screening of environmental molecules that display structures similar to AY9944, a known potent inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ(7)-reductase (DHCR7)-the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis. Molecules that display high similarity to AY9944 were subjected to test in mouse and human neuroblastoma cells for their effectiveness in inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis by analyzing cholesterol and its precursor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that a common disinfectant mixture, benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), exhibits high potency in inhibiting DHCR7, as suggested by greatly elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Subsequent structure-activity studies suggested that the potency of BACs as Dhcr7 inhibitors decrease with the length of their hydrocarbon chain: C10 > C12 ≫ C14 > C16. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed upregulation of the genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis and downregulation of the genes related to cholesterol efflux, suggesting a feedback response to the inhibition. Furthermore, an oxidative metabolite of 7-DHC that was previously identified as a biomarker in vivo was also found in cells exposed to BACs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that certain environmental molecules could potently inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, which could be a new link between environment and developmental disorders. PMID:26919959

  4. A solid phase honey-like channel method for synthesizing urea-ammonium chloride cocrystals on industrial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bingchun; Mao, Meiling; Liu, Yanhong; Guo, Jinyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Erbao

    2016-05-01

    Unanticipated a new and simple urea-ammonium chloride cocrystal synthesis method on industrial scale was found during attempts to produce a kind of granulated compound fertilizer. The aggregation of fertilizer powder can make the interaction among particles from loose to close, which generate mechanical pressure and in turn act as the driving force to benefit cocrystal growth. Additionally, the honeycomb-like channels constructed by other coexisting compound make the water evaporates more moderate, which can help the formation of supersaturated solution at suitable rate, further promote the growth of cocrystal. This approach possibly opens a new route toward the developing methodologies for cocrystal synthesis.

  5. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V.; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  6. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin HK

    2016-01-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3–18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P < 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3–18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit caries. PMID:27025265

  7. Ultra-deep blockade of Na+ channels by a quaternary ammonium ion: catalysis by a transition-intermediate state?

    PubMed Central

    Gingrich, K J; Beardsley, D; Yue, D T

    1993-01-01

    1. Individual Na+ channels from isolated guinea-pig ventricular heart cells were studied using the patch-clamp technique. To localize the selectivity region of the channels we investigated their blockade by a permanently charged quaternary ammonium ion (QX-314, 2-(triethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide, 0-5 mM) that was applied to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. 2. Resolution of individual blocking events was enhanced by covalent removal of fast inactivation following brief internal exposure to the enzyme papain. The improved resolution reveals the existence of two distinct modalities of blockade: reduction of unitary current, and millisecond interruptions of current. 3. Both modes of internal block could be potentiated by lowering external Na+ concentration. This finding argues that the two corresponding sites of interaction are both located within the channel pore. 4. Analysis of the voltage dependence of block placed both binding sites deep within the pore, at 70% of the electric field from the cytoplasmic entrance. Combined with recent studies localizing block by external Cd2+, the present results argue that the selectivity region of Na+ channels is quite narrow (spanning about 10% of the electric field), and located near the external side of the channel. 5. The manner in which the two blocking processes interact, along with the physical proximity of their binding sites, leads us to propose that the block configuration responsible for the reduction in unitary current serves as a transition intermediate that catalyses formation of the discrete-block complex. PMID:8120809

  8. Survival of Adhering Staphylococci during Exposure to a Quaternary Ammonium Compound Evaluated by Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Crismaru, Mihaela; Asri, Lia A. T. W.; Loontjens, Ton J. A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; de Vries, Joop; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) on the survival of adhering staphylococci on a surface were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Four strains with different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for the QAC were exposed to three different concentrations of the QAC in potassium phosphate buffer (0.5, 1, and 2 MBC) while adhering to glass. Adhering staphylococci were repeatedly imaged with AFM in the contact mode, and the cell surface was found to wrinkle upon progressive exposure to the QAC until bacteria disappeared from the substratum. Higher concentrations of QAC yielded faster wrinkling and the disappearance of bacteria during imaging. Two slime-producing staphylococcal strains survived longer on the surface than two non-slime-producing strains despite similar MICs and MBCs. All staphylococci adhering in unscanned areas remained adhering during exposure to QAC. Since MICs and MBCs did not relate to bacterial cell surface hydrophobicities and zeta potentials, survival on the surface is probably not determined by the direct interaction of QAC molecules with the cell surface. Instead, it is suggested that the pressure of the AFM tip assists the incorporation of QAC molecules in the membrane and enhances their bactericidal efficacy. In addition, the prolonged survival under pressure from slime-producing strains on a surface may point to a new protective role of slime as a stress absorber, impeding the incorporation of QAC molecules. The addition of Ca2+ ions to a QAC solution yielded longer survival of intact, adhering staphylococci, suggesting that Ca2+ ions can impede the exchange of membrane Ca2+ ions required for QAC incorporation. PMID:21876063

  9. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Feron, O.; Wibo, M.; Christen, M. O.; Godfraind, T.

    1992-01-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1313732

  10. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Feron, O; Wibo, M; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1992-02-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.5. The competitive interaction of pinaverium, a permanently charged drug, with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to intact cells and its absence of interaction with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to sealed inside-out vesicles imply that the dihydropyridine receptor lies near the external surface of the plasma membrane. PMID:1313732

  11. Effect of quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticle-containing adhesives on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to hinder the residual and invading bacteria at the tooth-restoration interfaces. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial bonding agent by incorporation of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effect of QADM-NAg adhesive and primer on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilm response for the first time. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer were used as control. Experimental adhesive and primer were made by adding QADM and NAg into control adhesive and primer. Human dentin shear bond strengths were measured (n = 10). A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead staining assay (n = 6). Results Adding QADM and NAg into adhesive and primer did not compromise the dentin shear bond strength which ranged from 30 to 35 MPa (p > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations revealed numerous resin tags, which were similar for the control and the QADM and NAg groups. Adding QADM or NAg markedly reduced the biofilm viability, compared to adhesive control. QADM and NAg together in the adhesive had a much stronger antibacterial effect than using each agent alone (p < 0.05). Adding QADM and NAg in both adhesive and primer had the strongest antibacterial activity, reducing metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid by an order of magnitude, compared to control. Significance Without compromising dentin bond strength and resin tag formation, the QADM and NAg containing adhesive and primer achieved strong antibacterial effects against microcosm biofilms for the first time. QADM-NAg adhesive and primer are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at the margins, thereby to inhibit secondary caries. QADM and NAg incorporation may have a wide applicability to other dental bonding systems. PMID:22592165

  12. Effects of antibacterial primers with quaternary ammonium and nano-silver on S. mutans impregnated in human dentin blocks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D.; Liu, Huaibing; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies developed antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the effect of antibacterial primers containing QADM and NAg on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) the effect of QADM or NAg alone or in combination, and the effect of NAg mass fraction, on S. mutans viability in dentin. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. QADM and NAg were incorporated into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP primer control, control + 10% QADM (mass %), control + 0.05% NAg, control + 10% QADM + 0.05% NAg, control + 0.1% NAg, and control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg. S. mutans were impregnated into dentin blocks, then a primer was applied. The viable colony-forming units (CFU) were then measured by harvesting the bacteria in dentin using a sonication method. Results Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg had bacteria inhibition zone 8-fold that of control (p < 0.05). The sonication method successfully harvested bacteria from dentin blocks. Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg inhibited S. mutans in dentin blocks, reducing the viable CFU in dentin by three orders of magnitude, compared to control dentin without primer. Using QADM+NAg was more effective than QADM alone. Higher NAg content increased the potency. Dentin shear bond strength was similar for all groups (p > 0.1). Significance Antibacterial primer with QADM and NAg were shown to inhibit the S. mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time. Bonding agent containing QADM and NAg is promising to eradicate bacteria in tooth cavity and inhibit caries. The QADM and NAg may have applicability to other adhesives, cements, sealants and composites. PMID:23422420

  13. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene N.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera. PMID:25883793

  14. Evaluation of a novel commercial quaternary ammonium compound for eradication of Mycobacteria, HCV and HBV in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elkholy, Yasmine Samy; Hegab, Asmaa Sayed; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Hassan, Reem Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopes are a common source of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. It is therefore important to identify high-level disinfectants capable of eliminating or killing all vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. Aldehydebased disinfectants are most commonly used in clinical practice but resistance has recently been detected and side effects associated with these disinfectants are well documented. In this study, we evaluated Virusolve+® EDS, a novel quaternary ammonium compound formulation supplied by Amity international, against Mycobacterium bovis (ATCC-27289), hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive serum and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive serum. We also compared its efficacy against Cidex® (glutaraldehyde 2%), an aldehyde-based disinfectant. M. bovis showed no growth after 10 weeks with either Virusolve+® or Cidex®. Virusolve+® achieved a 10(4)- fold reduction in the initial 10(6) HCV load under clean conditions (without red blood cells) for 20 min, whereas Cidex® achieved this reduction under clean and dirty conditions (without and with red blood cells, respectively) after both 10 and 20 min. Both Virusolve+® and Cidex® were able to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity under clean conditions after 10 and 20 min, whereas under dirty conditions they were only able to eradicate virus infectivity after 20 min. Virusolve+® EDS when compared with Cidex® showed equal mycobactericidal activity completely eradicating M. bovis. However, both showed comparable virucidal activity against HBV, which was more effective under clean conditions, emphasizing the importance of the cleaning step in endoscope reprocessing. Cidex® was more effective at eradicating HCV under dirty conditions after a short contact time. PMID:26727900

  15. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2016-01-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3-18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P < 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3-18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit caries. PMID:27025265

  16. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  17. Highly fluorescent C-dots obtained by pyrolysis of quaternary ammonium ions trapped in all-silica ITQ-29 zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovi, Herme G.; Valencia, Susana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    C-dots obtained in the homogeneous phase may exhibit a broad particle size distribution. The formation of C-dots within nanometric reaction cavities could be a methodology to gain control on their size distribution. Among the various possibilities, in the present work, the cavities of small pore size zeolites have been used to confine C-dots generated by the pyrolysis of the organic structure directing agent present in the synthesis of these crystalline aluminosilicates. To explore this methodology, ITQ-29 zeolite having a Linde type A (LTA) structure was prepared as pure silica with 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3.2.1-ij]quinolinium as the organic structure directing agent. Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 550 °C of a pure-silica ITQ-29 sample (cubic particles of 4 μm edge) renders a highly fluorescent zeolite containing about 15 wt% of the carbonised residue. While another small pore zeolite, ITQ-12 (ITW), also renders photoluminescent C-dots under similar conditions, medium or large pore zeolites, such as silicalite (MFI) or pure silica Beta (BEA), failed to produce fluorescent powders under analogous thermal treatment and only decomposition and complete removal of the corresponding quaternary ammonium ion templates was observed for these zeolites. The dissolution of the pyrolysed ITQ-29 zeolite framework and the extraction of the carbon residue with ethyl acetate have allowed the characterisation of C-dots with particle sizes between 5 and 12 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.4 upon excitation at 350 nm that is among the highest reported for non-surface functionalized C-dots. Photoluminescence varies with the excitation wavelength and is quenched by oxygen. Pyrolysed ITQ-29 powders can act as fluorescent oxygen sensors.

  18. Assessment of bactericidal effects of quaternary ammonium-based antibacterial monomers in combination with colloidal platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Izutani, Naomi; Imazato, Satoshi; Chen, Ji-Hua; Kiba, Wakako; Yoshikawa, Ranna; Takeda, Kahoru; Kitagawa, Haruaki; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2012-02-01

    Pretreatment of dentin using colloidal platinum nanoparticles (CPtN) can enhance the bond strength of dentin adhesives. However, the combination of CPtN, which is negatively charged, with cationic monomer-containing adhesive may reduce the antibacterial activity of the original material. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CPtN on the bactericidal activity of two cationic antibacterial monomers, 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) and methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB). The rapid killing effects of the two monomers against planktonic or attached Streptococcus mutans in the presence or absence of CPtN were examined by viable cell counts. The measurement of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations demonstrated that CPtN up to 2.5 mM has no antibacterial activity. In the absence of CPtN, rapid killing of both planktonic and attached Streptococcus mutans were achieved by the two cationic monomers. Combination with 0.1 mM CPtN did not reduce the bactericidal effects of the two monomers, indicating that CPtN may be used as a pretreatment with antibacterial adhesives. PMID:22277619

  19. 77 FR 47291 - Residues of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ..., 2007); 73 FR 37852 (July 2, 2008) this proposed ] seed treatment use adds essentially zero additional... September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3) of FFDCA... Quaternaries can be found at 73 FR 37852 (July 2, 2008). IV. Aggregate Exposures In examining...

  20. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  1. Antibacterial effects of quaternary bis-phosphonium and ammonium salts of pyridoxine on Staphylococcus aureus cells: A single base hitting two distinct targets?

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Elena V; Zeldi, Marina I; Pugachev, Mikhail V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Kuznetsova, Svetlana V; Evtygin, Vladimir E; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Kayumov, Airat R; Shtyrlin, Yurii G

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of quaternary bis-phosphonium and bis-ammonium salts of pyridoxine with lipophilic substituents on the survival and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus cells. We found that, while originating from the same base, they exhibit considerably different antimicrobial mechanisms. In the presence of Ca(2+) ions the MIC and MBC values of ammonium salt increased 100-fold, suggesting that Ca(2+) ions can successfully impede the membrane Ca(2+) ions exchange required for ammonium salt incorporation. In contrast, in the presence of quaternary phosphonium salt, the artificial capsular-like material was formed around the cells and the filamentous and chain-like growth of the cells was observed suggesting the disruption of the cell division mechanisms. Altogether, both pyridoxine derivatives successfully inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis) and Escherichia coli considerably, while demonstrated nearly no effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We suggest that due to their effects on distinct and likely complementary targets the derivatives of pyridoxine represent potentially perspective antibacterials with complicated adaptation and thus with lower risk of drug resistance development. PMID:26712620

  2. A review of methods for the analysis of orphan and difficult pesticides: glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium and phenoxy acid herbicides, and dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the chromatography/MS methodologies for analysis of pesticide residues of orphan and difficult chemical classes in a variety of sample matrixes including water, urine, blood, and food. The review focuses on pesticide classes that are not commonly included in multiresidue analysis methods such as highly polar or ionic herbicides including glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium, and phenoxy acid herbicides, and some of their major degradation or metabolite products. In addition, dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides, which are thermally unstable and have stability issues in some solvents or sample matrixes, are also examined due to their special needs in residue analysis. PMID:25145125

  3. Effect of a novel quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) on adhesion and antibacterial properties of dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M; Simo, Luzia C; Esmerino, Lus Antnio; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joo Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin-dentin bond strength (?TBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in ?TBS was observed between Clearfil SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil SE Bond (p>0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of ?TBS after 12 months of storage (p=0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil SE Bond (p>0.05). Clearfil SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. PMID:24853131

  4. Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP) on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Yasmine M.; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M.; Simão, Luzia C.; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M. M.; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in μTBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of μTBS after 12 months of storage (p = 0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. PMID:24853131

  5. Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antibacterial primer and adhesive are promising to help combat biofilms and recurrent caries. The objectives of this study were to compare novel bonding agent containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) with bonding agent containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg) in antibacterial activity, contact-inhibition vs. long-distance inhibition, glucosyltransferases (gtf) gene expressions, and cytotoxicity for the first time. Methods QADM and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer. Microtensile dentin bond strength was measured. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm on resin surface (contact-inhibition) as well as S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface (long-distance inhibition) were tested for metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid production, and gtf gene expressions. Eluents from cured primer/adhesive samples were used to examine cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts. Results Bonding agent with QADM greatly reduced CFU and lactic acid of biofilms on the resin surface (p < 0.05), while having no effect on S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. In contrast, bonding agent with NAg inhibited not only S. mutans on the resin surface, but also S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. Bonding agent with QADM suppressed gtfB, gtfC and gtfD gene expressions of S. mutans on its surface, but not away from its surface. Bonding agent with NAg suppressed S. mutans gene expressions both on its surface and away from its surface. Bonding agents with QADM and NAg did not adversely affect microtensile bond strength or fibroblast cytotoxicity, compared to control (p > 0.1). Significance QADM-containing adhesive had contact-inhibition and inhibited bacteria on its surface, but not away from its surface. NAg-containing adhesive had long-distance killing capability and inhibited bacteria on its surface and away from its surface. The novel antibacterial adhesives are promising for caries-inhibition restorations, and QADM and NAg could be complimentary agents in inhibiting bacteria on resin surface as well as away from resin surface. PMID:23428077

  6. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  7. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

  8. Efficient adsorption of both methyl orange and chromium from their aqueous mixtures using a quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Pei; Cai, Jun; Xiao, Shoujun; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-01

    A quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent (CS-CTA-MCM) was prepared by combination of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Various techniques were used to characterize the molecular structure, surface morphology, and magnetic feature of this composite adsorbent. CS-CTA-MCM was employed for the removal of Cr(VI) and methyl orange (MO), an anionic dye, from water in respective single and binary systems. Compared with chitosan magnetic adsorbent (CS-MCM) without modification, CS-CTA-MCM shows evidently improved adsorption capacities for both pollutants ascribed to the additional quaternary ammonium salt groups. Based on the adsorption equilibrium study, MO bears more affinity to CS-CTA-MCM than Cr(VI) causing a considerable extent of preferential adsorption of dye over metal ions in their aqueous mixture. However, at weak acidic solutions, Cr(VI) adsorption is evidently improved due to more efficient Cr(VI) forms, i.e. dichromate and monovalent chromate, binding to this chitosan-based adsorbent. Thus chromium could be efficient removal together with MO at suitable pH conditions. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics indicate that adsorptions of Cr(VI) and MO by CS-CTA-MCM both follow a homogeneous monolayer chemisorption process. This magnetic adsorbent after saturated adsorption could be rapidly separated from water and easily regenerated using dilute NaOH aqueous solutions then virtually reused with little adsorption capacity loss. PMID:27060639

  9. Selective Detection of Carbohydrates and Their Peptide Conjugates by ESI-MS Using Synthetic Quaternary Ammonium Salt Derivatives of Phenylboronic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  10. Selective detection of carbohydrates and their peptide conjugates by ESI-MS using synthetic quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of phenylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation. PMID:24687577

  11. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on low-weight greige and bleached cotton nonwovens in different aqueous environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) on cotton nonwovens is dependent on pretreatment of the substrate, more specifically whether it is greige or bleached fabric. In this work we examine the effect of varying the chemical and physical propert...

  12. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  13. Effect of polyester blends in hydroentangled raw and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics on the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics (applicable for wipes) including raw cotton, bleached cotton, and their blends with polyester (PES) were stu...

  14. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations using UV/vis spectroscopy. Results show greige...

  15. N,N-Di-methyl-dehydro-abietyl-ammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiu-Zhi; Rao, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Yan-Jie

    2013-06-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octa-hydro-phenan-thren-1-yl]-N,N-di-methyl-methanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N(+)·Cl(-)·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methyl-ation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydro-chloride. The de-hydro-abietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclo-hexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the de-hydro-abietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). The ethanol solvent mol-ecules are located between the columns and anchored via O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:23795117

  16. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect

    Supeno; Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  17. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  18. DFT studies of the formation of furanoid derivatives of ammonium chlorides.

    PubMed

    Wielińska, Justyna; Liberek, Beata; Nowacki, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    B3LYP/6-31+G** level computations were performed on the formation of ammonium salts during the reaction of (S)-1,4-anhydro-5-chloro-2,3,5-trideoxypentitol (1) (2S,5S)-2,5-anhydro-6-chloro-1,3,4,6-tetradeoxyhexitol (2) and methyl 5-chloro-2,3,5-trideoxy-β-D-pentofuranoside (3) with ammonia in order to describe the reaction pathway in detail. All the structures were fully optimized in the gas phase, in chloroform and water. In addition, the gas phase activation barrier heights were estimated at B3LYP/6-311++G**, MPWIK/6-31+G**, MPWIK/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p)//MPWIK/6-31+G** levels of theory. All the calculations in solvents were performed the using polarizable continuum model (PCM) and the B3LYP functional with the 6-31+G** basis set. A detailed description of all the stationary points is presented, and the conformational behavior of the five-membered ring is discussed in the gas phase and in the solvents. The conversion of the reactant complexes into ion pairs is accompanied by a strong energy decrease in the gas phase and in all the solvents. The overall process is strongly unfavorable in the gas phase, but takes place readily in high-polarity solvents. PMID:25562663

  19. AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.

    2013-08-13

    Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200�C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  20. EPR and optical absorption study of Cr 3+-doped tetramethyl ammonium cadmium chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Govind, Har; Gupta, S. K.; Arora, Manju

    2006-12-01

    EPR study of Cr 3+-doped tetramethyl cadmium chloride (TMCC) single crystals is carried out at room temperature. The crystal field and spin-Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated from the resonance line positions of different lines observed in the EPR spectra. The g and D parameter values are found to be g=1.9741±0.0002 and D=553±2×10 -4 cm -1, respectively. EPR data indicate that the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is distorted octahedron. Cr 3+ ions enter the lattice substitutionally replacing Cd 2+ sites and bind to the neighboring extra Cd vacancies necessary for charge compensation. The optical absorption spectra are measured in 195-925 nm wavelength range at room temperature. From optical study the energy values of different orbital levels are estimated. Further, the bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. The values of Racah parameters ( B and C), crystal field parameter (Dq) and nephelauxetic parameters ( h and k) are obtained to be B=722, C=2845, Dq=2043 cm -1, h=1.015 and k=0.21.

  1. Homodimeric bis-quaternary heterocyclic ammonium salts as potent acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: a systematic investigation of the influence of linker and cationic heads over affinity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Conejo-García, Ana; Pisani, Leonardo; Núñez, Maria del Carmen; Catto, Marco; Nicolotti, Orazio; Leonetti, Francesco; Campos, Joaquín M; Gallo, Miguel A; Espinosa, Antonio; Carotti, Angelo

    2011-04-28

    A molecular library of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), mainly composed of symmetrical bis-quaternary heterocyclic bromides exhibiting choline kinase (ChoK) inhibitory activity, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE and BChE, respectively). The molecular framework of QASs consisted of two positively charged heteroaromatic (pyridinium or quinolinium) or sterically hindered aliphatic (quinuclidinium) nitrogen rings kept at an appropriate distance by lipophilic rigid or semirigid linkers. Many homodimeric QASs showed AChE and BChE inhibitory potency in the nanomolar range along with a low enzymatic selectivity. Computational studies on AChE, BChE, and ChoK allowed identification of the key molecular determinants for high affinity and selectivity over either one of the three enzymes and guided the design of a hybrid bis-QAS (56) exhibiting the highest AChE affinity (IC(50) = 15 nM) and selectivity over BChE and ChoK (SI = 50 and 562, respectively) and a promising pharmacological potential in myasthenia gravis and neuromuscular blockade. PMID:21417225

  2. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of new norcantharidin-conjugated hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan derivatives as polymer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Yanggong; Wang, Feihu; Lv, Li; Liu, Jieying; Li, Mingna; Guo, Aijie; Jiang, Jinjun; Shen, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2013-09-10

    New norcantharidin-conjugated hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan derivatives (NCTD-HACCs) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Two NCTD-HACCs with different degrees of substitution (DS) (12.2% and 24.8%) were obtained, which had good water solubility. NCTD was released from the NCTD-HACCs via hydrolysis, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4 and presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the NCTD-HACC was endocytosized into MGC80-3 cells and the uptaken amount increased as incubation time. Compared with free NCTD, the NCTD-HACCs showed lower in vitro anti-tumor activity against human gastric cancer MGC80-3 cells, but higher in vivo tumor growth inhibition in S180 tumor-bearing mice. The in vivo near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence real-time imaging result showed the fluorescence intensity in tumor was much higher than that in heart, liver, spleen and lung (except kidney) after i.v. injection of the FITC-labeled NCTD-HACC2, indicating specific accumulation of the NCTD-HACC in tumor. PMID:23742972

  3. Characterization of un-plasticized and propylene carbonate plasticized carboxymethyl cellulose doped ammonium chloride solid biopolymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N H; Isa, M I N

    2016-02-10

    Two solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) systems of carboxymethyl cellulose doped ammonium chloride (CMC-AC) and propylene carbonate plasticized (CMC-AC-PC) were prepared via solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of SBEs were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the frequency range of 50 Hz-1 MHz at ambient temperature (303K). The highest ionic conductivity of CMC-AC SBE is 1.43 × 10(-3)S/cm for 16 wt.% of AC while the highest conductivity of plasticized SBE system is 1.01 × 10(-2)S/cm when added with 8 wt.% of PC. TGA/DSC showed that the addition of PC had increased the decomposition temperature compared of CMC-AC SBE. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the occurrence of complexation between the SBE components and it is proved successfully executed by Gaussian software. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that amorphous nature of SBEs. It is believed that the PC is one of the most promising plasticizer to enhance the ionic conductivity and performance for SBE system. PMID:26686147

  4. Removal of ammonium chloride generated by ammonia slip from the SNCR process in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Minoya, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sameshima, Ryoji

    2009-03-01

    The selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process is one of the methods used to reduce NO(x) to N(2) and H(2)O by injecting NH(3) or urea solution into a high-temperature furnace. Merits of this method include simple handling, low cost, and energy savings. However, a critical problem of the SNCR process is the generation of ammonia slip; in reactions with HCl in flue gas, ammonium chloride is generated and forms detached white plumes near the stack. Using a laboratory-scale experimental apparatus, we examined the possibility of NH(4)Cl collection and removal by a bag filter (BF). The molar NH(3)/HCl ratio of the compound collected at the filter was nearly one, regardless of gas temperature, retention time, and concentration, confirming the formation of NH(4)Cl. The NH(4)Cl generation ratio increased as reaction temperature decreased, indicating that the collection efficiency of NH(4)Cl should increase if the BF is operated at the lowest possible temperature while avoiding the critical point causing low-temperature corrosion (e.g., 150 degrees C). In addition, the use of activated carbon injection in the front of the BF and the dust layer on the BF are expected to capture slipped ammonia at the BF and reduce NH(4)Cl fume generation in the stack. PMID:19108871

  5. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  6. Catalytic dehydrochlorination of polyvinyl chloride in two-phase systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leplyanin, G.V.; Salimgareeva, V.N.; Sannikova, N.S.

    1994-11-01

    The catalytic activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), whose cation and anion structures are different, and the mechanism of catalytic two-phase dehydrochlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are studied. Under phase-transfer conditions, dehydrochlorination of PVC is shown to proceed at the interface via an ionic mechanism in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts. The catalytic activity of QAS is governed by both the cation lipophilicity and the anion nature and increases as alcohols are introduced into the reaction mixture. The alcohol nature does not influence the extent of the reaction completion, but it does effect the supermolecular structure of the polyacetylene synthesized.

  7. Tris(cyclo-hexyl-ammonium) cis-di-chlorido-bis-(oxalato-κ(2) O (1),O (2))stann-ate(IV) chloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Modou; Diallo, Waly; Diasse-Sarr, Aminata; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2013-10-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N)3[Sn(C2O4)2Cl2]Cl·H2O, contains three cyclo-hexyl-ammonium cations, one stannate(IV) dianion, one isolated chloride anion and one lattice water mol-ecule. The cyclo-hexyl-ammonium cations adopt chair conformations. In the complex anion, two bidentate oxalate ligands and two chloride anions in cis positions coordinate octa-hedrally to the central Sn(IV) atom. The cohesion of the mol-ecular entities is ensured by the formation of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯Cl and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions involving cations, anions and the lattice water mol-ecule, giving rise to a layer-like arrangement parallel to (010). PMID:24454022

  8. Removal of As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from aqueous environments by poly(acrylonitril-co-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Dudu, Tuba Ersen; Sahiner, Mehtap; Alpaslan, Duygu; Demirci, Sahin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-09-15

    Cationic poly(Acrylonitril-co-Acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl Ammonium Chloride) (p(AN-co-APTMACl)) hydrogels in bulk were synthesized by using acrylonitrile (AN) and 3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (APTMACl) as monomers. The prepared hydrogels were exposed to amidoximation reaction to replace hydrophobic nitrile groups with hydrophilic amidoxime groups that have metal ion binding ability. Those replacements were increased the hydrogels absorption capacity for As(V) and Cr(VI). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms equations were utilized to obtain the best-fitted isotherm model for the absorption of the ions at different metal ion concentrations. The absorption data of As(V) ion were fitted well to Freundlich isotherm while those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm. The maximum absorption of poly(3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)) and amid-p(AN-co-APTMACl) macro gels were 22.39 mg and 21.83 mg for As(V), and 30.65 mg and 18.16 mg for Cr(VI) ion per unit gram dried gel, respectively. Kinetically, the absorption behaviors of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and those of As(V) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 1st order kinetic model. PMID:26188989

  9. An instrument for semi-continuous monitoring of the size-distribution of nitrate, ammonium, sulphate and chloride in aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, Harry; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet; Slanina, Sjaak

    An instrument was developed for semi-continuous measurement of the size-distribution of submicron nitrate, ammonium, sulphate and chloride. Novel in the instrumentation is the size-classification, which is realised with a pre-separator that consists of a set of four parallel impactors. The cut-off diameters of the impactors are at 0.18, 0.32, 0.56 and 1.0 μm. Aerosols smaller than the associated cut-off size pass the respective impactor and arrive in the detector. The manifold with impactors contains two additional lines, one open line and one containing a filter that removes all aerosols. This latter line provides an on-line field-blank. The sample air-flow is automatically switched by wide-bore ball valves to one of the six sampling lines for a period of 20 min; a measuring cycle thus takes 2 h. Down-stream of the pre-separator the sampling and automated on-line analysis of the transmitted aerosol is accomplished with a "MARGA". In this instrument steam condensation is used to grow the aerosol. The droplets formed are collected in a cyclone that drains to wet-chemical analysis systems. A wet-denuder between pre-separator and collector removes interfering gases, like nitric acid and ammonia. This enables artefact-free and thus representative semi-continuous measurement of the size-distribution of the semi-volatile (ammonium) nitrate. The novel MARGA-sizer was first used in a 1 week field-test. After modifications it was then deployed in a monitoring campaign of 2 months in the summer of 2002, at the top level of the meteo-tower of Cabauw in the centre of the Netherlands. The high location, 200 m, was chosen to obtain data on ammonium nitrate that are minimally affected by surface emissions of ammonia. The data coverage over the period was over 60%; failure of the instrumentation was mainly associated with spells of extreme solar heating of the tower and associated high temperatures inside. The average concentration of nitrate was 2.6 μg m -3, which was very similar to the value interpolated from data in the national network. The mass concentration of submicron nitrate was 2.0 μg m -3, of which 46% was in particles smaller than 0.32 μm. To put this in perspective: the concentration of submicron sulphate was similar to that of nitrate, while 53% was in particles smaller than 0.32 μm. The ion balance showed that the compounds were present as the fully neutralised salts. Quite large diurnal variations were observed for nitrate, with a surprising maximum in the afternoon. The size-distribution of the semi-volatile nitrate was rather constant over a daily cycle.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficiency of New Polymers Comprised by Covalently Attached and/or Electrostatically Bound Bacteriostatic Species, Based on Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kougia, Efstathia; Tselepi, Maria; Vasilopoulos, Gavriil; Lainioti, Georgia Ch; Koromilas, Nikos D; Druvari, Denisa; Bokias, Georgios; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kallitsis, Joannis K

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study of new bacteriostatic copolymers with quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer chain through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction, was performed. Different copolymers have been considered since beside the active species, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the co-monomer was also evaluated in the case of covalently attached bacteriostatic groups, aiming at achieving permanent antibacterial activity. Homopolymers with quaternized ammonium/phosphonium groups were also tested for comparison reasons. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized polymers after 3 and 24 h of exposure at 4 and 22 °C was investigated on cultures of Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa, E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, E. faecalis) bacteria. It was found that the combination of the hydrophilic monomer acrylic acid (AA), at low contents, with the covalently attached bacteriostatic group vinyl benzyl dimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (VBCHAM) in the copolymer P(AA-co-VBCHAM88), resulted in a high bacteriostatic activity against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis (6 log reduction in certain cases). Moreover, the combination of covalently attached VBCHAM units with electrostatically bound cetyltrimethylammonium 4-styrene sulfonate (SSAmC16) units in the P(SSAmC16-co-VBCHAMx) copolymers led to efficient antimicrobial materials, especially against Gram-positive bacteria, where a log reduction between 4.9 and 6.2 was verified. These materials remain remarkably efficient even when they are incorporated in polysulfone membranes. PMID:26633329

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. Methods The experimental material was prepared from a 2∶1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4∶3∶1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Results S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. Conclusion The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution. Therefore, this material shows promise as a pulp capping material for vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries. PMID:25389975

  12. Theoretical problems associated with the use of acetic anhydride as a co-solvent for the non-aqueous titration of hydrohalides of organic bases and quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Völgyi, Gergely; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Görög, Sándor

    2010-01-01

    A potentiometric titration study of organic base hydrohalides and quaternary ammonium salts using perchloric acid as the titrant and a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid as the solvent was carried out and the titration mixture was analysed by NMR in order to clarify the chemistry of the reactions involved. It was found that in contrast to the general belief the formation of acetyl halides and titratable free acetate ion does not take place prior to the titration but NMR spectra proved the formation of acetyl halides in the course of the titration. This observation and the fact that the shape of the titration curves depends on the nature of the hydrohaloic acid bound to the base or of the anion in the quaternary ammonium salts led to the conclusion that the titrating agent is acetyl perchlorate formed in situ during the titration. Equations of the reactions involved in the titration process are shown in the paper. PMID:19682817

  13. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit biofilm growth and enhance performance for activated carbon air-cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yinan; An, Jingkun; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The slow diffusion of hydroxyl out of the catalyst layer as well as the biofouling on the surface of cathode are two problems affecting power for membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In order to solve both of them simultaneously, here we simply modify activated carbon air-cathode using a bifunctional quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) by forced evaporation. The maximum power density reaches 1041 ± 12 mW m-2 in an unbuffered medium (0.5 g L-1 NaCl), which is 17% higher than the control, probably due to the accelerated anion transport in the catalyst layer. After 2 months, the protein content reduced by a factor of 26 and the power density increases by 33%, indicating that the QAC modification can effectively inhibit the growth of cathodic biofilm and improve the stability of performance. The addition of NaOH and QAC epoxy have a negative effect on power production due to the clogging of pores in catalyst layer.

  14. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    PubMed

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types. PMID:25583342

  15. Ion distribution in quaternary-ammonium-functionalized aromatic polymers: effects on the ionic clustering and conductivity of anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Weiber, E Annika; Jannasch, Patric

    2014-09-01

    A series of copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s that have precisely two, three, or four quaternary ammonium (QA) groups clustered directly on single phenylene rings along the backbone are studied as anion-exchange membranes. The copolymers are synthesized by condensation polymerizations that involve either di-, tri-, or tetramethylhydroquinone followed by virtually complete benzylic bromination using N-bromosuccinimide and quaternization with trimethylamine. This synthetic strategy allows excellent control and systematic variation of the local density and distribution of QA groups along the backbone. Small-angle X-ray scattering of these copolymers shows extensive ionic clustering, promoted by an increasing density of QA on the single phenylene rings. At an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.1 meq g(-1), the water uptake decreases with the increasing local density of QA groups. Moreover, at moderate IECs at 20 °C, the Br(-) conductivity of the densely functionalized copolymers is higher than a corresponding randomly functionalized polymer, despite the significantly higher water uptake of the latter. Thus, the location of multiple cations on single aromatic rings in the polymers facilitates the formation of a distinct percolating hydrophilic phase domain with a high ionic concentration to promote efficient anion transport, despite probable limitations by reduced ion dissociation. These findings imply a viable strategy to improve the performance of alkaline membrane fuel cells. PMID:25044778

  16. Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health?

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Kristin; Langsrud, Solveig; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Sunde, Marianne; Yazdankhah, Siamak P

    2010-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used biocides that possess antimicrobial effect against a broad range of microorganisms. These compounds are used for numerous industrial purposes, water treatment, antifungal treatment in horticulture, as well as in pharmaceutical and everyday consumer products as preserving agents, foam boosters, and detergents. Resistance toward QACs is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as modifications in the membrane composition, expression of stress response and repair systems, or expression of efflux pump genes. Development of resistance in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has been related to application in human medicine and the food industry. QACs in cosmetic products will inevitably come into intimate contact with the skin or mucosal linings in the mouth and thus are likely to add to the selection pressure toward more QAC-resistant microorganisms among the skin or mouth flora. There is increasing evidence of coresistance and cross-resistance between QACs and a range of other clinically important antibiotics and disinfectants. Use of QACs may have driven the fixation and spread of certain resistance cassette collectors (class 1 integrons), currently responsible for a major part of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria. More indiscriminate use of QACs such as in cosmetic products may drive the selection of further new genetic elements that will aid in the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus in limiting our treatment options for microbial infections. PMID:20370507

  17. 16-morpholino quaternary ammonium steroidal derivatives as neuromuscular blocking agents: synthesis, biological evaluation and in silico probe of ligand-receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Rao, Zhigang; Xu, Jianrong; Zhu, Qingfu; Altenbach, Hans-Josef; Chen, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Dingshan; Xiao, Yuling; Ke, Xianbing; Guo, Hao; Wu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming

    2012-10-01

    A series of steroidal 3,16-bis-quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized and screened on mouse hemi-diaphragm to explore new steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. There were two compounds, 3β-piperidino derivate 8d (IC(50) = 3.49 μM) and 3β-N-methylbenzylamino derivate 8g (IC(50) = 4.54 μM), showing activity close to rocuronium (IC(50) = 2.50 μM). The preliminary structure-activity relationship was deduced from the bioactivity results with the aid of the calculated N-N distance and log P. Meanwhile, the interactions between the ligand and binding pocket were revealed by docking 8d to the ligand binding domain of the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This nAChR was modeled using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) package indirectly from mollusca acetylcholine binding protein with mouse neuron α7 nAChR as intermediary template. PMID:22910136

  18. Antifouling and antimicrobial mechanism of tethered quaternary ammonium salts in a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix studied using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuji; Majumdar, Partha; Chisholm, Bret; Stafslien, Shane; Chen, Zhan

    2010-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials containing chemically bound (''tethered'') quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties are being developed as new contact-active antimicrobial coatings. Such coatings are designed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms on surfaces for a variety of applications which include ship hulls and biomedical devices. The antimicrobial activity of these coatings is a function of the molecular surface structure generated during film formation. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study polymer surface structures at the molecular level in different chemical environments. SFG was successfully used to characterize the surface structures of PDMS coatings containing tethered QAS moieties that possess systematic variations in QAS chemical composition in air, in water, and in a nutrient growth medium. The results indicated that the surface structure was largely dependent on the length of the alkyl chain attached to the nitrogen atom of the QAS moiety as well as the length of alkyl chain spanning between the nitrogen atom and silicon atom of the QAS moiety. The SFG results correlated well with the antimicrobial activity, providing a molecular interpretation of the activity. This research showed that SFG can be effectively used to aid in the development of new antimicrobial coating technologies by correlating the chemical structure of a coating surface to its antimicrobial activity. PMID:20345165

  19. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XIII: an investigation of polysiloxane antimicrobial coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Partha; Lee, Elizabeth; Gubbins, Nathan; Christianson, David A; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; Vanderwal, Lyndsi; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput biological assays were used to develop structure - antimicrobial relationships for polysiloxane coatings containing chemically bound (tethered) quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties. The QAS-functional polysiloxanes were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, a trimethoxysilane-functional QAS (QAS-TMS), and methylacetoxysilane. Since the QAS moieties provide antimicrobial activity through interaction with the microorganism cell wall, most of the compositional variables that were investigated were associated with the chemical structure of the QAS-TMS. Twenty different QAS-TMS were synthesized for the study and the antimicrobial activity of sixty unique polysiloxane coatings derived from these QAS-TMS determined toward Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Candida albicans . The results of the study showed that essentially all of the compositional variables significantly influenced antimicrobial activity. Surface characterization of these moisture-cured coatings using atomic force microscopy as well as water contact angle and water contact angle hysteresis measurements indicated that the compositional variables significantly affected coating surface morphology and surface chemistry. Overall, compositional variables that produced heterogeneous surface morphologies provided the highest antimicrobial activity suggesting that the antimicrobial activity was primarily derived from the relationship between coating chemical composition and self-assembly of QAS moieties at the coating/air interface. Using data modeling software, a narrow region of the compositional space was identified that provided broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. PMID:19807064

  20. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water, Quaternary Ammonium and Lactic Acid-Based Solutions in Controlling Microbial Contamination of Food Cutting Boards Using a Manual Spraying Technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju N; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Bactericidal activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), quaternary ammonium (QUAT), and lactic acid-based solutions was investigated using a manual spraying technique against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that were inoculated onto the surface of scarred polypropylene and wooden food cutting boards. Antimicrobial activity was also examined when using cutting boards in preparation of raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. Viable counts of survivors were determined as log10 CFU/100 cm(2) within 0 (untreated control), 1, 3, and 5 min of treatment at ambient temperature. Within the first minute of treatment, NEW and QUAT solutions caused more than 3 log10 bacterial reductions on polypropylene surfaces whereas less than 3 log10 reductions were achieved on wooden surfaces. After 5 min of treatment, more than 5 log10 reductions were achieved for all bacterial strains inoculated onto polypropylene surfaces. Using NEW and QUAT solutions within 5 min reduced Gram-negative bacteria by 4.58 to 4.85 log10 compared to more than 5 log10 reductions in Gram-positive bacteria inoculated onto wooden surfaces. Lactic acid treatment was significantly less effective (P < 0.05) compared to NEW and QUAT treatments. A decline in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed (0.5 to <2 log10 reductions were achieved within the first minute) when both cutting board types were used to prepare raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. PMID:27027449

  1. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salen)Co(III) complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Eo, Seong Chan; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan

    2014-01-01

    Summary The (salen)Co(III) complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA) copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalate)s were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalate)s because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1) and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5) + water (present as impurity) + ethanol (deliberately fed)], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (M w/M n, 1.051.5). Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (M n up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively). The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (f PA, 0.23) showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 C) than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 C). PMID:25161738

  2. Synthesis, structure and in vitro antibacterial activities of new hybrid disinfectants quaternary ammonium compounds: pyridinium and quinolinium stilbene benzenesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Chanawanno, Kullapa; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-09-01

    The series of pyridinium (1-10) and quinolinium (11-20) stilbene benzenesulfonates have been synthesized and their structures were investigated by UV-vis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, compound 5 was also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has been determined. The quinolinium derivatives exhibited two very potent characteristic activities, namely, (i) specific activity to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and (ii) with broad band spectrum activity. Compounds 11, 13 and 14 are the most active showing broad spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecalis) and gram-negative bacterium (Shigella sonnei). The MICs of these compounds were found to be better than that of Benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the commercially used disinfectant. PMID:20619939

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of cationic quaternary ammonium-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel beads as a drug delivery embolisation system.

    PubMed

    Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    To extend the platform of clinically utilised chemoembolic agents based on ion-exchange systems to support the delivery of anionic drugs, a series of PVA-based beads was produced with different levels of (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTA) in their formulation. The beads were characterised to confirm composition and the effect of formulation variation on physical properties was assessed. Suspension polymerisation was shown to successfully produce uniformly spherical copolymer beads with APTA content up to 60 wt%. Equilibrium water content and resistance to compression both increased with increasing APTA content in the formulation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used with model drugs to demonstrate that by increasing APTA content, compounds between the molecular weight range 70-250 kDa could permeate the microsphere structures. Interaction with anionic drugs was modelled using multivalent dyes. Dyes with multi-binding sites had increased interaction with the polymer, slowing the release and also demonstrating a reduced rate of elution from beads with higher charge density. The model drug release studies demonstrate that these systems can be engineered for different potential anionic drugs for local therapeutic delivery in the clinic. PMID:26787485

  4. Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

  5. Access of Quaternary Ammonium Blockers to the Internal Pore of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels: Implications for the Location of the Gate

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Jorge E.; Holmgren, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play important roles in the transduction of visual and olfactory information by sensing changes in the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. We have investigated the interactions between intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium (QA) ions and the ? subunit of rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. We have used a family of alkyl-triethylammonium derivatives in which the length of one chain is altered. These QA derivatives blocked the permeation pathway of CNG channels in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. For QA compounds with tails longer than six methylene groups, increasing the length of the chain resulted in higher apparent affinities of ?1.2 RT per methylene group added, which is consistent with the presence of a hydrophobic pocket within the intracellular mouth of the channel that serves as part of the receptor binding site. At the single channel level, decyltriethyl ammonium (C10-TEA) ions did not change the unitary conductance but they did reduce the apparent mean open time, suggesting that the blocker binds to open channels. We provide four lines of evidence suggesting that QA ions can also bind to closed channels: (1) the extent of C10-TEA blockade at subsaturating [cGMP] was larger than at saturating agonist concentration, (2) under saturating concentrations of cGMP, cIMP, or cAMP, blockade levels were inversely correlated with the maximal probability of opening achieved by each agonist, (3) in the closed state, MTS reagents of comparable sizes to QA ions were able to modify V391C in the inner vestibule of the channel, and (4) in the closed state, C10-TEA was able to slow the Cd2+ inhibition observed in V391C channels. These results are in stark contrast to the well-established QA blockade mechanism in Kv channels, where these compounds can only access the inner vestibule in the open state because the gate that opens and closes the channel is located cytoplasmically with respect to the binding site of QA ions. Therefore, in the context of Kv channels, our observations suggest that the regions involved in opening and closing the permeation pathways in these two types of channels are different. PMID:16606688

  6. The reactivity of quaternary ammonium- versus potassium-fluorides supported on metal oxides: paving the way to an instantaneous detoxification of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Yossi; Yehezkel, Lea; Goldvaser, Michael; Marciano, Daniele; Waysbort, Daniel; Gershonov, Eytan; Columbus, Ishay

    2011-12-21

    The reactions of the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) 2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide (HD), O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) and isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) with various metal oxide-supported quaternary ammonium fluorides (QAF) and/or potassium fluoride (KF) reagents are described. These active sorbents, which were prepared by a modified procedure, include alumina, silica and titania, enriched with "available" (not bound to the surface) fluoride ions. Alumina-based fluoride reagents were found to be more active than their silica or titania counterparts. QAF/Al(2)O(3) reagents, compared to KF/Al(2)O(3), exhibit an exceptional reactivity toward HD, as demonstrated both in reaction rates and product identity. For example, with TBAF, t(1/2) is 15 min for the formation of the elimination product divinyl sulfide (DVS), while with KF, t(1/2) is 10 h for the formation of the hydrolysis product thiodiglycol (TDG). On the other hand, both sorbents reacted similarly against the nerve agents GB or VX. In order to increase the "available" fluoride content on the solid surface, the mixed active sorbent TBAF/KF/Al(2)O(3) (20/20/60) was developed. On this powder, all three CWAs were degraded instantaneously at the low loading of 1 wt% (t(1/2) < 2 min) and rapidly at the higher loadings of 5-10 wt% (t(1/2) of minutes scale). We assume that the relatively large amount of inorganic fluoride (KF) acts synergistically as a reservoir for the more reactive organic fluorides (TBAF). Moreover, the alumina surface hydroxyl groups may also operate as a water reservoir for the hydrolysis of VX or GB. Therefore, TBAF/KF/Al(2)O(3) might be considered as a promising destructive sorbent for CWAs. PMID:22042427

  7. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-03-15

    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible. PMID:26907546

  8. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XV: an investigation of polysiloxane anti-fouling/fouling-release coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Partha; Crowley, Elizabeth; Htet, Maung; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chisholm, Bret J

    2011-05-01

    As part of ongoing efforts aimed at the development of extensive structure−property relationships for moisture-curable polysiloxane coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties for potential application as environmental friendly coatings to combat marine biofouling, a combinatorial/high-throughput (C/HT) study was conducted that was focused on four different compositional variables. The coatings that were investigated were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HO-PDMS-OH), QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and methyltriacetoxysilane. The compositional variables investigated were alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane, chain length of the monovalent alkyl group attached to the QAS nitrogen atom, concentration of the QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and molecular weight of the HO-PDMS-OH. Of these variables, the composition of the alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane was a unique variable that had not been previously investigated. The antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics of the 24 unique coating compositions were characterized using HT assays based on three different marine microorganisms, namely, the two bacteria, Cellulophaga lytica and Halomonas pacifica, and the diatom, Navicula incerta. Coatings surfaces were characterized by surface energy, water contact angle hysteresis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A wide variety of responses were obtained over the compositional space investigated. ANOVA analysis showed that the compositional variables and their interactions significantly influenced AF/FR behaviors toward individual marine microorganisms. It was also found that utilization of the ethoxysilane-functional QASs provided enhanced AF character compared to coatings based on methoxysilane-functional analogues. This was attributed to enhanced surface segregation of QAS groups at the coating-air interface and confirmed by phase images using AFM. PMID:21480666

  9. Quaternary ammonium salt of U50488H, a new κ-opioid receptor agonist, protects rat heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianmei; Sun, Yang; Li, Juan; Xing, Wenjuan; Zhang, Shumiao; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Na; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Wen; Pei, Jianming

    2014-08-15

    To keep U50488H from going through the blood-brain barrier, U50488H, a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, was structurally transformed into its quaternary ammonium salt (Q-U50488H). The effect of Q-U50488H on ischemic/reperfused myocardium and its underlying mechanisms were also investigated. U50488H was transformed into Q-U50488H, which was identified with mass spectrometry. The existences of U50488H and Q-U50488H in serum and brain tissue fluid were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SD rats' hearts were subjected to 30min of ischemia followed by 120min of reperfusion in vivo. After reperfusion, myocardial enzymes and free radicals in serum, area of myocardial infarction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of Kir6.2 in rats' myocardium were determined. Molecular weight and solubility of Q-U50488H were higher than those of U50488H. Result of HPLC showed that Q-U50488H existed in serum but not in brain tissue after Q-U50488H intravenous injection. However, U50488H was detected in both serum and brain tissue. Compared with the I/R group, treatment with Q-U50488H significantly attenuated the activity of LDH, CK, AST/GOT and content of MDA in serum, upregulated the activity of SOD, and increased the expression of myocardial Kir6.2. It also reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R. Moreover, pretreatment with Nor-BNI (a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist), 5-HD and glibenclamide (KATP antagonists) abolished the effects of Q-U50488H. It is suggested Q-U50488H, a new compound of κ-opioid receptor agonist, which is not able to pass the blood-brain barrier, elicits a protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effect of Q-U50488H is associated with the opening of KATP. PMID:24855042

  10. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  11. Theoretical studies on the reaction of mono- and ditriflate derivatives of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol with trimethylamine-Can a quaternary ammonium salt be a source of the methyl group?

    PubMed

    Bednarko, Justyna; Wielińska, Justyna; Sikora, Karol; Liberek, Beata; Nowacki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    DFT studies on the mechanism of the formation of "gemini" quaternary ammonium salts in the reaction of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol ditriflate derivative with trimethylamine and its subsequent conversion to tertiary amine through the methyl-transfer reaction are discussed. Two alternative reaction pathways are presented in the gas phase and in ethanol. Additionally, the transformation of the monotriflate derivative of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol into the single quaternary ammonium salt is presented. Two functionals (B3LYP, M062X) and two basis sets (6-31+G** and 6-311++G**) were used for the calculations. The effect of the substituent attached to the five-membered rings at the C2 (and/or C5) carbon atom on the activation barrier is described. The trimethylammonium group bond to the five-membered ring greatly reduces the activation barrier height. The preferred reaction pathway for the conversions was established. Including the London dispersion in the calculations increases the stabilization of all the points on the potential energy surface in relation to individual reactants. PMID:26667239

  12. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of <350°C, ammonium salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection (LODs) were typically in the range of 0.001-0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm). A comparison to a well-established HPLC/MS/MS method was also conducted, yielding comparable results, thus confirming the suitability of NH4Cl salting out FI/MS/MS for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:23473245

  13. The use of superporous p(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethyl ammonium chloride cryogels for removal of toxic arsenate anions.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Demirci, Sahin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Yilmaz, Selahattin; Al-Lohedan, Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Poly((3-Acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (p(APTMACl)) cryogels were used as a superporous polymer network for the removal of toxic arsenate anions from an aqueous medium. The fast swelling in water, in about 7 s, was shown to be very useful leading to fast arsenate adsorption by p(APTMACl) cryogels within 30 min in comparison to 12 h for bulk common p(APTMACl) hydrogels. A maximum adsorption capacity of about 120 (mg/g) arsenate was obtained for p(APTMACl) cryogels. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied for adsorption of arsenate anions by p(APTMACl) cryogels, and it was observed that the adsorption of arsenate anions by p(APTMACl) cryogels are represented better via Langmuir adsorption isotherm providing the R(2) value of 0.998. Furthermore, mag-p(APTMACl) cryogels were synthesized, and shown to be very useful in the fast removal of toxic arsenate anions. The mag-p(APTMACl) cryogels including the adsorbed arsenate were removed by an externally applied magnetic field, with some reduction in the arsenate ion adsorption capacity. It was also further demonstrated that p(APTMACl) cryogels can be reused in the adsorption of arsenate 5 times from aqueous environments without significant loss of adsorption capacity, from 113.47 ± 9 to 102.67 ± 6 mg/g. PMID:25617870

  14. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João

    2016-03-01

    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications. PMID:26798078

  15. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively. PMID:24958543

  16. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-01

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W-1 and 5.08 × 1010 Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm-2. Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector.

  17. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; Sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-12

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W(-1) and 5.08 × 10(10) Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm(-2). Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector. PMID:26684002

  18. Enantioselective nucleophilic difluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes with Me3SiCF2SO2Ph and PhSO2CF2H reagents catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Chuanfa; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Although the nucleophilic difluoromethylation of aldehydes, ketones, and imines has been realized with PhSO2CF2H and related reagents, there are still no reports on the enantioselective nucleophilic reactions. Results With a chiral quaternary ammonium salt as the catalyst and KOH as the base, we describe the first enantioselective difluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes with PhSO2CF2H or Me3SiCF2SO2Ph. The enantioselectivity is substrate-dependent and for 2-chlorinated benzaldehyde an ee up to 64% was obtained. Conclusion These results provide some insights into the enantioselective nucleophilic difluoromethylation chemistry, which will stimulate further progress in this field. PMID:18941491

  19. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  20. The cytotoxicity of methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride, a cationic antibacterial monomer, is related to oxidative stress and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Shan, Le-qun; Xiao, Yu-hong; Li, Fang; Huang, Li; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Ji-hua

    2011-11-01

    Antibacterial monomers incorporated in dentin bonding systems may have toxic effects on the pulp. Thus, the cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers and its underlying mechanisms must be elucidated to improve the safety of antibacterial monomer application. The influence of an antibacterial monomer, methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), on the vitality of L929 mouse fibroblasts was tested using MTT assay. Cell cycle progression was studied using flow cytometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMAE-CB treatment was measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining and flow cytometry analysis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, disturbance of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, as well as release of cytochrome C were also measured using flow cytometry analysis or Western blot to explore the possible involvement of the mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway. DMAE-CB elicited cell death in a dose-dependent manner and more than 50% of cells were killed after treatment with 30 µM of the monomer. Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed. DMAE-CB also induced G1- and G2-phase arrest. Increased levels of intracellular ROS were observed after 1 h and this overproduction was further enhanced by 6-h treatment with the monomer. DMAE-CB may cause apoptosis by disturbing the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, reducing the mitochondrial potential and inducing release of cytochrome C. Taken together, these findings suggest that the toxicity of the antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB is associated with ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance, and cell apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:22002093

  1. Optimization of structural and dielectric properties of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) polymer in a desired frequency and temperature window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, investigations of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposites and pure PDADMAC synthesized by wet chemical technique have been carried out. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis have been performed to reveal the structural details of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite (PNC). The dielectric behavior of pure polymer and PNC has been recorded, which results in higher value of the real and imaginary part of dielectric constant for PNC, as compared with pure PDADMAC. The increase is attributed to the addition of CdSe quantum dots to the pure polymer. The contribution of ionic and electronic polarization has been observed at higher frequency. The theoretical fitting of Cole-Cole function to the experimental data of dielectric constant of PNC and pure PDADMAC results in the determination of relaxation time and conductivity of space charge carriers. The CdSe loaded polymer nanocomposite has been used as an electrolyte in the battery fabrication with configuration Al/PNC/Ag2O. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for both samples in a frequency window of 1 kHz-5 MHz and at different temperatures varying from 298 K to 523 K. Activation energy (Ea) has been determined for pure polymer as well as PNC and is found to be less for PNC, as compared with pure polymer. Further, impedance measurement at different temperatures results in two frequency ranges corresponding to ionic conduction and blocking electrode effect. The value of bulk resistance for pure polymer and PNC has been found to be 3660 Ω and 442 Ω, respectively, at 298 K temperature. Electric modulus has been determined and is observed to support the dielectric constant data; it further reveals the deviation from Debye behavior at a higher frequency.

  2. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  3. An ARXPS and ERXPS study of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids: utilising a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Rebecca K; Delorme, Astrid E; Smith, Emily F; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-17

    A series of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids have been probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source. The capability of the Ag Lα' X-ray source for ionic liquid analysis is confirmed alongside the characterisation of previously undetected high energy core photoelectron emissions. Additionally, the utilisation of the Ag Lα' X-ray source as a depth profiling technique (ERXPS) to investigate the structure of the ionic liquid/vacuum interface has been demonstrated, with comparison made to angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). PMID:26846969

  4. Functionalization of C-4-methoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene with several ammonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Suryadi B.; Saputro, Agung N. C.; Rinanto, Yudi

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of new quaternary ammonium modified calix[4]resorcinarenes were accomplished by the reaction of C-4-methoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene (I) with various ammonium compounds i.e. (1) (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, (2) glycydiltrimethylammonium chloride, and (3) N-hexadecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide. The modification processes were carried out through just over one-step reaction by using minimal solvent and suitable reaction conditions to yield resorcinarene II, III, and IV, respectively. All products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR data. Solid morphology of some resorcinarenes was determined using SEM equipped with EDX detector. Based on the spectral properties of 1H-NMR, all calixresorcinarene compounds were isolated in the molecular shape of the chair (C2h) conformation.

  5. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  6. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  7. Evaluation of Reduced Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Bisbiguanides in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Generated Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Furi, Leonardo; Ciusa, Maria Laura; Knight, Daniel; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Tocci, Nadia; Cirasola, Daniela; Aragones, Lluis; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Marchi, Emmanuela; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Northwood, John Blackman; Viti, Carlo; Borghi, Elisa; Orefici, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the biocides benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were determined against 1,602 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds showed unimodal MIC and MBC distributions (2 and 4 or 8 mg/liter, respectively) with no apparent subpopulation with reduced susceptibility. To investigate further, all isolates were screened for qac genes, and 39 of these also had the promoter region of the NorA multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pump sequenced. The presence of qacA, qacB, qacC, and qacG genes increased the mode MIC, but not MBC, to benzalkonium chloride, while only qacA and qacB increased the chlorhexidine mode MIC. Isolates with a wild-type norA promoter or mutations in the norA promoter had similar biocide MIC distributions; notably, not all clinical isolates with norA mutations were resistant to fluoroquinolones. In vitro efflux mutants could be readily selected with ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Multiple passages were necessary to select mutants with biocides, but these mutants showed phenotypes comparable to those of mutants selected by dyes. All mutants showed changes in the promoter region of norA, but these were distinct from this region of the clinical isolates. Still, none of the in vitro mutants displayed fitness defects in a killing assay in Galleria mellonella larvae. In conclusion, our data provide an in-depth comparative overview on efflux in S. aureus mutants and clinical isolates, showing also that plasmid-encoded efflux pumps did not affect bactericidal activity of biocides. In addition, current in vitro tests appear not to be suitable for predicting levels of resistance that are clinically relevant. PMID:23669380

  8. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. PMID:25469865

  9. Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Rao, M. S.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-11-01

    High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability and for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity particularly against gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Acute inhalation toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lin, G H; Voss, K A; Davidson, T J

    1991-12-01

    Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a quaternary ammonium salt and cationic surfactant. It has been used as a biocide in personal hygiene products and a charge control additive in some reprographic toners. CPC is orally toxic to rats, mice and rabbits and can cause severe eye irritation. Acute inhalation toxicity studies of CPC and other quaternary ammonium salts have not, however, been reported. Groups of five rats per sex were exposed to aerosols containing 0 (control), 0.05, 0.07, 0.13 and 0.29 mg CPC/litre for 4 hr and observed for toxicity and ocular effects for 14 days thereafter. All animals were subjected to autopsy and the eyes were examined microscopically. The LC50 (sexes combined) of CPC was 0.09 mg/litre with upper and lower 95% confidence limits of 0.13 and 0.07 mg/litre, respectively. Clinical signs of toxicity included weight loss, nasal discharge, chromodacryorrhoea, respiratory difficulty and eye irritation, and all these non-lethal effects were reversible. Acute inflammation of the cornea, iris and/or aqueous humour were found in one, seven and four of 10 rats exposed to 0.07, 0.13 and 0.29 mg CPC/litre, respectively. Corneal epithelial hyalinization, without evidence of ongoing inflammation, was found in three additional rats among the 10 exposed to 0.29 mg CPC/litre. PMID:1765331

  11. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  12. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Shabanpour, Ziba; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Khubani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance toward quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as biofilm formation. Objectives: In this study, the effects of benzalkonium chloride on planktonic growth and biofilm formation by some field isolates of animal bacterial pathogens were investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates of each) were examined for effects of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. For all the examined strains in the presence of benzalkonium chloride, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of disinfectant. Results: The means of strains growth increase after the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were significant in all the bacteria (except for E. coli in 1/32 and S. agalactiae in of 1/8 MIC). Biofilm formation increased with decrease of antiseptics concentration; a significant increase was found in all the samples. The most turbidity related to S. aureus and the least to Salmonella. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against quaternary ammonium compounds is increasing which can increase the bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:25793094

  13. Quaternary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The primary purpose of the Quaternary investigation is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The investigation will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.

  14. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-12-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  15. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  16. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  17. Enrichment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Aqueous Solutions Using Fe3O4 Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Poly Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaolin; Cao, Yuting; Sang, Weiguo; Li, Tianhua; Gan, Ning; Zheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) grafted carboxyl groups of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with cationic polyelectrolyte poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) (MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4), are successfully synthesized and used for the extraction of six kinds of major toxic polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a large volume of water solution. The hydrophilicity of the PDDA cage can enhance the dispersibility of sorbents in water samples, and the superparamagnetism of the Fe3O4 NPs facilitate magnetic separation which directly led to the simplification of the extraction procedure. With the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) technique based on the MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4 sorbents, it requires only 30 min to extract trace levels of PCBs from 500 mL water samples. When the eluate condensed to 1.0 mL, concentration factors for PCBs became over 500. The spiked recoveries of several real water samples for PCBs were in the range of 73.3–98.9% with relative standard deviations varying from 3.8% to 9.4%, reflecting good accuracy of the method. Therefore, preconcentration of trace level of PCBs by using this MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4 sorbent, which are stable for multiple reuses, from water solution can be performed. PMID:22754371

  18. Effect of chemical sanitizers with and without ultrasonication on Listeria monocytogenes as a biofilm within polyvinyl chloride drain pipes.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Frank, J F; Meinersmann, R J

    2008-01-01

    As part of a biofilm in a floor drain, Listeria monocytogenes is exceedingly difficult to eradicate with standard sanitizing protocols. The objective of these studies was to test the use of ultrasonication to break up biofilm architecture and allow chemical sanitizers to contact cells directly. L. monocytogenes biofilms were created in model polyvinyl chloride drain pipes. Chemical sanitizers (quaternary ammonium, peroxide, or chlorine) were applied to the drain pipes with and without a 30-s ultrasonication treatment. Controls using sterile water were included for comparison. L. monocytogenes cells were enumerated from the liquid in the drain and the inside wall surface of the pipe. All chemicals lowered numbers of planktonic cells from 6.6 log CFU/ml in the water control to < 100 CFU/ml. Attached cells were also affected by the chemical sanitizers. Approximately 6.0 log CFU/cm2 of the inner wall surface was detected in water control pipes, and ultrasonication did not lower these numbers. With or without ultrasonication, the peroxide-based sanitizer was effective for reducing the numbers of attached L. monocytogenes cells, resulting in approximately 2.0 log CFU/cm2. Both the chlorine- and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers reduced the number of attached L. monocytogenes cells to a lesser degree, resulting in 4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/cm2. However, addition of ultrasonication improved the performance of both these sanitizers, causing a further reduction to 3.1 and 2.9 CFU/ cm2 for quaternary ammonium- and chlorine-based chemicals, respectively. These results indicate that a peroxide-based sanitizer alone can be very effective against biofilm L. monocytogenes in drain pipes, and the addition of ultrasonication can improve the effectiveness of chlorine or quaternary ammonium sanitizers. PMID:18236664

  19. Liquid chromatography of hydrocarbonaeous quaternary amines on cyclodextrin bonded silica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDAC) were resolved into homologous components by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cyclodextrin-bonded silica stationary phase. With a few exceptions, results from this study are similar to those obtained from traditional reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that the presence of electrolytes in aqueous mobile phases is not a critical factor in determining the success of HPLC separation. Under normal HPLC conditions, a mobile phase consisting of either methanol–water (50:50) or acetonitrile–water (30:70) was employed for obtaining adequate resolution of the quaternary ammonium mixtures. Although the percent organic modifier–water profiles were similar to those in previous studies with these compounds, resolution (R) and selectivity (α) parameters were found to be quite susceptible to changes in the mobile phase solvent composition. The retention behavior of the cationic analytes in the homologous series is consistent with the hydrophobic-interaction concept proposed for the retention mechanism via dominant inclusion complex formation. Several electrolytes were chosen for a study of the counter ion effect on the chromatographic characteristics of ABDAC components. Among the electrolytes examined, the perchlorate ion was found most likely to act as an ion-pairing counter ion for ammonium cations in the HPLC system studied. A correlation study established linear relationships between the chain length of ABDAC and the logarithmic capacity factor (k2). The analytical utility of the HPLC method was demonstrated by the analysis of various unknown mixtures.

  20. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) to agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lei; Sun, Teng-Fei; Zheng, Mei-Jie; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) used as cationic surfactants are intensively released into environment to be pollutants receiving more and more concerns. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), one of commonly used alkyl QACs, to five types of agricultural soils at low concentrations (1-50mg/L) was investigated using batch experiments. DTAC sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and reached reaction equilibrium within 120min. Both Freundlich model and Langmuir model fitted well with DTAC isotherm data with the latter better. DTAC sorption was spontaneous and favorable, presenting a physical sorption dominated by ion exchanges. Sorption distribution coefficient and sorption affinity demonstrated that soil clay contents acted as a predominant phase of DTAC sorption. DTAC could display a higher mobility and potential accumulation in crops in the soils with lower clay contents and lower pH values. Sorption of DTAC was heavily affected by ions in solution with anion promotion and cation inhibition. PMID:27101455

  1. Block of neuronal chloride channels by tetraethylammonium ion derivatives

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The block by the symmetric tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion derivatives tetrapropylammonium (TPrA), tetrabutylammonium (TBA), and tetrapentylammonium (TPeA) ions of fast chloride channels in acutely dissociated rat cortical neurons was studied with the excised inside- out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. When applied to the intracellular membrane surface, all three of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QAs) induced the appearance of short-lived closed states in a manner consistent with a blocking mechanism where the blocker preferentially binds to the open kinetic state and completely blocks ion current through the channel. The drug must leave the channel before the channel can return to a closed state. The mechanism of block was studied using one-dimensional dwell-time analysis. Kinetic models were fit to distributions of open and closed interval durations using the Q- matrix approach. The blocking rate constants for all three of the QAs were similar with values of approximately 12-20 x 10(6) M-1s-1. The unblocking rates were dependent on the size or hydrophobicity of the QA with the smallest derivative, TPrA, inducing a blocked state with a mean lifetime of approximately 90 microseconds, while the most hydrophobic derivative, TPeA, induced a blocked state with a mean lifetime of approximately 1 ms. Thus, it appears as though quaternary ammonium ion block of these chloride channels is nearly identical to the block of many potassium channels by these compounds. This suggests that there must be structural similarities in the conduction pathway between anion and cation permeable channels. PMID:8648291

  2. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  3. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. 5-Acetyl-4-(3-hy­droxy­phen­yl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-2-one–tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)ammonium chloride (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Huq, C. A. M. A.; Fouzia, S.; NizamMohideen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C13H14N2O3·C3H10NO3 +·Cl−, contains two independent mol­ecules (A and B) of the title pyrimidine derivative and one ion-pair of tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)ammonium chloride. The pyrimidine ring in each pyrimidine derivative has a half-chair conformation. Its mean plane is inclined to the benzene ring by 87.2 (3)° in mol­ecule A and 85.7 (2)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, the pyrimidine derivatives are connected to each other by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the b-axis direction. The chains are linked via O—H—Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)ammonium chloride mol­ecules are located in the cages of the framework. There are also further C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions present in the three-dimensional framework structure. Both the cation and chloride anion of the tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)ammonium chloride ion pair are disordered over two positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.418 (8):0.582 (8) for the cation and 0.71 (4):0.29 (4) for the anion. PMID:24454216

  6. Ammonium chloride, an inhibitor of phagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages, concurrently induces phagosome-endosome fusion, and opens a novel pathway: studies of a pathogenic mycobacterium and a nonpathogenic yeast.

    PubMed

    Hart, P D; Young, M R

    1991-10-01

    The weak base ammonium chloride has been previously reported to inhibit lysosomal movements and phagosome-lysosome (Ph-L) fusion in cultured mouse macrophages (M phi), thus reducing delivery, to an intraphagosomal infection, of endocytosed solutes that have concentrated in secondary lysosomes. We have now addressed the question, whether NH4Cl might affect any direct interaction (if it exists) between such infection phagosomes and earlier, nonlysosomal compartments of the endocytic pathway, i.e., solute-containing endosomes. The phagosomes studied were formed after ingestion of the mouse pathogen Mycobacterium microti and the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and the endosomes were formed after nonreceptor-mediated endocytosis of electronopaque and fluorescent soluble markers. By electron microscopy, survey of the cell profiles of M phi that had been treated with 10 mM NH4Cl so that Ph-L fusion was prevented, and that displayed many ferritin-labeled endosomes, revealed numerous examples of the fusion of electronlucent endosomes, revealed numerous examples of the fusion of electronlucent vesicles with phagosomes, whether containing M. microti bacilli or S. cerevisiae yeasts. Fusion was recognized by transfer of label and by morphological evidence of fusion in progress. The fusing vesicles were classed as endosomes, not NH4Cl-lysosomes, by their appearance and provenance, and because lysosome participation was excluded by the concurrent, NH4Cl-caused block of Ph-L fusion and associated lysosomal stasis. No evidence of such phagosome-endosome (Ph-E) fusion was observed in profiles from M phi treated with chloroquine, nor in those from normal, untreated M phi. NH4Cl-treated living M phi that had ingested yeasts at 37 degrees C, followed by endocytosis of lucifer yellow at 17 degrees C (to accumulate labeled endosomes and postpone label passing to lysosomes), were then restored to 37 degrees C. Fluorescence microscopy showed that as many as half of the yeast phagosomes (previously unlabeled) rapidly became colored. We inferred that this transfer was from endosomes (by Ph-E fusion) because Ph-L passage was blocked (by the NH4Cl). We conclude that NH4Cl induces Ph-E fusion at the same time as it suppressed Ph-L fusion. We discuss the mechanisms of these concurrent effects and suggest that they are independent; and we consider the implications of NH4Cl opening a direct route for endocytosed molecules to reach an intraphagosomal infection without involving lysosomes. PMID:1919441

  7. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo­ylmeth­oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy­droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene–tetra­ethyl­ammonium chloride (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Omran, Omran A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 +·Cl−, contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo­yl)meth­oxy]-trihy­droxy-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene mol­ecules, two tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene ‘buckets’. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the thia­calixarene mol­ecules, tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å3, but no solvent mol­ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  8. Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Topp, Edward; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark; Macfie, Sheila M; Ray, Madhumita B

    2015-12-15

    Bactericidal cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely detected in the environment, and found at mgkg(-1) concentrations in biosolids. Although individual QACs are amenable to biodegradation, it is possible that persistence is increased for mixtures of QACs with varying structure. The present study evaluated the biodegradation of benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) singly and in the presence of benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using Pseudomonas sp., isolated from returned activated sludge. Growth was evaluated, as was biodegradation using (14)C and HPLC-MS methods. BDTA was more toxic to growth of Pseudomonas sp. compared to BDDA, and BDTA inhibited BDDA biodegradation. The benzyl ring of [U-(14)C-benzyl] BDDA was readily and completely mineralized. The detection of the transformation products benzyl methyl amine and dodecyl dimethyl amine in spent culture liquid was consistent with literature. Overall, this study demonstrates the antagonistic effect of interactions on biodegradation of two widely used QACs suggesting further investigation on the degradation of mixture of QACs in wastewater effluents and biosolids. PMID:26277347

  9. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC50 values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I-V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10-15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I-V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. PMID:23313619

  10. Quaternary and Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, J. T.; Graf, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights conferences and meetings of organizations involved with quaternary geology and geomorphology, including International Union of Quaternary Research Conference held in Moscow. The impetus of a revision of "The Quaternary of the United States" resulted from this conference. Includes activities/aims of "Friends of the Pleistocene"…

  11. A hybridization approach to efficient TiO2 photodegradation of aqueous benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Suchithra, Padmajan Sasikala; Carleer, Robert; Ananthakumar, Solaippan; Yperman, Jan

    2015-08-15

    TiO2 get positively charged upon UV-irradiation and repel the cationic pollutants away from the surface. Hybridization of AC onto TiO2 (ACT) tends catalyst surface negatively charged besides providing highly favorable adsorptions sites for cationic pollutants. The photodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a quaternary ammonium surfactant and a pharmaceutical, is investigated with ACT. The surface charge of the catalyst in surfactant and non-surfactant aqueous dispersion under UV-irradiation is investigated and explained. The anomalous increase in COD values at the beginning of BKC-photodegradation is explained. The intermediate products formed are identified in both solution and solid phase. Trace amount of dodecane remained adsorbed on the catalyst surface after 1h UV-irradiation, but complete mineralization of BKC is achieved with 2h UV-irradiation. We propose that BKC photodegradation starts by central fission of benzyl CN bond followed by dealkylation, and demethylation steps. PMID:25855569

  12. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Frank, G. P.; Dusek, U.; Gunthe, S. S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2007-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650-1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5-1.0 L min-1 aerosol flow rate, 20-30°C inlet temperature, 4-34 K m-1 temperature gradient). For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff) in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations. High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5-7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature. To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05-2%), the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH4)2SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff factor models). The uncertainties related to the model parameterizations of water activity clearly exceeded the CCNC measurement precision. Relative deviations caused by different ways of calculating or approximating solution density and surface tension did not exceed 3% for (NH4)2SO4 and 1.5% for NaCl. Nevertheless, they did exceed the CCNC measurement precision under well-defined operating conditions and should not be neglected in studies aimed at high accuracy. To ensure comparability of results, we suggest that CCN studies should always report exactly which Köhler model equations and parameterizations of solution properties were used. Substantial differences between the CCNC calibration results obtained with (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols under equal experimental conditions (relative deviations of Seff up to ~10%) indicate inconsistencies between widely used activity parameterizations derived from electrodynamic balance (EDB) single particle experiments (Tang and Munkelwitz, 1994; Tang, 1996) and hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) aerosol experiments (Kreidenweis et al., 2005). Therefore, we see a need for further evaluation and experimental confirmation of preferred data sets and parameterizations for the activity of water in dilute aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl solutions. The experimental results were also used to test the CCNC flow model of Lance et al.~(2006), which describes the dependence of Seff on temperature, pressure, and flow rate in the CCN counter. This model could be applied after subtraction of a near-constant temperature offset and derivation of an instrument-specific thermal resistance parameter (RT≍1.8 K W-1). At Seff>0.1% the relative deviations between the flow model and experimental results were mostly less than 5%, when the same Köhler model approach was used. At Seff≤.1%, however, the deviations exceeded 20%, which can be attributed to non-idealities which also caused the near-constant temperature offset. Therefore, we suggest that the CCNC flow model can be used to extrapolate calibration results, but should generally be complemented by calibration experiments performed under the relevant operating conditions - during field campaigns as well as in laboratory studies.

  13. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  14. The role of common urinary constituents in the precipitation of ammonium acid urate.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, R C; Brockis, J G; McCulloch, R K

    1979-12-17

    A high proportion of the inhibitory activity shown by urine toward precipitation of ammonium acid urate is ultrafilterable and most of this can be accounted for by the common, low molecular weight components of urine. The individual inhibitory effects of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, citric acid, hippuric acid, creatinine and urea upon the precipitation of ammonium acid urate have been quantified in an aqueous test system. PMID:519860

  15. Thermoelastic behaviour of mixed ammonium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, S. S.; Singh, Jaspal

    1992-04-01

    A theory for the temperature derivatives of second order elastic constants of ammonium chloride and ammonium bromide, crystalizing in ceasium chloride structure has been developed incorporating contributions due to the thermal phonons and three body interactions in the lattice energy in the framework of Hildebrand approximation. The expressions for the temperature derivatives have been derived by differentiating the expressions of the second order elastic constants. The repulsive potential which is taken to be of the Born-Mayer type is assumed significant up to the first neighbours only. Computations have been made for pure and mixed crystals NH4Cl1-xBrx for x=0, 0.13, 0.23 and 1.00. The results have been found in agreement with the experimental data wherever these are available.

  16. Quaternary ammonium borohydride adsorption in mesoporous silicate MCM-48

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, Michael J; Daemen, Luke L; Hartl, Monika A

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic borohydrides have a high gravimetric hydrogen density but release H2 only under energetically unfavorable conditions. Surface chemistry may help in lowering thermodynamic barriers, but inclusion of inorganic borohydrides in porous silica materials has proved hitherto difficult or impossible. We show that borohydrides with a large organic cation are readily adsorbed inside mesoporous silicates, particularly after surface treatment. Thermal analysis reveals that the decomposition thermodynamics of tetraalkylammonium borohydrides are substantially affected by inclusion in MCM-48. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data show that the compounds adsorb on the silica surface. Evidence of pore loading is supplemented by DSC/TGA, XRD, FTIR, and BET isotherm measurements. Mass spectrometry shows significant hydrogen release at lower temperature from adsorbed borohydrides in comparison with the bulk borohydrides. INS data measured for partially decomposed samples indicates that the decomposition of the cation and anion is likely simultaneous. Additionally, these data confirm the formation of Si-H bonds on the silica surface upon decomposition of adsorbed tetramethylammonium borohydride.

  17. Bacterial resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert; Jansen, Arina; Coetzee, Marisa; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Control of bacterial diseases has, for many years, been dependent on the use of antibiotics. Due to the high levels of efficacy of antibiotics in the past other disease control options have, to a large extent, been neglected. Mankind is now facing an increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. In an effort to retain some antibiotics for human use, there are moves afoot to limit or even ban the use of antibiotics in animal production. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters have been banned in the European Union and the USA. The potential ban on the use of antibiotics to treat diseases in production animals creates a dilemma for man-suffer significant problem with bacterial infection or suffer from a severe shortage of food! There are other options for the control of bacterial diseases. These include vaccine development, bacteriophage therapy, and improved biosecurity. Vaccine development against bacterial pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens, is often very challenging, as in many cases the molecular basis of the virulence is not always clearly understood. This is particularly true for Escherichia coli. Biosecurity (disinfection) has been a highly neglected area in disease control. With the ever-increasing problems with antibiotic resistance-the focus should return to improvements in biosecurity. As with antibiotics, bacteria also have mechanisms for resistance to disinfectants. To ensure that we do not replace one set of problems (increasing antibiotic resistance) with another (increasing resistance to disinfectants) we need to fully understand the modes of action of disinfectants and how the bacteria develop resistance to these disinfectants. Molecular studies have been undertaken to relate the presence of QAC resistance genes in bacteria to their levels of sensitivity to different generations of QAC-based products. The mode of action of QAC on bacteria has been studied using NanoSAM technology, where it was revealed that the QAC causes disruption of the bacterial cell wall and leaking of the cytoplasm out of the cells. Our main focus is on the control of bacterial and viral diseases in the poultry industry in a post-antibiotic era, but the principles remain similar for disease control in any veterinary field as well as in human medicine. PMID:24595606

  18. Syntheses and characterization of amphiphilic quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pedro, Rafael; Schmitt, Carla C; Neumann, Miguel G

    2016-08-20

    Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives possess improved physico-chemical properties and could be used as carriers in drug delivery systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of an amphiphilic system involving (5-pentyl) trimethylammonium and dodecyl aldehyde-modified chitosan. Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)HNMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembled aggregates formed in aqueous solution have hydrophobic cores that were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The critical aggregation concentration of the aggregates in water varied from 0.004 to 0.037g/L and the average size distribution was in the 230-500nm range. The ζ-potential (+15.5 to +44.8mV) confirmed that the surfaces of the aggregates were positively charged and stable in physiological-like environments. TEM images suggest that the aggregates have a spherical shape, showing good agreement with DLS results. These results suggest that the synthesized copolymers have the capability of being used as carriers for hydrophobic drugs. PMID:27178913

  19. NEW QUATERNARY AMMONIUM ION REAGENTS FROM UREA FOR FABRIC TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we showed a one step conversion of urea to tertiary amines in water (J. Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 9234-9237). Of these, we used triallylamine to quaternize PEG, PPG, and aryl bromides (Figure 1). One and two-dimensional NMR and chemical ionization mass spectrometries were used to characteriz...

  20. Polybenzimidazole-crosslinked poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane groups as high-performance anion exchange membrane for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wangting; Zhang, Geng; Li, Jin; Hao, Jinkai; Wei, Feng; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Jiying; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    Development of anion exchange membrane (AEM) with high conductivity, good dimensional stability, desirable toughness and long life-time simultaneously is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. Herein, a novel AEM (denoted as PBI-c-PVBC/OH) is fabricated by applying polybenzimidazole (PBI) and 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) as the macromolecular crosslinker and quaternizing reagent for poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC), respectively. With the aid of crosslinking by PBI, PBI-c-PVBC/OH exhibits good flexibility and strength both in dry and water-saturated state. Moreover, high hydroxide conductivity (>25 mS cm-1 at room temperature) and low swelling ratio (∼13%) is obtained, especially the swelling ratio nearly does not increase with temperature. The membrane is also advanced for the superior chemical stability in alkaline environment due to the stable polymer backbone and ionic conductive group (only one nitrogen atom in a DABCO molecule is quaternized). Furthermore, a peak power density of 230 mW cm-2 at 50 °C is obtained on the H2/O2 fuel cell using PBI-c-PVBC/OH, and the membrane presents high durability both in the constant current and continuous open circuit voltage testing. Therefore, it is considered that the PBI crosslinking together with DABCO quaternization can be regarded as a promising strategy in the development of AEM for fuel cells.

  1. Contribution of ammonium ions to the lethality and antimetamorphic effects of ammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, James A

    2006-04-01

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a widespread military waste product in the United States and is a potent thyroid function disruptor in all vertebrates tested thus far. To determine the relative contribution of ammonium ions to the toxicity of AP, we exposed embryonic and larval Xenopus laevis to various concentrations of sodium perchlorate (SP) or ammonium chloride (AC). Ammonium perchlorate was significantly more lethal than SP; 5-d LC50s were 83 and 2,780 mg/L, respectively. To determine whether ammonium ions contribute to the antithyroid effects of AP, we exposed embryonic and larval X. laevis to two sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of AP or identical concentrations of AC or SP. At the smaller concentration, only AP delayed metamorphosis and reduced hindlimb growth. Sodium perchlorate and AP, but not AC, prevented metamorphosis and reduced hindlimb growth at the greater concentration. Although AP was slightly more effective in reducing outward manifestations of thyroid disruption, both perchlorate salts, unlike AC, caused profound histopathologic changes in the thyroid. Exposure to the higher concentration of either perchlorate salt produced a feminizing effect, resulting in a skewed sex ratio. We conclude that ammonium ions contribute significantly to the toxicity of AP but not to the direct antithyroid effects of perchlorate. PMID:16629145

  2. Does metallic ammonium exist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of calculations which demonstrate that metallic ammonium, at least in the form envisaged by Ramsey (1951), is unstable at all pressures. On the basis of the computational results it is concluded that monovalent metallic ammonium is never the thermodynamically favored phase for an NH3-1/2H2 mixture.

  3. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  4. Overcoming ammonium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bittsánszky, András; Pilinszky, Katalin; Gyulai, Gábor; Komives, Tamas

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia (ammonium ion under physiological conditions) is one of the key nitrogen sources in cellular amino acid biosynthesis. It is continuously produced in living organisms by a number of biochemical processes, but its accumulation in cells leads to tissue damage. Current knowledge suggests that a few enzymes and transporters are responsible for maintaining the delicate balance of ammonium fluxes in plant tissues. In this study we analyze the data in the scientific literature and the publicly available information on the dozens of biochemical reactions in which endogenous ammonium is produced or consumed, the enzymes that catalyze them, and the enzyme and transporter mutants listed in plant metabolic and genetic databases (Plant Metabolic Network, TAIR, and Genevestigator). Our compiled data show a surprisingly high number of little-studied reactions that might influence cellular ammonium concentrations. The role of ammonium in apoptosis, its relation to oxidative stress, and alterations in ammonium metabolism induced by environmental stress need to be explored in order to develop methods to manage ammonium toxicity. PMID:25576003

  5. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  6. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  8. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  9. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  11. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  12. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  13. The vapor phase dissociation of ammonium salts: Ammonium halides, ammonium rhodanide, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kruif, C. G.

    1982-12-01

    Vapor pressures as a function of temperature of the ammonium salts are measured by means of a simultaneous torsion effusion and mass-loss effusion technique. From a theoretical analysis, which is given first, it is shown that the enthalpies of sublimation and the degree of dissociation b in the vapor phase are related to the measured quantities. The degree of dissociation appears to be a weak function of temperature and is evaluated by b(NH4F, 288.91 K)=0.97; b(NH4Cl, 352.02 K)=0.85; b(NH4Br, 380.06 K)=0.51; b(NH4I, 385.03 K)=0.39; b(NH4CNS, 313.78 K)=0.61; b(NH4NO3, 351.89 K)=0.66; b(NH4HCO3, 270.56)=0.85. It is assumed that NH4HCO3 dissociates into NH3, H2O, and CO2. At the given temperatures, total vapor pressure is 0.40 Pa.

  14. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  15. Effect of ammonium on bacterial adherence to bladder transitional epithelium.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C L; Stauffer, C; Mulholland, S G; Griffith, D P

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of urease-producing bacteria depends on the ability of urease to degrade urea into ammonia and thereby to alkalinize the urine. Infections caused by urease-producing organisms such as Proteus mirabilis are particularly difficult to manage clinically. We have shown that the layer of glycosaminoglycans at the bladder surface protects against infection by blocking the adherence of bacteria to the epithelium. To determine whether urease-producing urinary pathogens owe their virulence in part to an ability to inactivate the protective effect of the glycosaminoglycan layer, we tested the ability of ammonium chloride to alter bacterial adherence to the normal vesical mucosa. We used an in vivo adherence assay that we have described previously in rabbits. Control animals received sodium chloride adjusted to the same pH as the ammonium chloride. We found that 0.25 M ammonium chloride significantly increases bacterial adherence to normal vesical mucosa as compared to adherence in controls receiving 0.25 M sodium chloride (p less than 0.05). These data suggest that urease plays a hitherto undescribed role in bacterial virulence by altering the antiadherence activity of the glycosaminoglycan layer present at the transitional cell surface. PMID:6376829

  16. Light scattering studies of tetramethyl ammonium gellan.

    PubMed

    Gunning, A P; Morris, V J

    1990-12-01

    Tetramethyl ammonium (TMA) gellan does not gel. Light scattering studies suggest that in solutions of TMA gellan, in tetramethyl ammonium chloride (TMACI), the gellan molecules assemble end to end to produce elongated fibrous structures. Such fibrils are envisaged as resulting from double-helix formation between the ends of neighbouring gellan molecules. Fibrils with molecular weights ranging from (1.06 +/- 0.06) x 10(5) to (4.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) have been observed. The molecular weights obtained depended upon the pore size of the filters used to clarify the solutions. The formation of strong gels, in the presence of gel promoting cations, is attributed to a localized ordered lateral association, or crystallization of regions of these fibrils. It is suggested that such a model for gelation may be of general applicability to a number of polysaccharide systems. PMID:2088489

  17. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  18. Assessment of the formation of inorganic oxidation by-products during the electrocatalytic treatment of ammonium from landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Pérez, G; Saiz, J; Ibañez, R; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I

    2012-05-15

    This work investigates the formation of oxidation by-products during the electrochemical removal of ammonium using BDD electrodes from wastewaters containing chlorides. The influence of the initial chloride concentration has been experimentally analyzed first, working with model solutions with variable ammonium concentration and second, with municipal landfill leachates. Two different levels of chloride concentration were studied, i) low chloride concentrations ranging between 0 and 2000 mg/L and, ii) high chloride concentrations ranging between 5000 and 20,000 mg/L. Ammonium removal took place mainly via indirect oxidation leading to the formation of nitrogen gas and nitrate as the main oxidation products; at high chloride concentration the formation of nitrogen gas and the rate of ammonium removal were both favored. However, chloride was also oxidized during the electrochemical treatment leading to the formation of free chlorine responsible of the ammonium oxidation, together with undesirable products such as chloramines, chlorate and perchlorate. Chloramines appeared during the treatment but they reached a maximum and then started decreasing, being totally removed when high chloride concentrations were used. With regard to the formation of chlorate and perchlorate once again the concentration of chloride exerted a strong influence on the formation kinetics of the oxidation by-products and whereas at low chloride concentrations, chlorate appeared like an intermediate compound leading to the formation of perchlorate, at high chloride concentrations chlorate formation was delayed significantly and perchlorate was not detected during the experimental time. Thus this work contributes first to the knowledge of the potential hazards of applying the electro-oxidation technology as an environmental technology to deal with ammonium oxidation under the presence of chloride and second it reports efficient conditions that minimize or even avoid the formation of undesirable by-products. PMID:22386329

  19. Impact of chain length on antibacterial activity and hemocompatibility of quaternary N-alkyl and n,n-dialkyl chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, Priyanka; Benediktssdttir, Berglind E; Hjlmarsdttir, Martha ; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E; Srensen, Kasper K; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Jensen, Knud J; Msson, Mr

    2015-05-11

    A highly efficient method for chemical modification of chitosan biopolymers by reductive amination to yield N,N-dialkyl chitosan derivatives was developed. The use of 3,6-O-di-tert-butyldimethylsilylchitosan as a precursor enabled the first 100% disubstitution of the amino groups with long alkyl chains. The corresponding mono N-alkyl derivatives were also synthesized, and all the alkyl compounds were then quaternized using an optimized procedure. These well-defined derivatives were studied for antibacterial activity against Gram positive S. aureus, E. faecalis, and Gram negative E. coli, P. aeruginosa, which could be correlated to the length of the alkyl chain, but the order was dependent on the bacterial strain. Toxicity against human red blood cells and human epithelial Caco-2 cells was found to be proportional to the length of the alkyl chain. The most active chitosan derivatives were found to be more selective for killing bacteria than the quaternary ammonium disinfectants cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, as well as the antimicrobial peptides melittin and LL-37. PMID:25830631

  20. Steroidal Ammonium Compounds as New Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhigang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Jiazhi; Liu, Zhiying; Yang, Yue; Qiu, Guofu; Xiao, Yuling; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming; Zhou, Xiaoju; Hong, Xuechuan

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are widely used as an anesthesia auxiliary in surgery, which induce relaxation of skeletal muscles by blocking signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Many neuromuscular blocking agents s were developed over the past decades, but none of them fully meets the needs of the clinic by various reasons. In this study, a series of quaternary ammonium steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were synthesized and evaluated on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms for their bioactivities. The initial separation of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds turned out to be very challenging on regular silica gel chromatography. Therefore, a facile purification method, in which the silica gel was pretreated with methanolic sodium bromide solution, was finally achieved. Compounds 3g (0.36 μm) and 4g (0.37 μm) exhibited excellent neuromuscular blocking activities, which were about sixfold to sevenfold higher in potency than that of rocuronium (2.50 μm). In addition, other bis-quaternized compounds also showed good potencies close to that of rocuronium. Furthermore, the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series was also elucidated. Benzyl group was found to be a promising quaternary group in this series. PMID:26684806

  1. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. Experimental study of directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, Falin

    1991-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been carried out using the analog casting system of NH4Cl-H2O solution by cooling it from below with a constant-temperature surface ranging from -31.5 C to +11.9 C. The NH4Cl concentration was 26 percent in all solutions, with a liquidus temperature of 15 C. It was found that finger convection occurred in the fluid region just above the mushy layer in all experiments. Plume convection with associated chimneys in the mush occurred in experiments with bottom temperatures as high as +11.0 C. However, when the bottom temperature was raised to +11.9 C, no plume convection was observed, although finger convection continued as usual. A method has been devised to determine the porosity of the mush by computed tomography. Using the mean value of the porosity across the mush layer and the permeability calculated by the Kozeny-Carman relationship, the critical solute Rayleigh number across the mush layer for onset of plume convection was estimated to be between 200 and 250.

  3. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meert, K L; Ellis, J; Aronow, R; Perrin, E

    1994-10-01

    We report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child that resulted in multiple-organ-system failure and death. Exchange transfusion and hemodialysis were ineffective in removing significant amounts of chromium or causing sustained clinical improvement. We suggest that immediate, large doses of the reducing agent ascorbic acid would allow effective reduction of hexavalent chromium with less cellular toxicity. PMID:8092606

  4. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  5. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented and the most common applications are listed, Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. PMID:18429073

  6. Conversion of an Alkyl Chloride to a Bromide (or Vice-Versa) by Homogeneous Nucleophile Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Roger C.

    1997-07-01

    Quaternary salt-catalyzed bromide-chloride exchange between alkyl chlorides and alkyl bromides is used to demonstrate effects of temperature, catalyst, concentration, and substrate structure on reaction rates and chemoselectivity. Microscale reactions are monitored by GC analysis. In one experiment, a mixture of 1-chloropentane and 1-bromoheptane or of 1-bromopentane and 1-chloroheptane is equilibrated to form a mixture of all four compounds. In another experiment, bromide-chloride exchange between 1, 3-dichlorobutane and a large excess of 1-bromobutane demonstrates the greater SN2 reactivity of a primary chloride relative to that of a secondary chloride.

  7. [Characterization of cross-linked quaternary chitosan salt and its adsorption of perchlorate from water].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Hua; Li, Shi-Yu; Liu, Guang-Li

    2011-09-01

    Cross-linked quaternary chitosan salt was prepared and used to adsorb perchlorate from water. Parameters of cross-linking agent, temperature and pH were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The adsorption and regeneration ability of the adsorbent were also conducted. Quaternary chitosan salt could be fixed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde using ethanol as dispersant. The optimal glutaraldehyde dosage and temperature were 6.82% and 45 degrees C, respectively. The cross-linked reaction was independent of pH with the range from 3 to 12. Quaternary chitosan salt was cross-linked mainly through the reaction between the methyl groups of ammonium on quaternary chitosan salt and the -C=O groups on glutaraldehyde. The optimal pH(zpc) of the adsorbent was about 10.6. The adsorbent showed high efficiency for perchlorate removal, and the adsorption capacity varied from 12.321 mg/g to 117.819 mg/g with the ClO4(-) concentration range from 5 mg/L to 200 mg/L. The spent adsorbents could be effectively regenerated by NaCl brine with the concentration more than 0.3%. The results suggest that the cross-linked chitosan quaternary ammonium salt would be a promising method for perchlorate removal from water. PMID:22165217

  8. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide assisted hydrothermal growth of hematite hollow cubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Yao, Jia-Liang

    2010-11-15

    Hematite hollow cubes have been prepared by forced hydrolysis of ferric chloride solutions under hydrothermal conditions. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the transformation process from akageneite to hematite were investigated in detail. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide was a critical factor influencing the phase transformation process of akageneite and the final morphology of the as-prepared products. With cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, hematite hollow cubes and porous spheres were obtained. Otherwise only dense cubes were observed even prolonging reaction time or increasing reaction temperature. The mechanism was proposed.

  9. Heterogeneous reactions of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chong; Wang, Lin; Lal, Vinita; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhang, Renyi

    2011-06-01

    The heterogeneous reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) have been studied using a low-pressure fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) at 293 ± 2 K. The uptake of three alkylamines, i.e., monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, on ammonium sulfate shows a displacement reaction of ammonium by aminium, evidenced by the release of ammonia monitored using protonated acetone dimer as the reagent ion. For the three alkylamines, the initial uptake coefficients (γ(0)) range from 2.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-2) and the steady-state uptake coefficients (γ(ss)) range from 6.0 × 10(-3) to 2.3 × 10(-4) and decrease as the number of methyl groups on the alkylamine increases. A different reaction mechanism is observed for the uptake of the three alkylamines on ammonium bisulfate, which is featured by an acid-base reaction (neutralization) with irreversible alkylamine loss and no ammonia generation and occurs at a rate limited by diffusion of gaseous alkylamines to the ammonium bisulfate surface. Our results reveal that the reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts contribute to particle growth and alter the composition of ammonium sulfate and bisulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. PMID:21539370

  10. Ammonium imidazolium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C(3)H(5)N(2))(NH(4))[Cr(2)O(7)], the anions and cations are linked through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional structure which contains three kinds of layers parallel to (001). One layer contains imidazole cations, the other two layers the ammonium cations and dichromate anions. The dichromate anion has an eclipsed conformation with a dihedral angle of 14.65 (18)° between the mean planes of the O-P-O-P-O backbone. PMID:22589777

  11. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Studies on Abnormally High Ammonium of Natural Origin in A Coastal Aquifer-aquitard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiao, J. J.; Cherry, J.

    2010-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen concentration in water bodies is regarded as an environmental contamination because of its possible harm to human bodies and significant ecological effects. Previous studies commonly concerned on elevated nitrogen in water of anthropogenic origins, such as agricultural, domestic, sewage and industrial discharges, because people realize that it is necessary to manage negative influences of human being to the natural environment. Understanding contamination sources of nitrogen is crucial for both waste discharge management and pollutants cleanup. This study was aimed to 1) understand the spatial distribution of abnormally high ammonium groundwater in the Quaternary basalt aquifer in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China; 2) to distinguish sources of recharge to the basalt aquifer; and 3) to identify the origin of the ammonium in the aquitard and aquifer system. Total 40 boreholes were drilled, and approximately 1000 deposit samples from the aquitard and over 200 groundwater samples from the Quaternary basalt aquifer were collected. A cluster of 7 piezometers was installed in Minzhong Town to study the hydraulic relationships between the aquitard and the basalt aquifer. The results demonstrated that the greater groundwater ammonium concentrations were preserved in the aquifer buried deeper. The ammonium concentration up to 390 mg/L was observed in the basalt sand and gravel Pleistocene aquifer of 20-50m deep, and this is the greatest concentration ever reported for natural groundwater globally. The Quaternary aquitard, which contained abundant sedimentary organic matter and was mainly composed of silt and clay, provided a strict anaerobic environment for sedimentary organic matter mineralization and ammonium preservation. Ammonium concentrations in the aquifer were predominantly controlled by the aquitard ammonium content. This naturally occurring abnormally high ammonium in the Quaternary sediments is areally extensive (over 1600 km2). Great groundwater salinity originated from a marine source redounded to the release of adsorbed ammonium to groundwater via ion exchange processes. This naturally originated high ammonium groundwater may find its way to the river channels and estuary. The flow paths are likely shortened by sand dredging activities Literature shows that no particular studies have been developed for ammonium research in delta aquitards and aquifers. The geological settings of fine texture of delta sediments containing abundant sedimentary organic matter are not unique to the PRD, and this “geological” ammonium may not be an uncommon source of nitrogen and may present as a large and hitherto unappreciated source of nitrogen for surface water bodies.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  13. Effect of impurities on crystal growth rate of ammonium pentaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ö.; Özdemir, M.; Genli, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid of different concentrations on the growth rate of ammonium pentaborate octahydrate crystals (APBO) was measured and was found to depend on supersaturation in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of impurities in APBO solution increases the growth rate compared with growth from pure solution. It was found that the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid decreases the reaction rate constant kr, while it increases the mass-transfer coefficient, K, of APBO crystals. In pure aqueous solution, the crystal growth rate of APBO is mainly controlled by diffusion. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of APBO crystals in the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid. The mass-transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction order, r were calculated from general mass-transfer equation by using genetic algorithm method making no assumption.

  14. Ammonium and potassium removal from swine liquid manure using clinoptilolite, chabazite and faujasite zeolites.

    PubMed

    Montégut, Gaëtan; Michelin, Laure; Brendlé, Jocelyne; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Patarin, Joël

    2016-02-01

    This study concerns cationic exchanges performed in order to remove ammonium and potassium cations from manure by using various zeolites: clinoptilolite, chabazite and NaX faujasite. First, the effect of temperature (25 °C and 40 °C) on the exchange rate between zeolites and an ammonium chloride solution was investigated. Then, cationic exchanges were performed on these three zeolites using on one side a mixed ammonium and potassium chloride solution reproducing the chemical composition of a swine manure and on the other side the corresponding liquid manure. No significant difference was observed on the exchange rate and the trapping of ammonium cations by changing the temperature (25 or 40 °C). Clinoptilolite showed a good selectivity towards ammonium cations using model (NH4Cl, and mixed NH4Cl/KCl) solutions but is less efficient with the liquid manure. Chabazite and faujasite were found more efficient than clinoptilolite for trapping ammonium cations. However, NaX faujasite enables trapping 3 times more ammonium cations than chabazite from manure (60 and 20 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, chabazite allowed to trap the same amount of potassium cations than NaX faujasite (33 and 35 mg/g, respectively). PMID:26686066

  15. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa­hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa­hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 + cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  16. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27038272

  17. Paleosols in central Illinois as potential sources of ammonium in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glessner, J.J.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-10-13

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle.

  19. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total combustible material; (3) Ammonium nitrate with ammonium sulfate containing more than 45 percent... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...

  20. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. ...

  1. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  2. Prolonged exposure of mixed aerobic cultures to low temperature and benzalkonium chloride affect the rate and extent of nitrification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongwoo; Tezel, Ulas; Li, Kexun; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-03-01

    The combined effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and prolonged exposure to low temperature on nitrification was investigated. Ammonia oxidation at 22-24°C by an enriched nitrifying culture was inhibited at increasing BAC concentrations and ceased at 15 mg BAC/L. The non-competitive inhibition coefficient was 1.5±0.9 mg BAC/L. Nitrification tests were conducted without and with BAC at 5mg/L using an aerobic, mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying culture maintained at a temperature range of 24-10°C. Maintaining this culture at 10°C for over one month in the absence of BAC, resulted in slower nitrification kinetics compared to those measured when the culture was first exposed to 10°C. BAC was degraded by the heterotrophic population, but its degradation rate decreased significantly as the culture temperature decreased to 10°C. These results confirm the negative impact of quaternary ammonium compounds on the nitrification process, which is further exacerbated by prolonged, low temperature conditions. PMID:25544497

  3. Evaluation of the effect of tetraethylammonium bromide and chloride on the growth and development of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Barbara; Biczak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), which also include ionic liquids, constitute a vast group of chemical compounds that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may constitute a potential threat to all its elements, including terrestrial higher plants. This paper presents the effect of tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA][Cl] and tetraethylammonium bromide [TEA][Br] on the growth and development of spring barley and common radish. The applied QAS were characterized with phytotoxicity dependent on the concentration of compound and characteristics of the study plants. Spring barley turned out to be highly susceptible plant to the analyzed compounds, which was confirmed by % inhibition of length of plants, root length and fresh weight of plants and by calculated values for EC50, NOEC as well as LOEC. On the contrary, a common radish revealed the resistance to QAS used in the study; although, phytotoxic symptoms were still observed when high concentrations of dry weight of soil were applied (1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg). The applied QAS caused oxidative stress symptoms, mainly in spring barley seedlings, which were manifested by decreased assimilation of pigments content, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in plant cells and with a changed activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:26844662

  4. Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko

    2005-11-18

    Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

  5. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4

  6. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI¯), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3¯), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4

  7. Toxicokinetics of ammonium perfluorohexanoate.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    Excretion patterns and rates of ammonium perfluorohexanoate (APFHx) after administration of a single and multiple (14 days) oral dose(s) at 50 mg/kg to male and female mice and rats were examined. The test substance was [(14)C]-labeled APFHx. After a single oral administration, total excretion was rapid, with mean recoveries of over 90% of the dose at 24 hours after administration, irrespective of gender or species. The major route of elimination was via the urine (means of percentage recovery between 73.0 and 90.2% of the dose), followed by the feces (means of percentage recovery between 7.0 and 15.5% of the dose). Elimination via expired air was negligible. For the multiple dose tests, multiple (13 daily doses) oral administration of APFHx was followed by a single oral administration of [(14)C]-APFHx. Excretion was rapid, with mean recoveries of over 90% of the administered dose (mean values >95% of the ultimately recovered material) at 24 hours after dosing, irrespective of gender or species. The major route of elimination was via the urine (means of percentage recovery between 77.8 and 83.4% of the dose), followed by the feces (means of percentage recovery between 9.6 and 12.9% of the dose). PMID:21696261

  8. Ammonium salt corrosion in hydrotreating unit stripper column overhead systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shargay, C.A.; Jacobs, G.E.; Price, M.D.

    1999-11-01

    In the past, the presence of ammonium bisulfide (NH{sub 4}HS) or ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) in hydrotreater stripper overheads was relatively rare. However, designs of newer units and revamps to older units, are resulting in corrosive levels of NH{sub 4}HS or NH{sub 4}Cl in overhead systems. This is primarily due to the addition of a hot high pressure separator (HHPS) with the bottoms going directly (or through another separator) to the stripper. This paper presents data on one corrosion case history in detail, a summary of another case history reported in Retln-Cor 3.0 and the results of a brief survey targeted to units with HHPS designs. Some correlations of the process conditions to the severity of corrosion are made based on the survey results, and recommended materials selection and other corrosion control methods to minimize the risk of this problem are given.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  13. High affinity ammonium transporters: molecular mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the family of high affinity ammonium transporters is demonstrated by the presence of these proteins in all domains of life, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, plants, and humans. The majority of the proteins that have been studied from this family show high affinity and selectivity for ammonium, are impermeable to alkaline cations, saturate rapidly at low millimolar concentrations and most of them, are also permeable to methylammonium. Crystallization of homologue proteins from bacteria and archaea has demonstrated that the functional entity corresponds to a trimer, with each monomer maintaining a conductive pore. Through molecular modeling, it has been demonstrated that even though the identity of the proteins between bacteria/archaea with those from plants is below 25%, the latter seem to maintain similar tertiary and quaternary structures, an observation that has helped to address the functionality of conserved residues by means of mutational analysis. Results have shown that changes in the extracellular binding site of some plant transporters may result in their inhibition or reduction in transport activity, while in Escherichia coli, dissimilar replacements like Phe/Ala or Ser/Leu that eliminate possible π-interactions or H-bonds with ammonium, respectively, lead to more active transporters. Active mutants with changes in the pair of conserved His in the center of the transporter suggest these residues are dispensable. Additional mutations have identified other important amino acids, both in the entrance of the pore and in cytoplasmic loops. Regulation of this family of transporters can be achieved by interactions of the C-terminal with cytoplasmic loops within the same monomer, or with a neighbor in the trimer. Depending on the interacting residues, these contacts may lead to the activation or inhibition of the protein. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the newest findings on the role of the proposed amino acids that structure the ammonium pathway, as well as highlight the importance of additional residues that have been identified through mutational analyses. PMID:22645581

  14. Robustness of Quaternary glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganopolski, Andrei; Brovkin, Victor; Calov, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    In spite of significant progress in paleoclimate reconstructions and modeling some aspects of Quaternary climate cycles are still poorly understood. Among them is the question of whether glacial cycles are deterministic and solely externally forced or, at least partially, they are stochastic. The answer to this question can only be obtained using a comprehensive Earth system models which incorporates all major components of the Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land surface, northern hemisphere ice sheets, terrestrial biota and soil carbon, aeolian dust and marine biogeochemistry. Here, we used the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The model was optimally tuned to reproduce climate, ice volume and CO2 variability for the last 0.8 million years. Using the same model version, we performed a large set of simulations covering the entire Quaternary (3 million years). By starting the model at different times (with the time step of 100,000 years) and using identical initial conditions we run the model for 500,000 years using the Earth's orbital variations as the only prescribed radiative forcing. We show that within less than 100,000 years after the beginning of each experiment the modeling results converge to the same solution which depends only on the orbital forcing and boundary conditions, such as topography and terrestrial sediment thickness for the ice sheets or volcanic CO2 outgassing for the carbon cycle. By using only several sets of the Northern Hemisphere orography and sediment thickness which represent different stages of landscape evolution during Quaternary, we are able to reproduce all major regimes of Quaternary long-term climate variability. Our results thus strongly support the notion that Quaternary glacial cycles are deterministic and externally forced.

  15. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  16. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  17. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  18. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. PMID:22366608

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE [AND IRIS SUMMARY] (EXTERNAL PEER REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl chloride (CAS No. 74-87-3) is a gaseous chlorohydrocarbon under ambient conditions. It is principally used in the manufacture of silicones, agrichemicals, methyl cellulose and quaternary amines. Numerous case reports involving overexposure over the last 60 years indicate t...

  20. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Tang, Chong-jian; Jin, Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control. Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will accelerate application of the process in future. This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process. PMID:18500782

  1. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  2. (4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)methanaminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kefi, Riadh; Matthias, Zeller; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title salt, C(8)H(12)NO(+)·Cl(-), the methoxy group of the cation is co-planar with the phenylene moiety with an r.m.s. deviation from the mean plane of only 0.005 Å. The ammonium N atom deviates from this plane by 1.403 (1) Å. In the crystal, the (4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methan-aminium cations and chloride anions are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in an open framework architecture with hydrogen-bonded ammonium groups and chloride anions located in layers parallel to (011), separated by more hydrophobic layers with interdigitating anisole groups. PMID:21522388

  3. Andrei Sher and Quaternary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana; Lister, Adrian M.; Edwards, Mary E.

    2011-08-01

    Andrei Sher (1939-2008) was a key individual in Beringian studies who made substantial and original contributions, but also, importantly, built bridges between western and eastern Beringian scientists spanning some five decades of research. He is perhaps best known as a Quaternary palaeontologist, specializing in large mammals, and mammoths in particular, but his field of his scientific research was much broader, encompassing Quaternary geology, stratigraphy, geocryology, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. He worked mainly in Siberia, in the Kolyma and Indigirka lowlands, and Chukotka, but also completed fieldwork in Alaska and Yukon through joint projects with American and Canadian scientists. Andrei was an active scientist until the last days of his life. He was involved in many different research projects ranging from mammoth evolution, fossil insects and environmental changes and ancient DNA. Without Andrei's connections between researchers, many unique discoveries would likely be unknown.

  4. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent pregnancy. Strontium-89 chloride may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  5. Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

  6. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  7. Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I; Taktak, Nehad E M

    2014-10-13

    Chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a series of quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora and fungi Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans were evaluated. The results proved that the grafting of benzyl moiety or quaternization of the derivatives onto chitosan molecule was successful in inhibiting the microbial growth. Moreover, increase water-solubility of the compounds by quaternization significantly increased the activity against bacteria and fungi. Exocellular enzymes including polygalacturonase (PGase), pectin-lyase (PLase), polyphenol oxidase (PPOase) and cellulase were also affected at 1000 mg/L. These compounds especially quaternary-based chitosan derivatives that have good inhibitory effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in crop protection. PMID:25037402

  8. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, CAS Reg... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3, CAS... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3, CAS Reg. No. 1066-33-7) is... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, CAS Reg... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, CAS Reg... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, CAS Reg. No. 1336-21-6) is produced... recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, CAS Reg... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3, CAS... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  20. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  1. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  9. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  10. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  11. Ancient biomolecules in Quaternary palaeoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Collins, Matthew; Stewart, John R.

    2012-02-01

    The last few years have seen an enormous proliferation of ancient biomolecules research, especially in the field of ancient DNA. Ancient DNA studies have been transformed by the advent of next generation sequencing, with the first Pleistocene sample being analysed in 2005, and several complete and draft genomes that have been compiled from ancient DNA to date. At the same time, although less conspicuous, research on ancient proteins has also seen advances, with the time limit for research on ancient biomolecules now extending to over 1 million years. Here we review which effects these developments have on research in Quaternary science. We identify several lines of research that have the potential to profit substantially from these recent developments in ancient biomolecules research. First, the identification of taxa can be made using ancient biomolecules, and in the case of ancient DNA, specimens can even be assigned to specific populations within a species. Second, increasingly large DNA data sets from Pleistocene animals allow the elucidation of ever more precise pictures of the population dynamic processes whereby organisms respond to climate and environmental change. With the accompanying better understanding of process in the Quaternary, past ecologies can also more realistically be interpreted from proxy data sets. The dominant message from this research so far is that the Quaternary saw a great deal more dynamism in populations than had been forecast by conventional palaeoecology. This suggests that reconstructions of past environmental conditions need to be done with caution. Third, ancient DNA can also now be obtained directly from sediments to elucidate the presence of both plant and animal species in an area even in the absence of identifiable fossils, be it macro- or micro-fossils. Finally, the analysis of proteins enables the identification of bone remains to genus and sometimes species level far beyond the survival time of DNA, at least in temperate regions, illustrating that precise data is now forthcoming from seemingly unlikely sources. Together, these approaches allow the study of environmental dynamics throughout a substantial part, and perhaps even the entire Quaternary (the last 2.6 million years).

  12. Stereoselective Synthesis of Quaternary Proline Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Calaza, M. Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This review describes available methods for the diastereoselective and asymmetric synthesis of quaternary prolines. The focus is on the preparation of α-functionalized prolines with the pyrrolidine moiety not embedded in a polycyclic frame. The diverse synthetic approaches are classified according to the bond which is formed to complete the quaternary skeleton. PMID:19655047

  13. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  14. A comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, chloride and potassium loss in conventional and conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage impact on dissolved losses of ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) during rotational cotton and peanut production was evaluated. Tillage treatments were strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT). Winter cover crops were used in both tillage...

  15. Dissolved nitrogen, chloride, and potassium loss from fields in conventional and conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Losses of soluble nutrients from cropland and their transport to surface and groundwater are a continuing water quality concern. In this study we evaluated tillage impact on dissolved losses of ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) during rotational cotton ...

  16. Role of tetraalkyl(benzyl)ammonium alkoxides in the catalysis of the alkaline dehydrochlorination reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shavanov, S.S.; Tolstikov, G.A.; Shutenkova, T.V.; Viktorov, G.A.

    1988-01-10

    The reaction was conducted by the action of aqueous NaOH taken as a 50% solution at a molar ratio to dichloroethane of 2:1 at 50-55 C in the 1% of catalyst on the dichloroethane. The results of the experiments indicated the rising activity of the tetra-alkyl(benzyl) ammonium alkoxides as the lipophilicity of the anion increased, which proceeds in the organic phase. Reaction was effected through a complex formed by the association of quaternary ammonium salts with a hydroxyl-containing compound, the solvation of the associated species with the organochlorine substrate, and coordination with NaOH. The reaction goes in the organic phase and on the interphase surface.

  17. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  20. Intriguing Role of a Quaternary Ammonium Cation in the Dissociation Chemistry of Keggin Polyoxometalate Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Li, Chenchen; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Xu, Chong; Yan, Jie; Cui, Fengyun; Hu, Changwen

    2012-02-01

    The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of Keggin polyoxometalate anions with molecular formula of TBAn[XM12O40] (X = P, Si; M = Mo, W) were studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The bare polyoxoanions [XM12O40]n- as well as the non-covalent complexes {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- and {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3- displayed characteristic dissociation pathways. Fragmentation of [XM12O40]n- led to pairs of complementary product anions whose total stoichiometry and charge matched those of the precursor anion, consistent with the previous study by Ma et al. The nature of the non-covalent interaction between [XM12O40]n- and TBA+ was addressed in detail via the example of {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)-. The non-covalent interaction [1] primarily dominated by the Coulombic attraction of the opposite charges completely changed the dissociation chemistry of [XM12O40]n-. The non-covalent complexes {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- and {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3-, formed by the charge reduction during the electrospray process, underwent distinct dissociation routes: {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- fragmented to give rise to its product ion {(C4H9)[XM12O40]}(n-1)- by cleaving the N-C covalent bond inside the TBA+ cation whereas {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3- dissociated into a pair of product ions, {TBAi[XM12O40]}2- and {TBAm-i[XM12O40]}-, by breaking the non-covalent bond between [XM12O40]n- and TBA+. In addition, energy-variable CID was used to map the relative stabilities of the ion clusters in the gas phase, which was in excellent agreement with the relative orders of thermal stability in the condensed phase.

  1. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  3. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-01

    A new borate [C6H16N][B5O6(OH)4] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B5O6(OH)4]- anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH3)3(i-C3H7) N+ cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents.

  4. Quaternary ammonium functionalized clay film electrodes modified with polyphenol oxidase for the sensitive detection of catechol.

    PubMed

    Mbouguen, Justin Kemmegne; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Walcarius, Alain

    2007-09-30

    Naturally occurring Cameroonian smectite clay has been grafted with trimethylpropylammonium (TMPA) groups and the resulting organoclay has been deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface as a suitable immobilization matrix for polyphenol oxidase (PPO). High sensitivity of the electrochemical device to catechol biosensing can be achieved when the enzyme was impregnated within the organoclay film subsequent to its deposition due to favorable electrostatic interaction between PPO and the TMPA-clay layer. The bioelectrode preparation method was also compatible with the use of a mediator (i.e., ferrocene) and the best performance was obtained with a three-layer configuration made of glassy carbon coated with a first layer of ferrocene (Fc), which was then covered with the PPO-impregnated TMPA-clay layer, and finally overcoated with an enzyme-free TMPA-clay film acting as a protecting overlayer to avoid leaching of the biomolecule in solution. The electrochemical behavior of the modified film electrodes was first characterized by cyclic voltammetry and, then, they were evaluated for the amperometric biosensing of the model analyte catechol in batch conditions and in flow injection analysis. Various experimental parameters likely to influence the biosensor response have been investigated, including the electrode preparation mode (composition configuration, thickness), the usefulness of a mediator, the operating potential and pH of the medium, as well as the advantageous features of the TMPA-clay in comparison to related film electrodes based on non-functionalized clays. The organoclay was found to provide a favorable environment to enzyme activity and the multilayer configuration of the film electrode to provide a biosensor with good characteristics, such as an extended linear range for catechol detection (2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-5)M) and a detection limit in the nanomolar range (9 x 10(-9)M). PMID:17537626

  5. 40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section 721.10666 Protection of Environment..., bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). 721.10666 Section 721.10666 Protection of Environment..., bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to reporting under...

  7. Polyurethane-based polymer surface modifiers with alkyl ammonium copolyoxetane soft segments: Reaction engineering, surface morphology and antimicrobial behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunson, Kennard Marcellus, Jr.

    Concentrating quaternary (positive) charge at polymer surfaces is important for applications including layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition and antimicrobial coatings. Prior techniques to introduce quaternary charge to the surface involve grafting of quaternary ammonium moieties to a substrate or using polyurethanes with modified hard segments however there are impracticalities involved with these techniques. In the case of the materials discussed, the quaternary charge is introduced via polyurethane based polymer surface modifiers (PSMs) with quaternized soft segments. The particular advantage to this method is that it utilizes the intrinsic phase separation between the hard and soft segments of polyurethanes. This phase separation results in the surface concentration of the soft segments. Another advantage is that unlike grafting, where modification has to take place after device fabrication, these PSMs can be incorporated with the matrix material during device fabrication. The soft segments of these quaternized polyurethanes are produced via ring opening co-polymerization of oxetane monomers which possess either a trifluoroethoxy (3FOx) side chains or a quaternary ammonium side chain (C12). These soft segments are subsequently reacted with 4,4'-(methylene bis (p-cyclohexyl isocyanate)), HMDI and butanediol (BD) to form the PSM. It was initially intended to increase the concentration of quaternary ammonium charge by increasing PSM soft segment molecular weight. Unexpectedly, produced blends with surface microscale phase separation. This observation prompted further investigation of the effect of PSM soft segment molecular weight on phase separation in PSM-base polyurethane blends and the subsequent effects of this phase separation on the biocidal activity. Analysis of the surface morphology via tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed varying complexities in surface morphology as a function of the PSM soft segment molecular weight and initial annealing temperature. Many of these features include what are described as nanodots (100-300 nm), micropits (0.5-2 mum) and micropeaks (1-10 mum). It was also observed that surface morphology continued to coarsen with time and that the larger features were typically observed in blends containing PSMs with low molecular weight soft segments. This appearance of surface morphological feature correlates with decreased biocidal activity of the PSM blends, that is, the PSM blends exhibit little to no activity upon development of phase separated features. A model has been developed for phase separation and concomitant reduction of surface quaternary charge. This model points the way to future work that will stabilize surface charge and provide durability of surface modification.

  8. Comparison of the bacterial removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyin; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2013-09-15

    This study compares the disinfection performance of ceramic water filters impregnated with two antibacterial compounds: silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane (poly(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA)). This study evaluated these compounds using ceramic disks manufactures with clay obtained from a ceramic filter factory located in San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala. Instead of using full size ceramic water filters, manufactured 6.5 cm diameter ceramic water filter disks were used. Results showed that TPA can achieve a log bacterial reduction value of 10 while silver nanoparticles reached up to 2 log reduction using a initial concentration of bacteria of 10(10)-10(11)CFU/ml. Similarly, bacterial transport demonstrated that ceramic filter disks painted with TPA achieved a bacterial log reduction value of 6.24, which is about 2 log higher than the values obtained for disks painted with silver nanoparticles (bacterial log reduction value: 4.42). The release of both disinfectants from the ceramic materials to the treated water was determined measuring the effluent concentrations in each test performed. Regarding TPA, about 3% of the total mass applied to the ceramic disks was released in the effluent over 300 min, which is slightly lower than the release percentage for silver nanoparticles (4%). This study showed that TPA provides a comparable disinfection performance than silver nanoparticles in ceramic water filter. Another advantage of using TPA is the cost as the price of TPA is considerable lower than silver nanoparticles. In spite of the use of TPA in several medical related products, there is only partial information regarding the health risk associated with the ingestion of this compound. Additional long-term toxicological information for TPA should be evaluated before its future application in ceramic water filters. PMID:23770490

  9. Characterization of incubation experiments and development of an enrichment culture capable of ammonium oxidation under iron-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2015-02-01

    Incubation experiments were conducted using soil samples from a forested riparian wetland where we have previously observed anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Production of both nitrite and ferrous iron was measured repeatedly during incubations when the soil slurry was supplied with either ferrihydrite or goethite and ammonium chloride. Significant changes in the microbial community were observed after 180 days of incubation as well as in a continuous flow membrane reactor, using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 454 pyrosequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. We be Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6), belonging to the Acidimicrobiaceae family, whose closest cultivated relative is Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum (with 92% identity) and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (with 90% identity), might play a key role in this anaerobic biological process that uses ferric iron as an electron acceptor while oxidizing ammonium to nitrite. After ammonium was oxidized to nitrite, nitrogen loss proceeded via denitrification and/or anammox.

  10. Construction of quaternary stereogenic carbon centers through copper-catalyzed enantioselective allylic cross-coupling with alkylboranes.

    PubMed

    Hojoh, Kentaro; Shido, Yoshinori; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2014-05-01

    A combination of an in situ generated chiral Cu(I) /DTBM-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst system and EtOK enabled the enantioselective SN 2'-type allylic cross-coupling between alkylborane reagents and γ,γ-disubstituted primary allyl chlorides with enantiocontrol at a useful level. The reaction generates a stereogenic quaternary carbon center having three sp(3) -alkyl groups and a vinyl group. This protocol allowed the use of terminal alkenes as nucleophile precursors, thus representing a formal reductive allylic cross-coupling of terminal alkenes. A reaction pathway involving addition/elimination of a neutral alkylcopper(I) species with the allyl chloride substrate is proposed. PMID:24668885

  11. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  12. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  13. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Vessey, J K; Raper, C D; Henry, L T

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms. PMID:11538281

  14. Coselection of Cadmium and Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance in Conjugative Transfers from Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to Other Listeriae

    PubMed Central

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S.; Rakic-Martinez, M.; Elhanafi, D.; Ratani, S.; Tiedje, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes. PMID:22904051

  15. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  16. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  17. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  18. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  19. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  20. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate. PMID:24145916