Sample records for quaternary ammonium chloride

  1. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  2. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  3. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  4. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  6. Permeation of Chromium(VI) and Rhenium(VII) Oxyanions through Liquid Organic Membranes Facilitated by Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy Strzelbicki; Witold A. Charewicz; Alina Mackiewicz

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented on the facilitated transport of Cr(VI) and Re(VII) oxyanions from aqueous solution into and through organic solutions of quaternary ammonium chlorides as mobile carriers of anions. Trimethyl tallow ammonium chloride (Aliquat 26), dimethyl dicoco ammonium chloride (Aliquat 221), and methyl tricapryl ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) from General Mills Chemicals have been investigated. Effects of both

  7. Algicidal Activity of a Surface-Bonded Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Walters, P. A.; Abbott, E. A.; Isquith, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrolysis product of a quaternary amine-containing organosilicon salt, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, was found to exhibit algicidal activity while chemically bonded to a variety of substrates. Six representative species of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Chrysophyta were used to evaluate the algicidal activity. Substrate-bonded 14C-labeled organosilicon quaternary ammonium salt when attached to nonwoven fibers was durable to repeated washings, and algicidal activity could not be attributed to slow release of the chemical. Images PMID:4632852

  8. Adjustment of the antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan by varying the degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Xiang Peng; Ling Wang; Lin Du; Sheng-Rong Guo; Xiao-Qing Wang; Ting-Ting Tang

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) was synthesised with differing degrees of substitution (6%, 18% and 44%) of quaternary ammonium by reacting chitosan with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. The antibacterial activities of these polymers were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mouse fibroblasts and bone marrow derived stromal cells (hMSCs) were used to investigate the biocompatibility

  9. Studies on extraction of iron(III) and cobalt(II) chlorides by quaternary ammonium halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim S. El-Yamani; El-Said I. Shabana

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of iron(III) and cobalt(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions by Hyamine 1622, a quaternary ammonium halide, in dichloroethane is described. The effect of acidity, salting-out agent, metal and extradant concentrations and temperature, has been investigated. The extraction mechanism is discussed in the light of results obtained. Separation of iron(III) and cobalt(II) is also outlined.

  10. Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Isquith, A. J.; Abbott, E. A.; Walters, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The hydrolysis product of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms while chemically bonded to a variety of surfaces. The chemical was not removed from surfaces by repeated washing with water, and its antimicrobial activity could not be attributed to a slow release of the chemical, but rather to the surface-bonded chemical. Images PMID:4650597

  11. Bacterial adhesion inhibition of the quaternary ammonium functionalized silica nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jooyoung Song; Hyeyoung Kong; Jyongsik Jang

    2011-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds have been considered as excellent antibacterial agents due to their effective biocidal activity, long term durability and environmentally friendly performance. In this work, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride as a quaternary ammonium silane was applied for the surface modification of silica nanoparticles. The quaternary ammonium silane provided silica surface with hydrophobicity and antibacterial properties. In addition, the glass surface which

  12. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products...

  17. Antibacterial activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Guz-Regner, Katarzyna; Dworniczek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium salts (chlorides and bromides), with various hydrocarbon chain and spacer lengths, were tested. These compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were not mutagenic. The strongest antibacterial effect was observed for TMPG-10 Cl (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and TMPG-12 Br (against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and clinical ESBL(+) isolate 434) surfactants. These compounds inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 to a polystyrene surface and eradicated biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa PAO1. The activity of studied compounds was dependent on hydrocarbon chain length. PMID:24236547

  18. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). 721.10511 Section 721...Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320,...

  19. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczy?ski, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi. PMID:23827647

  20. Humidity sensor using epoxy resin containing quaternary ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chil-Won Lee; Hee-Woo Rhee; Myoung-Seon Gong

    2001-01-01

    Humidity-sensitive epoxy monomer, glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC) was selected as the humidity-sensing resin. Polypropylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PPGDGE) and methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTPHA) were used as a comonomer and a curing agent, respectively. The humidity-sensitive membranes were composed of GTMAC, PPGDGE and MTPHA. When impedance characteristics of the epoxy resins containing quaternary ammonium salts were measured, the impedance decreased

  1. Sampling and Analysis of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) Traces in Indoor Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Vincent; Marie Christine Kopferschmitt-Kubler; Philippe Mirabel; Gabrielle Pauli; Maurice Millet

    2007-01-01

    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) are widely found in disinfectants used in hospitals. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and\\u000a didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) predominate in the disinfecting formulations. These compounds are strong irritants\\u000a and can play a role in the induction of Occupational Asthma among the professionals of health and cleaning. In order to evaluate\\u000a the potential health effect of these quaternary ammonium compounds

  2. Antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium salt grafted cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ladhari; M. H. V. Baouab; Abdelbasset Ben Dekhil; Amina Bakhrouf; P. Niquette

    2007-01-01

    Cotton having good antibacterial activity can be obtained without the need for a binding chemical as a cross linker or the need for chemically pre-treated antibacterial agent. The procedure of synthesis consists in grafting an alkali-cellulose fibre by a quaternary ammonium salt: Epoxy propyltrimethylammonium chloride (EPTMAC). The characterization of grafted cotton (EPTMAC-Cotton) has been targeted on the nitrogen and the

  3. Low Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mereghetti; R. Quentin; N. Marquet-Van Der Mee; A. Audurier

    2000-01-01

    Ninety-seven epidemiologically unrelated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated for their sen- sitivities to quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide). The MICs for seven serogroup 1\\/2 strains were high. Three came from the environment and four came from food; none were isolated from human or animal samples. All 97 strains carried the mdrL gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux

  4. Determination of antibacterial quaternary ammonium compounds in lozenges by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Taylor; S Toasaksiri; R. G Reid

    1998-01-01

    A method for the specific determination of three quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride and dequalinium chloride, used as antibacterial agents in candy-based lozenges, is described based on capillary zone electrophoresis. It is shown that, following optimisation of buffer composition with respect to organic modifier concentration, pH and buffer concentration together with the inclusion of sodium dodecylsulphate as an

  5. [Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains to quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorhexidine].

    PubMed

    Stefa?ska, Joanna; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej; Staro?ciak, Bohdan; ?uczak, Miros?aw

    2002-01-01

    The level of susceptibility of 90 different Staphylococcus aureus strains to chosen quaternary ammonium compounds: cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride as well as to chlorhexidine digluconate were examined. The examined strains consist of three groups: hospital originated MRSA, hospital originated MSSA and non-hospital MSSA. The significant differences between these groups were observed in they susceptibility to the investigated disinfectants. The obtained MIC values showed that the most resistant were hospital MRSA strains, where 55% was estimated as resistant to cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, 72% were resistant to benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride and 7% were resistant to chlorhexidine digluconate. Among hospital originated MSSA 3% of strains were resistant to cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and 6% were resistant to benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride. 14% non-hospital S. aureus strains were resistant to benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride. None were resistant to chlorhexidine digluconate or cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. PMID:12632654

  6. The antibacterial finish of cotton via sols containing quaternary ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuexin Wang; Chaoxia Wang

    2009-01-01

    The sols containing quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via sol-gel process. The effects of the molar rate of HCl, H2O and EtOH to TEOS on the sol viscosity were investigated in detail. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), Octadecyl dimethyl\\u000a benzyl ammonium chloride (DC) and Ethylene-Bis (Octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) [E-Bis(OTAC)]were added in the sols\\u000a and applied to cotton samples by treated. The

  7. Action of Quaternary Ammonium Salts on Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Cowan

    1933-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS similar to those of Fromherz with curare on medullated nerve, referred to by Prof. A. V. Hill in his article on ``The Physical Nature of the Nerve Impulse'',1 in NATURE of April 8, have been made with pure quaternary ammonium salts prepared by Dr. H. R. Ing. These have a curare-like action, preventing transmission of excitation from nerve to

  8. Radiolysis of simple quaternary ammonium salt components of Amberlite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, Surajdevprakash B.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2013-05-01

    The radiation chemical yields of gaseous products, H2 and CH4, in the radiolysis of dry methylammonium chloride, dimethylammonium chloride, trimethylammonium chloride, tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride by ?-rays and 5 MeV helium ions have been investigated. Some of these amines are the different components of the quaternary ammonium resin Amberlite, which is a strongly basic anion exchange resin based on a polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer. Molecular hydrogen yields with ?-radiolysis range from a high of 4.43 molecules per 100 eV for trimethylammonium chloride to 0.07 and 0.05 molecules per 100 eV for tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride, respectively. Yields of methane gas are generally negligible except for trimethylammonium chloride and tetramethylammonium chloride, 0.26 and 0.02 molecules per 100 eV, respectively. Isotopic labeling studies suggest that the first step in H2 production is the breakage of the Nsbnd H bond followed by abstraction of Hrad atom from the methyl groups. EPR analysis shows the formation of both N and C centered radicals. A comparison is made between the radiolysis of Amberlite and its various components.

  9. Preparation and Characteristics of a New Antibacterial Cotton Fiber Bonding a Gemini-type Quaternary Ammonium Salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Zhou; Jian-Hua Zhang; Xian-Feng Sun; Qin-Qin Wang; Yu-Han Sun

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of antibacterial cotton fiber (called as C14 and Ct) were prepared by bonding a gemini-type quaternary ammonium compound with a hydroxyl group in their spacer chain (1,5-bis(tetradecyl dimethyl ammonium iodide)-3- pentanol (called as DAP14)) and a mono-type quaternary ammonium compound (N-tetradecyldimethyl (3-trimethoxysilylpropyl) ammonium chloride (called as TMMP)), respectively, to the surface of cotton fiber using a coupling agent,

  10. Studies on the synthesis and antibacterial activities of polymeric quaternary ammonium salts from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqian Lu; Dingcai Wu; Ruowen Fu

    2007-01-01

    Four quaternary ammonium salt monomers were synthesized from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by quaternization with benzyl chloride (BC), butyl bromide (BB), dodecyl bromide (DB) or hexadecyl bromide (HB), respectively. And then, the monomers were homopolymerized to obtain four polymeric quaternary ammonium materials with different lengths of alkyl chain, which were referred to as poly(DMAEMA-BC), poly(DMAEMA-BB), poly(DMAEMA-DB) and poly(DMAEMA-HB), respectively. The resultant

  11. Antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium chitosan containing mono or disaccharide moieties: Preparation and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warayuth Sajomsang; Pattarapond Gonil; Supawan Tantayanon

    2009-01-01

    The 9 quaternary ammonium chitosans containing monosaccharides or disaccharides moieties were successfully synthesized by reductive N-alkylation then quaternized by N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat-188). The chemical structures of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The degree of N-substitution (DS) and the degree of quaternization (DQ) were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopic method. It was found

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. 721...Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. ...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. 721...Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. ...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide...

  18. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Lipi?ska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. PMID:25812396

  19. [The effect of new quaternary ammonium compounds on bacteria and fungi. 5: Synthesis of 3-methyl-n-alkylthiomethylpyridinium-, 1-methyl-3-n-alkylthiomethylimidazolium- and 1-ethyl-3-n-alkylthioimidazolinium chloride].

    PubMed

    Pernak, J; Kucharski, S; Krysi?ski, J

    1983-11-01

    Synthesis of some chlorides indicated in headline and their antibacterial properties was described. Synthesis of quaternary pyridine and imidazoline chlorides was performed by reaction of chloromethyl-n-alkylthioether with 3-methylpyridine or 1-methyl- and 1-ethylimidazole. Antibacterial properties of obtained compounds was tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. Chlorides with dodecyl radical indicated the best antibacterial activity. PMID:6669598

  20. Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica Heather N. Patrick equilibrium structures of adsorbed films of quaternary ammonium surfactants on mica have been investigated never been reported on graphite. Mica is a model hydrophilic surface and has been previously used

  1. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Silane Coatings on Mixed Fungal and Bacterial Biofilms on Tracheoesophageal Shunt Prostheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine J. H. Oosterhof; Kevin J. D. A. Buijssen; Henk J. Busscher; Bernard F. A. M. van der Laan; Henny C. van der Mei

    2006-01-01

    Two quaternary ammonium silanes (QAS) were used to coat silicone rubber tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses, yielding a positively charged surface. One QAS coating ((trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethylocta- decylammonium chloride) was applied through chemical bonding, while the other coating, Biocidal ZF, was sprayed onto the silicone rubber surface. The sprayed coating lost its stability within an hour, while the chemically bonded coating appeared stable. Upon

  2. Incidence of Class 1 Integrons in a Quaternary Ammonium Compound-Polluted Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gaze; N. Abdouslam; P. M. Hawkey; E. M. H. Wellington

    2005-01-01

    Samples of effluent and soil were collected from a reed bed system used to remediate liquid waste from a wool finishing mill with a high use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and were compared with samples of agricultural soils. Resistance quotients of aerobic gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to ditallowdi- methylammomium chloride (DTDMAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were established by plating

  3. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  4. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  5. Ineffectiveness of a quaternary ammonium salt and povidone-iodine for the inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Labare, Michael P; Soohoo, Hilary; Kim, Dong; Tsoi, Key yan; Liotta, Janice L; Bowman, Dwight D

    2013-04-01

    Two commonly used disinfectants, a quaternary ammonium salt and povidone-iodine, were tested for effectiveness against unembryonated Ascaris suum eggs. The quaternary ammonium salt (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) had no effect on the Ascaris eggs (10 minutes and 22°C) when compared with the controls in water with egg viabilities of 88.8% ± 3.3% and 86.9% ± 6.2%, respectively. An additional quaternary ammonium salt, 2.5% benzethonium chloride, also had no effect. Phenol (5%) and cresol (3%) completely inactivated the eggs. Povidone-iodine at 100%, 50%, 10%, and 1% had no effect on the eggs at exposures of 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes (22°C) compared with the water controls. PMID:23102984

  6. Quaternary Ammonium Polysaccharides for Gene Delivery Ira Yudovin-Farber,

    E-print Network

    Linial, Michal

    Quaternary Ammonium Polysaccharides for Gene Delivery Ira Yudovin-Farber, Chava Yanay, Tony Azzam by conjugation of various monoquaternary (MQ) ammonium oligoamines to oxidized dextran by reductive amination that contain primary, secondary, or tertiary amines (11). Under physiological conditions, polyamines become

  7. Polycationic antimicrobial dendrimers: a comparison of alkyl pyridinium,quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphonium and tertiary sulfonium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chris; Cooper, Stuart

    2000-03-01

    Polycationic biocides usually kill bacteria through the interactions of the positively charged head groups with negatively charged bacteria and the interactions of the hydrophobic segments with phospholipid cell membranes, which implies that high local charge densities and a large number of hydrophobic groups would lead to enhanced biocidal potency. The advent of dendrimers offers us the first-ever opportunity to achieve the desired high local density. We have demonstrated that dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride functionalized polypropylene imine dendrimers are over 100 times more potent than their small molecule ounterparts. In this study, quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphonium, alkyl pyridinium and tertiary sulfonium salts based on polypropylene imine dendrimers have been synthesized and characterized. Their antimicrobial properties have been quantified with a novel bioluminescence method. The structure-activity relationship of these polycationic dendrimers has also been investigated to elucidate the molecular mechanism for the enhanced antimicrobial effects.

  8. Microtitration of various anions with quaternary ammonium halides using solid-state electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1980-01-01

    Many solid-state electrodes were found to respond as endpoint detectors in the potentiometric titration of large inorganic and organic anions with quaternary ammonium halides. The best response was obtained with the iodide and cyanide electrodes although practically any electrode can function as endpoint sensor. The titrants were hexadecylpyridinium chloride and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and Hyamine 1622 may also be used. Some inorganic anions thus titratable are perrhenate, persulfate, ferricyanide, hexafluorophosphate, and hexachloroplatinate. Examples of organic anions titratable are nitroform, tetraphenylborate, cyanotriphenylborate, picrate, long-chain sulfates and sulfonates, and some soaps. The reverse titration of quaternary ammonium halides vs dodecylsulfate is also feasible. Some titrations are feasible in a partially nonaqueous medium.

  9. Determination of antibacterial quaternary ammonium compound in lozenges and human serum by resonance light scattering technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanguang Chen; Yurui Peng; Junhui Chen; Li Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A method for the specific determination of an antibacterial quaternary ammonium compound Dequalinium chloride (DQC) was described in this paper. At pH 0.5, the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) remarkably was enhanced by adding DQC. A RLS peak at 392.0nm was found, and the enhanced intensity of RLS at this wavelength was proportional to

  10. Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Shirai, J; Kanno, T; Tsuchiya, Y; Mitsubayashi, S; Seki, R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined. PMID:10676896

  11. On the promoting effect by quaternary ammonium salts in the multiphase hydrodechlorination with hydrogen gas on Raney nickel catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei Zinovyev; Pietro Tundo

    2007-01-01

    Hydrodechlorination of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene with hydrogen gas on Raney nickel catalyst in the biphasic system composed of isooctane, aqueous KOH, and a quaternary ammonium compound as a promoter at 70°C and atmospheric pressure was studied. The promoter increased the rate of reaction above two orders of magnitude. Several quaternary chloride salts were studied, such as Aliquat 336, trioctylmethylammonium, tridodecylmethylammonium, cetyltrimethylammonium, tetrabutylammonium

  12. Primary biodegradation of amine oxide and quaternary ammonium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cupková, V; Sirotková, L; Mlynarcík, D; Devínsky, F; Lacko, I; Kovacková, Z

    1993-01-01

    Biodegradation of two amphiphilic "soft" antimicrobially active derivatives of lauric (dodecanoic) acid, a quaternary ammonium salt and an amine oxide bearing an amide or ester group, was followed using microorganisms from activated sludge. Primary biodegradation was determined by ion-selective electrodes, total biodegradation as the chemical oxygen demand. Though organic ammonium salts quickly undergo primary biodegradation, the rest of the molecule is difficult to destroy. In contrast, amine oxides are easily biodegradable. PMID:8500780

  13. Biologically active polymers: synthesis and antimicrobial activity of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymers having a quaternary ammonium and phosphonium groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El-Refaie Kenawy; Fouad I Abdel-Hay; Abd El-Raheem R El-Shanshoury; Mohamed H El-Newehy

    1998-01-01

    Polymers with antibacterial activity have been synthesized by chemical modification of poly(glycidyl methacrylate). The glycidyl methacrylate was polymerized by the free radical polymerization technique. The poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was hydrolyzed and was chloroacetylated using chloroacetyl chloride. The chloroacetylated product was modified to yield polymers with either quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salts. The antimicrobial activity of the modified glycidyl methacrylate polymers has

  14. Preparation and Antibacterial Function of Quaternary Ammonium Salts Grafted Cellulose Fiber Initiated by FeH2O2 Redox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Xing; Diannan Lu; Xiaogong Wang; Zheng Liu

    2009-01-01

    The surface contact disinfecting technique is a newly developed method for water sterilization. In this paper, the grafted quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) antibacterial fibers were prepared and designed to apply for the surface contact disinfecting process in water treatment. The antibacterial fibers were directly prepared by grafting methacryloxylethyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-BC) onto cellulose fiber using thiocarbonate-H2O2 redox system.

  15. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of polymerizable quaternary ammoniums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Caillier; Elisabeth Taffin de Givenchy; Richard Levy; Yves Vandenberghe; Serge Géribaldi; Frédéric Guittard

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of biocide monomers during the process of polymerization is a promising approach in the development of new permanent non leaching biocide materials. Two series of surfactants monomers, with a quaternary ammonium group as polar head and an acrylic function as the polymerizable moiety, were synthesized and tested to evaluate their surface active properties alongside with their antibacterial and antifungal

  16. Study on antibacterial behavior of insoluble quaternary ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Jiang; Li Wang; Haojie Yu; Ying Chen; Quan Shi

    2006-01-01

    Insoluble crosslinked polystyrenes (PS) grafted with different quaternary ammonium groups were synthesized as antibacterial agents. Their antibacterial activ- ities against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated by a colony count method. It was found that when the concen- tration of the insoluble antibacterial agent was low, the antibacterial activity was different from that of the typical soluble antibacterial agent. The antibacterial activity

  17. Antibacterial Nanocomposite with Calcium Phosphate and Quaternary Ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cheng; M. D. Weir; K. Zhang; S. M. Xu; Q. Chen; X. Zhou; H. H. K. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The

  18. Novel immobilization of a quaternary ammonium moiety on keratin fibers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Liu, Xin; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for immobilizing a quaternary ammonium moiety on a keratinous substrate for enhanced medical applications. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in the keratin, followed by reaction with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrate was characterized with Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and assessed for its antibacterial efficacy and other performance changes. The results have demonstrated that the quaternary ammonium moiety has been effectively attached onto the keratin structure, and the resultant keratin substrate exhibits a multifunctional effect including antibacterial and antistatic properties, improved liquid moisture management property, improved dyeability and a non-leaching characteristic of the treated substrate. PMID:24971553

  19. Polysiloxanes With Quaternary Ammonium Salt Biocidal Functions and Their Behavior When Incorporated Into a Silicone Elastomer Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witold Fortuniak; Urszula Mizerska; Julian Chojnowski; Teresa Basinska; Stanislaw Slomkowski; Mohamed M. Chehimi; Agnieszka Konopacka; Katarzyna Turecka; W?adys?aw Werel

    Polysiloxanes of various structures having biocidal quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) groups pendant to the polymer chain were\\u000a prepared. Their antibacterial activities were compared in aqueous solution. Selected polysiloxanes were linear polydimethylsiloxanes\\u000a having 20% siloxane units substituted at silicon by 3(dimethyl-n-octylammonio)propyl chloride or 3(dimethyl-n-hexadecylammonio)propyl chloride and terminated by silanol functions at both chain ends. They were crosslinked and also incorporated\\u000a by

  20. Comparative catalytic activity of quaternary ammonium salts in synthesis of dialkyl sulfides under conditions of phase-transfer catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilevskaya, T.N.; Grineva, N.I.; Chernousova, G.A.; Gartsman, A.N.; Andrievskii, V.N.; Pershina, A.I.; Kravchenko, L.K.; Trotsenko, Z.P.; Myakina, N.I.; Kotylarevskii, I.L.

    1987-07-10

    It was shown that quaternary ammonium salts obtained from the C/sub 7/-C/sub 9/ fraction of technical trialkylamines may be used as phase-transfer catalysts in synthesis of dialkyl sulfides. The catalytic activities of methyltrialkylammonium chloride and methyl sulfate are virtually equal, and both are inferior to methyltrialkylammonium sulfate. Methyltrialkylammonium (MTAAC), trialkylbenzyl (TABAC), and triethylbenzylammonium (TEBAC) chlorides form the following series in order of catalytic activity: MTAAC > TABAC >> TEBAC.

  1. Mixed ternary ion associate formation between xanthene dye, cinchona-alkaloid and quaternary ammonium ion and its application to the determination of trace amounts of quaternary ammonium salts in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tadao; Hirose, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    Xanthene dyes such as eosin and tetraiodofluorescein form 1:2 ion associates with quaternary ammonium ions at pH 7-9; however, the development of color in the organic solvent is poor. When a quaternary ammonium salt is added in the extractable 1:2 associate formed between a xanthene dye and a cinchona-alkaloid in the neutral media, a mixed ternary ion associate (xanthene dye:cinchona-alkaloid:quaternary ammonium ion=1:1:1) is formed. Its extractability is enhanced due to the more bulky associate formation. The ion association caused by addition of cinchona-alkaloids is unique. Of the cinchona-alkaloids, quinidine and cinchonidine with tetraiodofluorescein show excellent effects on sensitivity and extractability. Eosin and tetraiodofluorescein are useful as ion association reagents in the ion associate formation. The apparent molar absorptivities are about 1x10(5) l mol(-1) cm(-1) and the calibration range for quaternary ammonium salt is from 2.5x10(-7) to 1.5x10(-6) M. The proposed method is applicable to the selective and sensitive determination of cetylpyridinium chloride, berberine chloride and benzethonium chloride in pharmaceuticals. PMID:18968897

  2. ?-CD assisted dissolution of quaternary ammonium permanganates in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2014-10-13

    The non-polar internal cavity of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) has been exploited for the entrapment of the hydrophobic tails of two water insoluble quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs): cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), for solubilization in aqueous medium. The solubilization and organizational behavior of the QAPs in aqueous ?-CD solution have been determined from the comparison of their rates of self-oxidation in presence and in absence of ?-CD. Effect of QAP concentration on their observed rate constants (k(obs)) at a fixed ?-CD concentration, phase solubility analysis in varying ?-CD concentration, impact of quaternary ammonium bromides (QABs) on the kobs values of CTAP and TBAP at fixed QAP and ?-CD concentrations, and the temperature effect have been reported. A scheme to explain the solvation of QAPs in aqueous ?-CD has been proposed based on dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of the samples. PMID:25037419

  3. Composite aromatic boxes for enzymatic transformations of quaternary ammonium substrates.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gergely N; Marton, Lívia; Contet, Alicia; Ozohanics, Olivér; Ardelean, Laura-Mihaela; Révész, Agnes; Vékey, Károly; Irimie, Florin Dan; Vial, Henri; Cerdan, Rachel; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2014-12-01

    Cation-? interactions to cognate ligands in enzymes have key roles in ligand binding and enzymatic catalysis. We have deciphered the key functional role of both charged and aromatic residues within the choline binding subsite of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase from Plasmodium falciparum. Comparison of quaternary ammonium binding site structures revealed a general composite aromatic box pattern of enzyme recognition sites, well distinguished from the aromatic box recognition site of receptors. PMID:25283789

  4. NMR enantiodifferentiation of quaternary ammonium salts of Tröger base.

    PubMed

    Michon, Christophe; Gonçalves-Farbos, Maria-Héléna; Lacour, Jérôme

    2009-10-01

    Hexacoordinated phosphorus BINPHAT anion 1 is an efficient NMR chiral solvating agent for quaternary ammonium cations (quats) derived from Tröger base leading to large separations of the proton signals of the enantiomers and even in polar solvent media such as CD(3)CN (Delta Delta delta up to 0.12 ppm). Quite surprisingly, this efficacy in the NMR split efficiency is not translated into a supramolecular stereocontrol (Pfeiffer effect) of the cation configuration by the anion. PMID:19161219

  5. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of bis-quaternary ammonium antimicrobial reagents on human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Nagamune; T Maeda; K Ohkura; K Yamamoto; M Nakajima; H Kourai

    2000-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of newly synthesized bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (bis-QACs) and benzalkonium chloride were investigated on skin and blood cells, namely normal human epidermal keratinocytes of neonatal foreskin, a normal human skin fibroblast cell line NB1RGB, erythrocytes and a lymphoma cell line JM. The bis-QACs tested were 4,4?-(1,6-hexamethylenedithio)bis(1-octylpyridinium iodide) (4DTBP-6,8), N,N?-tetramethylenebis(1-dodecyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-4,12), N,N?-hexamethylenebis(1-decyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-6,10), 4,4?-(1,4-tetramethylenedicarbonyldiamine) bis (1-decylpyridinium iodide)

  6. Quaternary ammonium salts and lubricating oil containing said salts as dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.; Lee, G. D.

    1981-02-03

    Quaternary ammonium salts prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinimide with a monocarboxylic acid ester provide improved dispersancy in lubricating oils, as compared with the starting alkenylsuccinimides.

  7. A preliminary study of the release of quaternary ammonium antimicrobial compounds from acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Mathey, Manojgna; Surana, Vijaya; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

    2009-07-01

    The quaternary ammonium compounds benzalkonium chloride and cetyl pyridinium chloride have been studied as potential anti-microbial additives for incorporation into acrylic bone cement. Using the commercial bone cement Palacos K-40, each compound was added at 1% and 5% by mass. Setting time of the cement was 9.75 min. This did not change when benzalkonium chloride (5%) was present, but was shortened to 9.00 min by 5% cetyl pyridinium chloride. Release of additive was estimated by determining chloride release from set cement specimens using a chloride-ion selective electrode. This showed that release occurred but was a complicated process and did not follow simple diffusion-based kinetics. Release thus appeared to occur by a similar overall mechanism to that of gentamicin sulphate from bone cements. The results show that these anti-microbial compounds can be incorporated into acrylic bone cement and then released in a satisfactory manner and suggest that these compounds have the potential to replace gentamicin sulphate as active ingredients in orthopaedic cements. PMID:19259789

  8. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhishen Jia; Dongfeng shen; Weiliang Xu

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium salt, such as N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan, N–N-propyl-N,N-dimethyl chitosan and N-furfuryl-N,N-dimethyl chitosan were prepared using different 96% deacetylated chitosan of Mv 2.14×105, 1.9×104, 7.8×103. Amino groups on chitosan react with aldehydes to from a Schiff base intermediate. Quaternized chitosan were obtained by reaction of a Schiff base with methyl iodide. The yields, degree of quaternization and water-solubility

  9. A Novel Route to Recognizing Quaternary Ammonium Cations Using Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackman, Holly M.; Ding, Wei; Bolgar, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and elucidating structures is a commonplace and necessary activity in the pharmaceutical industry with mass spectrometry and NMR being the primary tools for analysis. Although many functional groups are readily identifiable, quaternary ammonium cations have proven to be difficult to unequivocally identify using these techniques. Due to the lack of an N-H bond, quaternary ammonium groups can only be detected in the 1H NMR spectra by weak signals generated from long-range 14N-H coupling, which by themselves are inconclusive evidence of a quaternary ammonium functional group. Due to their low intensity, these signals are frequently not detected. Additionally, ions cannot be differentiated in a mass spectrum as an M+ or [M + H]+ ion without prior knowledge of the compound's structure. In order to utilize mass spectrometry as a tool for determining this functionality, ion cluster formation of quaternary ammonium cations and non-quaternary amines was studied using electrospray ionization. Several mobile phase modifiers were compared; however, the addition of small amounts of trifluoroacetic acid proved superior in producing characteristic and intense [M +2TFA]- clusters for compounds containing quaternary ammonium cations when using negative electrospray. By fragmenting this characteristic ion using CID, nearly all compounds studied could be unambiguously identified as containing a quaternary ammonium cation or a non-quaternary amine attributable to the presence (non-quaternary amine) or absence (quaternary ammonium cation) of the resulting [2TFA + H]- ion in the product spectra. This method of analysis provides a rapid, novel, and reliable technique for indicating the presence of quaternary ammonium cations in order to aid in structural elucidation.

  10. A novel route to recognizing quaternary ammonium cations using electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Holly M; Ding, Wei; Bolgar, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and elucidating structures is a commonplace and necessary activity in the pharmaceutical industry with mass spectrometry and NMR being the primary tools for analysis. Although many functional groups are readily identifiable, quaternary ammonium cations have proven to be difficult to unequivocally identify using these techniques. Due to the lack of an N-H bond, quaternary ammonium groups can only be detected in the (1)H NMR spectra by weak signals generated from long-range (14)N-H coupling, which by themselves are inconclusive evidence of a quaternary ammonium functional group. Due to their low intensity, these signals are frequently not detected. Additionally, ions cannot be differentiated in a mass spectrum as an M(+) or [M + H](+) ion without prior knowledge of the compound's structure. In order to utilize mass spectrometry as a tool for determining this functionality, ion cluster formation of quaternary ammonium cations and non-quaternary amines was studied using electrospray ionization. Several mobile phase modifiers were compared; however, the addition of small amounts of trifluoroacetic acid proved superior in producing characteristic and intense [M +2TFA](-) clusters for compounds containing quaternary ammonium cations when using negative electrospray. By fragmenting this characteristic ion using CID, nearly all compounds studied could be unambiguously identified as containing a quaternary ammonium cation or a non-quaternary amine attributable to the presence (non-quaternary amine) or absence (quaternary ammonium cation) of the resulting [2TFA + H](-) ion in the product spectra. This method of analysis provides a rapid, novel, and reliable technique for indicating the presence of quaternary ammonium cations in order to aid in structural elucidation. PMID:25391726

  11. Selection of quaternary ammonium bromides for use in zinc/bromine cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathro, K. J.; Cedzynska, K.; Constable, D. C.; Hoobin, P. M.

    Various cyclic and aliphatic quaternary ammonium bromides have been tested for use in zinc/bromine battery electrolytes. No single compound can be used over the temperature range 0-50°C due to crystallization of solid materials from either the polybromide or the aqueous phases. Electrolytes containing mixtures of quaternary ammonium bromides can avoid this problem of crystallization, and electrolytes containing 1:1 mixtures of N-methyl- N-ethylpyrrolidinium bromide with either N-methyl- N-ethylmorpholinium bromide or dimethylethylpropylammonium bromide have proved acceptable. The performance of a small zinc/bromine cell using electrolytes prepared from various quaternary ammonium bromides is described.

  12. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen...

  13. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen...

  14. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohamed Essa; P. Subramanian

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg? 1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia,

  15. Antibacterial properties of poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-06-01

    We report excellent antibacterial effect induced by amine-functionalized gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles without external excitations. The idea originates from the excellent antibacterial property of quaternary ammonium salts. The effects of poly(quaternary ammonium) and polyacrylate sodium functional groups as nanoparticle surfactants are compared to show that poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups are the main cause of the induced antibacterial effect. 99.999% of E. coli can be destructed in 10 minutes by simply mixing bacteria with nanoparticle dispersions. The effect of nanoparticle concentrations on the antibacterial property is evaluated. Time required to significantly suppress bacteria growth is studied. The result indicates that the excellent antibacterial property can be introduced to any nanomaterials by using poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups as surfactants. The engineered nanoparticles can find enormous applications such as self-cleaning surfaces, waste water treatment, Lab-on-a-Chip devices and many more. PMID:22905506

  16. Induction of contact drematitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanisms of antigen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, K.R.; Schulz, K.H.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites to the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable ion-pairs are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface.

  17. Induction of contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanism of antigen formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schallreuter, K U; Schulz, K H; Wood, J M

    1986-01-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of the eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites at the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable "ion-pairs" are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface. PMID:3830108

  18. Mixed Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts Bound to Macromolecular Supports for Removal Bacteria from Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Popa; G. Ilia; S. Iliescu; G. Dehelean; A. Pascariu; A. Bora; C. M. Davidescu

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with synthesis and characterization of mixed quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts grafted on macromolecular supports by polymer-analogous trans-quaternization reactions. The degrees of functionalization with quaternary mixed ammonium and phosphonium groups are relatively high, ranging from 0.09 to 1.285 mmoles of functional groups\\/gram of copolymer, ensuring a sufficient concentration of active centers per unit mass of copolymer and

  19. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ying Sun; Jing Li; Xiao-Long Qiu; Feng-Ling Qing

    2005-01-01

    A new series of perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium compounds were prepared and examined for their antibacterial activities. The perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium salts mainly exhibited excellent antibacterial activity for the Gram-positive strain such as Staphylococcus aureus, the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) values was between 2.5 and 10?g\\/mL and the MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values were 20?g\\/mL. They all showed weak activity against

  20. Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium cephalosporin derivatives bearing oxazolidinone moiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Hwa Chung; Choong Sup Kim; Jae Hong Seo; Bong Young Chung

    1999-01-01

    Several oxazolidinones having amine moiety were prepared to form a quaternary ammonium salt with cephalosporin nucleus, and\\u000a antibacterial activity of the quaternary ammonium cephalosporin derivatives bearing oxazolidinone moiety were examined particularly\\u000a with expectation of dual activity. However, the cephalosporin-oxazolidinone compounds revealed rather weaker antibacterial\\u000a activityin vitro than their parent exazolidinone and cephalosporin without showing any characteristic activity as expected.

  1. Efficacy of a quaternary ammonium compound against planktonic and sessile populations of different Legionella pneumophila strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayten Kimiran-Erdem; Nazmiye Ozlem Sanli-Yurudu; Aysin Cotuk

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of Gemacide PN-50TM (a quaternary ammonium compound) as a commercial formulation recommended for disinfecting heat exchangers was determined\\u000a for both planktonic and sessile populations of variousLegionella pneumophila strains. The quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) was preferred as an alternative due to the emerging resistance of potentially\\u000a pathogenic bacteria against different biocides. PlanktonicL. pneumophila strains were suspended in tap water while

  2. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gozzelino; D. E. Romero Tobar; N. Chaitiemwong; W. C. Hazeleger; R. R. Beumer

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), endowed with undecylacryloyl group and alkyl chains with 2 (QAM-C2), 8 (QAM-C8), and 16 (QAM-C16) carbon atoms have been synthesized. Aqueous solutions of

  3. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  4. Quaternary ammonium derivatives as spasmolytics for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium derivatives such as cimetropium, n-butyl scopolammonium, otilonium and pinaverium bromide have been discovered and developed as potent spasmolytics of the gastrointestinal tract. Their pharmacological activity has been proven in both "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies of hypermotility. "In vitro" experiments showed that they possess antimuscarinic activity at nM level but only pinaverium and otilonium are endowed with calcium channel blocker properties. These latter compounds relaxed the gastrointestinal smooth muscle mainly through a specific inhibition of calcium ion influx through L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Molecular pharmacology trials have indicated that pinaverium and otilonium can bind specific subunits of the calcium channel in the external surface of the plasma membrane and in this way they block the machinery of the contraction. Recent evidence showed that otilonium is able to bind tachykinin NK(2) receptors and not only inhibits one of the major contractile agents but can reduce the activation of afferent nerves devoted to the passage of sensory signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thanks to their typical physico-chemical characteristics, they are poorly absorbed by the systemic circulation and generally remain in the gastrointestinal tract where they exert the muscle relaxant activity by a local activity. Some differences exists in the absorption among these compounds: both n-butyl scopolammonium and cimetropium are partially taken up in the bloodstream, pinaverium has a low absorption (8-10 %) but is endowed with an excellent hepato-biliary excretion and otilonium, which has the lowest absorption (3 %), is almost totally excreted by faeces. Quaternary ammonium derivatives are widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and recent meta-analyses have supported their efficacy in this disease. Due to its therapeutic index, the use of n-butyl scopolammonium is more indicated to treat acute colics than a chronic disease such as irritable bowel syndrome. Taking into consideration the published trials carried out with validated methodology in irritable bowel syndrome, cimetropium and otilonium are the best demonstrated drugs for the improvement in global assessment, pain and abdominal distension. PMID:15579053

  5. Tetracalcium phosphate composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Limkangwalmongkol, Penwadee; Hack, Gary D; Xu, Hockin H K; Chen, Qianming; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    Tooth caries is a carbohydrate-modified bacterial infectious disease, and recurrent caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure. The objective of this study was to develop a novel antibacterial composite using tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) fillers and bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, which is a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). QADM was synthesized using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate and incorporated into a resin. The resin was filled with 40% TTCP and 30% glass particles. The following QADM mass fractions in the composite were tested: 0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on the composites and the colony-forming units (CFUs), metabolic activity, and lactic acid production were measured. The TTCP-QADM composite had flexural strength and elastic modulus similar to those of two commercial composites (p > 0.1). Increasing the QADM content in TTCP composite greatly decreased the bacteria growth and biofilm matrix production. There were significantly more dead bacteria with increasing QADM content. TTCP composite containing 18% QADM had biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production about half of those without QADM. Inversely linear relationships were established between QADM mass fraction and S. mutans biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production, with correlation coefficients R(2) ? 0.98. In conclusion, TTCP-QADM composites were developed and the effect of QADM mass fraction on the antibacterial properties of the composite was determined for the first time. The novel TTCP-QADM composites possessing a strong antibacterial capability, together with calcium phosphate ion release and good mechanical properties, are promising for dental restorations to reduce biofilm growth and recurrent caries. PMID:22190356

  6. Antibacterial nanocomposite with calcium phosphate and quaternary ammonium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Weir, M D; Zhang, K; Xu, S M; Chen, Q; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K

    2012-05-01

    Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO(4) release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:22403412

  7. Antibacterial Nanocomposite with Calcium Phosphate and Quaternary Ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L.; Weir, M.D.; Zhang, K.; Xu, S.M.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, X.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO4 release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:22403412

  8. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on antibacterial bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Weir, M D; Xu, H H K

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

  9. Interaction of ochratoxin A with quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Szente, Lajos; Matisz, Gergely; Secenji, Györgyi; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; K?szegi, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely spread nephrotoxic food contaminant mycotoxin. Unfortunately, attenuation or prevention of the toxic effects of OTA is still an unresolved problem. Molecular inclusion of OTA by cyclodextrins (CDs) results in complexes with low stability. In the human organism, OTA exists mostly in the dianionic state (OTA(2-)). Therefore, our major goal was to develop a chemically modified cyclodextrin which gives a more stable complex with OTA than the previously published derivatives and which shows stronger preference towards OTA(2-). In our fluorescence spectroscopic study we demonstrate that quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin (QABCD) fulfils both of these requirements. The calculated stability constant of the QABCD-OTA(2-) complex was 28,840 M(-1) (about 200-fold higher than that of the ?-CD-OTA(2-) complex). We hypothesize, that QABCD may be a suitable tool for the decontamination of different OTA-contaminated drinks; furthermore, for alleviation of the toxic effects of OTA, such complex formation may reduce its absorption from the intestine. PMID:25442535

  10. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Chain Length on Antibacterial Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

  11. Preparation of crosslinked polystyrenes with quaternary ammonium and their antibacterial behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Jiang; Li Wang; Haojie Yu; Ying Chen

    2005-01-01

    A series of insoluble crosslinked polystyrenes with different quaternary ammonium groups were synthesized, and their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were investigated by a colony count method. It is found that the antibacterial efficiency of the ammonium group increases as the substitute alkyl length increases.

  12. Poloxamine hydrogels with a quaternary ammonium modification to improve cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro; Sefton, Michael V

    2005-11-01

    Four-arm poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymer (poloxamine, Tetronic 1107) hydrogels were modified with positively charged groups with the aim of overcoming the low cell adhesion properties of these PEO-rich systems. Different matrices containing poloxamine-methacrylate (6-12%) and a quaternary ammonium methacrylate ([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-trimethylammonium chloride [MAETAC], 0-0.48 M) were produced by a photo-initiated free radical copolymerization. A sharp increase in water content for MAETAC-containing gels was seen during the first 2 days of incubation in distilled water; some of the gels showed water uptakes as high as 12 times the initial wet weight. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), this effect was less pronounced because of the decrease in the osmotic gradient. In addition, a gradual increase of both the storage and the loss modulus of the gels resulted from increasing the MAETAC content [e.g., G' values increased from 13,500 Pa for 12% poloxamine-methacrylate gels without MAETAC to 151,000 Pa for 0.48M MAETAC contents (at 1 Hz, 100 Pa of oscillatory stress)]. Although on pure poloxamine-methacrylate gels HepG2 and HUVEC cells attached poorly, on MAETAC-containing specimens a well-spread morphology and confluent monolayers were obtained, at least after preincubation in serum containing medium. Although not having all the cell compatibility of collagen, these fully synthetic quaternary ammonium-modified PEO-rich gels may have some utility in tissue-engineering applications where stiff gels and cell attachment after gelation are desired. PMID:16059894

  13. Re-extraction of platinum and palladium nitro-complexes extracted from nitrite media by quaternary ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, K.A.; Buslaeva, T.M.; Samarova, L.V.; Sinitsyn, N.M.; Ukraintseva, P.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the recycling of platinum and palladium catalysts by examining the re-extraction from these systems which are formed in the organic phase on extraction by tri-noctylbenzylammonium chloride. The authors compare the data obtained with the behavior of the complexes to be extracted in nonpolar organic solvents. The results are presented for the -extraction of platinum (II) and palladium (II) from the organic phase. It is shown that when palladium nitro-complexes extracted from nitrite media by quaternary ammonium salts are re-extracted by ammonium hydroxide solutions, the nitro group is completely replaced by an ammine group with the formation of the cation (pd(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/.

  14. Characterization of associates in ternary mixtures of amines, diprotic acid dyes and quaternary ammonium compounds in dichloromethane and in dichloromethane\\/water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Hernande Gainza

    1997-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of Bromocresol Green (BCGH), Benzethonium Chloride (BZ+Cl?), and Quinine (Q) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 for ratios 1:?1:?1 (BCGH2:BZ+Cl?:Q) generate species BCGH?BZ+, BZ+BCG?-H-Q) and BCG2? (BZ+)2 in chemical equilibrium; whose thermodynamic parameters are determined. A new method to study ternary mixtures in a non-polar solvent has been given and other amines (A) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) instead of Q

  15. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in seawater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bassarab, P; Williams, D; Dean, J R; Ludkin, E; Perry, J J

    2011-02-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of two biocidal quaternary ammonium compounds; didecyldimethylammonium chloride (didecyldimethyl quat) and dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (benzyl quat), in seawater by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed. The optimised procedure utilised off-line extraction of the analytes from seawater using polymeric (Strata-X) SPE cartridges. Recoveries ranged from 80 to 105%, with detection limits at the low parts-per-trillion (ng/l) level for both analytes. To demonstrate sensitivity, environmental concentrations were measured at three different locations along the North East coast of England with measured values in the range 120-270ng/l. PMID:21194696

  16. Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghua Yu; Guotuan Gu; Wei-Dong Meng; Feng-Ling Qing

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol–gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the

  17. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  18. Mixed ternary ion associate formation between xanthene dye, cinchona-alkaloid and quaternary ammonium ion and its application to the determination of trace amounts of quaternary ammonium salts in pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadao Sakai; Akihiko Hirose

    2003-01-01

    Xanthene dyes such as eosin and tetraiodofluorescein form 1:2 ion associates with quaternary ammonium ions at pH 7–9; however, the development of color in the organic solvent is poor. When a quaternary ammonium salt is added in the extractable 1:2 associate formed between a xanthene dye and a cinchona-alkaloid in the neutral media, a mixed ternary ion associate (xanthene dye:cinchona-alkaloid:quaternary

  19. Incidence of Class 1 Integrons in a Quaternary Ammonium Compound-Polluted Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, W. H.; Abdouslam, N.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of effluent and soil were collected from a reed bed system used to remediate liquid waste from a wool finishing mill with a high use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and were compared with samples of agricultural soils. Resistance quotients of aerobic gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to ditallowdimethylammomium chloride (DTDMAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were established by plating onto nutrient agar containing 5 ?g/ml or 50 ?g/ml DTDMAC or CTAB. Approximately 500 isolates were obtained and screened for the presence of the intI1 (class 1 integrase), qacE (multidrug efflux), and qacE?1 (attenuated qacE) genes. QAC resistance was higher in isolates from reed bed samples, and class 1 integron incidence was significantly higher for populations that were preexposed to QACs. This is the first study to demonstrate that QAC selection in the natural environment has the potential to coselect for antibiotic resistance, as class 1 integrons are well-established vectors for cassette genes encoding antibiotic resistance. PMID:15855499

  20. Factors contributing to the survival of poultry associated Pseudomonas spp. exposed to a quaternary ammonium compound.

    PubMed

    Langsrud, S; Sundheim, G

    1997-06-01

    Resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BC) among Pseudomonas spp. isolated from poultry carcasses was determined and strategies for elimination of resistant strains evaluated. This investigation showed that resistance was quite common, about 30% of the isolates being able to grow in 200 micrograms ml-1 BC. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were generally less susceptible than strains of Ps. lundensis and Ps. fragi. An overnight incubation in medium containing 200 micrograms ml-1 BC was sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of two Pseudomonas strains to the lethal effect of BC significantly. Adding EDTA enhanced the lethal effect of BC, but the effect was reduced after growing cells in medium containing BC and EDTA. Growth in medium with a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) rendered the cells more susceptible to chlorine, phenolics, and alkylaminoacetate. These results indicate that alternating use of QACs with these compounds can be used to avoid build-up of resistant strains. In addition, increased temperatures improved the lethal effect of BC and should be considered when planning disinfection routines. PMID:9202437

  1. Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from quaternary ammonium salts functionalized soybean oil based polyols.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Yari, Abbas; Saeedi-Eslami, Seyyed Nasirodin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a simple and versatile synthetic approach was developed to prepare bactericidal polyurethane coatings. For this purpose, introduction of both quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with well-known antibacterial activity, and reactive hydroxyl groups on to the backbone of soybean oil was considered. Epoxidized soybean oil was reacted with diethylamine and the intermediate tertiary amine containing polyol was reacted with two different alkylating agents, methyl iodide and benzyl chloride, to produce MQAP and BQAP, respectively. These functional polyols were reacted with different diisocyanate monomers to prepare polyurethane coatings. Depending on the structure of monomers used for the preparation of polyurethane coatings, initial modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of samples were in the ranges of 122-339 MPa, 4.6-12.4 MPa and 8.4-46%, respectively. Polyurethane coatings based on isophorone diisocyanate showed proper mechanical properties and adhesion strength (0.41 MPa) for coating application. Study of fibroblast cells interaction with prepared polyurethanes showed promising cells viability in the range of 78-108%. Meanwhile, MQAP based samples with higher concentration of QASs showed better adhesion strength, surface hydrophilicity and antibacterial activity (about 95% bacterial reduction). Therefore, these materials can find applications as bactericidal coating for biomedical devices and implants. PMID:25428057

  2. The role of the qacA gene in mediating resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Dana; Babak, Vladimir; Marosevic, Durdica; Kubikova, Iva; Jaglic, Zoran

    2013-06-01

    Conditions facilitating resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were investigated in Staphylococcus aureus SK982 exposed to benzalkonium chloride (BAC; a member of QACs) under various circumstances. S. aureus SK982 carrying the qacA gene encoding for resistance to QACs was grown in the presence of stable or gradually increasing concentrations of BAC, or it was exposed to this antiseptic in the exponential phase of growth. Bacteria cultivated in the highest BAC concentrations that did not retard their growth comparing to the untreated control were subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for relative expression of the efflux genes qacA and norA. Under such conditions, S. aureus SK982 tolerated a relatively low stable concentration of BAC (1.22?mg/L) when compared with a gradually increasing antiseptic concentration (tolerance of 4.88?mg/L). However, in both cases, qacA expression was not significant. The culture exposed in the exponential phase of growth tolerated the highest concentration of BAC (9.76?mg/L) as also accompanied by significant overexpression of qacA. Expression of norA was relatively low regardless of the conditions tested. It seems that under the short-term conditions, the phase of bacterial growth is more important for the expression of BAC resistance than the capability to adapt to this antiseptic. This study provides a deeper insight into the relevance of the qac genes in conferring resistance to QACs. PMID:23256651

  3. Effects of quaternary ammonium compounds with 0.1% sodium hydroxide on swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    Shirai, J; Kanno, T; Inoue, T; Mitsubayashi, S; Seki, R

    1997-05-01

    The effects of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) with sodium hydroxide on swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus were studied. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) with 0.1% NaOH showed a stronger effect against SVDV than other QACs with 0.1% NaOH. The effect of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH was strong at 40 degrees C. DDAC was effective against SVDV at pH values around 11.0, but not in the distilled water control. The effect of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH was already observed at 1 min after mixing of the DDAC with SVDV. Observation under an electron microscopy revealed that the probable mechanism of inactivation of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH is as follows: The virus particles were partially destroyed by 0.1% NaOH. DDAC gathered these affected particles and formed a micelle, then SVDV lost its infectivity. From these results, QACs with 0.1% NaOH are considered to be very effective against SVDV representing enteroviruses. PMID:9192351

  4. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Silane Coatings on Mixed Fungal and Bacterial Biofilms on Tracheoesophageal Shunt Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Janine J. H.; Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2006-01-01

    Two quaternary ammonium silanes (QAS) were used to coat silicone rubber tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses, yielding a positively charged surface. One QAS coating [(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride] was applied through chemical bonding, while the other coating, Biocidal ZF, was sprayed onto the silicone rubber surface. The sprayed coating lost its stability within an hour, while the chemically bonded coating appeared stable. Upon incubation in an artificial throat model, allowing simultaneous adhesion and growth of yeast and bacteria, all coated prostheses showed significant reductions in the numbers of viable yeast (to 12% to 16%) and bacteria (to 27% to 36%) compared with those for silicone rubber controls, as confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy after live/dead staining of the biofilms. In situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes showed that yeasts expressed hyphae on the untreated and Biocidal ZF-coated prostheses but not on the QAS-coated prostheses. Whether this is a result of the positive QAS coating or is due to the reduced number of bacteria is currently unknown. In summary, this is the first report on the inhibitory effects of positively charged coatings on the viability of yeasts and bacteria in mixed biofilms. Although the study initially aimed at reducing voice prosthetic biofilms, its relevance extends to all biomedical and environmental surfaces where mixed biofilms develop and present a problem. PMID:16672516

  5. Dual Action Antimicrobials: Nitric Oxide Release from Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Worley, Brittany V.; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of quaternary ammonium (QA)-functionalized silica nanoparticles with and without nitric oxide (NO) release capabilities is described. Glycidyltrialkylammonium chlorides of varied alkyl chain lengths (i.e., methyl, butyl, octyl, and dodecyl) were tethered to the surface of amine-containing silica nanoparticles via a ring-opening reaction. Secondary amines throughout the particle were then functionalized with N-diazeniumdiolates NO donors to yield dual functional nanomaterials with surface QAs and total NO payloads of ca. 0.3 ?mol/mg. The bactericidal activities of singly (i.e., only NO-releasing or only QA-functionalized) and dual (i.e., NO-releasing and QA-functionalized) functional nanoparticles were tested against Grampositive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Particles with only NO release capabilities alone were found to be more effective against P. aeruginosa, while particles with only QA-functionalities exhibited greater toxicity toward S. aureus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of QA-functionalized particles decreased with increasing alkyl chain length against both microbes tested. Combining NO release and QA-functionalities on the same particle resulted in an increase in bactericidal efficacy against S. aureus; however, no change in activity against P. aeruginosa was observed compared to NO-releasing particles alone. PMID:22998760

  6. Different Virucidal Activities of Hyperbranched Quaternary Ammonium Coatings on Poliovirus and Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Era; de Koning, Martijn C.; Fundeanu, Irina; Beumer, Rijkelt

    2012-01-01

    Virucidal activity of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds (IQACs) coated onto glass and plastic surfaces was tested against enveloped influenza A (H1N1) virus and nonenveloped poliovirus Sabin1. The IQACs tested were virucidal against the influenza virus within 2 min, but no virucidal effect against poliovirus was found in 6 h. PMID:22287007

  7. Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurit Beyth; Ira Yudovin-Farber; Ran Bahir; Abraham J. Domb; Ervin I. Weiss

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles embedded at 1%w\\/w with clinically used bonding, flowable and hybrid dental composite resins and cured by light polymerization was studied. The antibacterial activity was tested with Streptoccocus mutans by: (i) the agar diffusion test (ADT); (ii) the direct contact test; (iii) bacterial growth in the materials elute; (iv) and scanning electron

  8. Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. McBain; Ruth G. Ledder; Louise E. Moore; Carl E. Catrenich; Peter Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as adjuncts to hygiene in domestic cleaning products. Current concern that the increased use of such biocides in consumer products might contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of a QAC-containing domestic cleaning fluid on the population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of domestic sink drain biofilm

  9. Synthesis and characterization of dimethacrylates containing quaternary ammonium functionalities for dental applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Antonucci; Diana N. Zeiger; Kathy Tang; Sheng Lin-Gibson; Bruce O. Fowler; Nancy J. Lin

    ObjectivesThe widespread incidence of recurrent caries highlights the need for improved dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to synthesize low viscosity ionic dimethacrylate monomers (IDMAs) that contain quaternary ammoniums groups (antimicrobial functionalities) and are compatible with existing dental dimethacrylate-based monomers. Such monomers have the potential to copolymerize with other methacrylate monomers and produce antibacterial polymers.

  10. New biomaterials through surface segregation phenomenon: New quaternary ammonium compounds as antibacterial agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald S. Nohr; J. Gavin Macdonald

    1994-01-01

    Five new trisiloxane quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized from hydro-trisiloxane with allyl glycidyl ether to yield the epoxy function. Various amines were then reacted to yield trisiloxane amines which were further reacted to methyl substitute or oxidize the ?-carbons in order to provide thermal stability. These new compounds were employed as melt additives in a nonwoven polypropylene fiber extrusion process

  11. Anti-biofilm Dentin Primer with Quaternary Ammonium and Silver Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cheng; K. Zhang; M. A. S. Melo; M. D. Weir; X. Zhou; H. H. K. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents could combat recurrent caries at the tooth-composite margins. The objectives of this study were to develop novel antibacterial dentin primers containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effects on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms for the first time. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (“SBMP”) bonding agent was used. QADM and

  12. ELECTROSPINNING OF LOW SURFACE ENERGY QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALT CONTAINING POLYMERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazim Acatay; Mert Akel

    Antibacterial agent (quaternary ammonium salt) containing perfluorinated polymers had been synthesized at different agent concentrations. The polymers were dissolved in solvent mixture and electrospun, to increase effective surface area, at 12 kV which had resulted nanofibers with diameters as low as 40 nanometers and fluffy structures. The resultant electrospun webs' biocidal activities relative to the solution cast film samples and

  13. A comparison between the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of new quaternary ammonium polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Marchisio; P. Bianciardi; T. Longo; P. Ferruti; E. Ranucci; M. G. Neri

    1995-01-01

    —New quaternary ammonium polymers, which in a previous work had shown relevant antibacterial properties, have been investigated as regards to their hemolytic activity (HA) in comparison with a low molecular weight commercial antibacterial agent, Steramine G (SG). All polymers exhibit negligible, or at most modest, HA at dosages and contact times at which SG is strongly hemolytic.

  14. Quaternary ammonium salts as antimicrobial additives to water-dispersible paints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Makarewicz; A. V. Shiichuk; I. D. Syrotyns’ka

    2011-01-01

    The properties of quaternary ammonium salts in water and in a dispersion of a film-forming agent were studied by viscometry,\\u000a conductometry, and pH-metry. The colloidal particle sizes, critical micelle concentrations, and coagulation thresholds were\\u000a determined.

  15. Efficient quaternary ammonium salt as corrosion inhibitor for steel pickling in sulphuric acid media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. El Dahan; T. Y. S. Mohamed; S. A. Abo El-Enin

    1999-01-01

    A study is carried out on the resistance to corrosion of mild steel in 5 per cent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. The effectiveness of quaternary ammonium salt used as corrosion inhibitor under the same experimental conditions was also investigated. Weight loss results and electrochemical data showed the good inhibiting action of the inhibitor, acting as anodic

  16. 77 FR 47291 - Residues of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0139; FRL-9356-6] Residues of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride...from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride...establish a maximum permissible level for residues of DDAC in or on broccoli seed....

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa affects ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats.

    PubMed

    Essa, M Mohamed; Subramanian, P

    2007-09-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg(-1) body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Essa, M. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg?1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

  19. Morphology Control of Zn-SiO2 Composite Films Electrodeposited from Aqueous Solution Containing Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgai, T.; Ogushi, K.; Takao, K.

    2013-03-01

    Zn-SiO2 alloys were electrodeposited from acidic aqueous solution containing cationic surfactants such as diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, trimethyl-tetradecyl-ammonium chloride, trimethyl-stearyl-ammonium chloride and dimethyl-distearyl-ammonium chloride. Zn-SiO2 alloy thin films were obtained at the wide current density range from 5 A/dm2 to 100 A/dm2. SiO2 content in deposits was ca. 10 % at the maximum using the solution containing a surfactant with molecular weight range of 200 to 300.

  20. Oil-absorbent cellulosic derivatives. [Cellulose-containing substance having cationic exchange properties and a quaternary ammonium salt

    SciTech Connect

    Fanta, G.F.; Doane, W.M.

    1986-08-12

    A composition is described for absorbing oil from oil-in-water emulsions comprising the reaction product of a cellulose-containing substance having cationic exchange properties and a fatty quaternary ammonium salt.

  1. Changes in Escherichia coli Associated with Acquired Tolerance for Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 1

    PubMed Central

    Maxcy, R. B.; Tiwari, N. P.; Soprey, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    Acquired tolerance for a quaternary ammonium compound produced a tolerance for a similar compound. Tolerance was associated with the structure and the extent of adsorption of the compound. Morphological changes and resistance to disruption by pressure and by sonic treatment accompanied the development of tolerance. An otherwise weakened culture evolved with the acquisition of tolerance. The maximum obtainable viable population density of tolerant cells in growth medium was approximately 5% of that obtained in the parent culture. Tolerant cultures died off more rapidly in the original growth medium as well as when washed cell suspensions were stored at 5 C. Since acquired tolerance was associated with an otherwise weakened culture, the occurrence of the tolerant cells to limit the efficacy of quaternary ammonium compounds in sanitation operations is highly unlikely. PMID:4938103

  2. Organizational and Aggregational Characteristics of Some Monomeric and Polymerized Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Paleos; G. Margomenou-leonidopoulou; Angelos Malliaris

    1988-01-01

    In the present study two micelle forming polymerizable quaternary ammonium salts bearing the double bond either at the ionic head, or at the end of the aliphatic chain were prepared. Furthermore, the structure of the polymerizable group was different in the two cases, one being CH2=CH-0-(C=O)- and the other CH2=CH-(C=O)-O-. By means of this functionalization it was possible to study

  3. New protein-resistant coatings for water filtration membranes based on quaternary ammonium and phosphonium polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan S. Hatakeyama; Hao Ju; Christopher J. Gabriel; Jenny L. Lohr; Jason E. Bara; Richard D. Noble; Benny D. Freeman; Douglas L. Gin

    2009-01-01

    Several simple, lightly cross-linked quaternary phosphonium- and ammonium-based polymer coatings were found to effectively resist the non-specific adsorption of proteins (i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg)) from aqueous solution under both static exposure and dynamic membrane fouling conditions. In some cases, their protein-resistance performance is comparable to, or even better than, cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (i.e., PEG)-based polymers, which

  4. Synthesis of chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium salt and their antibacterial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Ho Kim; Jang Won Choi; Heung Jae Chun; Kyu Suk Choi

    1997-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a N-alkyl chitosan derivatives were prepared by introducing alkyl groups into the amine groups of chitosan via Schiff’s base\\u000a intermediates. Quaternization of the N-alkyl chitosan derivatives were carried out using methyl iodide to produce water soluble cationic polyelectrolytes, novel\\u000a chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium salt. Their antibacterial activities against S. aureus were explored by the viable cell counting method in

  5. Preparation and antibacterial activity of hybrid materials containing quaternary ammonium salts via sol–gel process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marini; M. Bondi; R. Iseppi; M. Toselli; F. Pilati

    2007-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid coatings containing quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) bonded to the organic–inorganic network were prepared from tetraethoxysilane and triethoxysilane terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene) using a sol–gel process. They were applied as a thin layer (0.6–1?m) to PE films and the antibacterial activity of the coated films was tested against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538)

  6. Biotreatment on Cellulose Fluff Pulp: Quaternary Ammonium Salts Finish and Grafting with ?-cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djamila Ghemati; Atika Oudia; Djamel Aliouche; Saad Lamouri

    2009-01-01

    For its potential performances to be expanded, cellulose needs to be processed in different ways. Therefore, an object of\\u000a the present work was to provide a chemical modification of cellulose through: a specific finish with two quaternary ammonium\\u000a salts (namely Aliquat 336 and Aliquat 1529, respectively). Chemical grafting of ?-cyclodextrin derivative (?-CD) onto fibers\\u000a followed by the inclusion of benzoic

  7. Solvent Extraction of Cobalt(ll) and Nickel(ll) by a Quaternary Ammonium Thiocyanate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Preston

    1982-01-01

    The solvent extraction of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) into xylene solutions of a quaternary ammonium thiocyanate (R4N.NCS) has been investigated and shown to depend markedly upon the identity of the counteranion (X) present in the aqueous phase. The extent of extraction of both metals increases with increasing stability of the corresponding ion-pair, R4N.X. The dependence of metal distribution upon the concentrations

  8. Extraction of quaternary ammonium salts from aqueous solutions by sorption with hydrolyzed lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, A.F.; Astaf'eva, O.V.; Lobukhina, T.V.

    1987-12-01

    The sorption of surfactant quaternary ammonium salts by hydrolized lignin, recovered from the hydrolysis of wood and other plant materials, was studied in the context of the purification of low-concentration aqueous effluents. Infrared spectroscopy of the samples was conducted. Calculations showed that the relative intensity of the absorption bands of the hydrolized lignin before and after sorption of the surfactant changed by 0.8 to 5%. Sorption isotherms were also determined.

  9. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using branched water soluble quaternary ammonium-containing polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mccoy, D.R.

    1983-05-24

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are branched water-soluble quaternary ammonium-containing polymers. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  10. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y.

    2007-01-01

    A one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms is described for a widely used bioactive drug: chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. After conversion to its free base, the parent drug was methylated using substoichiometric amounts of methyl iodide dissolved in ether; the charged quaternary

  11. Site of Action of Certain Antibacterial Heterocyclic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cox, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    The site of action of related mono- and bis-quinaldinium compounds was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus megaterium. The effects of these compounds on cell morphology and on protoplast formation and fragility were studied, and the distribution of C14-labeled quinaldinium compound in cell fractions was measured. The latter studies showed that a major part of the quaternary compound penetrates the cell, leaving a very small quantity associated with the cell wall. Similar antibacterial effects were seen with both the mono- and bis-quinaldinium compounds studied, and these effects were comparable with antibacterial properties of known cationic surface-active antibacterial agents. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4956041

  12. Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts onto kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhua, Xu; Yuehua, Hu; Faqin, Dong; Hao, Jiang; Houqin, Wu; Zhen, Wang; Ruohua, Liu

    2015-06-01

    Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) onto kaolinite have been investigated by flotation tests. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were used as collectors for kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm, 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm, 0 ~ 0.045 mm). The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite have been further explained based on crystal structure considerations by adsorption tests and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the flotation recovery of kaolinite in all different particle size fractions decreases with an increase in pH. As the concentration of collectors increases, the flotation recovery increases. The longer the carbon chain of QAS is, the higher the recoveries of coarse kaolinite (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm and 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm) are. But the flotation recovery of the finest kaolinite (0 ~ 0.045 mm) decreases with chain lengths of QAS collectors increasing, which is consistent with the flotation results of unscreened kaolinite (0 ~ 0.075 mm). It is explained by the froth stability related to the residual concentration of QAS collector in mineral pulp. In lower residual concentration, the froth stability becomes worse. Within the range of flotation collector concentration, it's easy of CTAC to be completely adsorbed by kaolinite in the particle size fraction (0-0.045 mm), which led to lower flotation recovery. Moreover, it is interesting that the coarser particle size of kaolinite is, the higher flotation recovery is. The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite is rationalized based on crystal structure considerations. The results of MD simulations show that the (001) kaolinite surface has the strongest interaction with DTAC, compared with the (00 1) face, (010) and (110) edges. On the other hand, when particle size of kaolinite is altered, the number of basal planes and edge planes is changed. It is observed that the finer kaolinite particles size become, the greater relative surface area of edges and the more the number of edges are. It means that fine kaolinite particles have more edges to adsorb fewer cationic colletors than that of coarse kaolinite particles, which is responsible for the poorer floatability of fine kaolinite.

  13. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-10-01

    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10?mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. PMID:25303389

  14. Evaluation of calcium chloride and ammonium thiosulfate as ammonia volatilization inhibitors for surface-applied urea 

    E-print Network

    Sloan, John J.

    1989-01-01

    EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND AMMONIUM THIOSULFATE AS AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION INHIBITORS FOR SURFACE-APPLIED UREA A Thesis by JOHN J. SLOAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Ma!or Subject: Soil Science EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND AMMONIUM THIOSULFATE AS AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION INHIBITORS FOR SURFACE-APPLIED UREA A Thesis by JOHN J. SLOAN Approved as to style...

  15. Dietary ammonium chloride and the urinary excretion of chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Ronald Curtis

    1967-01-01

    DIETARY AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AND THE URINARY EXCRETION OF CHLORTETRACYCLINE AND OXYTETRACYCLINE A Thesis by Ronald C. Roberts Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University iq partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Ma)or Sub)cot; Animal Nutrition DIETARY AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AND THE URINARY EXCRETION OF CHLORTETRACYCLINE AND OXYTETRACYCLINE A Thesis by Ronald C. Roberts Approved as to style and content by: airma o ommi tee ea o...

  16. Action of Disinfectant Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Christopher J.; Hanlon, Geoff W.; Denyer, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Mode-of-action studies concluded that alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) (a blend of C12, C14 and C16 alkyl homologues) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) are both membrane-active agents, possessing subtly different modes of action reflecting early cell interactions against Staphylococcus aureus. ADBAC and DDAC exhibited similar MIC behaviors from 0.4 ppm to 1.8 ppm over an inoculum range of 1 × 105 to 1 × 109 CFU/ml at 35°C. For ADBAC and DDAC, an increased rapidity of killing against S. aureus (final concentration, 2 × 109 CFU/ml) was observed at 35°C compared to 25°C. Concentration exponents (?) for killing were <2.5 for both agents, and temperature influenced the ? value. Examination of leakage and kill data suggested that a single leakage marker was not indicative of cell death. ADBAC and DDAC possessed Langmuir (L4) and high-affinity (H3/4) uptake isotherms, respectively. ADBAC molecules formed a single monolayer of coverage of cells at the end of primary uptake, and DDAC formed a double monolayer. Rapid cell leakage occurred at bactericidal concentrations, with total depletion of the intracellular potassium and 260-nm-absorbing pools released in this strict order. Autolysis was observed for ADBAC and DDAC at concentrations of 9 ?g/ml (0.0278 mM and 0.0276 mM, respectively) and above, together with the depletion of approximately 30% of the internal potassium pool. Autolysis contributed to ADBAC and DDAC lethality, although high biocide concentrations may have inhibited autolytic enzyme activity. PMID:17060529

  17. 74 FR 51481 - Ammonium chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-10-07

    ...chloride in the food supply (both as a direct food additive and fertilizer), the amount of ammonium chloride contributed by its use...infants and children. In addition, based on its high water solubility and the use of this product in the growing phase of...

  18. Ammonium Chloride Aerosol Nucleation and Growth in a Cross-Flow Impinging Jet Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Nadeau; Dimitrios Berk; Richard J. Munz

    2003-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of an ammonium chloride aerosol starting from gaseous ammonia and hydrogen chloride was investigated experimentally and with the use of a mathematical model. The reactor was composed of 2 opposed jets perpendicular to a main stream and was operated under laminar\\/transition flow conditions. The reactants were segregated when they entered the reactor. The parameter observed was

  19. Microbial Community Degradation of Widely Used Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R.; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K.; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Spain, Jim C.

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments. PMID:24951783

  20. Quaternary ammonium salts intercalated ?-ZrP compounds for adsorption of phenolic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongning; Liu, Wenjin; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Ruoyu

    2013-03-01

    By using methylamine as the colloidization agent to weaken the interactions of ?-ZrP laminate, the quaternary ammonium salts of DTAB, TTAB, CTAB and STAB were successfully intercalated into the methylamine pre-pillared ?-ZrP, denoted as DTAB-ZrP, TTAB-ZrP, CTAB-ZrP and STAB-ZrP, respectively. XRD, FTIR, TEM and N2 sorption were used to characterize the intercalated compounds, and the arrangements of intercalated quaternary ammonium salts within ZrP were supposed according to the results. It was shown that the interlayer distances were increased from 0.76 nm to 2.10-3.50 nm and the intercalated quaternary amine salt cationic bonded with Psbnd O- anion through electrostatic interaction. The phenolic compounds adsorption results have demonstrated that all the four intercalated compounds have good adsorption performance, and CTAB-ZrP show the highest maximum adsorption amounts of 0.90, 1.25 and 1.34 mmol g-1, for phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenolare, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds are linear with the C0 of 2.0-6.0 mmol L-1 and fit well to both the Linear and the Freundlich models, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism is mainly partition effects of organic phase within ZrP interlayer.

  1. Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2014-06-01

    Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries. PMID:24722581

  2. Reversible phase transformation-type layer shape electrolyte based on POM and quaternary ammonium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuefei; Li, Yunyan; Wu, Qingyin; Ding, Hong; Yan, Wenfu

    2014-02-01

    A novel kind of organic-inorganic layer shape material, polyoxymetalates (POM)-type ionic liquid (IL) with Keggin structure and simple quaternary ammonium salt, (TOAMe)4PW11VO40 (trioctylmethylammonium = TOAMe,…) is synthesized and characterized by IR, UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD), TG-DTA. Its electrochemical property was investigated by cyclic voltammgram. Research results released the vanadium and the POM structure in the compound can process reduction in DMSO, which is unlikely in water solution as a simple hydrated ion because water will protonize substrate.

  3. General economic evaluation of the use of quaternary ammonium salts as catalysts in industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zaldman, B.; Neumann, R.; Sasson, Y.

    1985-09-01

    The use of quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) as phase-transfer catalysts is analyzed from a technological and economic point of view. The limiting price for Quats is determined by establishing a qualitative relationship between technical parameters and economic factors. Specific examples show that the present price of Quats limits their commercial use to the area of high-priced commodities and specialty chemicals. Quats may be used i commodity manufacture provided they are produced on a larger scale. A simulation of such a large-scale production of a representative Quat (tetrabutylammonium bromide) has been made and its consequences are discussed.

  4. Ionometric determination of quaternary ammonium cations in industrial extraction reagents and sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Kokovkin, V.V.; Nemirovskii, A.M.; Kravchenko, L.Kh.; Smolyakov, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    When extraction reagents based on salts of quaternary ammonium bases (QAS) are used in the technology of purification of rare earth elements (REE), the problem arises of determining QAS in technological and dilute aqueous solutions (circulating waters and sewage). A direct method of determining cations of QAS is known, based on the use of ion-selective electrodes, reversible to hydrophobic cations. Two types of procedures can be distinguished within the framework of this method: potentiometric titration and direct potentiometry. In this work the authors discuss the possibilities of both types for practical use in industrial analysis.

  5. Syntheses and Applications of (Thio)Urea-Containing Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Salt Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Johanna; Waser, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We herein report our efforts to obtain a new class of systematically modified bifunctional (thio)urea-containing quaternary ammonium salts based on easily obtainable chiral backbones. Among the different classes of catalysts that were successfully synthesized, those based on trans-1,2-cyclohexane diamine were found to be the most powerful for the asymmetric ?-fluorination of ?-keto esters. Selectivities up to 93:7 could be obtained by using only 2 mol-% of the optimized catalyst. The importance of the bifunctional nature of these catalysts was demonstrated by control experiments using simplified monofunctional catalyst analogues, which gave almost racemic product only. PMID:25339849

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Membranes with Quaternary Ammonium Groups for Wound Dressing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Yu Chen; Yu-Sheng Lin; Chun-Hsu Yao; Ming-Hsien Li; Jui-Che Lin

    2010-01-01

    2-[(acryloyloxy)ethyl]Trimethylammonium chloride (AETMAC) was grafted onto poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as a redox initiator. A series of graft co-polymer (PVA-g-PAETMAC) membranes with different contents of AETMAC were prepared with a casting method. The incorporation of AETMAC into PVA chains was confirmed by element analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of grafting on the thermal

  7. Air-ozonolysis to generate contact active antimicrobial surfaces: activation of polyethylene and polystyrene followed by covalent graft of quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Fadida, Tania; Kroupitski, Yulia; Peiper, Uri M; Bendikov, Tatyana; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Poverenov, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Air-ozonolysis was revealed as an accessible and effective approach for surface activation and further functionalization of hydrocarbon polymers. Antimicrobial contact active polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) were designed by generation on their surfaces OH-functional groups and covalent graft of dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride (C18-TSA) quaternary ammonium salt. The shortened analog, trimethyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride (C1-TSA), was also covalently attached to the activated PE and PS surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR confirmed the surface modifications. Scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy were utilized to monitor surface morphology and bacteria interactions. The antimicrobial effect of the C18-TSA grafted polymer surfaces was demonstrated on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria species including human pathogen, Salmonella enterica. The shorter C1-TSA grafted polymers did not demonstrate bactericidal activity, suggesting the critical role of the alkyl chain length. The described strategy may establish a new general and safe platform for future development and application of contact active antimicrobial polymers. PMID:25064479

  8. Fetal abnormalities produced after preimplantation exposure of mouse embryos to ammonium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supat Sinawat; Wei-Chih Hsaio; Jean H. Flockhart; Matthew H. Kaufman; John Keith; John D. West

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine whether preimplantation exposure of mouse embryos to ammonium resulted in abnormal fetal development and to evaluate similar risks to the outcome of human assisted conception. METHODS: Mouse embryos cultured from the 1-cell stage were exposed to 0.3 mmol\\/l ammonium chloride for 3 days. Embryos cultured from the 2-cell stage were exposed

  9. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings.

    PubMed

    Gozzelino, G; Tobar, D E Romero; Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W; Beumer, R

    2011-12-01

    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), endowed with undecylacryloyl group and alkyl chains with 2 (QAM-C2), 8 (QAM-C8), and 16 (QAM-C16) carbon atoms have been synthesized. Aqueous solutions of QAMs showed biocidal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains both in suspension and adhered to stainless steel surfaces. QAM-C16 and QAM-C8 evidenced higher activity toward bacteria in suspension and on stainless steel, respectively. The QAMs have shown sufficient reactivity to be copolymerized, by UV irradiation, with a commercial urethane acrylic resin for coating. Bioactivity tests, performed on free films of crosslinked coatings containing 1% of copolymerized QAM, have shown an increasing inactivation effect in the order of magnitude L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. aureus with a maximum activity of the QAM-C8. PMID:22186051

  10. Quaternary ammonium-type gemini surfactants synthesized from oleic acid: aqueous solution properties and adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Saito, Yuki; Uka, Akihito; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Endo, Takeshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants having a quaternary ammonium headgroup have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an amide bond, while the quaternary ammonium headgroup is introduced onto the cis double bond of oleic acid. The Krafft temperature of these surfactants drops below room temperature (ca. 25°C) when the counterion is exchanged from Br? to Cl?. The aqueous solution properties of the Cl series of surfactants have been assessed by means of pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and static surface tension measurements. An increased hydrocarbon chain length results in a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a higher adsorption efficiency at the air/aqueous solution interface. Surface tension measurements suggest the formation of premicelles at concentrations below cmc, whereas, above cmc, DLS indicates the formation of micellar aggregates whose diameter ranges from 5 to 10 nm. We, furthermore, characterized the adsorption of these surfactants to the silica/aqueous solution interface and observed their spontaneous adsorption to the solid surface by electrostatic and intermolecular hydrophobic interactions. The combination of soft-contact imaging atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force-curve data suggests bilayer formation above cmc, which is reflective of the large packing parameter of the gemini surfactants. Interestingly, we found the repulsive interaction observed during compression of the adsorbed layer to be relatively weak, as a result of the low adsorption density and/or the loose molecular packing arrangement, which arises from the asymmetric structure. PMID:23823915

  11. The effect of molecular structure on the surface properties of selected quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Dopierala, Katarzyna; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2008-05-01

    Equilibrium and dynamics of adsorption at the air/water interface of cationic surfactants belonging in the group of quaternary ammonium bromides was studied. Static surface tension of aqueous surfactants' solutions was measured in a wide range of surfactant concentrations using du Noüy ring method. Quaternary ammonium salts with different alkyl chain numbers and hydrophobicities were investigated. The Frumkin equation and reorientation model were used for a quantitative description of the process of their adsorption. The adsorption dynamics of the considered salts was described as a supplement to the equilibrium study. It was found that four short alkyl chains in tetraalkylammonium salt build a molecule which is weakly surface active. The number of alkyl chains as well as the symmetry of the molecules are important factors, determining the behavior of the surfactants at the interface and in the bulk solution. Surfactants with asymmetrical structure, like TTABr or MTOABr, show a strong tendency to reorientation, in opposite to tetraalkylammonium bromides and DDABr. Measurements of the dynamic surface tension revealed also strong dependence of the dynamics of adsorption on the chemical structure of the molecules. Measurements of the particle size by the dynamic light scattering method enabled the presence or lack of the micelles in the selected solutions to be confirmed. PMID:18295776

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane-polymethacrylate block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Zhou, Fang; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    Block copolymers PDMS-b-PDMAEMA were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization involving N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) macro-chain transfer agent. And, the tertiary amino groups in PDMAEMA were quaternized with n-octyliodide to provide quaternary ammonium salts (QPDMAEMA). The well-defined copolymers generated composition variation and morphology evolvement on film surfaces, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that the enrichment of QPDMAEMA brought about lower elemental ratios of Si/N on the film surfaces. The surface morphologies evolved with the variations of QPDMAEMA content, and the variation trend of film roughness was exactly opposite to that of water contact angle hysteresis. With regard to structure-antimicrobial relationships, the copolymer films had more evident antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis, and the surfaces with heterogeneous morphology and higher N+ content presented better antimicrobial activity. The functionalized copolymers based PDMS and quaternary ammonium salts materials have the potential applications as antimicrobial coatings.

  13. Quaternary ammonium ion blockade of I K in nerve axons revisited. Open channel block vs. state independent block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Clay

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of blockade of the delayed rectifier potassium ion channel in squid giant axons by intracellular quaternary ammonium ions (QA) appears to be remarkably sensitive to the structure of the blocker. TEA, propyltriethyl-ammonium (C3), and propyltetraethylammonium (TAA-C3) all fail to alter the deactivation, or “tail” current time course following membrane depolarization, even with relatively large concentrations of the blockers,

  14. The Listeria monocytogenes transposon Tn6188 provides increased tolerance to various quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Zaiser, Andreas; Wieser, Cornelia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Tolerance of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of disinfectants has been frequently reported. Particularly, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are often used in disinfectants and also as antiseptics in food industry and hospitals. Recently, we described Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes harbouring the transporter QacH, a molecular mechanism leading to increased tolerance to BC. In this study, we investigated the presence of Tn6188 within the genus Listeria spp. Our screening indicates that the distribution of Tn6188 may be limited to L. monocytogenes. We confirm that QacH is responsible for the observed increase in tolerance by complementation of a qacH deletion mutant and introducing qacH in a Tn6188 negative strain. We investigated the transporter's substrate spectrum by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and showed that QacH also confers higher tolerance towards other QACs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). This result was supported by increased expression of qacH in the presence of the various substrates as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we detected expression of a Tn6188 transposase gene and circular forms of Tn6188, suggesting activity and possible transfer of this transposon. PMID:25312720

  15. Effects of hydrophobic aggregation on the charge transport mechanism of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Philip; Holt, Adam; Wang, Yangyang; Novikov, Vladimir; Sangoro, Joshua; Sokolov, Alexei

    2014-03-01

    Aprotic quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) are an important class of ILs due to their large electrochemical window and hydrophobicity. However, many of these ILs suffer from relatively low conductivity at room temperature which limits their use in electrochemical applications. In order to understand the nature of this low conductivity and its relation to the chemical structure of the alkyl ammonium cation, we have measured the charge transport properties and structural dynamics of the room temperature ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium bistriflimide [m3oa][ntf2] over a broad temperature range using dielectric spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, rheology, and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance. We demonstrate that the low values of dc conductivity are due to the combined effects of significantly reduced ion mobility as well as reduced free ion concentration relative to other types of ILs. Secondly we find evidence for a mesoscopic scale structural relaxation process that we attribute to the reorientational motion of nanometer sized alkyl nanodomains. These two findings indicate that hydrophobic aggregation plays an important role in the charge transport mechanism of aprotic ammonium ionic liquids with long aliphatic side chains.

  16. Correlation between Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein OprR

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Maeda, Takuya; Murakami, Keiji; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was investigated. A P. aeruginosa strain with adapted resistance to QACs was developed by a standard broth dilution method. It was revealed that P. aeruginosa exhibited remarkable resistance to N-dodecylpyridinium iodide (P-12), whose structure is similar to that of a common disinfectant, cetylpyridinium chloride. Adapted resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is commonly used as a disinfectant, was also observed in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the P-12-resistant strain exhibited cross-resistance to BAC. Analysis of the outer membrane protein of the P-12-resistant strain by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a significant increase in the level of expression of a protein (named OprR) whose molecular mass was approximately 26 kDa. The actual function of OprR is not yet clear; however, OprR was expected to be an outer membrane-associated protein with homology to lipoproteins of other bacterial species, according to a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information website with the BLAST program by use of the N-terminal sequence of OprR. A correlation between the level of expression of OprR and the level of resistance of P. aeruginosa to QACs was observed by using a PA2800 gene knockout mutant derived from the P-12-resistant strain. The knockout mutant recovered susceptibility not only to P-12 but also to BAC. These results suggested that OprR significantly participated in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to QACs, such as P-12 and BAC. PMID:12821452

  17. Functionalized ionic liquids based on quaternary ammonium cations with three or four ether groups as new electrolytes for lithium battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Fang; Yide Jin; Li Yang; Shin-ichi Hirano; Kazuhiro Tachibana; Shingo Katayama

    2011-01-01

    New functionalized ILs based on quaternary ammonium cations with three or four ether groups and TFSI? anion were synthesized and characterized. Physical and electrochemical properties, including melting point, thermal stability, viscosity, conductivity and electrochemical stability were investigated for these ILs. Five ILs with lower viscosity in these ILs were applied in lithium battery as new electrolytes. Behavior of lithium redox

  18. Combined Hydrous Ferric Oxide and Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Tailoring of Granular Activated Carbon for Concurrent Arsenate and Perchlorate Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, M.; Cannon, F; Parette, R; Yoon, S; Chen, W

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was tailored with both iron and quaternary ammonium surfactants so as to concurrently remove both arsenate and perchlorate from groundwater. The iron (hydr)oxide preferentially removed the arsenate oxyanion but not perchlorate; while the quaternary ammonium preferentially removed the perchlorate oxyanion, but not the arsenate. The co-sorption of two anionic oxyanions via distinct mechanisms has yielded intriguing phenomena. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) with these dually prepared media employed synthetic waters that were concurrently spiked with arsenate and perchlorate; and these trial results showed that the quaternary ammonium surfactants enhanced arsenate removal bed life by 25-50% when compared to activated carbon media that had been preloaded merely with iron (hydr)oxide; and the surfactant also enhanced the diffusion rate of arsenate per the Donnan effect. The authors also employed natural groundwater from Rutland, MA which contained 60 microg/L As and traces of silica, and sulfate; and the authors spiked this with 40 microg/L perchlorate. When processing this water, activated carbon that had been tailored with iron and cationic surfactant could treat 12,500 bed volumes before 10 microg/L arsenic breakthrough, and 4500 bed volumes before 6 microg/L perchlorate breakthrough. Although the quaternary ammonium surfactants exhibited only a slight capacity for removing arsenate, these surfactants did facilitate a more favorably positively charged avenue for the arsenate to diffuse through the media to the iron sorption site (i.e. via the Donnan effect).

  19. Combined hydrous ferric oxide and quaternary ammonium surfactant tailoring of granular activated carbon for concurrent arsenate and perchlorate removal.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Cannon, Fred S; Parette, Robert B; Yoon, Soh-Joung; Chen, Weifang

    2009-07-01

    Activated carbon was tailored with both iron and quaternary ammonium surfactants so as to concurrently remove both arsenate and perchlorate from groundwater. The iron (hydr)oxide preferentially removed the arsenate oxyanion but not perchlorate; while the quaternary ammonium preferentially removed the perchlorate oxyanion, but not the arsenate. The co-sorption of two anionic oxyanions via distinct mechanisms has yielded intriguing phenomena. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) with these dually prepared media employed synthetic waters that were concurrently spiked with arsenate and perchlorate; and these trial results showed that the quaternary ammonium surfactants enhanced arsenate removal bed life by 25-50% when compared to activated carbon media that had been preloaded merely with iron (hydr)oxide; and the surfactant also enhanced the diffusion rate of arsenate per the Donnan effect. The authors also employed natural groundwater from Rutland, MA which contained 60 microg/L As and traces of silica, and sulfate; and the authors spiked this with 40 microg/L perchlorate. When processing this water, activated carbon that had been tailored with iron and cationic surfactant could treat 12,500 bed volumes before 10 microg/L arsenic breakthrough, and 4500 bed volumes before 6 microg/L perchlorate breakthrough. Although the quaternary ammonium surfactants exhibited only a slight capacity for removing arsenate, these surfactants did facilitate a more favorably positively charged avenue for the arsenate to diffuse through the media to the iron sorption site (i.e. via the Donnan effect). PMID:19476961

  20. Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on Activity of Lactic Acid Starter Bacteria in Milk and Cheese1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Miller; P. R. Elliker

    1951-01-01

    The increased application of quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) for dairy sanitation purposes has stimulated interest in the effect of various con- centrations of these compounds on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk. The problem is important from the standpoint of attempts to prevent souring of milk or to reduce bacterial counts prior to delivery to the dairy plant.

  1. Interfacial activity of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride in a liquid\\/liquid extraction system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Jin-xin; Cui Yu; Song Xin-yu; Li Xue-mei; Sun Xuan; Fan Wei-liu; Sun Guo-xin; Sun Si-xiu

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial tension and interfacial adsorption parameters for benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in three organic diluents were determined and interpreted. The interfacial activity of BODMAC is affected by the type of the organic diluent and the composition of the aqueous phase. The general order of interfacial activity of BODMAC is n-heptane (5% isobutanol) > carbon tetrachloride > chloroform. The effectiveness of

  2. Surface chemical study on the covalent attachment of hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan to titanium surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofen Xu; Ling Wang; Shengrong Guo; Lei Lei; Tingting Tang

    2011-01-01

    An anti-microbial and bioactive coating could not only reduce the probability of infection related to titanium implants but also support the growth of surrounding osteogenic cells. Our previous study has showed that hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) with a DS (degrees of substitution) of 18% had improved solubility and significantly higher antibacterial activities against three bacteria which were usually associated

  3. Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Cantrell; Carly Robinson

    2006-01-01

    High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset

  4. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on differently pretreated nonwoven cotton substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of N, O-quaternary ammonium chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Meihua Xin; Mingchun Li; Huili Huang; Shengquan Zhou; Juezhao Liu

    2011-01-01

    N,N,N-Trimethyl O-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium propyl) chitosans (TMHTMAPC) with different degrees of O-substitution were synthesized by reacting O-methyl-free N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC). The products were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR and TGA, and investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli under weakly acidic (pH 5.5) and weakly basic (pH 7.2) conditions. TMHTMAPC exhibited enhanced antibacterial

  6. Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of a quaternary ammonium surfactant in three aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Lawton, M.P.; Inouye, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used as surfactants in drilling muds and fabric softeners and as biocides in antiseptics and disinfectants. QACs and cationic polyelectrolytes elicit acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms by disrupting the structure and function of gill tissues, which may result in the suffocation of the organism. Little information is available, however, on the relative availability and distribution of QACs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. Information of this nature is required to understand the potential consequences of releases of sublethal concentrations of QACs into the aquatic environment. In this study, hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HPB; CAS 140-72-7) was selected as a compound for initial study because it belongs to a chemical class (alkylpyridinium QACs) that includes the most toxic and environmentally persistent QACs. Clams, minnows, and tadpoles were chosen as test organisms to define the relative availability of HPB to organisms that occupy distinctly different ecological niches.

  7. Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium salts of polyoxometalate anions: Fluorous biphasic oxidation catalysis with and without fluorous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Maayan, Galia; Fish, Richard H.; Neumann, Ronny

    2003-05-28

    Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium cations, [CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}CH{sub 3}N{sup +} (RFN{sup +}), were synthesized and used as counter cations for the [WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 12-} (M = Mn(II), Zn(II)), polyoxometalate. The (RFN{sup +}){sub 12}[WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW9O{sub 34}){sub 2}] compounds were fluorous biphasic catalysts for alcohol and alkenol oxidation, and alkene epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Reaction protocols with or without a fluorous solvent were tested. The catalytic activity and selectivity was affected both by the hydrophobicity of the solvent and the substrate.

  8. Biofilm-eradicating properties of quaternary ammonium amphiphiles: simple mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Megan C; Ator, Laura E; Paniak, Thomas J; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2014-10-13

    Bacterial biofilms are difficult to eradicate because of reduced antibiotic sensitivity and altered metabolic processes; thus, the development of new approaches to biofilm eradication is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and quaternary ammonium cations (QACs) are distinct, yet well-known, classes of antibacterial compounds. By mapping the general regions of charge and hydrophobicity of QACs onto AMP structures, we designed a small library of QACs to serve as simple AMP mimics. In order to explore the role that cationic charge plays in biofilm eradication, structures were varied with respect to cationic character, distribution of charge, and alkyl side chain. The reported compounds possess minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) as low as 25 ?M against Gram-positive biofilms, making them the most active anti-biofilm structures reported to date. These potent AMP mimics were synthesized in 1-2 steps and hint at the minimal structural requirements for biofilm destruction. PMID:25147134

  9. Critical review on the environmental fate of quaternary ammonium herbicides in soils devoted to vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pateiro-Moure, Mirian; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-05-21

    Quaternary Ammonium Herbicides (QUATs) are nonselective contact herbicides, widely used at weed emergence to protect a wide range of crops. The benefits achieved by the use of these herbicides are indisputable. In soils devoted to vineyards, their uses increase the yield and the quality of the grapes for winemaking. However, several environmental dangers have emerged from the overuse of these compounds. Therefore, there has been a great interest in the presence of these compounds in soils, water, and food. Once in the soil, the mobility of these agrochemicals plays an important role in their fate and transport in the environment. This is why we mainly focused our review on (a) their physical and chemical properties and their activity, (b) the factors affecting their mobility in soils, (c) the quality of surrounding waters, and (d) the measures to reduce their contamination, especially in the case of agricultural soils devoted to vineyards. PMID:23614668

  10. Low Temperature Double-Layer Capacitors Using Asymmetric and Spiro-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J. (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors capable of operating at extremely low temperatures (e.g., as low as -80.degree. C.) are disclosed. Electrolyte solutions combining a base solvent (e.g., acetonitrile) and a cosolvent are employed to lower the melting point of the base electrolyte. Example cosolvents include methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, propionitrile, butyronitrile, and 1,3-dioxolane. A quaternary ammonium salt including at least one of triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) and spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF.sub.4), is used in an optimized concentration (e.g., 0.10 M to 0.75 M), dissolved into the electrolyte solution. Conventional device form factors and structural elements (e.g., porous carbon electrodes and a polyethylene separator) may be employed.

  11. Dental primer and adhesive containing a new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Arola, Dwayne D.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main reason for restoration failure is secondary caries caused by biofilm acids. Replacing the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all operative work. The objectives of this study were to incorporate a new quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg) into a primer and an adhesive, and to investigate their effects on antibacterial and dentin bonding properties. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) served as control. DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated with NAg into primer/adhesive. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the new DMADDM were orders of magnitude lower than those of a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Uncured primer with DMADDM had much larger inhibition zones than QADM (p<0.05). Cured primer/adhesive with DMADDM-NAg greatly reduced biofilm metabolic activity (p<0.05). Combining DMADDM with NAg in primer/adhesive resulted in less CFU than DMADDM alone (p<0.05). Lactic acid production by biofilms was reduced by 20-fold via DMADDM-NAg, compared to control. Incorporation of DMADDM and NAg into primer/adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. Conclusions A new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated into primer/adhesive for the first time. The bonding agents are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at tooth-restoration margins to inhibit caries. DMADDM and NAg are promising for use into a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:23353068

  12. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Ying-xia, E-mail: wangyx@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liao, Fu-hui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lin, Jian-hua, E-mail: jhlin@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-04-15

    A new borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, ?=66.508(2)°, ?=74.751(2)°, ?=81.893(2)°. The [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup ?} anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}(i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) N{sup +} cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents. - Graphical abstract: The new quaternary ammonium borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 17}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] contains a 3D supramolecular network formed by hydrogen bond linked [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup ?} anions and shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, excitation light, and solvents. Highlights: ? A novel quaternary ammonium borate was synthesized. ? It possesses a supramolecular network fomed by H-bonded [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup ?} anions. ? This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating treatment, excitation light, and solvents.

  13. Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

    2014-11-26

    Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

  14. Quaternary ammonium chitosan derivative dynamic coating for the separation of veterinary sulfonamide residues by CE with field-amplified sample injection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Xiao, Ling-Yan; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Peng; Cui, Hai-Rong; Wang, Hong

    2007-11-01

    A quaternary ammonium chitosan, 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride chitosan (HACC), has been developed for the dynamic coating material in CE for the first time. It presented many advantages such as favorable water solubility, satisfactory coating efficiency, and EOF toward the anode at pH >7.0. Using the modified fused-silica capillary, sulfonamides (SAs), an important group of veterinary drugs, were separated and detected by CE combined with field-amplified sample injection (FASI). The LODs of sulfonamides with UV detection were less than 0.5 ng/mL. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of veterinary sulfonamide residues in samples such as chicken, beef, and honey with fast separation (15 sulfonamides within 20 min), low LODs (0.1-0.5 ng/mL), and good reliability compared to the criteria of China (GB/T 18932.17-2003). PMID:17960537

  15. Coal cleaning employing quaternary salts. Annual report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985. [Tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide; tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Murdie, N.

    1985-09-01

    An investigation into a novel approach to coal desulfurization has been initiated. This approach is in the formative stages, but is envisioned to included a treatment step to swell coal in quaternary salt solution followed by physical separation, chemical reaction to desulfurize the coal, and recovery of the quaternary salt. The present program was aimed at developing fundamental data associated with the first step. This report covers the first six months of the project. The objective of this portion of the program was to define conditions under which complete exchange of quaternary salts with coal hydroxy groups occurs, define the extent of coal swelling and changes in coal properties as a function of amount of exchange, and determine the effect of process variation on swelling rate and coal properties. Results of this research have demonstrated that substantial coal swelling occurs in the presence of quaternary salts. The amount of quaternary exchange is a small portion of the total OH groups present in the coal. Swelling has been found to be dependent on the concentration of quaternary salts, the ratio of solution to coal, time of exchange, and the type of solvent. The data also demonstrate that particle size and size distribution are changed extensively by the quaternary salt treatment. Furthermore, it appears that iron sulfide and/or sulfate are dissolved in the quaternary base. Also, some organic material is dissolved by the quaternary base. Preliminary data indicate that minerals and inertinite can be concentrated after quaternary salt treatment. The results indicate that quaternary recovery should be easier than first expected. Also, the excessive swelling with little exchange indicated that the surface chemistry of the coal is altered after exchange. Thus, oil agglomeration and froth flotation should be improved when coals are treated with the quaternary salt. 11 refs., 11 tabs.

  16. Alkaline blend polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)\\/tetraethyl ammonium chloride (TEAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Chen Yang; Gwo-Mei Wu; Sheng-Jen Lin

    2006-01-01

    Alkaline blend polymer electrolytes based on PVA\\/TEAC were obtained by a solution casting technique. Tetraethyl ammonium chloride (TEAC) was added to PVA polymer matrix to form an alkaline blend polymer electrolyte exhibiting excellent ionic transport and mechanical properties. The ionic conductivity of the alkaline PVA\\/TEAC blend polymer electrolyte was found to be of the order of 10?2 S cm?1 at ambient temperature

  17. Synthesis and relevant electrochemical properties of 2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei LiLing; Ling Xiao; Caiqin Qin

    2010-01-01

    The 2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC)-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite (HACC–MWCNTs)\\u000a was prepared via covalently grafting HACC onto the surfaces of MWCNT. The properties and morphology of the resulting materials\\u000a were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron\\u000a microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of FTIR and TGA indicated that the

  18. Bermudagrass response to surface-applied urea amended with calcium chloride or ammonium thiosulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Sloan; Warren B. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Surface-applied urea fertilizers are susceptible to hydrolysis and loss of nitrogen (N) through NH3 volatilization when conditions favorable for these processes exist. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) have been proposed as possible urease and NH3 volatilization inhibitors. The main objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of various N fertilizer sources on bermudagrass yield and fertilizer

  19. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and ?-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and ?-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  20. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  1. Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minghua; Gu, Guotuan; Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol-gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the top layer of the surface lowered the surface free energy. Textiles coated with this coating showed excellent water repellent property, and water contact angle (CA) increased from 133° on cotton fabrics treated with pure PFSC without silica sol pretreatment up to 145°. The oil repellency was also improved and the contact angle of CH 2I 2 droplet on the fabric surface reached to 131°. In contrast, the contact angle of CH 2I 2 on the fabric surface treated with pure PFSC was only 125°.

  2. High Temperature Solid -Solid Transition in Ammonium Chloride Confined to Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farasat, Reza; Yancey, Benjamin; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to measure the temperature and thermal effect of the solid-solid phase transition in ammonium chloride confined to silica matrices with pore sizes ranging from 4 to 30 nm. Ammonium chloride was loaded from aqueous solutions. The concentration and number of loads were varied to control the pore fullness, which was defined as a fraction of the filled volume to the total available volume of the nanopores. Assuming cylindrical pore shape, the pore fullness was used to estimate the height of the layer deposited on the pore walls. Thermogravimetric analysis was employed to evaluate the pore fullness, which was further used to estimate the height of ammonium chloride layer deposited inside the pores. With increasing the layer height, the heat of transition increased toward the bulk value. Relative to the bulk value, the transition temperature measured on heating and on cooling respectively increased and decreased with decreasing the layer height. It was concluded that a strong interaction with the nanoconfining medium may have a larger effect on the behavior of a nanoconfined substance than the effect of nanosize alone. The temperature dependencies of the effective activation energy derived from isoconversional kinetic analysis of DSC data have been parametrized in terms of the Turnbull -Fisher model. It was found that the transition in the pores encounters a larger free energy barrier to nucleation. Financial support of NSF under grant CHE 1052828 is appreciated.

  3. Properties and Preparation of Chitosan\\/Silanol Quaternary Ammonium Modified Silica Hybrids Using Sol–Gel Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-M. Lai; W.-C. Chen; Tai-Wei Wu; Arthur J.-M. Yang; C.-H. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan\\/modified silica nanocomposites, with a sol–gel process being used to prepare a silanol quaternary ammonium modified silica possessing antimicrobial activity, were investigated, as well as the thermal properties, morphology, optical, mechanical, antimicrobial, and adsorption properties of this type of nanocomposite. Grafting of the modifier onto nanosilica was confirmed through the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that

  4. The Properties and preparation of Chitosan\\/silanol quaternary ammonium modified silica hybrids using sol-gel PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-M. Lai; W.-C. Chen; Tai-Wei Wu; Arthur J.-M. Yang; C.-H. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan\\/modified silica nanocomposites, with a sol-gel process being used to prepare a silanol quaternary ammonium modified silica possessing antimicrobial activity, were investigated, as well as the thermal properties, morphology, optical, mechanical, antimicrobial, and adsorption properties of this type of nanocomposite. Grafting of the modifier onto nanosilica was confirmed through the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the

  5. Influence of the nature of the quaternary ammonium base on the sensitivity and selectivity of membrane thiocyanate-selective electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tulyupa, F.M.; Fedchuk, T.M.

    1987-11-10

    A study has been made of the properties of 10 thiocyanate-selective electrodes based on the thiocyanates of quaternary ammonium bases. It has been established that the sensitivity and selectivity of the electrodes is determined by the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the ionic association entering into the composition of the membrane: the lower the CMC is, the lower the limit of detection of thiocyanate ions is and the higher the selectivity of the electrodes is relative to other anions.

  6. Characterization of associates in ternary mixtures of amines, diprotic acid dyes and quaternary ammonium compounds in dichloromethane and in dichloromethane/water systems.

    PubMed

    Gainza, A H

    1997-03-01

    Ternary mixtures of Bromocresol Green (BCGH), Benzethonium Chloride (BZ(+)Cl(-)), and Quinine (Q) in dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2) for ratios 1:>/=1:>/=1 (BCGH(2):BZ(+)Cl(-):Q) generate species BCGH(-)BZ(+), BZ(+)BCG(-)-H-Q) and BCG(2-) (BZ(+))(2) in chemical equilibrium; whose thermodynamic parameters are determined. A new method to study ternary mixtures in a non-polar solvent has been given and other amines (A) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) instead of Q and BZ(+)Cl(-) have also been researched. Species BCGH(-)BZ(+), and BCG(2-)(BZ(+))(2) are ion associates of 1:1 and 1:2 (dye:BZ(+)Cl(-)) stoichiometry and species BZ(+)BCG(-)-H-Q presents a hydrogen bond, being of 1:1:1 (dye:BZ(+)Cl(-):Q) stoichiometry. The Vis-VU, IR and (1)H-NMR spectra of the associates suggest that they are in nature resonance hybrids. A new and fundamental equation which governs extraction of any 1:1:1 associate is deduced and checked experimentally, showing that its extraction depends on the high capacity of the amine to accept hydrogen bonds and the high extractability of the ammonium ion. Extraction of the 1:1:1 associate using different amines and ammonium ions is studied both, experimentally and by the new equation, checking that the 1:1:1 associate containing Q and BZ(+) is selectively extracted due to the fact that Q has a high hydrophobicity and high capacity to form hydrogen bonds and species BZ(+)Cl(-) has a high ion-associability. Selective extraction of this 1:1:1 associate is useful for quantitative determination in complex mixtures of ammonium ions of high ion associability as BZ(+)Cl(-). PMID:18966760

  7. Identification and characterization of quaternary ammonium compound resistant staphylococci from the food industry.

    PubMed

    Heir, E; Sundheim, G; Holck, A L

    1999-06-01

    The distribution of known genes conferring resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) among different species of staphylococci isolated from the food industry was investigated. Twenty-four isolates hosting one of the genes qacA/qacB, smr, qacG or qacH, were subjected to species identification. Species determination was performed by biochemical analyses (API STAPH), comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis and tDNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism analysis. Good correlation was obtained between the different methods. The isolates belonged to six different species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The most commonly found species were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The results also indicated the possible spread of specific isolates of staphylococci which may reflect the dominance of certain strains in environments were QACs are used on a regular basis. The isolates were further characterized by the resistance phenotype to antimicrobial agents including antibiotics and disinfectants. Resistance to ampicillin, penicillin G and dyes was prevalent in strains harbouring the qacA or qacB genes, features also common among clinical staphylococci containing qacA/qacB. One QAC resistant strain harbouring the smr gene showed resistance to ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. No enterotoxin production was detected among the QAC resistant strains. PMID:10443540

  8. Quaternary ammonium compounds: an alternative disinfection method for fresh produce wash water.

    PubMed

    Chaidez, Cristobal; Lopez, Javier; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia

    2007-06-01

    Irrigation water can serve as a vehicle for transporting pathogenic microorganisms, and numerous cases of bacterial infections from consumption of irrigated fresh produce have been reported in recent years. Chlorine-based disinfectants applied when produce is packed are widely used to control microorganisms. When applied properly, the chlorine products are effective. However, hazardous disinfection breakdown products can be formed, and chlorine disinfectants have high oxidant activity that can affect produce quality and pose a risk to food handlers. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) are a disinfectant alternative for the washing of fruits and vegetables. They can control a great number of microorganisms, have low toxicity when used at recommended doses, and are stable in storage. The purpose of this work was to assess the disinfectant activity of QACs against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under worst-case and average-case turbidity conditions, (2 and 100 nephelometric units); two disinfectant concentrations (100 and 200 mg/L; and two contact times (30 and 120 seconds). Our research showed that QACs were effective against both bacteria. The percentage reduction of Escherichia coli was significantly higher in the less turbid solution (P = 0.027), while turbidity did not affect the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus (P > 0.05). E. coli was more resistant to QAC treatment than S. aureus. Based on the data obtained we can conclude that QACs could be an alternative in washing processes of fruits and vegetables. PMID:17674581

  9. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review on occurrence, fate and toxicity in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Cui, Fang; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zhong-zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang; Zhu, Meng-ying; Shen, Liu-qing

    2015-06-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely applied in household and industrial products. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. Although QACs are considered to be aerobically biodegradable, the degradation is affected by its chemical structures, dissolved oxygen concentration, complexing with anionic surfactants, etc. High abundance of QACs has been detected in sediment and sludge samples due to its strong sorption and resistance to biodegradation under anoxic/anaerobic conditions. QACs are toxic to a lot of aquatic organisms including fish, daphnids, algae, rotifer and microorganisms employed in wastewater treatment systems. And antibiotic resistance has emerged in microorganisms due to excessive use of QACs in household and industrial applications. The occurrence of QACs in the environment is correlated with anthropogenic activities, such as wastewater discharge from WWTPs or single source polluters, and sludge land application. This article also reviews the analytical methods for determination of QACs in environmental compartments including surface water, wastewater, sewage sludge and sediments. PMID:25770948

  10. CO2 capture from simulated fuel gas mixtures using semiclathrate hydrates formed by quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Seo, Yongwon

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies were undertaken on the semiclathrate hydrates formed from a fuel gas mixture of H2 (60%) + CO2 (40%) in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and fluoride (TBAF). The inclusion of QASs demonstrated significantly stabilized hydrate dissociation conditions. This effect was greater for TBAF than TBAB. However, due to the presence of dodecahedral cages that are partially filled with water molecules, TBAF showed a relatively lower gas uptake than TBAB. From the stability condition measurements and compositional analyses, it was found that with only one step of semiclathrate hydrate formation with the fuel gas mixture from the IGCC plants, 95% CO2 can be enriched in the semiclathrate hydrate phase at room temperature. The enclathration of both CO2 and H2 in the cages of the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and the structural transition that results from the inclusion of QASs were confirmed through Raman and (1)H NMR measurements. The experimental results obtained in this study provide the physicochemical background required for understanding selective partitioning and distributions of guest gases in the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and for investigating the feasibility of a semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture process. PMID:23718261

  11. Quatsomes: vesicles formed by self-assembly of sterols and quaternary ammonium surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Tasies, Lidia; Moreno-Calvo, Evelyn; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane; Ricart, Susagna; Faraudo, Jordi; Ventosa, Nora; Veciana, Jaume

    2013-06-01

    Thermodynamically stable nanovesicle structures are of high interest for academia and industry in a wide variety of application fields, ranging from preparation of nanomaterials to nanomedicine. Here, we show the ability of quaternary ammonium surfactants and sterols to self-assemble, forming stable amphiphilic bimolecular building-blocks with the appropriate structural characteristics to form in aqueous phases, closed bilayers, named quatsomes, with outstanding stability, with time and temperature. The molecular self-assembling of cholesterol and surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied by quasi-elastic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, turbidity (optical density) measurements, and molecular dynamic simulations with atomistic detail, upon varying the cholesterol-to-surfactant molar ratio. As pure species, CTAB forms micelles and insoluble cholesterol forms crystals in water. However, our molecular dynamic simulations reveal that the synergy between CTAB and cholesterol molecules makes them self-assemble into bimolecular amphiphiles and then into bilayers in the presence of water. These bilayers have the same structure of those formed by double-tailed unimolecular amphiphiles. PMID:23647396

  12. Properties of new low melting point quaternary ammonium salts with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Kujala, Anna; Hakkarainen, Pirkko-Leena; Valkonen, Jussi

    2010-11-01

    Eight new monocationic quaternary ammonium (QA) salts with the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion were prepared by metathesis using our previously reported QA halides as precursors. New salts were characterized both in liquid and solid state using 1H and 13C NMR techniques, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis together with X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical methods. In addition, residual water content, viscosity and conductivity measurements were made for three of the room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The crystal structures of three compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Powder diffraction was used to study the crystallinity of the solid salts and to compare structural similarities between the single crystals and the microcrystalline bulk powders. Three of the salts are liquid below room temperature, having broad liquid ranges (˜300 °C), and in total five out of eight salts melt below 100 °C. Moreover, powder diffraction data of the two RTILs were able to be measured at sub-ambient temperatures using in situ low-temperature powder X-ray diffraction revealing high crystallinity on both RTILs below their freezing point. The RTILs presented relatively high conductivities (˜0.1-0.2 S m -1) and moderate to relatively low viscosities. The determined physicochemical properties of the reported ILs suggest their applicability on various applications such as heat transfer fluids, high temperature synthesis and lubricants.

  13. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of bactericidal quaternary ammonium thin layers on stainless steel and cellulose surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jampala, Soujanya N; Sarmadi, M; Somers, E B; Wong, A C L; Denes, F S

    2008-08-19

    We have investigated bottom-up chemical synthesis of quaternary ammonium (QA) groups exhibiting antibacterial properties on stainless steel (SS) and filter paper surfaces via nonequilibrium, low-pressure plasma-enhanced functionalization. Ethylenediamine (ED) plasma under suitable conditions generated films rich in secondary and tertiary amines. These functional structures were covalently attached to the SS surface by treating SS with O 2 and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma prior to ED plasma treatment. QA structures were formed by reaction of the plasma-deposited amines with hexyl bromide and subsequently with methyl iodide. Structural compositions were examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and surface topography was investigated with atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements. Modified SS surfaces exhibited greater than a 99.9% decrease in Staphylococcus aureus counts and 98% in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The porous filter paper surfaces with immobilized QA groups inactivated 98.7% and 96.8% of S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This technique will open up a novel way for the synthesis of stable and very efficient bactericidal surfaces with potential applications in development of advanced medical devices and implants with antimicrobial surfaces. PMID:18646726

  14. Pathways of reductive fragmentation of heterocyclic nitroarylmethyl quaternary ammonium prodrugs of mechlorethamine.

    PubMed

    Kriste, Angela G; Tercel, Moana; Anderson, Robert F; Ferry, Dianne M; Wilson, William R

    2002-12-01

    Nitroarylmethyl quaternary (NMQ) ammonium salts have potential as prodrugs for enzymatic or radiolytic reduction to release amine effectors under hypoxia. Earlier studies demonstrated one-electron release of the cytotoxic amine mechlorethamine (HN2) from 4-nitroimidazolyl and 2-nitropyrrolyl NMQ prodrugs (but not from nitrobenzyl analogs) through intramolecular electron transfer. In this study we determined whether this is a general feature of heterocyclic NMQ prodrugs of HN2 and examined the reductive pathways in detail using pulse and steady-state radiolysis. The kinetics of radical fragmentation varied by more than four orders of magnitude, independently of the one-electron reduction potential, within the series of eight nitroheterocycles examined. In addition to the compounds identified previously, new 2-nitropyrrole and 3-nitrothiophene NMQ prodrugs were found to provide efficient HN2 release (G > 0.5 micromol/J in anoxic formate buffer). However, the nitrothiophene was sensitive to nucleophilic displacement of HN2, making it less promising. Product analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry identified symmetrical dimers arising from benzyl-type radical intermediates but also demonstrated that these dimers are not reliable markers for the intramolecular fragmentation of the initial nitro radical anion. This study elucidated multiple competing pathways for reductive fragmentation of NMQ prodrugs and identified the preferred electron acceptors for use in the development of analogs that release more potent cytotoxins. PMID:12452778

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is the Focus of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Toxicity to Mammalian Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Costa, Gabriel N.; Domingues, Neuza S.; Santos, Maria S.; Moreno, António J. M.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants have long been known to have microbicidal action and have been extensively used as antiseptics and disinfectants for a variety of general hygiene and clinical purposes. Among surfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are known to be the most useful antiseptics and disinfectants. However, our previous toxicological studies showed that QAC are also the most toxic surfactants for mammalian cells. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie QAC toxicity is a crucial first step in their rational use and in the design and development of more effective and safer molecules. We show that QAC-induced toxicity is mediated primarily through mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian columnar epithelial cell cultures in vitro. Toxic effects begin at sublethal concentrations and are characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. At very low concentrations, several QAC act on mitochondrial bioenergetics through a common mechanism of action, primarily by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration initiated at complex I and, to a lesser extent, by slowing down coupled ADP phosphorylation. The result is a reduction of cellular energy charge which, when reduced below 50% of its original value, induces apoptosis. The lethal effects are shown to be primarily a result of this process. At higher doses (closer to the critical micellar concentration), QAC induce the complete breakdown of cellular energy charge and necrotic cell death. PMID:23529737

  16. Tin-catalyzed efficient conversion of carbohydrates for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo; Tong, Xinli; Cheng, Yi; Xue, Song

    2013-04-01

    An efficient and tin-catalyzed production of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) from carbohydrates is reported. The efficient conversion of glucose has been investigated using the combination of SnCl4 and different quaternary ammonium salts. It was found that tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was able to efficiently promote conversion of glucose to 5-HMF in the presence of SnCl4. For instance, a 69.1% yield of 5-HMF was obtained with SnCl4-tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (SnCl4-TBAB) system in DMSO for 2h at 100°C in air. The effects of catalyst amount, reaction time, and reaction temperature were investigated in detail. Furthermore, the SnCl4-TBAB was also employed to the conversion of fructose, sucrose, inulin, starch, and cellulose. The competitive results were obtained under mild conditions. PMID:23435168

  17. Structural and conformational properties of the quaternary ammonium ionic liquid N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuge, Shu; Uno, Kenjiro; Hanasaki, Tomonori; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2014-02-01

    We have used single-crystal X-ray structural analysis and Raman spectroscopy to study the crystalline structure and conformational properties of a quaternary ammonium ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium iodide ([DEME][I]). At 296 K the crystal structure of [DEME][I] was determined to be monoclinic (P21/a, Z = 8) with a = 13.216 (5), b = 12.842 (3), c = 14.417 (6), ? = 104.10 (3)°, and V = 2373.1 (15) Å3. With results from X-ray diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations, we have identified two folded forms: Gauche--Gauche--gauche--gauche--trans and Gauche+-Gauche+-gauche+-gauche+-trans conformers, having intramolecular attractive N+⋯O- interactions of [DEME]+ in the single-crystal state. In the liquid state, [DEME]+ exists in equilibrium between folded and (non-interacting) extended forms.

  18. Sensitivities to biocides and distribution of biocide resistance genes in quaternary ammonium compound tolerant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingzhong; Liu, Meina; Wu, Qing; Li, Chao; Zhou, Tieli; Ni, Yuxing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 5 biocides (benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite, povidone iodine and ethanol) for 56 clinical quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) tolerant S. aureus strains following exposure for 5, 30 or 180 min, collected from a teaching hospital in China, were examined. The distributions of the biocide resistance genes qacA/B, smr, qacH and qacG were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Following 5 min exposure of benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine, 7.1% (4/56) and 7.1% (4/56) isolates, respectively, exhibited MBC values higher than their in-use concentrations for mucosa and wound disinfection. The MBC values of all the isolates studied for glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and ethanol were lower than the in-use concentrations in all contact times. The qacA/B gene was found in 94.6% (53/56) of QAC tolerant S. aureus. The frequencies of smr (3.6%, 2/56) and qacH (7.1%, 4/56) were low and qacG was not detected. The results suggested that clinical QAC tolerant S. aureus isolates of China had the possibility to survive in proper in-use concentrations of some biocides at proper contact time, and qacA/B is the most prevalent disinfectant resistant gene in this type of bacteria. PMID:19353380

  19. Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Ledder, Ruth G.; Moore, Louise E.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Gilbert, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as adjuncts to hygiene in domestic cleaning products. Current concern that the increased use of such biocides in consumer products might contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of a QAC-containing domestic cleaning fluid on the population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of domestic sink drain biofilm communities. QAC susceptibilities of numerically dominant, culturable drain bacteria (15 genera, 17 species) were determined in vitro before and after repeated QAC exposure (14 passages). A fully characterized drain microcosm was then exposed to short-term (12 days) and long-term (3 months) dosing with a QAC-containing domestic detergent (QD). QAC exposure of isolated cultures caused both increases (three species) and circa twofold decreases (six species) in QAC susceptibility. The susceptibility of Ralstonia sp. was considerably decreased following 14 consecutive QAC passages. Control drain microcosm biofilms maintained dynamic stability, as evidenced by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Bacterial population densities were largely unaffected during short-term exposure to use levels of QD, although 50% QD caused circa 10-fold viability reductions. DGGE analysis supported these observations; identified the major microcosm genera as Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Erwinia, and Enterobacter, and showed that aeromonads increased in abundance under 10 to 50% QD. Long-term exposure of the microcosms to QD did not significantly alter the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility. These data demonstrate the recalcitrance of domestic drain biofilms toward QAC and that although repeated QAC exposure of drain isolates in pure culture results in susceptibility change in some test bacteria, such changes do not necessarily occur within complex communities. PMID:15184143

  20. Mapping peptide thiol accessibility in membranes using a quaternary ammonium isotope-coded mass tag (ICMT)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chiao-Yung; London, Erwin; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains a diverse array of proteins, including receptors, channels, and signaling complexes, that serve as decision-making centers. Investigation of membrane protein topology is important for understanding the function of these types of protein. Here, we report a method to determine protein topology in the membrane that utilizes labeling of cysteine with isotope-coded mass tags. The mass tags contain a thiol reactive moiety, linker, and a quaternary ammonium group to aid ionization in the mass spectrometer and were synthesizes as both light and heavy (deuterated) forms. The probes were found to be membrane impermeable when applied to lipid vesicles. To assess the utility of the probes for mapping peptide thiol topology, we employed a two-step labeling procedure. Vesicles containing ?-helical transmembrane peptides were labeled with heavy (or light) probe, solubilized by detergent, and then labeled by an excess of the complementary probe. Peptide for which the cysteine was oriented in the center of the lipid bilayer was not labeled until the lipid vesicles were lysed with detergent, consistent with the membrane impermeability of the probes and reduced ionization of the thiol in the hydrophobic membrane. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned in the head group zone of the lipid bilayer was labeled rapidly. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned below the head group abutting the hydrocarbon region was labeled at a reduced rate compared to the fully accessible cysteine. Moreover, the effect of lipid bilayer structure on the kinetics of peptide and lipid flipping in the bilayer was readily measured with our two-step labeling method. The small sample size required, the ease and rapidity of sample preparation, and the amenability of MALDI-TOF mass spectral to analysis in the presence of lipids will enable future facile investigation of membrane proteins in a cellular context. PMID:23725486

  1. Plasmid-Borne smr Gene Causes Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Bovine Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bjorland, Jostein; Sunde, Marianne; Waage, Steinar

    2001-01-01

    Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) in staphylococci is common in hospital environments and has been described in the food industry. Little is known about staphylococcal QAC resistance associated with animal disease, although such disinfectants are widely used in veterinary medicine. In order to investigate the occurrence of QAC resistance in staphylococci isolated from QAC-exposed animals, 32 penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant and 23 penicillin- and tetracycline-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from milk from cows with mastitis during a 4-year period were selected for QAC susceptibility studies and genetic characterization. The isolates originated from four different herds that used a common pasture with a joint milking parlor in the summer. During the pasture season, a teat cream containing the QAC cetyltrimethylammonium bromide had been used daily for more than 10 years for mastitis control. Three of the penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant isolates, which were recovered from three different cows during a 20-month period, were resistant to QAC. Plasmid analysis, PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed a novel plasmid of 2,239 bp containing the smr gene. The plasmid, designated pNVH99, has similarities to small, smr-containing staphylococcal plasmids previously found in human and food isolates. pNVH99 is a new member of the pC194 family of rolling-circle replication plasmids. The three QAC-resistant isolates, as well as 28 of the 29 remaining penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant isolates, were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The study indicates that the occurrence and spread of QAC-resistant S. aureus among dairy cows may be a problem that needs further investigation. PMID:11682521

  2. Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically-strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Methods The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. Ng was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tertbutylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2×2×25 mm (n = 6). Composite disks (diameter = 9 mm, thickness = 2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n = 6). Two commercial composites were used as controls. Results Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p > 0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p < 0.05). Significance QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly-antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have the double benefits of remineralization and antibacterial capabilities to inhibit dental caries. PMID:22305716

  3. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Shahane, Sampada; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao, Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially lead to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC50 potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 ?M. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC50 value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo. PMID:21362439

  4. Superposition model study of Cr3+ doped tetra methyl ammonium cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kripal, Ram; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-02-25

    The zero field splitting parameter D of Cr(3+) doped in tetra methyl ammonium cadmium chloride (TMCC) is calculated with perturbation formula using microscopic spin Hamiltonian theory and crystal field parameters from superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFS parameter for Cr(3+) in TMCC single crystal is compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The local structure distortion is considered to obtain the crystal field parameters. The theoretical study gives the ZFS parameter D similar to that from experiment. However, calculation considering small distortion in local structure around Cr(3+) gives better agreement with the experimental value of ZFS parameter. PMID:25233033

  5. Superposition model study of Cr3+ doped tetra methyl ammonium cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The zero field splitting parameter D of Cr3+ doped in tetra methyl ammonium cadmium chloride (TMCC) is calculated with perturbation formula using microscopic spin Hamiltonian theory and crystal field parameters from superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFS parameter for Cr3+ in TMCC single crystal is compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The local structure distortion is considered to obtain the crystal field parameters. The theoretical study gives the ZFS parameter D similar to that from experiment. However, calculation considering small distortion in local structure around Cr3+ gives better agreement with the experimental value of ZFS parameter.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of N,O-quaternary ammonium chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Xin, Meihua; Li, Mingchun; Huang, Huili; Zhou, Shengquan; Liu, Juezhao

    2011-11-01

    N,N,N-Trimethyl O-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium propyl) chitosans (TMHTMAPC) with different degrees of O-substitution were synthesized by reacting O-methyl-free N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC). The products were characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR and TGA, and investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli under weakly acidic (pH 5.5) and weakly basic (pH 7.2) conditions. TMHTMAPC exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity compared with TMC, and the activity of TMHTMAPC increased with an increase in the degree of substitution. Divalent cations (Ba(2+) and Ca(2+)) strongly reduced the antibacterial activity of chitosan, O-carboxymethyl chitosan and N,N,N-trimethyl-O-carboxymethyl chitosan, but the repression on the antibacterial activity of TMC and TMHTMAPC was weaker. This indicates that the free amino group on chitosan backbone is the main functional group interacting with divalent cations. The existence of 100 mM Na(+) slightly reduced the antibacterial activity of both chitosan and its derivatives. PMID:21920510

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  8. Mobility and ionic association of lithium and quaternary ammonium salts in propylene carbonate and [gamma]-butyrolactone

    SciTech Connect

    Ue, Makoto (Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center)

    1994-12-01

    Propylene carbonate (PC) and [gamma]-butyrolactone (GBL) are important dipolar aprotic solvents used for nonaqueous electrolytes in high energy lithium batteries, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, and electrical double-layer capacitors. The conductivities of lithium and quaternary ammonium salts have been measured in propylene carbonate and [gamma]-butyrolactone at 25 C over the concentration range of 10[sup [minus]2] to 10[sup [minus]3] mol dm[sup [minus]3]. The limiting molar conductivities and the ionic association constants were calculated by the expanded Fuoss-Hsia equation. The mobility of anions in both solvents decreased in the following order: BF[sub 4][sup [minus

  9. Process of inhibiting scale formation in aqueous systems using quaternary ammonium salts of. cap alpha. -1,4-thiazine

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.M.

    1982-04-06

    Quaternary ammonium salts of ..cap alpha..-1,4-thiazine alkanephosphonic acids are described which inhibit scale formation in aqueous systems. The compounds also can be used in formation of acid corrosion inhibitors, as sequestering agents, and as microbiocides. These compounds are prepared by reacting an ..cap alpha..-1,4-thiazine alkanephosphonic acid compound with an alkylating agent in a suitable polar solvent or a mixture of polar solvents. Examples of solvents are water, mixtures of water and lower alcohols, lower alcohols, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and hexamethyulphosphorotrimide. 10 claims.

  10. Ion-pair liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of quaternary ammonium herbicides.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    1999-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) has been used to characterize some quaternary ammonium herbicides (quats). The separation of these compounds was carried out using ion-pair chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid (15 mM, pH 3.3) and acetonitrile gradient elution for successful coupling to mass spectrometry. Detection limits down to 0.1-4 micrograms l-1 were obtained for spiked tap water following a preconcentration step. Good reproducibilities (day-to-day and run-to-run) were also obtained. PMID:10023623

  11. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in oranges and cucumbers using QuEChERS extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arrebola-Liébanas, Francisco Javier; Abdo, María Angeles Herrera; Moreno, José Luis Fernandez; Martínez-Vidal, José L; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method has been developed for determining relevant quaternary ammonium compounds in cucumber and orange samples. The target compounds were benzoalkonium chloride (BAC-10, BAC-12, BAC-14, and BAC-16), didecyldimethylammonium chloride, and benzethonium chloride, all frequently used biocides in the agrifood industry. An extraction based on the buffered Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method and determination by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS that eluted the biocides in less than 5 min were used. The method was fully validated and implemented in a UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory for its application to the analysis of real samples. Performance characteristics of the method are reported, including an estimation of measurement uncertainty. Calibration curves were set between 0.01 and 0.150 mg/kg, LOD values were always between 0.4 and 1.0 microg/kg, LOQ values were in the range 1-4 microg/kg, recovery was between 81 and 115%, intraday and interday precision were always lower than 17% (expressed as RSD), and expanded uncertainty was always lower than 40%. The validation was accomplished for the two studied matrixes at spiking concentrations of 0.011 and 0.050 mg/kg. The method has been applied to the analysis of 30 cucumber and orange samples that were found to contain concentrations of BAC-12 that ranged between 0.015 and 0.210 mg/kg and of BAC-14 between 0.018 and 0.081 mg/kg. PMID:25145132

  12. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent mixture of acetonitrile (AN) and methyl formate (MF) enables double-layer capacitor cells to operate well below -40 C with a relatively low ESR. Typically, a less than twofold increase in ESR is observed at -65 C relative to room-temperature values, when these modified electrolyte blends are used in prototype cells. Double-layer capacitor coin cells filled with these electrolytes have displayed the lowest measured ESR for an organic electrolyte to date at low temperature (based on a wide range of electrolyte screening studies at JPL). The cells featured high-surface-area (approximately equal to 2,500 m/g) carbon electrodes that were 0.50 mm thick and 1.6 cm in diameter, and coated with a thin layer of platinum to reduce cell resistance. A polyethylene separator was used to electrically isolate the electrodes.

  13. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  14. Ion Transport and Local Structural Dynamics in Analogous Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Adam; Griffin, Philip; Tsunashima, Katsuhiko; Sangoro, Joshua; Sokolov, Alexei

    2015-03-01

    The ion transport and structural dynamics in a homologous pair of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium based room temperature ionic liquids (IL), [N2228][NTF2] and [P2228][NTF2], are investigated by depolarized dynamic light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. The atomic identity of the cation center has a pronounced effect on both long-range ion conduction as well as structural relaxation in these quaternary ILs. The dc conductivity is significantly higher in the phosphonium based IL. While the increase in dc conductivity can be attributed to a lower glass transition temperature, i.e. faster structural dynamics, of the phosphonium IL, we also have found the atomic identity of the cation center strongly influences the local secondary relaxations. The secondary relaxations in the ammonium IL exhibit an unexpected non-Arrhenius temperature dependence -in stark contrast to its phosphonium counterpart. In addition to structural dynamics, changes in the secondary relaxations suggest the differences in dc conductivity may also be attributed to a change in counter-ion coordination and could lead to a difference in the mesoscale aggregation of alkyl moieties which is known to exist in these ILs. Therefore, subtle changes of inter-ionic interactions have a direct consequence on local, structural, and long-range dynamics in these analogous ILs.

  15. Halogenated solvent interactions with N,N-dimethyltryptamine: formation of quaternary ammonium salts and their artificially induced rearrangements during analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Riby, Philip G; Gartz, Jochen; Alder, John F

    2008-07-01

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1a are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. This particular attribute attracts great interest from a variety of scientific and also clandestine communities. Our recent research has confirmed that DMT reacts with dichloromethane (DCM), either as a result of work-up or storage to give a quaternary N-chloromethyl ammonium salt 2a. Furthermore, this was observed to undergo rearrangement during analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with products including 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4 (2-Me-THBC). This study further investigates this so far unexplored area of solvent interactions by the exposure of DMT to other halogenated solvents including dibromomethane and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The N-bromomethyl- and N-chloroethyl quaternary ammonium derivatives were subsequently characterised by ion trap GC-MS in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS mode and by NMR spectroscopy. The DCE-derived derivative formed at least six rearrangement products in the total ion chromatogram. Identification of mass spectrometry generated by-products was verified by conventional or microwave-accelerated synthesis. The use of deuterated DCM and deuterated DMT 1b provided insights into the mechanism of the rearrangements. The presence of potentially characteristic marker molecules may allow the identification of solvents used during the manufacture of controlled substances, which is often neglected since these are considered inert. PMID:18455334

  16. A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion. PMID:21446721

  17. Novel Plasmid-Borne Gene qacJ Mediates Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Equine Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Bjorland, Jostein; Steinum, Terje; Sunde, Marianne; Waage, Steinar; Heir, Even

    2003-01-01

    We identified a novel plasmid-borne gene (designated qacJ) encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in three staphylococcal species associated with chronic infections in four horses. qacJ was located on a 2,650-bp plasmid (designated pNVH01), a new member of the pC194 family of rolling-circle replication plasmids. The 107-amino-acid protein, QacJ, showed similarities to known proteins of the small multidrug resistance family: Smr/QacC (72.5%), QacG (82.6%), and QacH (73.4%). The benzalkonium chloride MIC for a qacJ-containing recombinant was higher than those for otherwise isogenic recombinants expressing Smr, QacG, or QacH. Molecular epidemiological analyses by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested both the clonal spread of a qacJ-harboring Staphylococcus aureus strain and the horizontal transfer of pNVH01 within and between different equine staphylococcal species. The presence of pNVH01 of identical nucleotide sequence in different staphylococcal species suggests that recent transfer has occurred. In three of the horses, a skin preparation containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide had been used extensively for several years; this might explain the selection of staphylococci harboring the novel QAC resistance gene. PMID:14506007

  18. Novel plasmid-borne gene qacJ mediates resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in equine Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Bjorland, Jostein; Steinum, Terje; Sunde, Marianne; Waage, Steinar; Heir, Even

    2003-10-01

    We identified a novel plasmid-borne gene (designated qacJ) encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in three staphylococcal species associated with chronic infections in four horses. qacJ was located on a 2,650-bp plasmid (designated pNVH01), a new member of the pC194 family of rolling-circle replication plasmids. The 107-amino-acid protein, QacJ, showed similarities to known proteins of the small multidrug resistance family: Smr/QacC (72.5%), QacG (82.6%), and QacH (73.4%). The benzalkonium chloride MIC for a qacJ-containing recombinant was higher than those for otherwise isogenic recombinants expressing Smr, QacG, or QacH. Molecular epidemiological analyses by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested both the clonal spread of a qacJ-harboring Staphylococcus aureus strain and the horizontal transfer of pNVH01 within and between different equine staphylococcal species. The presence of pNVH01 of identical nucleotide sequence in different staphylococcal species suggests that recent transfer has occurred. In three of the horses, a skin preparation containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide had been used extensively for several years; this might explain the selection of staphylococci harboring the novel QAC resistance gene. PMID:14506007

  19. Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Méchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

  20. Predictions of size-resolved aerosol concentrations of ammonium, chloride and nitrate at a bayside site using EQUISOLV II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Scott W.; Evans, Melissa C.; Poor, Noreen D.

    Measured ambient air concentrations of ammonium, chloride and nitrate were compared with concentrations produced by EQUISOLV II, an aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium model. The monitoring equipment was located ˜50 m from Old Tampa Bay at the eastern end of the Gandy Bridge in Tampa, FL. Size-segregated ion concentrations of ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate were determined from 6- and 1-day integrated cascade impactor samples obtained in May and August 2001, respectively. EQUISOLV II was initialized with these ion concentrations by size bin, and by gas phase concentrations of the volatile species, acquired with a collocated annular denuder system. The model redistributed the ions between the size bins until gas and particle concentrations reached equilibrium. The model calculated predominantly fine particle ammonium and coarse particle chloride and nitrate. For the May sampling period, when the average relative humidity was below 65%, the model predicted the formation of seven solids KNO 3, K 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, Na 2SO 4, NaCl, NaNO 3, and CaSO 4·2H 2O. The amounts of ammonium in the fine fraction and of nitrate and chloride in the coarse fraction were predicted within the combined measurement and modeling uncertainty in the majority of cases.

  1. Effects of organics on efflorescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yonggang; Yu, Liya E.; Chen, Shing Bor

    The effect of a water-soluble organics on efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride particles is theoretically investigated on the basis of a previously developed model for ERH of single-component particles [Gao et al., 2006. Efflorescence relative humidity for ammonium sulfate particles Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110, 7602-7608]. The central assumption made is that one species nucleates much faster than the other, and the critical nuclei formation of the former controls the rate of efflorescence. The water-soluble organics (WSOs) appeared to suppress the ERH of salt particles; the decrease in ERH can be more than 30% RH when the mole fraction of WSO is larger than 0.5. The developed model satisfactorily makes quantitative prediction only for the ERH of mixed particles containing WSO with low-surface active nature (glycerol, levoglucosan, and malonic acid). For mixed particles having more surface-active WSO (glutaric and maleic acid), the inaccurate prediction is attributable to the negligence of interactions between solutes and the estimation of interfacial tension between nuclei and the mixed solution.

  2. Metabolites and dead-end products from the microbial oxidation of quaternary ammonium alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kaech, Andres; Hofer, Martina; Rentsch, Daniel; Schnider, Christian; Egli, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    Methyl-triethanol-ammonium originates from the hydrolysis of the parent esterquat surfactant, which is used as softener in fabric care. The initial steps of the catabolism were investigated in cell-free extracts of the bacterial strain MM 1 able to grow with methyl-triethanol-ammonium as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. The initial degradation of methyl-triethanol-ammonium is an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, located in the particulate fraction of strain MM 1. The oxygen dependent reaction occurred also in presence of phenazine methosulfate as an alternative electron acceptor. As soon as one ethanol group of methyl-triethanol-ammonium was oxidized to the aldehyde, cyclic hemiacetals were formed by intramolecular cyclization. The third ethanol group of methyl-triethanol-ammonium was oxidized to the aldehyde and the carboxylic acid sequentially. The structurally related compounds dimethyl-diethanol-ammonium and choline were oxidized as well, whereas (+/-)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium was not converted at all. The structures of the metabolites were established by 1D and 2D 1H, 13C and 14N NMR spectroscopy and by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. PMID:15865159

  3. Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity: An example of single-use articles tailored to self-sterilize

    E-print Network

    Taralp, Alpay

    Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity envisaged in which single-use cotton gauze could be chemically tailored to display anti-microbial activity as AEM 5700, into the cotton matrix and polymerizing the monomers about the fibers. In a second approach

  4. Selective Production of Electrostatically-Bound Adducts of Alkyl Cations/Polyoxoanions by the Collision-Induced Fragmentations of Their Quaternary Ammonium Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Xu, Chong; Fan, YanXuan; Fan, LinYuan; Zhang, XiuHui; Hu, ChangWen

    2013-06-01

    Solutions of the quaternary ammonium salts of a set of classic polyoxometalates (POMs) (Keggin [XM12O40]n-, Dawson [P2W18O62]6-, and Lindqvist [M6O19]2- (X = P, Si; M = W, Mo) were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of quaternary ammonium-associated clusters were investigated by their collision-induced dissociations to elucidate their fragmentation mechanisms. It was found that the quaternary ammonium-associated clusters had distinctive dissociation characteristics. Moreover, the mono-quaternary ammonium-associated clusters, {NR4[POMs]}(n-1)-, shared a common fragmentation feature, that is, they decomposed exclusively into their respective alkyl cation-bound clusters irrespective of the different cation sizes and the different natures of the polyoxoanions. The optimized geometries and the binding energies of the mono cation-bound Lindqvist POM-based clusters were obtained by calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the gas-phase fragmentations of these noncovalent complexes between organic amines and inorganic POM anions by a combination of theory and mass spectrometry.

  5. Sartobind STIC salt-tolerant membrane chromatography Polishing in antibody production is usually performed on quaternary ammonium (Q) membranes in flow-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    performed on quaternary ammonium (Q) membranes in flow- through mode, since the overall speed remove contaminants. Sartobind STIC PA (primary amine) anion-exchange membrane overcomes this limitation Sartobind STIC PA membrane is composed of cross-linked, regenerated macroporous cellulose. The primary amine

  6. Occurrence of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and their application as a tracer for sewage derived pollution in urban estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Liu, Jingqin; Chen, Li; Lin, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Particle reactive organic contaminants in estuarine sediments can lead to various environmental problems affecting ecosystem and public health. In this study, the occurrence and homologous distribution pattern of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in the surficial sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China were examined along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The composition pattern of the QACs was found to be uniform in most of the sediments analyzed throughout the PRE, and the average composition pattern was identical to that determined in the sewage sludge from Guangzhou, the biggest city in the PRE. Dialkyldimethylammonium compounds, the most abundant type of QACs, positively correlated to the total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in most of the sediments with similar composition patterns. Therefore, the QACs are proposed as potential tracers to evaluate the transport of sewage-derived pollution in estuarine environments. PMID:24270101

  7. A divalent quaternary alkyl ammonium salt as the electrolyte for high-energy electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Cheng; Yoshio, Masaki; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-12-01

    A divalent electrolyte salt based on 1,1,4,4-tetramethyl piperazine has been synthesized and applied in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Traits of the divalent salts have been accessed as well as monovalent quaternary alkyl ammonium salts by the means of galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and ionic conductivity measurements. Compared with monovalent salts, the divalent salts do enlarge the charge storage ability of EDLCs remarkably. However, highly concentrated charge density on the divalent cation has a strong interaction with the organic solvent of propylene carbonate. The adverse effect of this heavy solvation on the performance of EDLCs has been investigated. Moreover, the influence of pore size distribution on the storage ability of these cations at the porous carbon electrode has been addressed.

  8. Gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and a novel quaternary ammonium salt for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guiqiang [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: wgqiang@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Mingyu [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Jinbo [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Kang Junjia [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lin Yuan [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: a1703@iccas.ac.cn; Fang Shibi [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xiao Xurui [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2004-11-02

    Gel polymer electrolytes were prepared by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a mixture of polysiloxane with quaternary ammonium side groups (PSQAS), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and iodine. The influence of PAN content on the ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes and the charge-transfer kinetic performance in counterelectrode-electrolyte interface was investigated. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the gel polymer electrolyte containing 5 wt.% PAN showed the best photovoltaic performance; a maximum incident photon conversion efficiency of 63% at 520 nm was obtained, the short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}), the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the fill factor (FF) were 7 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.565 V and 0.65, respectively. The corresponding overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) is 4.3%.

  9. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents: a route for the mass production of graphane.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Amr M; Patten, Hollie V; Li, Zheling; Chen, Yiqiang; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-06-25

    We demonstrate a facile and scalable electrochemical approach to exfoliate graphite, which permits in situ hydrogenation of the resultant graphene via a solvated NR(4+) graphite compound in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp(3) C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphene. The resulting materials consist of micrometre-sized and predominantly monolayer to few layers thick hydrogenated graphenic flakes. A large band gap (?4 eV) further establishes the high level of hydrogenation. It is also possible to tune the band gap introduced to the graphene by controlling the level of hydrogenation. The mechanism of the exfoliation and hydrogenation is also discussed. PMID:26074262

  10. Antibacterial activity of G6-quaternary ammonium derivatives of a lipophilic vancomycin analogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A Blizzard; Ronald M Kim; Jerry D Morgan; Jiang Chang; Joyce Kohler; Ruth Kilburn; Kevin Chapman; Milton L Hammond

    2002-01-01

    A series of G6-amino derivatives of a lipophilic vancomycin analogue was prepared. Antibacterial activity of the analogues was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the G6-nitrogen. The fully substituted (quaternary) analogues were essentially inactive against vanA phenotype VREF strains but retained substantial activity against other bacteria, a profile reminiscent of teicoplanin.

  11. The Nature of Excess Intercalation of a Quaternary Ammonium Compound in Smectite Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Lafer; R. Giese

    2010-01-01

    Particular clay minerals, such as the French green clay used by Brunet de Courssou in the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans, have intrinsic antibacterial properties that surpass those of most conventional antibiotic treatments. The antimicrobial properties of the French green clay, comprised of 24% Fe-illite and 50% Fe-smectite, have been reproduced by a synthetically generated organically modified smectite (organoclay). The quaternary

  12. Probing a Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with quaternary ammonium ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Villarroel; Osvaldo Alvarez; Andres Oberhauser; Ramon Latorre

    1988-01-01

    A series of quaternary amonium (QA) ions were used to probe the gross architecture of the ion conduction pathway in a Ca2+-activated K+ channel from rat muscle membrane. The channels were inserted into planar phospholipid membranes and the single channel currents were measured in the presence of the different QA ions. Internally applied monovalent QA ions (e.g. tetramethylammonium and analogues)

  13. Micelle assisted thin-film solid phase microextraction: a new approach for determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Boyac?, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-09-16

    Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) often is considered to be a challenging undertaking owing to secondary interactions of the analytes' permanently charged quaternary ammonium head or hydrophobic tail with the utilized labware. Here, for the first time, a micelle assisted thin-film solid phase microextraction (TF-SPME) using a zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) as a matrix modifier is introduced as a novel approach for in-laboratory sample preparation of the challenging compounds. The proposed micelle assisted TF-SPME method offers suppression/enhancement free electrospray ionization of analytes in mass spectrometric detection, minimal interaction of the micelles with the TF-SPME coating, and chromatographic stationary phase and analysis free of secondary interactions. Moreover, it was found that the matrix modifier has multiple functions; when its concentration is found below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the matrix modifier primarily acts as a surface deactivator; above its CMC, it acts as a stabilizer for QACs. Additionally, shorter equilibrium extraction times in the presence of the modifier demonstrated that micelles also assist in the transfer of analytes from the bulk of the sample to the surface of the coating. The developed micelle assisted TF-SPME protocol using the 96-blade system requires only 30 min of extraction and 15 min of desorption. Together with a conditioning step (15 min), the entire method is 60 min; considering the advantage of using the 96-blade system, if all the blades in the brush are used, the sample preparation time per sample is 0.63 min. Moreover, the recoveries for all analytes with the developed method were found to range within 80.2-97.3%; as such, this method can be considered an open bed solid phase extraction. The proposed method was successfully validated using real samples. PMID:25148600

  14. HPLC analysis of commercial alkyl and aryl quaternary ammonium compounds used in organoclay type rheological additives.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, F; Hatcher, M T; Faulseit, B K

    1987-09-01

    Mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic "quats" can be qualitatively identified in a one step chromatographic run. After separation on a strong cation exchange column, the eluted components are detected using a UV and RI detector system in series. The quaternaries present in organoclays (e.g., BENTONE type products) can also be identified by prior destruction of the silicate with hydrofluoric acid followed by chromatography of the residual quat fluorides. PMID:3667837

  15. The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene in deep eutectic solvents based on quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bahadori; N. S. Abdul Manan; M. H. Chakrabarti; M. A. Hashim; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef; M. A. Hussain; C. T. J. Low

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene (Fc) is investigated in six different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by means of hydrogen bonding between selected ammonium and phosphonium salts with glycerol and ethylene glycol. Combinations of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry are employed to characterise the DESs. The reductive and oxidative potential limits are reported versus the Fc\\/Fc+ couple. The diffusion coefficient, D,

  16. Cobalt halide complex formation in aqueous calcium nitrate–ammonium nitrate melts. I. Cobalt(II) chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Vraneš; Slobodan B. Gadžuri?; István J. Zsigrai

    2007-01-01

    Absorption spectra of cobalt(II) chloride in calcium nitrate–ammonium nitrate–water system of the composition xCa(NO3)2·4H2O–(1?x)NH4NO3 (x=0.30, 0.50 and 0.70) have been investigated in the wavelength range 400–800 nm at temperatures 45, 55 and 65 °C. Addition of chloride to cobalt nitrate solution caused a pronounced shift of the absorption maximum toward lower energies and a significant increase of absorption intensity, indicating a change

  17. Synthesis, photophysical and antimicrobial activity of new water soluble ammonium quaternary benzanthrone in solution and in polylactide film.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Desislava; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Makki, Mohamad Saleh I; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad; Abd?l-Rahman, Reda Mohamed; Asiri, Abdullah M; Grabchev, Ivo

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of a new cationic water soluble fluorescent 1-[(7-oxo-7H-benzo[de]anthracen-3-ylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-triethylammonium chloride (B) has been described. Due to the presence of the quaternary amino group, the compound is soluble in water. Its photophysical characteristics in aqueous solution and organic solvents with different polarity have been determined using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The photostability of compound B has been investigated in aqueous media. The newly synthesized compound has been tested in vitro for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and two yeasts cultures. The results obtained suggest that the newly synthesized compound is effective in treating the relevant pathogens and is suitable in designing new effective antimicrobial preparations. The incorporation of the compound into thin polylactic acid film and its release into water solution has been also investigated. It was demonstrated that the compound released from the polymer polylactic acid matrix exhibited a prolonged good antibacterial activity. PMID:25596400

  18. Adsorption kinetics of 3-alkoxy-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride at oil-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xi-lian; Wang, Xiu-hong; Liu, Jie; Sun, De-zhi; Yin, Bao-lin; Wang, Xiu-jie

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic interfacial tension (DIT) between aqueous solution of 3-alkoxy-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (RnHTAC) and n-octane was measured using spinning drop method. The effects of RnHTAC concentration (the concentration below the CMC) and temperature on DIT have been investigated. The cause of the change of DIT with time has been discussed. The effective diffusion coefficient, Da, and the adsorption barrier, ?a, have been obtained with extended Word-Tordai equation. The results show that the higher the concentration of the surfactant is, the smaller the DIT will be and the lower the curve of the DIT, and the aqueous RnHTAC solutions follow a mixed diffusion-activation adsorption mechanism. With increase of RnHTAC concentration in the bulk solution, Da decreases and ?a increases. Da of aqueous R14HTAC solution decreases from 0.090 × 10-13 m2 s-1 to 0.081 × 10-13 m2 s-1 and ?a increases from 10.12 kJ mol-1 to 11.89 kJ mol-1, with the temperature increasing from 30 °C to 50 °C. This phenomenon indicates that the diffusion tendency becomes weak with the strengthening of the interaction between the surfactant molecules and that the thermo-motion of molecules benefits interface adsorption.

  19. O-2'-Hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunxiao; Kang, Hong; Yang, Wanqiu; Sun, Jinyan; Liu, Chunlong; Cheng, Guogang; Rong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    A novel complex chitosan derivative, O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (O-2'-HACC), was synthesized and used to make nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. We found that O-2'-HACC had high antimicrobial activity, low toxicity, and a high safety level. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was then encapsulated in the O-2'-HACC nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs) by the ionic crosslinking method, and the properties of the resulting nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs had regular spherical morphologies and high stability, with an encapsulation efficiency of 95.68±2.2% and a loading capacity of 58.75±4.03%. An in vitro release assay indicated that release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs occurred slowly. Specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs intranasally had much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than did those immunized intramuscularly or with live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs are a novel drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications. PMID:26076628

  20. Surface chemical study on the covalent attachment of hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan to titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofen; Wang, Ling; Guo, Shengrong; Lei, Lei; Tang, Tingting

    2011-10-01

    An anti-microbial and bioactive coating could not only reduce the probability of infection related to titanium implants but also support the growth of surrounding osteogenic cells. Our previous study has showed that hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) with a DS (degrees of substitution) of 18% had improved solubility and significantly higher antibacterial activities against three bacteria which were usually associated with infections in orthopaedics. In the current study, HACC with a DS of 18% coating was bonded to titanium surface by a three-step process. The titanium surface after each individual reaction step was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) of Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XPS results demonstrated that there were great changes in the atomic ratios of C/Ti, O/Ti, and N/Ti after each reaction step. The XPS high resolution and corresponding devolution spectra of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and titanium were also in good coordination with the anticipated reaction steps. Additionally, the absorption bands around 3365 cm -1 (-OH vibration), 1664 cm -1 (Amide I), 1165 cm -1 ( ?as, C-O-C bridge), and the broad absorption bands between 958 cm -1 and 1155 cm -1 (skeletal vibrations involving the C-O stretching of saccharide structure of HACC) verified that HACC was successfully attached to titanium surface.

  1. Kinetics of emulsion copolymerization of (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride and acrylamide with gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xuewu; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Xiangling; Zhang, Zhicheng; Sun, Qian

    1997-09-01

    Inverse emulsion copolymerization of (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride with acrylamide has been studied with gamma ray dilatometrically. Aqueous monomer solutions were emulsified in kerosene with a blend of two surfactants (Span80 and OP10). The gel effect is evident from the increase of the molecular weight with conversion and also from the percentage conversion versus time curves. Monomer reactivity ratios have been derived as rAM = 0.23 and rDMC = 1.40 at pH 6.8. Initial emulsions and final inverse latexes displayed the same broad size distribution. The effects of dose rate, concentration and composition of the monomer, emulsifier concentration, etc. on polymerization rate and intrinsic viscosity of polymer have been examined. The rate of polymerization ( Rp) can be represented by Rp ? D0.87[M] 1.37[E] 0.53. The overall activation activation energy for the rate of polymerization is 16.9 kJ/mol (32-55°C). Based on these experimental results, some aspects of the polymerization mechanism are discussed.

  2. A Contributive Study on the Stripping of Zinc(II) from Loaded TBP Using an Ammonia\\/Ammonium Chloride Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo V. Mishonov; Krzysztof Alejski; Jan Szymanowski

    2004-01-01

    The stripping of zinc(II) from undiluted and 80 v\\/v% TBP in low aromatic kerosene by means of ammonia\\/ammonium chloride solution has been studied. It was found that the equilibrium in the system was reached within 2–3 min of vigorous shaking of aqueous and organic phases. The stripping isotherms for zinc, when using undiluted or 80% TBP and 10% or 1.8% hydrochloric

  3. Adsorption of Congo Red by Poly(Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride)\\/Polyacrylamide Hydrogels with Excellent Acid and Alkali Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Liu; Yian Zheng; Dajian Huang; Aiqin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Cationic hydrogels, poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride)\\/polyacrylamide (PDMDAAC\\/PAM), were prepared for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solution. Process parameters affecting the adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results showed that the calculated monolayer adsorption capacity of the cationic hydrogels was found to be 200 to 465 mg\\/g. The hydrogels showed appreciable adsorption capacities within pH range investigated. The adsorption

  4. Adsorption of Congo Red by Poly (Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride)\\/Polyacrylamide Hydrogels with Excellent Acid and Alkali Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Liu; Yian Zheng; Dajian Huang; Aiqin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Cationic hydrogels, poly (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride)\\/polyacrylamide (PDMDAAC\\/PAM), were prepared for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solution. Process parameters affecting the adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results showed that the calculated monolayer adsorption capacity of the cationic hydrogels was found to be 200 to 465 mg\\/g. The hydrogels showed appreciable adsorption capacities within pH range investigated. The

  5. Time courses of equilibration for ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in the Z/3 crystallization plate.

    PubMed

    Arakali, S V; Easley, S; Luft, J R; DeTitta, G T

    1994-07-01

    Time courses of equilibration for three salts, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate have been measured in the Z/3 crystallization plate. It is shown that by varying both the diffusant and the reservoir depth the time taken to equilibrate can be as short as 200 or as long as 1400 h. Thus, the present design of the plate should accommodate a wide variety of desired crystallization kinetics. PMID:15299405

  6. Synthesis of a quaternary amine anion exchange resin and study its adsorption behaviour for chromate oxyanions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asem A. Atia

    2006-01-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate\\/N,N?-methylene bis-acrylamide (GMA\\/MBA) was prepared and allowed to react with tetraethylenepentamine (TEP) to give glycidyl methacrylate amine resin (RPA) followed by treatment with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride (GTA) to give glycidyl methacrylate resin bearing quaternary ammonium chloride moieties (RQA). Zeta potential measurements showed that RQA particles are positively charged over pH 2–10 indicating the strong basic nature of the quaternary

  7. Preparation and characterization of a quaternary ammonium derivative of konjac glucomannan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiqun Yu; Yihong Huang; Hou Ying; Chaobo Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Cationic derivatives of konjac glucomannan (KGM) were prepared by reacting KGM with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in presence of sodium hydroxide. The chemical structures of derivative were characterized by use of elemental analysis, FTIR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and static light scattering technique. The results revealed that the degree of substitution (DS) of quaternized konjac glucomannan (QKGM) could be controlled by

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of protonated trimethylamine-(benzene)(n) (n = 1-4) as model clusters of the quaternary ammonium-aromatic ring interaction.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Ryunosuke; Kawai, Yuki; Fujii, Asuka

    2014-09-01

    The essence of the molecular recognition of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been attributed to the attractive interaction between a quaternary ammonium and aromatic rings. We employed protonated trimethylamine-(benzene)n clusters (n = 1-4) in the gas phase as a model to study the recognition mechanism of acetylcholine at the microscopic level. We applied size-selective infrared spectroscopy to the clusters and observed the NH and CH stretching vibrational regions. We also performed density functional theory calculations of stable structures, charge distributions, and infrared spectra of the clusters. It was shown that the methyl groups of protonated trimethylamine are solvated by benzene one at a time in the n > 1 clusters, and the validity of these clusters as a model system of the acetylcholine recognition was demonstrated. The nature of the interactions between a quaternary ammonium and aromatic rings is discussed on the basis of the observed infrared spectra and the theoretical calculations. PMID:24650421

  9. Synthesis, molecular structure and spectral properties of quaternary ammonium derivatives of 1,1-dimethyl-1,3-propylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Iwona

    2008-01-01

    1,1-Dimethyl-3-oxo-1,4-diazepan-1-ium chloride (1) and 1,1-dimethyl-1-carboxymethyl-3-aminopropyl ammonium hydrochloride (2) have been obtained by the reactions of 1,1-dimethyl-1,3-propylenediamine with ethyl chloroacetate and chloroacetic acid, respectively. The products have been characterized by FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. B3LYP calculations have also been carried out. The screening constants for (13)C- and (1)H- atoms have been calculated by the GIAO/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach and analyzed. The FTIR and NMR spectra of the investigated compounds 1 and 2 are in excellent agreement with the structures optimized by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. PMID:18305425

  10. Relationship between the resistance genes to quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotic resistance in staphylococci isolated from surgical site infections

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Muhyittin; Duran, Nizami; Duran, Gülay Gülbol; Ery?lmaz, Naciye; Jenedi, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence of disinfectant resistance genes (qacA/qacB,qacC) and the aminoglycosides resistance genes [(aac(6?)aph(2?),aph(3?)-IIIa,ant(4?)-Ia)] in both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains (CoNS) isolated from surgical site infections. Material/Methods Totally, 130 staphylococcal strains isolated from surgical site infections between January 2012 and February 2013 were included in the study. The PCR technique was employed to verify any presence of methicillin resistance gene (mecA), aminoglycoside resistance genes [(aac(6?)/aph (2?), aph(3)-III a ant (4?)-1a)], and disinfectant resistance genes (qacA/qacB,qacC) in staphylococci. Results MecA gene was determined in 58 (44.6%) of 130 staphylococcal isolates. A total of 28 (73.7%) of 38 S. aureus isolates were found to be positive for the mecA gene, and 4 (12.9%) of 31 isolates sensitive to amikacin were sensitive to methicillin. Eighteen (47.4%) of 38 amikacin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found to be positive for qacA/qacB genes and 11 (8.9%) of them were positive for qacC gene. Both mecA and qacA/qacB genes were found to be positive at the same time in 19 amikacin-resistant S. aureus strains. Seven (18.4%) S. aureus isolates were determined to be positive for qacA/qacB and qacC genes. Frequency of qacA/B genes was found to be 47.4% among amikacin-resistant S. aureus strains, while qacC gene was found to be 28.9% (p<0.05). The ratio of qacA/B and qacC genes in CoNS was found to be 37.9% and 20.7%, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions Quaternary ammonium resistance genes were found to be positive at a remarkable ratio in the staphylococcal isolates from surgical wounds. Especially, the high rates of aminoglycosides and methicillin-resistance gene was remarkable in S. aureus isolates. Quaternary ammonium resistance genes were found to be positive. PMID:24691183

  11. Imparting durable antimicrobial properties to cotton fabrics using alginate–quaternary ammonium complex nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung Woo Kim; Bo Ra Kim; Young Ha Rhee

    2010-01-01

    A new type of nanoparticle composed of sodium alginate (SA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl-octadecyldimethylammonium chloride (TSA) was prepared by ionic gelation. The average size of the SA–TSA nanoparticles was significantly affected by the initial mass ratio of SA and TSA used for the formation of the SA–TSA colloidal solution. SA–TSA nanoparticles with an average size of 99nm were chosen and loaded onto

  12. Environmental assessment of an alkyl dimethyl benyzl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) based mollusicide using laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, M.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Petrille, J.C. [Betz Water Management Center, Trevose, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A series of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental impact of n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) when used to control zebra mussels and other types of macrofouling organism in industrial cooling systems. The ADBAC-based molluscicide was tested as pure product and often detoxification with bentonite clay. Six flow-through acute tests were conducted to estimate the toxicity of ADBAC. In addition three chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of complexing the ADBAC-based molluscicide with a bentonite clay as a detoxification strategy. A 29-day CO{sub 2} Production test was also conducted to evaluate the biodegradability of the molluscicide. Of the six species tested in acute flow-through experiments, D. magna (LC{sub 50} = 0.02 mg ADBAC/L) was the most sensitive species followed by Mysidopsis bahia (LC{sub 50} = 0.08 mg ADBAC/L), Menidia beryllina (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), P. promelas (LC{sub 50} = 0.36 mg ADBAC/L), Cyprinodon variegatus (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (LC{sub 50} = 1.01 mg ADBAC/L). In the detoxification studies the three test species were exposed to treatment levels of: 0:0, 2.5:0, 2.5:25, 2.5:37.5, 2.5:50, 2.5:75, and 0:75 as mg/L ADBAC:clay. Bentonite clay was found to be an effective detoxification agent for this molluscicide at all treatment levels, except for the 2.5:25 treatment. In addition, a biodegradation study showed that the ADBAC-based molluscicide was readily biodegradable by unacclimated activated sludge microorganisms releasing 65.9% of the theoretical possible CO{sub 2} after 29 days.

  13. Insights into the transport of aqueous quaternary ammonium cations: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Himanshu N; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Yang, Yuan; Felberg, Lisa E; Voth, Gregory A; Herring, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relative effects of ammonium substituent groups (we primarily consider tetramethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium cations) and anion species (OH(-), HCO3(-), CO3(2-), Cl(-), and F(-)) on ion transport by combining experimental and computational approaches. We characterize transport experimentally using ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients measured from NMR. These experimental results are interpreted using simulation methods to describe the transport of these cations and anions considering the effects of the counterion. It is particularly noteworthy that we directly probe cation and anion diffusion with pulsed gradient stimulated echo NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, corroborating these methods and providing a direct link between atomic-resolution simulations and macroscale experiments. By pairing diffusion measurements and simulations with residence times, we were able to understand the interplay between short-time and long-time dynamics with ionic conductivity. With experiment, we determined that solutions of benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide have the highest ionic conductivity (0.26 S/cm at 65 °C), which appears to be due to differences for the ions in long-time diffusion and short-time water caging. We also examined the effect of CO2 on ionic conductivity in ammonium hydroxide solutions. CO2 readily reacts with OH(-) to form HCO(-)3 and is found to lower the solution ionic conductivity by almost 50%. PMID:24437699

  14. Quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil: an efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for halophile green microalgal transformation.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Fariba; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halophile green microalga, is considered a robust photobioreactor and a remarkable cost beneficial system for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. In this study, with low overall cost, a proper cationic lipid was synthesized from renewable soybean oil as an efficient gene delivery carrier for D. salina cells to create appropriate protein-producing transformed cell lines. To obtain an effective carrier, quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil (QASSO) was synthesized through the ring opening reaction of the epoxy groups of epoxidized soybean oil with diethylamine. QASSO was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared instruments. QASSO was used to prepare nanolipoplex construct using plasmid DNA molecules containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. These nanolipoplexes (QASSO-pGFP, N/P=3) and QASSO had diameter of 63.62 and 110.63 nm, and zeta potential of -68.89 and 48.25 mV at pH 7.0, respectively. Results indicated the GFP gene expression and cytoplasmic accumulation of GFP protein in the transformants after incubation under desirable conditions for 48 h and 1 week. The transformation efficiency was quantitatively assayed by flow cytometry, which yielded transformations of 58.87% and 48.34% for QASSO and 38.32% and a negligible percentage for Polyfect® after 48 h and 1 week incubation, respectively. PMID:25451567

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing quaternary ammonium-modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as dual action antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Worley, Brittany V; Slomberg, Danielle L; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-05-21

    Herein we describe the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing quaternary ammonium (QA)-functionalized generation 1 (G1) and generation 4 (G4) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. Dendrimers were modified with QA moieties of different alkyl chain lengths (i.e., methyl, butyl, octyl, dodecyl) via a ring-opening reaction. The resultant secondary amines were then modified with N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors to yield NO-releasing QA-modified PAMAM dendrimers capable of spontaneous NO release (payloads of ~0.75 ?mol/mg over 4 h). The bactericidal efficacy of individual (i.e., non-NO-releasing) and dual action (i.e., NO-releasing) QA-modified PAMAM dendrimers was evaluated against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Bactericidal activity was found to be dependent on dendrimer generation, QA alkyl chain length, and bacterial Gram class for both systems. Shorter alkyl chains (i.e., methylQA, butylQA) demonstrated increased bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa versus S. aureus for both generations, with NO release markedly enhancing overall killing. PMID:24797526

  16. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  17. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity.

    PubMed

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates. PMID:25699691

  18. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  19. The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene in deep eutectic solvents based on quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Laleh; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Mjalli, Farouq Sabri; AlNashef, Inas Muen; Hussain, Mohd Azlan; Low, Chee Tong John

    2013-02-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene (Fc) is investigated in six different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by means of hydrogen bonding between selected ammonium and phosphonium salts with glycerol and ethylene glycol. Combinations of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry are employed to characterise the DESs. The reductive and oxidative potential limits are reported versus the Fc/Fc(+) couple. The diffusion coefficient, D, of ferrocene in all studied DESs is found to lie between 8.49 × 10(-10) and 4.22 × 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) (these do not change significantly with concentration). The standard rate constant for heterogeneous electron transfer across the electrode/DES interface is determined to be between 1.68 × 10(-4) and 5.44 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) using cyclic voltammetry. These results are of the same order of magnitude as those reported for other ionic liquids in the literature. PMID:23247115

  20. Analytical 13 C NMR spectroscopy of fatty quaternary amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Fairchild

    1982-01-01

    Natural abundance13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CMR) has been used for the rapid, nondestructive analysis of fatty quaternary ammonium\\u000a compounds. Quantitative analysis of mixtures of mono-, di-and tri-fatty ammonium chlorides can be accommpublished under conditions\\u000a that do not involve heat or extremes of pH and that are independent of solvent present. In order to determine optimal conditions\\u000a for quantitative studies,

  1. A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

  2. Retention behavior of long chain quaternary ammonium homologues and related nitroso-alkymethylamines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Several chromatographic methods have been utilized to study the retentionbehavior of a homologous series of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides (ABDAC) and the corresponding nitroso-n-alkylmethylamines (NAMA). Linear correlation of the logarithmic capacity factor (k') with the number of carbons in the alkyl chain provides useful information on both gas chromatographic (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatographich (HPLC) retention parameters of unknown components. Under all conditions empolyed, GC methodology has proved effective in achieving complete resolution of the homologous mixture of NMA despite its obvious inadequacy in the separation of E-Z configurational isomers. Conversely, normal-phase HPLC on silica demonstrates that the selectivity (a) value for an E-Z pair is much higher than that for an adjacent homologous pair. In the reversed-phase HPLC study, three different silica-based column systems were examined under various mobile phase conditions. The extent of variation in k' was found to be a function of the organic modifier, counter-ion concentration, eluent pH, nature of counter-ion, and the polarity and type of stationary phase. The k'—[NaClO4] profiles showed similar trends between the ABDAC and the NAMA series, supporting the dipolar electronic structures of the latter compounds. Mobile phase and stationary phase effects on component separation are described. The methodology presented establishes the utility of HPLC separation techniques as versatile analytical tools for practical application.

  3. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene N; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-03-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera. PMID:25883793

  4. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene N.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera. PMID:25883793

  5. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Feron, O.; Wibo, M.; Christen, M. O.; Godfraind, T.

    1992-01-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1313732

  6. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Feron, O; Wibo, M; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1992-02-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.5. The competitive interaction of pinaverium, a permanently charged drug, with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to intact cells and its absence of interaction with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to sealed inside-out vesicles imply that the dihydropyridine receptor lies near the external surface of the plasma membrane. PMID:1313732

  7. Assessment of bactericidal effects of quaternary ammonium-based antibacterial monomers in combination with colloidal platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Izutani, Naomi; Imazato, Satoshi; Chen, Ji-Hua; Kiba, Wakako; Yoshikawa, Ranna; Takeda, Kahoru; Kitagawa, Haruaki; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2012-02-01

    Pretreatment of dentin using colloidal platinum nanoparticles (CPtN) can enhance the bond strength of dentin adhesives. However, the combination of CPtN, which is negatively charged, with cationic monomer-containing adhesive may reduce the antibacterial activity of the original material. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CPtN on the bactericidal activity of two cationic antibacterial monomers, 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) and methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB). The rapid killing effects of the two monomers against planktonic or attached Streptococcus mutans in the presence or absence of CPtN were examined by viable cell counts. The measurement of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations demonstrated that CPtN up to 2.5 mM has no antibacterial activity. In the absence of CPtN, rapid killing of both planktonic and attached Streptococcus mutans were achieved by the two cationic monomers. Combination with 0.1 mM CPtN did not reduce the bactericidal effects of the two monomers, indicating that CPtN may be used as a pretreatment with antibacterial adhesives. PMID:22277619

  8. Fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds and common fire retardants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal; Robert H. White; Katsumi Shinoda; Yuji Imamura

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds\\u000a (didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF)) were compared with the performance\\u000a of untreated control specimens and specimens treated with common fire retardants ((monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium\\u000a phosphate (DAP) and ammonium sulphate (AS)). Test specimens were treated

  9. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  10. Biocide comparison: Aldehyde versus mixture of aldehyde and quaternary amine

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride salts are widely used biocides in oil field systems to control microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). These biocides and others were evaluated for their efficacy to control sessile and planktonic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and aerobic bacteria. The efficacy of these biocides was then compared. In addition to laboratory evaluation, all the biocides were evaluated against SRB and acid producing bacteria in two different field waters. It was found that the blend containing aldehyde and quaternary amino was, in general, a more effective biocide than either glutaraldehyde or quaternary amine alone.

  11. A review of methods for the analysis of orphan and difficult pesticides: glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium and phenoxy acid herbicides, and dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the chromatography/MS methodologies for analysis of pesticide residues of orphan and difficult chemical classes in a variety of sample matrixes including water, urine, blood, and food. The review focuses on pesticide classes that are not commonly included in multiresidue analysis methods such as highly polar or ionic herbicides including glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium, and phenoxy acid herbicides, and some of their major degradation or metabolite products. In addition, dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides, which are thermally unstable and have stability issues in some solvents or sample matrixes, are also examined due to their special needs in residue analysis. PMID:25145125

  12. Isolation and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria able to grow aerobically with quaternary ammonium alcohols as sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kaech, Andres; Vallotton, Nathalie; Egli, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The quaternary ammonium alcohols (QAAs) 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium (TM), dimethyl-diethanol-ammonium (DM) and methyl-triethanol-ammonium (MM) are hydrolysis products of their parent esterquat surfactants, which are widely used as softeners in fabric care. We isolated several bacteria growing with QAAs as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The strains were compared with a previously isolated TM-degrading bacterium, which was identified as a representative of the species Pseudomonas putida (Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24 (2001) 252). Two bacteria were isolated with DM, referred to as strains DM 1 and DM 2, respectively. Based on 16S-rDNA analysis, they provided 97% (DM 1) and 98% (DM 2) identities to the closest related strain Zoogloea ramigera Itzigsohn 1868AL. Both strains were long, slim, motile rods but only DM 1 showed the floc forming activity, which is typical for representatives of the genus Zoogloea. Using MM we isolated a Gram-negative, non-motile rod referred to as strain MM 1. The 16S-rDNA sequence of the isolated bacterium revealed 94% identities (best match) to Rhodobacter sphaeroides only. The strains MM 1 and DM 1 exclusively grew with the QAA which was used for their isolation. DM 2 was also utilizing TM as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. However, all of the isolated bacteria were growing with the natural and structurally related compound choline. PMID:15900970

  13. Journal of Theoretical Biology 251 (2008) 93107 Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, Universiteit van

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Theoretical Biology 251 (2008) 93­107 Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium; accepted 11 October 2007 Available online 22 October 2007 Abstract A mathematical model of erythrocyte. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin

  14. Effect of a novel quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) on adhesion and antibacterial properties of dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M; Simão, Luzia C; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin-dentin bond strength (?TBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in ?TBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p>0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of ?TBS after 12 months of storage (p=0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p>0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. PMID:24853131

  15. Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP) on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Yasmine M.; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M.; Simão, Luzia C.; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M. M.; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (?TBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in ?TBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of ?TBS after 12 months of storage (p = 0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. PMID:24853131

  16. Study of the interaction phenomena of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride and benzethonium chloride with C. I. Acid Orange 52 and picric acid by two spectral methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimír Kubí?ek; Kate?ina N?mcová

    2006-01-01

    A study of solutions containing C. I. Acid Orange 52 (AO52) or picric acid (PA) and cationic surfactants in various molar ratios by UV–vis spectrophotometry and ion pair extraction spectrophotometry has been made. Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzethonium chloride (BEC) have been chosen as cationic surfactants. AO52 and PA have been used as substances with coloured organic

  17. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

  18. Synthesis, growth and characterization of non linear optical Bisthiourea ammonium chloride single crystals by slow evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilango, E.; Rajasekaran, R.; Shankar, K.; Krishnan, S.; Chithambaram, V.

    2014-11-01

    A new semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal of Bisthiourea Ammonium Chloride (BTAC) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The crystal system and lattice parameters were determined from X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transmittance and absorbance of electromagnetic radiation is studied through UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal behavior of the grown crystals has been investigated by TG/DTA analysis. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss has been studied as a function of frequency for various temperatures and the result were discussed in detail. The SEM analysis was also done and it revealed the surface morphology of BTAC crystal. The second harmonic generation has been confirmed by the Kurtz powder test and it is found to be 1.4 times more than that of KDP crystal.

  19. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  20. HYPERSONIC INVESTIGATION OF THE A -T y p E PHASE TRANSITION IN AMMONIUM-CHLORIDE M. GROSS -D. GERLICH -and S. SZAPIRO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HYPERSONIC INVESTIGATION OF THE A - T y p E PHASE TRANSITION IN AMMONIUM-CHLORIDE M. GROSS - D method.The hypersonic sound velocities and elastic constants have been measured in the immediate vicinity measurements. The difference between the present hypersonic measurement and previous ultrasonic results

  1. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations using UV/vis spectroscopy. Results show greige...

  2. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on low-weight greige and bleached cotton nonwovens in different aqueous environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) on cotton nonwovens is dependent on pretreatment of the substrate, more specifically whether it is greige or bleached fabric. In this work we examine the effect of varying the chemical and physical propert...

  3. Influence of varying levels of ammonium chloride on urine pH and specific gravity, overall feed conversion, and water consumption in mature wether goats.

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Matthew joseph

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered ammonium chloride (NH4CL) on pH and specific gravity of urine, overall gain, and water consumption in mature wethers on a grower/finisher ration. Obstructive urolithiasis...

  4. (tert-But­yl)(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)ammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Valerio-Cárdenas, Cintya; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title mol­ecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl?, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100). PMID:25161569

  5. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supeno, Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  6. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect

    Supeno [Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli, E-mail: rusli@ukm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); El-Sheikh, Said M. [Nano-Structured Materials Division, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  7. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  8. Analysis of structural features of bis-quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents 4,4?-(?,?-Polymethylenedithio)bis (1-alkylpyridinium iodide)s using computational simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Ohkura; Akiko Sukeno; Keiko Yamamoto; Hideaki Nagamune; Takuya Maeda; Hiroki Kourai

    2003-01-01

    The bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) consisted of two identical alkylpyridinium rings and a bridge structure linking the rings to each other. The QACs have a methylene bridge except for 4DCABP-P,12 which has a phenyl ring as a bridge. These bis-QACs are as follows; amide type: N,N?-tetramethylenebis(1-dodecyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-4,12), N,N?-hexamethylenebis(1-decyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-6,10), anti-amide type: 4,4?-(1,4-tetramethylenedicarbonyldiamine)bis(1-decylpyridinium iodide) (4DCABP-4,10), 4,4?-(1,4-tetramethylenedicarbonyldiamine)bis (1-dodecylpyridinium iodide) (4DCABP-4,12),

  9. Optimizing the concentration of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomer in bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resin system for antibacterial activity and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoxu; Söderling, Eva; Liu, Fang; He, Jingwei; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2014-05-01

    Four novel quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomers named IMQ (side alkyl chain length from 12 to 18) were synthesized with the aim to synthesize dental resin with antibacterial activity. All of IMQs were added into bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resin system with a series of mass ratio (5, 10, and 20 wt%), double bond conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), modulus of elasticity (FM) and biofilm formation inhibitory effect were studied. According to the results of DC, FS, FM, and the biofilm inhibitory effect, IMQ-16 containing polymer had the best comprehensive properties, and the optimal concentration of IMQ-16 in bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resin would be in the range of 5-10 wt%. PMID:24449028

  10. On-line ion-pair solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of quaternary ammonium herbicides.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    2000-02-11

    An ion-pair on-line solid-phase extraction procedure using C8 extraction disks, suitable for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis is developed to determine quaternary ammonium herbicides (quats) in water samples. The separation of these compounds was performed using ion-pair chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid (15 mM, pH 3.3) and acetonitrile gradient elution. Detection was carried out using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Water sample volumes up to 50 ml can be preconcentrated with recoveries higher than 70%. Good precision and accuracy (day-to-day and run-to-run) were obtained and the detection limits ranged from 6 to 85 ng l(-1). The proposed on-line ion-pair solid-phase method enables compliance with European Community directives for drinking waters (100 ng l(-1)). PMID:10720257

  11. AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.

    2013-08-13

    Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  12. Trp82 and Tyr332 are involved in two quaternary ammonium binding domains of human butyrylcholinesterase as revealed by photoaffinity labeling with [3H]DDF.

    PubMed

    Nachon, F; Ehret-Sabatier, L; Loew, D; Colas, C; van Dorsselaer, A; Goeldner, M

    1998-07-21

    Purified butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was photolabeled by [3H]-p-N, N-dimethylamino benzene diazonium ([3H]DDF) to identify the quaternary ammonium binding sites on this protein [Ehret-Sabatier, L. , Schalk, I., Goeldner, M., and Hirth, C. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 203, 475-481]. The covalent photoincorporation occurs with a stoichiometry of one mole of probe per mole of inactivated site and could be fully prevented by several cholinergic inhibitors such as tacrine or tetramethylammonium. After complete deglycosylation of the enzyme using N-glycosidase F, the alkylated protein was trypsinolyzed and the digests were analyzed by HPLC coupled to ES-MS. A direct comparison of tryptic fragments from labeled and unlabeled BuChE allowed us to identify the tryptic peptide Tyr61-Lys103 as carrying the probe. Purification of the labeled peptides by anion-exchange chromatography gave a major radioactive peak which was further fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC leading to three, well-resolved, radioactive peaks. Microsequencing revealed that two of these peaks contained an overlapping sequence starting at Tyr61, while the third peak contained a sequence extending from Thr315. Radioactive signals could be unambiguously attributed to positions corresponding to residues Trp82 and Tyr332. This labeling study establishes the existence of two different binding domains for quaternary ammonium in BuChE and exemplifies additional cation/pi interactions in cholinergic proteins. This work strongly supports the existence of a peripheral anionic site in BuChE, implying residue Tyr332 as a key element. PMID:9671522

  13. CO2/ethylene oxide copolymerization and ligand variation for a highly active salen-cobalt(III) complex tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Lee, Jung Jae; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan; Na, Sung Jae; Sujith, S; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Ok, Myung-Ahn; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2013-07-01

    A cobalt(III) complex (1) of a salcy-type ligand tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts, which is thought to act as a highly active catalyst for CO2/propylene oxide (PO) copolymerization, also shows high activity (TOF, 25,900 h(-1); TON, 518,000; 2.72 kg polymer per g cat) and selectivity (>98%) for CO2/ethylene oxide (EO) copolymerization that results in high-molecular-weight polymers (M(n), 200,000-300,000) that have strictly alternating repeating units. The related cobalt(III) complexes 11-14 were prepared through variations of the ligand framework of 1 by replacing the trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane unit with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane, or 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine or by replacing the aldimine bond with ketimine. These ligand frameworks are thought to favour the formation of the cis-? configuration in complexation, and the formation of the cis-? configuration in 11-14 was confirmed through NMR studies or X-ray crystallographic studies of model complexes not bearing the quaternary ammonium salts. Complexes 11, 13, and 14, which adopt the cis-? configuration even in DMSO did not show any activity for CO2/PO copolymerization. Complex 12, which was constructed with trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane and fluctuated in DMSO between the coordination and de-coordination of the acetate ligand as observed for 1, showed fairly high activity (TOF, 12,400 h(-1)). This fluctuating behaviour may play a role in polymerization. However, complex 12 did not compete with 1 in terms of activity, selectivity, and the catalyst cost. PMID:23104466

  14. Effects of UV\\/H 2O 2 preoxidation on the aerobic biodegradability of quaternary amine surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Adams; J. J. Kuzhikannil

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of UV\\/H2O2 advanced oxidative pretreatment on the biodegradability of two major classes of quaternary amine surfactants. In this study, the biodegradability of unoxidized and oxidized solutions of quaternary amines were determined using BAS assays. UV\\/H2O2 preoxidation effectively enhanced the biodegradability of alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides (Barquats), but had little effect on

  15. The distribution of some quaternary ammonium salts in the peripheral nervous system of cats in relation to the adrenergic blocking action of bretylium

    PubMed Central

    Boura, A. L. A.; Duncombe, W. G.; McCoubrey, A.

    1961-01-01

    The concentrations of bretylium in the peripheral nervous system of cats after subcutaneous dosage have been compared with those drugs bearing either chemical or pharmacological resemblance to bretylium. o-Bromobenzyltrimethylammonium iodide (383C57), a chemical homologue of bretylium with feeble adrenergic blocking activity, selectively accumulated in adrenergic neurones to attain concentrations comparable with those found for bretylium, but it did not persist in the neurones. {2-(4-Benzoyl-2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethyl}trimethylammonium, the 4-benzoyl derivative of 2,6-xylyl choline ether (172C58), a pharmacological analogue of bretylium but with little chemical resemblance, had a less marked selective affinity for adrenergic neurones and the concentrations after an effective dose were much lower than found for bretylium. Pentacynium {N1-5-cyano-5,5-diphenylpentyl)-N1N1N2-trimethylethylene-1-ammonium-2-morpholinium di-iodide}, a bis-quaternary ammonium-type ganglion blocking agent, had no selective affinity for adrenergic neurones. Bretylium was not displaced from adrenergic neurones by a subsequent dose of 172C58. The potency and duration of local anaesthetic action of bretylium, 383C57 and 172C58 were roughly parallel to the potency and duration of their adrenergic blocking action. The results are discussed in relation to the role of selective accumulation in adrenergic neurones by bretylium in its adrenergic blocking activity. PMID:19108157

  16. Influence of ammonium, nitrate, and chloride on solution pH and ion uptake by ageratum and salvia in hydroponic culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoung Ryong Jeong; Chiwon W. Lee

    1996-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen (N) forms and chloride (Cl) on solution pH and ion uptake in the hydroponic culture of Ageratum houstonianum [ammonium (NH4 )?tolerant] and Salvia splendens (NH4 ?sensitive) for a period of 216 hours was investigated. The pH of the hydroponic solution (initially 6.50) containing either NH4 or NH4 +nitrate (NO3 ) was drastically lowered (3.08), whereas that

  17. Should acid ammonium oxalate replace hydroxylammonium chloride in step 2 of the revised BCR sequential extraction protocol for soil and sediment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M Davidson; Andrew S Hursthouse; Donna M Tognarelli; Allan M Ure; Graham J Urquhart

    2004-01-01

    The revised, four-step BCR sequential extraction for soil or sediment has been compared with an alternative procedure in which 0.2moll?1 ammonium oxalate (pH 3) replaced 0.5moll?1 hydroxylammonium chloride (pH 1.5) in step 2, the reducible step. A variety of substrates were studied: BCR CRM601, a sewage sludge amended soil, two industrial soils, and a steel manufacturing by-product (basic oxygen furnace

  18. Encapsulation of alkyl and aryl derivatives of quaternary ammonium cations within cucurbit[n]uril (n?=?6,7) and their inverted diastereomers: density functional investigations.

    PubMed

    Raja, Ishita A; Gobre, Vivekanand V; Pinjari, Rahul V; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure, vibrational frequencies, and ¹H chemical shifts of inclusion complexes between CB[n] (n?=?6,7) or their inverted iCB[n] diastereomer hosts and quaternary diammonium viz., 1,6-hexyldiammonium (HDA) or p-xylyldiammonium (XYL) cationic guests are obtained from the density functional calculations. The interaction of CB[n] or iCB[n] with HDA (guest) conduce inclusion complexes in which the guest attains gauche conformation within the host cavity. The lowest energy XYL complexes of CB[6] or iCB[6] are comprised of one ammonium group orienting parallel to aromatic ring. The CB[7] or iCB[7] complexes of XYL on the other hand, reveal ammonium group(s) perpendicular to aromatic ring of the guest. The ureido C=O and N--H stretching vibrations on complexation engender frequency down-shift in the calculated spectra. This can be attributed to C--H-- --O and N--H-- --O interactions in the complex. The inverting of glycouril unit in iCB[n] renders a frequency shift (12 cm?¹) for the C=O stretching in the opposite direction. Molecular electron density topography and natural bond orbital analyses have been used to explain the direction of frequency shifts. Calculated ¹H NMR reveal that guest protons within the host cavity not participating in hydrogen bonding interactions, exhibit shielded signals compared to isolated XYL or HDA. Likewise the inverted protons in the iCB[6]-XYL complex led to up-field signals in calculated ¹H NMR as a result of C-H-- -? interactions. PMID:24567156

  19. A polymethacrylate-based quaternary ammonium OH- ionomer binder for non-precious metal alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xu; Scott, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop the alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysers (AAEMWE), a quaternary OH- conductive ionomer binder based on polymethacrylate was synthesized by copolymerization of three kinds of methacrylate monomers, which was followed by quaternization. Tensile strength of this ionomer membrane was 7.629 MPa, with Young's modulus 0.229 GPa and elongation 45.8%. The conductivity of this ionomer could reach 0.059 S cm-1 at 50 °C. With this ionomer in catalyst layers of an AAEMWE, the voltage of 1.9 V gave a current density of 100 mA cm-2. Satisfactory stability of the membrane electrode assembly was observed from chronocoulometry.

  20. Matrix suppression and analyte suppression effects of quaternary ammonium salts in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: an investigation of suppression mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xianwen; van Dongen, Joost L J; Vekemans, Jef A J M; Meijer, E W

    2009-10-01

    In the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) analysis of some quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), very clean spectra of the quaternary ammonium ions were recorded with a strong matrix suppression effect (MSE). The QASs also showed a considerable analyte suppression effect (ASE). It was demonstrated that the MSE and ASE of the QASs can be explained well by the cluster ionization model. According to this model, MALDI ions are formed from charged matrix/analyte clusters. Various analyte ions and matrix ions might coexist in the cluster, and they will compete for the limited number of net charges available. If enough quaternary ammonium ions are present in the cluster, they will take away the net charges, thus resulting in the MSE and ASE. Our results also suggest that 'the cluster ionization model' is not in conflict with 'the theory of ionization via secondary gas-phase reactions'. The initial MALDI ions produced from charged matrix/analyte clusters will collide with other molecules or ions in the MALDI plume. Depending on the properties of the initial ions and the composition of the MALDI plume, secondary gas-phase reactions might result from these collisions. The final ions observed are the combined results of 'cluster ionization' and 'ionization via secondary gas-phase reactions'. PMID:19705379

  1. Investigation of double bond conversion, mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity of dental resins with different alkyl chain length quaternary ammonium methacrylate monomers (QAM).

    PubMed

    He, Jingwei; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-01-01

    In order to endow dental resin with antibacterial activity, a series of antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylate monomers (QAM) with different substituted alkyl chain length (from 10 to 18) were incorporated into commonly used 2,2-bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloyloxy-propoxy)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (50 wt/50 wt) dental resin as immobilized antibacterial agents. Double bond conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), and young and mature biofilms inhibition effectiveness of prepared dental resins were studied and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA without QAM was used as reference. Results showed that there was no significant difference on DC, FS, and FM between copolymer with and without 5 wt% QAM. Substituted alkyl chain length of QAM had no influence on DC, FS, and FM of copolymer, but had influence on antibacterial activity of copolymer. Antibacterial activity of copolymer increased with increasing of substituted alkyl chain length of QAM, and the sequence followed as 5%C10 < 5%C11 ? 5%C12 < 5%C16 ? 5%C18. Copolymers containing C18 and C16 had the best inhibition effectiveness on both young biofilm and mature biofilm, copolymers containing C12 and C11 only had inhibition effectiveness on young biofilm and copolymer containing C10 had none inhibition effectiveness on neither young biofilm nor mature biofilm. PMID:23565868

  2. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit biofilm growth and enhance performance for activated carbon air-cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yinan; An, Jingkun; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The slow diffusion of hydroxyl out of the catalyst layer as well as the biofouling on the surface of cathode are two problems affecting power for membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In order to solve both of them simultaneously, here we simply modify activated carbon air-cathode using a bifunctional quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) by forced evaporation. The maximum power density reaches 1041 ± 12 mW m-2 in an unbuffered medium (0.5 g L-1 NaCl), which is 17% higher than the control, probably due to the accelerated anion transport in the catalyst layer. After 2 months, the protein content reduced by a factor of 26 and the power density increases by 33%, indicating that the QAC modification can effectively inhibit the growth of cathodic biofilm and improve the stability of performance. The addition of NaOH and QAC epoxy have a negative effect on power production due to the clogging of pores in catalyst layer.

  3. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salen)Co(III) complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Eo, Seong Chan; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan

    2014-01-01

    Summary The (salen)Co(III) complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA) copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalate)s were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalate)s because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1) and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5) + water (present as impurity) + ethanol (deliberately fed)], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (M w/M n, 1.05–1.5). Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (M n up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively). The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (f PA, 0.23) showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 °C) than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 °C). PMID:25161738

  4. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salen)Co(III) complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Eo, Seong Chan; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2014-01-01

    The (salen)Co(III) complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA) copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalate)s were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalate)s because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1) and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5) + water (present as impurity) + ethanol (deliberately fed)], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (M w/M n, 1.05-1.5). Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (M n up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively). The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (f PA, 0.23) showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 °C) than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 °C). PMID:25161738

  5. Solid-phase extraction and sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis for the determination of quaternary ammonium herbicides in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Núñez, O; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    2002-02-01

    Conditions for the simultaneous determination of paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat by capillary zone electrophoresis were established by combining two preconcentration procedures. Off-line solid-phase extraction was used for the isolation and preconcentration of quats in drinking water. Quats were then analysed by capillary electrophoresis using sample stacking with matrix removal as on-column preconcentration procedure. Two different porous graphitic carbon cartridges were compared. The breakthrough volumes of the three herbicides were calculated and the loading capacity of the sorbents was compared. Recoveries higher than 80% for difenzoquat and around 40% for paraquat and diquat were obtained when a sample volume of 250 ml was percolated. For the stacking-capillary electrophoresis analysis of quats, 50 mM acetic acid-ammonium acetate (pH 4.0), 0.8 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide with 5% (v/v) methanol as carrier electrolyte was used. Detection limits, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, were lower than 0.3 microg l(-1) for standards in Milli-Q water, and lower than 2.2 microg l(-1) for drinking water samples. Run-to-run and day-to-day precision of the method were established. The two preconcentration procedures used together was successfully applied to the analysis of the three herbicides in spiked drinking water at concentrations below the maximum admissible US Environmental Protection Agency levels. PMID:11873975

  6. Solution properties of tadpole-type cationic amphiphilic dendrimers consisting of an alkyl chain, a quaternary ammonium, and a poly(amidoamine) dendron.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Saito, Masanori; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Tadpole-type amphiphilic dendrimers consisting of an alkyl chain, a quaternary ammonium bromide (qb) and a poly(amidoamine) dendron (den) (CnqbdenGm, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10,14, or 18 carbons; m is the generation number G of dendron taking the value -0.5, 0.5, or 1.5) were synthesized using N, N-dimethylethylenediamine as a central scaffold. Electrical conductivity, surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements were used to characterize the properties of the dendrimers. In addition, the effect of the alkyl chain length and the generation number of a dendron on these properties was evaluated through a comparison with those of the corresponding previously reported amphiphilic dendrimers with lactobionamide sugar terminal groups (CnqbdenGmLac) and conventional cationic monomeric surfactants (CnTAB). Both critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (except for C18 series) were lower than those of CnqbdenGmLac and CnTAB with the same alkyl chain length, indicating that the synthesized amphiphilic dendrimers have an excellent micelle-forming ability in solution and high adsorption ability at the air/water interface, in spite of the large bulky dendron structure. When the alkyl chain length and the generation number of the amphiphilic dendrimers were increased, the surface tension became high because of the curved long alkyl chain and the bulky structure of dendron. Further, CnqbdenGm formed micelles with a small size in solution, and the micelles of CnqbdenG(-0.5) had almost a constant size despite the changes in the concentration, while those of CnqbdenG0.5 and CnqbdenG1.5 became smaller with increasing concentration. The difference in the behavior results from the difference in the number of amide groups in the low- and high-generation dendrons. PMID:23535308

  7. Preparation of cross-linked magnetic chitosan with quaternary ammonium and its application for Cr(VI) and P(V) removal.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Rao, Pinhua; Lo, Irene M C; Zhang, Wenqi; Zheng, Wenrui

    2014-12-01

    Pollutants that exist in anionic species are issues of concern in water treatment. Compared to cationic pollutants, the removal of anionic pollutants by adsorption is more difficult because most adsorbents carry predominantly negative charges in neutral and alkaline environments. In this study, a cross-linked chitosan derivative with quaternary ammonium and magnetic properties (QM-chitosan) was prepared and employed to remove chromium (VI) and phosphorus (V) (Cr(VI) and P(V)) from aqueous environments. The QM-chitosan was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and zeta potential. Batch experiments show that QM-chitosan can effectively remove Cr(VI) and P(V), and the main mechanism was believed to be electrostatic interaction. A pseudo second-order model was fitted to describe the kinetic processes of Cr(VI) and P(V) removal. The adsorption isotherms of both Cr(VI) and P(V) on the QM-chitosan were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm equation. The saturated adsorption capacity of P(V) (2.783 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of Cr(VI) (2.323 mmol/g), resulting from the size of the H(2)PO(4)(-) ions being smaller than that of the HCrO(4)(-) ions. However, the theoretical calculation and experimental results showed that QM-chitosan had a stronger affinity for Cr(VI) than P(V). The adsorption-desorption of the QM-chitosan was evaluated, and high regeneration rates were demonstrated. PMID:25499485

  8. Anion variation on a cobalt(III) complex of salen-type ligand tethered by four quaternary ammonium salts for CO2/epoxide copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina; Na, Sung Jae; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Cyriac, Anish; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2010-03-14

    Anion exchange of BF(4)(-) occurs by stirring a cobalt(III) complex of salen-type ligand tethered by four quaternary ammonium BF(4)(-) salts over a slurry of NaX in CH(2)Cl(2), affording a complex containing four X's per cobalt (X = 2,4,5-trichlorophenolate, 6; X = 4-nitrophenolate, 10; X = 2,4-dichlorophenolate, 12). The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra are in agreement with an unusual imine uncoordinated structure. The two salen-phenoxys and the two X's persistently coordinate with cobalt(III) to form a square planar cobaltate complex while the other two X's scramble through coordination and decoordination to the axial sites of the square plane. Another form of the complex (X = 2,4,5-trichlorophenolate, 14; X = 4-nitrophenolate, 15; X = 2,4-dichlorophenolate, 16) is also prepared, in which the scrambling two X's in 6, 10, or 12 are replaced with the corresponding [X...H...X](-) homoconjugate. These complexes, which adopt an unusual imine uncoordinated structure, are excellent catalysts for CO(2)/propylene oxide copolymerization (turnover frequency (TOF), 8300-16,000 h(-1)). In all cases, the complex containing the homoconjugate [X...H...X](-) shows higher activity than the corresponding phenol-free complex. Among the prepared complexes, 4-nitrophenol-4-nitrophenolate homoconjugate complex 15 showed the best performance (TOF, 16,000 h(-1); selectivity, 98%; M(n), 273,000), allowing for replacement of the explosive 2,4-dinitrophenolate complex. PMID:20179856

  9. Facile preparation of magnetic 2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan/Fe3O4/halloysite nanotubes microspheres for the controlled release of ofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Mu, Bin; Fan, Ling; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-02-15

    Magnetic microspheres, 2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan/Fe3O4/halloysite nanotubes/ofloxacin (HACC/Fe3O4/HNTs/OFL), for the controlled release of OFL were prepared by in situ crosslinking with glutaraldehyde in the spray-drying process. The magnetic microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and a magnetometer. Various parameters influencing the encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro controlled release properties of the magnetic microspheres for OFL were also studied. Many stripes were formed and some tubular HNTs could be seen at higher magnification on the surface of the HACC/Fe3O4/HNTs/OFL magnetic microspheres. The magnetic microspheres show superparamagnetic property and fast magnetic response. The encapsulation efficiency and the cumulative release of OFL are closely related to HACC concentration, HNTs contents and crosslinking density. The release of OFL follows the first-order kinetics. PMID:24507359

  10. Simultaneous determination of chloride, bromide, and iodide by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.M.

    1982-03-01

    The study was undertaken to seek improvements in the general method of analyzing halide mixtures by alkylation in a gas chromatograph. It was desired to improve the yield of the alkylation reactions for chloride, bromide, and iodide in the gas chromatograph and to eliminate the trialkylamine interference. The experiments demonstrated that the simultaneous determination of quaternary ammonium chlorides, bromides, and iodides was feasible in nonaqueous solvents such as acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol in which the halide salts and n-butyl tosylate are mutually soluble. This procedure may require that the halides first be extracted into a nonaqueous solution containing n-butyl tosylate. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Humidity sensor using microporous film of polyethylene-graft-poly-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl trimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sakai; Y. Sadaoka; M. Matsuguchi; V. L. Rao

    1989-01-01

    An hydrophilic monomer, 2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride, was graft-polymerized in a microporous polyethylene film using three different initiation methods, that is, with benzyl peroxide, pre-U.V. irradiation and mutual photo-initiation. Humidity dependence of the impedance was measured for the grafted microporous polyethylene films. Among the three graft polymers, the one prepared by pre photo-irradiation seems to have the most homogeneously grafted layer.

  12. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of <350°C, ammonium salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection (LODs) were typically in the range of 0.001-0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm). A comparison to a well-established HPLC/MS/MS method was also conducted, yielding comparable results, thus confirming the suitability of NH4Cl salting out FI/MS/MS for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:23473245

  13. [Appraisal of fungistatic and fungicidal activities of quaternary compounds towards yeasts belonging to the genera Candida and Cryptococcus].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, G; Delcourt, A

    2001-04-01

    The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of five quaternary ammonium compounds towards Candida and Cryptococcus strains were determined using a bacteriological method adapted to mycological experiments. It could be deduced from this study that Cryptococcus in spite of the capsule around the cell were more sensitive than Candida and that the benzethonium chloride (BC) exhibited the most effective action against the whole yeasts. No resistance appeared, only Cryptococcus strain was less sensitive than the others. PMID:11320337

  14. Bridge-linked bis-quaternary ammonium anti-microbial agents: relationship between cytotoxicity and anti-bacterial activity of 5,5?-[2,2?-(tetramethylenedicarbonyldioxy)-diethyl]bis(3-alkyl-4-methylthiazonium iodide)s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Ohkura; Akiko Sukeno; Hideaki Nagamune; Hiroki Kourai

    2005-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cytotoxicity of five synthesized bridge types of bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (bis-QACs) as follows: thioether type, 4,4?-(p-xylydithio)bis(1-octylpyridinium iodide) (4DTBP-X,8); amide type, N,N?-tetramethylenebis(1-dodecyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-4,12), N,N?-(phenylene)bis(1-octyl-4-carbamoylpyridinium iodide) (4BCAP-P,8); anti-amide type, 4,4?-(tetramethylenedicarbonyldiamino)bis(1-octylpyridinium iodide) (4DCABP-4,8), 4,4?-(phenylenedicarbonyldiamino)bis(1-octylpyridinium iodide) (4DCABP-P,8); ester type, 4,4?-(1,6-hexamethylenedioxydicarbonyl)bis(1-dodecylpyridinium iodide) (4DOCBP-6,12); and an anti-ester type, 5,5?-[2,2?-(tetramethylenedicarbonyldioxy)diethyl]bis(3-alkyl-4-methylthiazolium iodide) (5DEBT-4,n, The

  15. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 ? cm2 and 0.83, respectively. PMID:24958543

  16. The use of superporous p(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethyl ammonium chloride cryogels for removal of toxic arsenate anions.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Demirci, Sahin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Yilmaz, Selahattin; Al-Lohedan, Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Poly((3-Acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (p(APTMACl)) cryogels were used as a superporous polymer network for the removal of toxic arsenate anions from an aqueous medium. The fast swelling in water, in about 7 s, was shown to be very useful leading to fast arsenate adsorption by p(APTMACl) cryogels within 30 min in comparison to 12 h for bulk common p(APTMACl) hydrogels. A maximum adsorption capacity of about 120 (mg/g) arsenate was obtained for p(APTMACl) cryogels. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied for adsorption of arsenate anions by p(APTMACl) cryogels, and it was observed that the adsorption of arsenate anions by p(APTMACl) cryogels are represented better via Langmuir adsorption isotherm providing the R(2) value of 0.998. Furthermore, mag-p(APTMACl) cryogels were synthesized, and shown to be very useful in the fast removal of toxic arsenate anions. The mag-p(APTMACl) cryogels including the adsorbed arsenate were removed by an externally applied magnetic field, with some reduction in the arsenate ion adsorption capacity. It was also further demonstrated that p(APTMACl) cryogels can be reused in the adsorption of arsenate 5 times from aqueous environments without significant loss of adsorption capacity, from 113.47 ± 9 to 102.67 ± 6 mg/g. PMID:25617870

  17. Investigations of the ex situ ionic conductivities at 30 degrees C of metal-cation-free quaternary ammonium alkaline anion-exchange membranes in static atmospheres of different relative humidities.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, John R

    2007-03-28

    This article presents the first systematic study of the effect of Relative Humidity (RH) on the water content and hydroxide ion conductivity of quaternary ammonium-based Alkaline Anion-Exchange Membranes (AAEMs). These AAEMs have been developed specifically for application in alkaline membrane fuel cells, where conductivities of >0.01 S cm(-1) are mandatory. When fully hydrated, an ETFE-based radiation-grafted AAEM exhibited a hydroxide ion conductivity of 0.030 +/- 0.005 S cm(-1) at 30 degrees C without additional incorporation of metal hydroxide salts; this is contrary to the previous wisdom that anion-exchange membranes are very low in ionic conductivity and represents a significant breakthrough for metal-cation-free alkaline ionomers. Desirably, this AAEM also showed increased dimensional stability on full hydration compared to a Nafion-115 proton-exchange membrane; this dimensional stability is further improved (with no concomitant reduction in ionic conductivity) with a commercial AAEM of similar density but containing additional cross-linking. However, all of the AAEMs evaluated in this study demonstrated unacceptably low conductivities when the humidity of the surrounding static atmospheres was reduced (RH = 33-91%); this highlights the requirement for continued AAEM development for operation in H(2)/air fuel cells with low humidity gas supplies. Preliminary investigations indicate that the activation energies for OH(-) conduction in these quaternary ammonium-based solid polymer electrolytes are typically 2-3 times higher than for H(+) conduction in acidic Nafion-115 at all humidities. PMID:17356755

  18. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

  19. Analysis of residual products in triethylbenzylammonium chloride by HPLC. Study of the retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2006-04-01

    The control of industrial products for minimization of their impact on the environment and human health requires the development of specific analysis methods. Information provided by these methods about toxic components, by-products, and other derivatives may also be useful to reduce the possible impact of industrial products. The studied compound in this paper, triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBA), is mainly used in industrial synthesis. This quaternary compound and its residual products coming from quaternization reaction (benzyl chloride, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol) are analyzed by HPLC. The separation is based on control of the silanophilic contribution to TEBA retention because of the quaternary nature of this compound. The effect of the three buffers (sodium acetate, ammonium acetate, and sodium formate) and their concentrations in the chromatographic behavior of the quaternary compound is examined. The buffer cation and anion regulate TEBA retention. Also, the concentration of the quaternary compound is another parameter that had influence in some aspects of its chromatographic behavior (e.g., retention and symmetry). The proposed method is applied to TEBA synthesis along, with the formation and removal of impurities with the results compared with those obtained for the quaternary compound benzalkonium chloride. PMID:16620516

  20. pH responsive properties of non-fouling mixed-charge polymer brushes based on quaternary amine and carboxylic acid monomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luo Mi; Matthew T. Bernards; Gang Cheng; Qiuming Yu; Shaoyi Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report a tunable mixed-charge copolymer surface containing positively charged quaternary amine monomers ([2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride, TMA) and negatively-charged carboxylic acid monomers (2-carboxy ethyl acrylate, CAA). The non-fouling properties of this copolymer coating depend on environmental pH. The surface has charge neutrality under neutral and basic conditions, and is positively charged under acidic conditions due to

  1. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTMAC) and Kathon LX in a starch modification factory.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1997-04-01

    2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTMAC) is used in the production of cationic starch (CS) for the paper industry. It has been shown to be a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but cases of human sensitization are few. 4 workers were previously sensitized to the substance in a Finnish plant. This report describes 3 process men from another plant examined because of recurring dermatitis. 18 workers were involved in production, and had free access to all work sites. 3 process men, whose work involved drying the CS, had dermatitis, although they had only occasional contact with the cationizing chemical. 2 were already verified to be allergic to EPTMAC and had had variable dermatitis for 8-12 years. One had had dermatitis on his face for 1 year. Patch testing with a dilution series (1%, 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1% pet.) confirmed their allergy to the cationizing chemical containing EPTMAC, but tests with CS were negative. In addition, 2 had contact allergy to Cl+ Me-isothiazolinone from contact with Kathon LX used as a slimicide in the process. In long-standing (years) recurrent dermatitis, re-examination of patients with verified exposure history and skin test is necessary. In line with our previous study, sampling the process materials, maintenance work and contamination of work sites and gloves caused sensitization. The results also confirm that EPTMAC is a strong human contact sensitizer. 0.2%-0.5% pure EPTMAC in pet. seems to be the optimal patch test concentration. PMID:9165201

  2. The cytotoxicity of methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride, a cationic antibacterial monomer, is related to oxidative stress and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Shan, Le-qun; Xiao, Yu-hong; Li, Fang; Huang, Li; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Ji-hua

    2011-11-01

    Antibacterial monomers incorporated in dentin bonding systems may have toxic effects on the pulp. Thus, the cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers and its underlying mechanisms must be elucidated to improve the safety of antibacterial monomer application. The influence of an antibacterial monomer, methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), on the vitality of L929 mouse fibroblasts was tested using MTT assay. Cell cycle progression was studied using flow cytometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMAE-CB treatment was measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining and flow cytometry analysis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, disturbance of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, as well as release of cytochrome C were also measured using flow cytometry analysis or Western blot to explore the possible involvement of the mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway. DMAE-CB elicited cell death in a dose-dependent manner and more than 50% of cells were killed after treatment with 30 µM of the monomer. Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed. DMAE-CB also induced G1- and G2-phase arrest. Increased levels of intracellular ROS were observed after 1 h and this overproduction was further enhanced by 6-h treatment with the monomer. DMAE-CB may cause apoptosis by disturbing the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, reducing the mitochondrial potential and inducing release of cytochrome C. Taken together, these findings suggest that the toxicity of the antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB is associated with ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance, and cell apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:22002093

  3. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in estuarine sediments by LC-ToF-MS: very high positive mass defects of alkylamine ions as powerful diagnostic tools for identification and structural elucidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2009-10-01

    A sensitive and robust method of analysis for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in marine sediments is presented. Methods for extraction, sample purification, and HPLC-time-of-flight MS analysis were optimized, providing solutions to problems associated with analysis of QACs, such as dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) and benzalkonium (BAC) compounds experienced previously. Recognized in this study are the exceptionally high positive mass defects characteristic of alkylammonium or protonated alkylamine ions. No alternative and chemically viable elemental formulas exist within 25.2 mDa when the number of double bond equivalents is low, effectively allowing facile discrimination of this compound class in complex mixtures. Accurate mass measurements of diagnostic collision-induced dissociation fragment ions and heavy isotope peaks were obtained and also seen to be uniquely heavy compared to other elemental formulas. The ability to resolve masses of alkylamine fragment ions is much greater than for the molecular ions of BACs and many other chemicals, opening up a range of potential applications. The power of utilizing a combination of approaches is illustrated with the identification of nontargeted DADMAC C8:C8 and C8:C10, two widely used biocides previously unreported in environmental samples. Concentrations of QACs in sewage-impacted estuarine sediments (up to 74 microg/g) were higher than concentrations of other organic contaminants measured in the same or nearby samples, suggesting that further study is needed. PMID:19739657

  4. Effects of ion pairing on the capillary electrophoretic separation and ultraviolet-absorption detection of quaternary ammonium cations using meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole as the background electrolyte additive.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mina; Ma, Huaqiao; Chen, Fu

    2015-04-01

    Five quaternary ammonium cations, including tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, have been separated by capillary electrophoresis. A direct ultraviolet method has been achieved when tetrabutylammonium fluoride was the background electrolyte and meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole was the background electrolyte additive. The ultraviolet spectra of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole and cation mixtures showed that redshifts can be attributed to the size of cations, and the maximum absorption wavelength shifted from 218 to 230 nm when tetrabutylammonium cation was substituted with tetramethylammonium cation or tetraethylammonium cation. Conductivity measurements were performed to evaluate the ion-pairing effect of tetrabutylammonium fluoride in a mixture of acetonitrile/ethanol (80:20, v/v), and the ion-pairing formation constant, Kip, was calculated (Kip = 14.8 ± 0.3 L/mol) using the Fuoss extended model. Ion pairing also occurs between cations of the analytes and counterion, a fluoride complex of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole. The tetramethylammonium cations associate more strongly with this counterion than the tetraethylammonium cation that contributes to the change of selectivity in capillary electrophoresis separation. The effective mobilities of the cations with trimethyl groups, such as tetramethylammonium cation, benzyltrimethylammonium cation, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation, decreased faster than others with the increase of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole concentration, highlighting the fact that the ion-pairing effect played an important role in this method. PMID:25641935

  5. High mass accuracy in-source collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry and multi-step mass spectrometry as complementary tools for fragmentation studies of quaternary ammonium herbicides.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Oscar; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Fragmentation studies using both an ion-trap mass analyzer and a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer were performed in order to establish the fragmentation pathways of organic molecules. A general strategy combining MSn data (n = 1-4) in an ion-trap analyzer with tandem mass spectrometry and in-source collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS) in a Q-TOF instrument was applied. The MSn data were used to propose a tentative fragmentation pathway following genealogical relationships. When several assignments were possible, MS/MS and in-source CID MS/MS (Q-TOF) allowed the elemental compositions of the fragments to be confirmed. Quaternary ammonium herbicides (quats) were used as test compounds and their fragmentation pathways were established. The elemental composition of the fragments was confirmed using the TOF analyzer with relative errors <0.0023 Da. Some fragments previously reported in the literature were reassigned taking advantage of the high mass resolution and accuracy of the Q-TOF instrument, which made it possible to solve losses where nitrogen was involved. PMID:15329839

  6. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in estuarine sediments by LC-ToF-MS: very high positive mass defects of alkylamine ions provide powerful diagnostic tools for identification and structural elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and robust method of analysis for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in marine sediments is presented. Methods for extraction, sample purification, and HPLC-Time-of-Flight-MS analysis were optimized, providing solutions to problems associated with analysis of QACs, such as dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) and benzalkonium (BAC) compounds experienced previously. Recognized in this study are the exceptionally high positive mass defects characteristic of alkylammonium or protonated alkylamine ions. No alternative and chemically-viable elemental formulas exist within 25.2 mDa when the number of double bond equivalents is low, effectively allowing facile discrimination of this compound class in complex mixtures. Accurate mass measurements of diagnostic collision induced dissociation fragment ions and heavy isotope peaks were obtained and also seen to be uniquely heavy compared to other elemental formulae. In the case of BACs, the ability to resolve masses of alkylamine fragment ions is greater than it is for molecular ions, opening up a wide range of potential applications. The power of utilizing a combination of approaches is illustrated with the identification of non-targeted DADMAC C8:C8 and C8:C10, two widely used biocides previously unreported in environmental samples. Concentrations of QACs in sewage-impacted estuarine sediments (up to 74 ?g/g) were higher than concentrations of other organic contaminants measured in the same or nearby samples, suggesting further study is needed. PMID:19739657

  7. Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Rao, M. S.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-11-01

    High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability and for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity particularly against gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Adsorption properties of biologically active derivatives of quaternary ammonium surfactants and their mixtures at aqueous/air interface II. Dynamics of adsorption, micelles dissociation and cytotoxicity of QDLS.

    PubMed

    Rojewska, Monika; Prochaska, Krystyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    The main aim of our study was analysis of adsorption dynamics of mixtures containing quaternary derivatives of lysosomotropic substance (QDLS). Two types of equimolar mixtures were considered: the ones containing two derivatives of lysosomotropic substances (DMALM-12 and DMGM-12) as well as the catanionic mixtures i.e. the systems containing QDLS and DBSNa. Dynamic surface tension measurements of surfactant mixtures were made. The results suggested that the diffusivity of the mixed system could be treated as the average value of rates of diffusion of individual components, micelles and ion pairs, which are present in the mixtures studied. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the influence of the presence of micelles in the mixtures on their adsorption dynamics. The compounds examined show interesting biological properties which can be useful, especially for drug delivery in medical treatment. In vitro cytotoxic activities of the mixtures studied towards human cancer cells were evaluated. Most of the mixtures showed a high antiproliferative potential, especially the ones containing DMALM-12. Each cancer cell line used demonstrated different sensitivity to the same dose of the mixtures tested. PMID:24768517

  9. Evaluation of Reduced Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Bisbiguanides in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Generated Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Furi, Leonardo; Ciusa, Maria Laura; Knight, Daniel; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Tocci, Nadia; Cirasola, Daniela; Aragones, Lluis; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Marchi, Emmanuela; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Northwood, John Blackman; Viti, Carlo; Borghi, Elisa; Orefici, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the biocides benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were determined against 1,602 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds showed unimodal MIC and MBC distributions (2 and 4 or 8 mg/liter, respectively) with no apparent subpopulation with reduced susceptibility. To investigate further, all isolates were screened for qac genes, and 39 of these also had the promoter region of the NorA multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pump sequenced. The presence of qacA, qacB, qacC, and qacG genes increased the mode MIC, but not MBC, to benzalkonium chloride, while only qacA and qacB increased the chlorhexidine mode MIC. Isolates with a wild-type norA promoter or mutations in the norA promoter had similar biocide MIC distributions; notably, not all clinical isolates with norA mutations were resistant to fluoroquinolones. In vitro efflux mutants could be readily selected with ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Multiple passages were necessary to select mutants with biocides, but these mutants showed phenotypes comparable to those of mutants selected by dyes. All mutants showed changes in the promoter region of norA, but these were distinct from this region of the clinical isolates. Still, none of the in vitro mutants displayed fitness defects in a killing assay in Galleria mellonella larvae. In conclusion, our data provide an in-depth comparative overview on efflux in S. aureus mutants and clinical isolates, showing also that plasmid-encoded efflux pumps did not affect bactericidal activity of biocides. In addition, current in vitro tests appear not to be suitable for predicting levels of resistance that are clinically relevant. PMID:23669380

  10. Vinylbenzyl quaternary ammonium-based polymeric monolith with hydrophilic interaction/strong anion exchange mixed-mode for pressurized capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xucong; Feng, Shuhui; Jia, Wenchao; Ding, Kang; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-11-01

    A novel polymeric monolith with hydrophilic interaction and strong anion-exchange mixed-mode has been fabricated for pressurized capillary electrochromatography by an in situ copolymerization of vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA) and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA). The optimization of the polymerization mixture composition has been investigated, and column characteristics in terms of mechanical stability, permeability and reproducibility have been studied in detail. Linear responses between back pressure and flow rate have been achieved in different solvents. The absolute value of swelling propensity (SP) factor for poly(VBTA-co-BisGMA) monolith is 0.41, and the degree of permeability drop from pure ACN to water is about 45%. An acceptable mechanical stability of the column is obtained. The suitable reproducibility is also measured with the RSD for day-to-day (n=3) of retention time and column efficiency less than 3.3%, and the RSD for batch-to-batch (n=3) less than 5.3%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the mixed-mode of hydrophilic interaction and strong anion-exchange has been carried out, and efficient electrochromatography profiling of various polar compounds including neutral phenols, negatively charged benzoic acids and positively charged nucleic acid bases and nucleosides are achieved, respectively. PMID:24125728

  11. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S.?aureus, A.?baumannii, and P.?aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. PMID:25469865

  12. [Formulation of benzethonium chloride into gels].

    PubMed

    Cižmárik, Jozef; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Kodadová, Alexandra; Vími, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study is focused on the preparation of gels with antimicrobial effects. A quaternary ammonium salt, benzethonium chloride, in a concentration of 0.01-0.5% (w/w) was employed as the drug. The humectant employed was propylene glycol in concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/w). Two types of polymers, chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose, in the same concentrations of 2.5% (w/w), were used for gel preparation. Finally the flow properties, rheological parameters and pH values of the gels were evaluated. Based on the obtained results, the samples of the gels prepared on the basis of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose, which have the following optimum composition shown below, were found: 2,5% (w/w) CHIT + 0,5% (w/w) BZCl + 10% (w/w) PG; 2,5% (w/w) HEC + 0,5% (w/w) BZCl + 5% (w/w) PG. PMID:25115665

  13. Influence of C16 Quaternary Amine on Surface Films and Polarization Resistance of Mild Steel in Carbon Dioxide-Saturated 5% Sodium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Malik

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were performed to understand the behavior of a C16 quaternary amine on initially clean and precorroded surfaces in carbon dioxide-saturated brine solutions. Although the inhibitor was slow to work at pH 6.5, results indicated high efficiency could be obtained regardless of precorrosion. On initially clean surfaces, greater polarization resistances were measured at the start of the experiments with increasing

  14. Absorption spectra of cobalt(II) chloride and nitrate complexes in aqueous calcium nitrate–ammonium nitrate melts: The influence of solvent composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Vraneš; Slobodan B. Gadžuri?; István J. Zsigrai; Sanja Doži?

    2010-01-01

    Influence of solvent composition, i.e. the salt mole fraction and water content on absorption spectra of cobalt(II) chloride and nitrate in xCa(NO3)2·zH2O–(1?x)NH4NO3 systems was investigated by spectrophotometric method in the wavelength range 400–800nm at 55°C. On the basis of absorption spectra of cobalt(II) chloride and nitrate complexes and overall molar absorption coefficients obtained in 13 investigated systems, the geometry of

  15. Synthesis and application of a quaternary phosphonium polymer coagulant to avoid N-nitrosamine formation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Pignatello, Joseph J; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2014-11-18

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) are widely used for coagulating and removing negatively charged particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from drinking water. Their use, however, has been linked to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines as byproducts during chloramine-based drinking water disinfection. In this study, a novel quaternary phosphonium cationic polymer, poly(diallyldiethylphosphonium chloride) (polyDADEPC), was synthesized such that the quaternary nitrogen atom of polyDADMAC was substituted with a phosphorus atom. Formation potential tests revealed that even under strong nitrosation conditions, polyDADEPC and related lower-order P-based compounds formed oxygenated and not nitrosated products. Bench-scale jar tests using three different source waters further demonstrated that polyDADEPC achieved coagulation performance comparable to commercial polyDADMACs for particle and DOM removals within the typical dose range used for drinking water treatment. This work highlights the potential use of a phosphonium coagulant polymer, polyDADEPC, as a viable alternative to polyDADMAC to avoid nitrosated byproduct formation during chloramination. PMID:25322258

  16. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  17. Synthesis, self-aggregation and biological properties of alkylphosphocholine and alkylphosphohomocholine derivatives of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, benzalkonium bromide (C16) and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Luká?, Miloš; Mrva, Martin; Garajová, Mária; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Varinská, Lenka; Mojžiš, Ján; Sabol, Marián; Kubincová, Janka; Haragová, Hana; Ondriska, František; Devínsky, Ferdinand

    2013-08-01

    A series of alkylphosphocholine and alkylphosphohomocholine derivatives of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, benzalkonium bromide (C16) and benzethonium chloride have been synthesized. Their physicochemical properties were also investigated. The critical micelle concentration (cmc), the surface tension value at the cmc (?cmc), and the surface area at the surface saturation per head group (Acmc) were determined by means of surface tension measurements. The prepared compounds exhibit significant cytotoxic, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities. Alkylphosphocholines and alkylphosphohomocholines possess higher antifungal activity against Candida albicans in comparison with quaternary ammonium compounds in general. However, quaternary ammonium compounds exhibit significantly higher activity against human tumor cells and pathogenic free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba lugdunensis and Acanthamoeba quina compared to alkylphosphocholines. The relationship between structure, physicochemical properties and biological activity of the tested compounds is discussed. PMID:23792315

  18. Synthesis, micellisation and interaction of novel quaternary ammonium compounds derived from l-Phenylalanine with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as model membrane in relation to their antibacterial activity, and their selectivity over human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Joondan, Nausheen; Caumul, Prakashanand; Akerman, Matthew; Jhaumeer-Laulloo, Sabina

    2015-02-01

    A series of quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) derived from l-Phenylalanine have been synthesized and their antibacterial efficiencies were determined against various strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing chain length, exhibiting a cut-off effect at C14 for Gram-positive and C12 for Gram-negative bacteria. The l-Phenylalanine QUATS displayed enhanced antibacterial properties with a higher cut-off point compared to their corresponding l-Phenylalanine ester hydrochlorides. The CMC was correlated with the MIC, inferring that micellar activity contributes to the cut-off effect in antibacterial activity. The hemolytic activities (HC50) of the QUATS against human red blood cells were also determined to illustrate the selectivity of these QUATS for bacterial over mammalian cells. In general, the MIC was lower than the HC50, and assessment of the micellar contribution to the antibacterial and hemolytic evaluation in TBS as a common medium confirmed that these QUATS can act as antibacterial, yet non-toxic molecules at their monomer concentrations. The interaction of the QUATS with the phospholipid vesicles (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) in the presence of 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as fluorescence probes showed that the presence of the quaternary ammonium moiety causes an increase in hydrophobic interactions, thus causing an increase in antibacterial activity. PMID:25618736

  19. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  20. Fuel additive containing inner quaternary ammonium salt

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-05-06

    As a fuel additive is disclosed. It is the reaction product of a polymer having an amine group and an alpha-beta-unsaturated C3-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acid. Also disclosed herein is a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such a reaction product as a detergent.

  1. Quaternary Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, the Irish Quaternary Association (IQUA) website publicizes its aim "to promote Quaternary studies in Ireland through its publications, and the organization of field meetings and conferences" (1). Visitors can learn about the importance of quaternary studies as well as find out the latest news and upcoming meetings. At the second website, the University of Wisconsin-Madison describes the current and recent studies dealing with "basic and applied problems in glacial geology, surficial geology, palynology, sedimentology, geologic mapping, hydrogeology, soils, and environmental geology "(2). The website offers abstracts of publications of members of the Department of Geology and Geophysics and the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey along with descriptions of the lab, a shaded relief map of the Wisconsin area, and amusing glacial songs. Next, the Godwin Institute of Quaternary Research (GIQR) presents the University of Cambridge's history in quaternary research and the seven current research groups and four recent research projects (3 ). The website furnishes news from the research groups, a gallery of historical images of the East Anglia excursion, and summaries of the Institute's reference collections. Fourth, the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) discusses quaternary scientists' investigations "to interpret the changing world of the glacial ages and their impact on our planet's surface environments" (4). Researchers can find out about INQUA-funded projects, meetings, and scientific commissions. Next, the Quaternary Research Association explains that it "exists to promote understanding of the Quaternary Period by publishing field guides, technical guides, and an international journal as well as holding field meetings and speaker meetings" (5). Students and researchers can discover employment, research, grant, meetings, and educational opportunities. Sixth, the University of Wales presents its investigations in the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Palaeoecology Laboratory, and the Luminescence Laboratory (6 ). Users can find concise descriptions of individual researchers' successes, abstracts of published papers, and links to conference information. The seventh website illustrates the Alaska Quaternary Center's commitment "to the promotion of interdisciplinary research and the enhancement of interdisciplinary instruction in Quaternary sciences" (7). Users can view images of the field work and learn how to obtain quaternary data from the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA). Lastly, Rutgers University promotes its Graduate Certificate in Quaternary Studies where students take part in geology, geography, meteorology, and other disciplines interested in the last couple of million years of Earth's history (8). Students and educators can find information on the researchers involved with the program and the necessary course work.

  2. Synthesis and thermal properties of new polyester based on indane-1,3-diol and terephtaloyl chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Guemmour; F. Carrière; A. Benaboura

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY  \\u000a New aromatic polyester was synthetized by polycondensation of indane-1,3-diol and terephthaloyl chloride. The indane-1,3-diol\\u000a was synthesised by metal hydride reduction and characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR. Two polycondensation methods was used : solution and interfacial polycondensation in presence of various quaternary\\u000a ammonium salts. The obtained polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and viscosities measurements.\\u000a All

  3. Quaternary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The primary purpose of the Quaternary investigation is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The investigation will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.

  4. Influence of C16 quaternary amine on surface films and polarization resistance of mild steel in carbon dioxide-saturated 5% sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, H. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre

    1995-04-01

    Experiments were performed to understand the behavior of a C16 quaternary amine on initially clean and precorroded surfaces in carbon dioxide-saturated brine solutions. Although the inhibitor was slow to work at pH 6.5, results indicated high efficiency could be obtained regardless of precorrosion. On initially clean surfaces, greater polarization resistances were measured at the start of the experiments with increasing inhibitor concentration. Once the surface was covered by visible iron carbonate, the lower concentrations tended to perform better than higher concentrations. This point was confirmed in experiments under conditions of increasing precorrosion. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that coinciding with improved inhibition was a transformation in the surface structure of FeCO{sub 3}, from that of voids and grain boundaries under blank conditions to a fine dispersion-type particulate structure, as a consequence of inhibitor action. To develop this change, local FeCO{sub 3} supersaturation was believed to be required. This was achieved by the alkyl chains of the inhibitor leading to ferrous iron entrapment at the metal-solution interface. The rate of FeCO{sub 3} deposition was thought to have become dependent on the passage of carbonate past the alkyl chains, which in turn was affected by inhibitor concentration, to regions locally saturated in Fe{sup 2+}.

  5. Liquid chromatography of hydrocarbonaeous quaternary amines on cyclodextrin bonded silica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDAC) were resolved into homologous components by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cyclodextrin-bonded silica stationary phase. With a few exceptions, results from this study are similar to those obtained from traditional reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that the presence of electrolytes in aqueous mobile phases is not a critical factor in determining the success of HPLC separation. Under normal HPLC conditions, a mobile phase consisting of either methanol–water (50:50) or acetonitrile–water (30:70) was employed for obtaining adequate resolution of the quaternary ammonium mixtures. Although the percent organic modifier–water profiles were similar to those in previous studies with these compounds, resolution (R) and selectivity (?) parameters were found to be quite susceptible to changes in the mobile phase solvent composition. The retention behavior of the cationic analytes in the homologous series is consistent with the hydrophobic-interaction concept proposed for the retention mechanism via dominant inclusion complex formation. Several electrolytes were chosen for a study of the counter ion effect on the chromatographic characteristics of ABDAC components. Among the electrolytes examined, the perchlorate ion was found most likely to act as an ion-pairing counter ion for ammonium cations in the HPLC system studied. A correlation study established linear relationships between the chain length of ABDAC and the logarithmic capacity factor (k2). The analytical utility of the HPLC method was demonstrated by the analysis of various unknown mixtures.

  6. Method for clay stabilization with quaternary amines

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.E.

    1992-03-24

    This patent describes a method of treating a subterranean formation. It comprises: contacting the formation with an aqueous treatment fluid containing a formation control additive in an amount effective to stabilize the formation; the additive comprising a quaternary ammonium compound selected from compounds.

  7. [Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    Kopecký, F; Kopecká, B; Kaclík, P

    2006-07-01

    Aqueous solutions of the antimicrobially effective quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride (hyamine 1622) were studied using UV spectrophotometry and partially conductometry. The spectra of micellar solutions of benzethonium chloride revealed a concentration-dependent bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of a weak UV absorption band in the region 250-300 nm. This served to elaborate the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of benzethonium chloride and the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions without an addition of NaCl and with a constant addition of NaCl 0.003, 0.1 and 0.15 mol/l. Premicellar associations were not observed and in NaCl-free solutions CMC 0.0028 mol/l was spectrophotometrically determined. An addition of NaCl resulted in an increased hyperchromic effect and strengthening of micellization, manifested by a more than ten-times decrease in the CMC as well as the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions. The courses of the determined concentrations of free benzethonium cations in the solutions both without and with the presence of NaCl were quite similar; their maximal values were always just a little higher than the corresponding CMC and with a further growth of the total concentration of benzethonium chloride there was, on the other hand, a marked decrease in the concentration of its free cations in micellar solution. Possible effects of a decreased concentration of free benzethonium cations due to an added electrolyte on antimicrobial activity and formation of ionic pairs are discussed. PMID:16921736

  8. Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    E-print Network

    S1 Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes was measured by first equilibrating the polymer film in the desired solution [e.g., DI water, 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride (NaCl), or 0.5 mol/L ammonium bicarbonate (AmB)]. Films were allowed to equilibrate

  9. The size of hydroxyl groups in solution and the changes in size associated with the ionization of phenolic, carboxylic and amino groups in phenolic quaternary ammonium salts, nicotine and some amino acids: possible implications for drug-water and drug-receptor interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Size in solution can be expressed either as the apparent molal volume at infinite dilution (phi 0v) amd the concentration parameter (j) or as the partial molal volume of the solute at infinite dilution (V0(2)) and the concentration parameter for the solute or solvent (qs or qw). Although calculated differently, these are derived from the same results and are equivalent. From measurement with phenolic quaternary ammonium salts, including compounds with high nicotine-like activity, the apparent size of the hydroxyl group in water is small and variable. Phenolic groups are slightly larger than alcoholic groups, which should be better hydrogen donors. By measuring the volume change associated with ionisation it is possible to measure the size of charged groups such as phenate and carboxylate; these are much smaller than phenolic and carboxyl. Ammonium groups, however, are only slightly smaller than the corresponding amines. The zwitterion forms of amino acids are associated with a minimum in volume but the volume changes increase with chain length from glycine to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Groups separated by less than this distance interact in their effects on water. Decreases in volume or unexpectedly small increments in apparent molal volume represent decreases in entropy which must be taken into account in drug-water-receptor interactions. Although they may be offset by enthalpy changes, they should favour binding because there is more scope for an increase in entropy. This might explain the association of the small apparent size in water of the hydroxyl group in many compounds with its effects of their affinity for receptors. PMID:7470734

  10. Irish Quaternary Association (IQUA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Irish Quaternary Association (IQUA) website publicizes its aim "to promote Quaternary studies in Ireland through its publications, and the organization of field meetings and conferences." Visitors can learn about the importance of quaternary studies, find out the latest news and upcoming meetings, and find links to Quaternary studies journals.

  11. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC(50) values of 4nM and 17nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I-V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10-15mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I-V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. PMID:23313619

  12. The growth and dissolution of ammonium perchlorate crystals in a fluidized bed crystallizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ü. Tanrikulu; I. Ero?lu; A. N. Bulutcu; S. Özkar

    1998-01-01

    The growth and the dissolution of ammonium perchlorate crystals were studied in pure and in sodium chloride containing aqueous solutions, in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of sodium chloride in the solution reduced the growth and the dissolution rates of ammonium perchlorate crystals. The growth rates were interpreted in terms of supersaturation levels. The orders and rate constants were

  13. Analysis of ammonia, ammonium aerosols and acid gases in the atmosphere at a commercial hog farm in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald B. McCulloch; G. Stephen Fewa; George C. Murray; Viney P. Anejab

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric ammonia, acid gases, and ammonium aerosols were made at a commercial hog farm in Eastern North Carolina, USA, during September through December of 1997. Annular denuder systems (ADS) were used to sample gaseous (hydrogen chloride, nitrous acid, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide and ammonia) and fine aerosol (ammonium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate) species. Ammonia and ammonium concentrations were

  14. STRIPPING OF GOLD FROM QUATERNARY AMINE EXTRACTION SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Ma; Wenfei Yan; Jing Chen; Weijin Zhou; Jinguang Wu; Guangxian Xu

    2000-01-01

    A new procedure based on the use of sodium perchlorate (NaC1O4) and saturated potassium chloride (KCl) solutions for gold stripping from quaternary amine extraction systems is proposed for the first time. In this procedure, the stripping of Au(CN)2 is accomplished by the ClO4 ions in the first step, and the regeneration of quaternary amine is achieved by Cl ions in

  15. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  16. Nitric oxide supplementation alleviates ammonium toxicity in the submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Wang; Song He Zhang; Wei Li; Pei Fang Wang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    The likely protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against ammonium toxicity were investigated in the submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. The plants were subjected to ammonium stress (3mM ammonium chloride) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10?M), an NO donor. Treatment with SNP significantly increased the NO content and partially reversed the ammonium-induced negative effects, including membrane damage and the

  17. Quaternary and Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, J. T.; Graf, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights conferences and meetings of organizations involved with quaternary geology and geomorphology, including International Union of Quaternary Research Conference held in Moscow. The impetus of a revision of "The Quaternary of the United States" resulted from this conference. Includes activities/aims of "Friends of the Pleistocene"…

  18. Hydration effects in quaternary amine extraction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Miller; M. C. Fuerstenau

    1970-01-01

    The extraction of Al+++, Cd++, Co++, Cu+, Cu++, Fe++, Fe+++, In+++, Ni++, and Zn++ with quaternary amine was studied using chloride and sulfate as ligands. On the basis of loading experiments and slope analyses,\\u000a the species extracted were: CdCl4=, CoCl4=, CuCl2?, CuCl4=, FeCl4?, and ZnCl4=. Water content of the organic phase was analyzed as a function of loading by Karl

  19. Antistatic Wool. Part II: Quaternary Polyethoxylated Amines As Antistatic Agents for Wool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna M. Brown; M. T. Pailthorpe

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is reported that describes the effects of quaternary polyethoxylated amines on the antistatic properties of wool.The ethoxylated amines reported in previous work were quaternized with benzyl chloride, and the products were found to be very effective in reducing the electrical resistance of wool. The antistatic effect observed for the quaternary ethoxylated amines was not dependent on time, alkyl–chain

  20. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kuntke, P; Geleji, M; Bruning, H; Zeeman, G; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium recovery using a two chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by DC-voltammetry were higher than 6A/m(2) for both operated MFCs. Also continuous operation at lower external resistance (250 ?) showed an increased current density (0.9A/m(2)). Effective ammonium recovery can be achieved by migrational ion flux through the cation exchange membrane to the cathode chamber, driven by the electron production from degradation of organic substrate. The charge transport was proportional to the concentration of ions. Nonetheless, a concentration gradient will influence the charge transport. Furthermore, a charge exchange process can influence the charge transport and therefore the recovery of specific ions. PMID:21277769

  1. Quaternary Organic Amines Inhibit Na,K Pump Current in a Voltage-dependent Manner: Direct Evidence of an Extracellular Access Channel in the Na,K-ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Daniel Peluffo; Yukio Hara; Joshua R. Berlin

    2004-01-01

    The effects of organic quaternary amines, tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride and benzyltrieth- ylammonium (BTEA) chloride, on Na,K pump current were examined in rat cardiac myocytes superfused in ex- tracellular Na ? -free solutions and whole-cell voltage-clamped with patch electrodes containing a high Na ? -salt so- lution. Extracellular application of these quaternary amines competitively inhibited extracellular K ? (Ko ) activa-

  2. Simulated annealing and density functional theory calculations of structural and energetic properties of the ammonium chloride clusters (NH4Cl)n, (NH4+)(NH4Cl)n, and (Cl-)(NH4Cl)n, n = 1-13.

    PubMed

    Topper, Robert Q; Feldmann, William V; Markus, Isaac M; Bergin, Denise; Sweeney, Paul R

    2011-09-29

    Simulated annealing Monte Carlo conformer searches using the "mag-walking" algorithm are employed to locate the global minima of molecular clusters of ammonium chloride of the types (NH(4)Cl)(n), (NH(4)(+))(NH(4)Cl)(n), and (Cl(-))(NH(4)Cl)(n) with n = 1-13. The M06-2X density functional theory method is used to refine and predict the structures, energies, and thermodynamic properties of the neutral, cation, and anion clusters. For selected small clusters, the resulting structures are compared to those obtained from a variety of models and basis sets, including RI-MP2 and B3LYP calculations. M06-2X calculations predict enhanced stability of the (NH(4)(+))(NH(4)Cl)(n) clusters when n = 3, 6, 8, and 13. This prediction corresponds favorably to anomalies previously observed in thermospray mass spectroscopy experiments. The (NH(4)Cl)(n) clusters show alternations in stability between even and odd values of n. Clusters of the type (Cl(-))(NH(4)Cl)(n) display a magic number distribution different from that of the cation clusters, with enhanced stability predicted for n = 2, 6, and 11. None of the observed cluster structures resemble the room-temperature CsCl structure of NH(4)Cl(s), which is consistent with previous work. Numerous clusters have structures reminiscent of the higher-temperature, rock-salt phase of the solid ammonium halides. PMID:21851071

  3. Fate and effect of benzalkonium chlorides in a continuous-flow biological nitrogen removal system treating poultry processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2012-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are used for sanitation in many poultry processing facilities. This work investigated the fate and effect of a mixture of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a class of QACs widely used in commercial antimicrobial formulations, on the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes. A laboratory-scale BNR system was operated continuously for 670 days, fed with poultry processing wastewater amended with a mixture of BACs. Initially, the nitrogen removal efficiency deteriorated at a BAC feed concentration of 5 mg/L due to the complete inhibition of nitrification. However, after 27 days of operation, the system recovered and achieved 100% ammonia removal. High nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved even after the feed BAC concentration was stepwise increased up to 120 mg/L. Batch nitrification assays performed before, during, and after BAC exposure, showed that rapid microbial acclimation and BAC biodegradation contributed to the recovery of nitrification achieving efficient and stable long-term BNR system operation. PMID:22705509

  4. Solvent Extraction of Organomercury Compound with Quaternary Amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Moore

    1975-01-01

    Methylmercuric chloride and phenylmercuric acetate extract very efficiently with quaternary amines dissolved in diethylbenzene or other simple solvents. The extraction is effective from either alkaline or acidic solution. The technique considerably extends the scope of conventional solvent extraction practice to permit the extraction and concentration of total mercury in environmental and biological matrices.

  5. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers. PMID:21472518

  6. DWPF ammonium ion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1992-06-05

    Ammonium nitrate production during the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been identified as a major problem. The accumulation of ammonium nitrate deposits in the vent system of the chemical processing cell has substantial safety implications and will require analysis of ammonium ions within DWPF process samples. As a part of the research and development of the DWPF at TNX, an ammonium analysis method developed by Dionex Corporation has been identified and confirmed to provide the required information. This memorandum describes the technical basis of the method, the accuracy and precision of the method, known interferences, and maintenance details.

  7. Quaternary Research Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Quaternary Research Association explains that it "exists to promote understanding of the Quaternary Period by publishing field guides, technical guides, and an international journal as well as holding field meetings and speaker meetings." Students and researchers can discover employment, research, grant, meetings, and educational opportunities.

  8. Characterization of â??the quaternary amine transporters of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. Fox; Ramakrishnan Karunakaran; Mary E. Leonard; Bouchra Mouhsine; Allan Williams; Alison K. East; J. Allan Downie; Philip S. Poole

    2008-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 contains six putative quaternary ammonium transporters (Qat), of the ABC family. Qat6 was strongly induced by hyperosmosis although the solute transported was not identified. All six systems were induced by the quaternary amines choline and glycine betaine. It was confirmed by microarray analysis of the genome that pRL100079-83 (qat6) is the most strongly upregulated transport

  9. Quaternary ammonium borohydride adsorption in mesoporous silicate MCM-48

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luke L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartl, Monika A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic borohydrides have a high gravimetric hydrogen density but release H2 only under energetically unfavorable conditions. Surface chemistry may help in lowering thermodynamic barriers, but inclusion of inorganic borohydrides in porous silica materials has proved hitherto difficult or impossible. We show that borohydrides with a large organic cation are readily adsorbed inside mesoporous silicates, particularly after surface treatment. Thermal analysis reveals that the decomposition thermodynamics of tetraalkylammonium borohydrides are substantially affected by inclusion in MCM-48. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data show that the compounds adsorb on the silica surface. Evidence of pore loading is supplemented by DSC/TGA, XRD, FTIR, and BET isotherm measurements. Mass spectrometry shows significant hydrogen release at lower temperature from adsorbed borohydrides in comparison with the bulk borohydrides. INS data measured for partially decomposed samples indicates that the decomposition of the cation and anion is likely simultaneous. Additionally, these data confirm the formation of Si-H bonds on the silica surface upon decomposition of adsorbed tetramethylammonium borohydride.

  10. NEW QUATERNARY AMMONIUM ION REAGENTS FROM UREA FOR FABRIC TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we showed a one step conversion of urea to tertiary amines in water (J. Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 9234-9237). Of these, we used triallylamine to quaternize PEG, PPG, and aryl bromides (Figure 1). One and two-dimensional NMR and chemical ionization mass spectrometries were used to characteriz...

  11. International Union for Quaternary Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) discusses quaternary scientists' investigations "to interpret the changing world of the glacial ages and their impact on our planet's surface environments.". Researchers can find out about INQUA-funded projects, meetings, scientific commissions, and INQUA's two publicaions, Quaternary International, and Quaternary Perspectives.

  12. Recovery of Lecithin from the Lecithin - Cadmium Chloride Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. MacPherson

    1954-01-01

    ALTHOUGH cadmium chloride has been in use at least since 1868 as a precipitant for lecithin, no completely satisfactory method for the removal of cadmium chloride from the complex formed in this manner has been devised. Strecker1 used hydrogen sulphide to precipitate the cadmium. Bergell2, in 1900, made use of ammonium carbonate, and Levene and Simms3, in 1921, introduced the

  13. Competition between counterions and active protein sites to bind bisquaternary ammonium groups. A combined mass spectrometry and quantum chemistry model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashynska, V.; Boryak, O.; Kosevich, M. V.; Stepanian, S.; Adamowicz, L.

    2010-06-01

    A model study of the interaction between biologically active bisquaternary ammonium salts and their molecular targets in living systems is urgently needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between these compounds. To address this need a combined experimental-computational study of the interaction of two tetramethylammonium cations (modeling two quaternary groups) with the chlorine anion and with the deprotonated 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (modeling a carboxylic group and an aromatic ring of side radicals of proteins) has been performed. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry method and DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G** and MP2/6-31++G** calculations have been employed in the study. Stable noncovalent complexes with different ratios of the tetramethylammonium cations and chlorine anions or deprotonated 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid anions were registered in the mass spectra of tetramethylammonium chloride and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid mixture. This finding shows that the organic and inorganic anions compete to bind tetramethylammonium in the studied system. The theoretically determined stabilities of the noncovalent complexes were compared with the relative stabilities evaluated from the mass spectrometric measurements. The results of the study allow us to elucidate the competing interactions that exist between quaternary groups with inorganic counterions or with active groups of molecular protein targets.

  14. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  15. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  16. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

    1998-01-01

    From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

  17. Assessment of the formation of inorganic oxidation by-products during the electrocatalytic treatment of ammonium from landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Pérez, G; Saiz, J; Ibañez, R; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I

    2012-05-15

    This work investigates the formation of oxidation by-products during the electrochemical removal of ammonium using BDD electrodes from wastewaters containing chlorides. The influence of the initial chloride concentration has been experimentally analyzed first, working with model solutions with variable ammonium concentration and second, with municipal landfill leachates. Two different levels of chloride concentration were studied, i) low chloride concentrations ranging between 0 and 2000 mg/L and, ii) high chloride concentrations ranging between 5000 and 20,000 mg/L. Ammonium removal took place mainly via indirect oxidation leading to the formation of nitrogen gas and nitrate as the main oxidation products; at high chloride concentration the formation of nitrogen gas and the rate of ammonium removal were both favored. However, chloride was also oxidized during the electrochemical treatment leading to the formation of free chlorine responsible of the ammonium oxidation, together with undesirable products such as chloramines, chlorate and perchlorate. Chloramines appeared during the treatment but they reached a maximum and then started decreasing, being totally removed when high chloride concentrations were used. With regard to the formation of chlorate and perchlorate once again the concentration of chloride exerted a strong influence on the formation kinetics of the oxidation by-products and whereas at low chloride concentrations, chlorate appeared like an intermediate compound leading to the formation of perchlorate, at high chloride concentrations chlorate formation was delayed significantly and perchlorate was not detected during the experimental time. Thus this work contributes first to the knowledge of the potential hazards of applying the electro-oxidation technology as an environmental technology to deal with ammonium oxidation under the presence of chloride and second it reports efficient conditions that minimize or even avoid the formation of undesirable by-products. PMID:22386329

  18. Kinetics of extraction in the cupric-chloro-quaternary amine system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fuerstenau; M. R. Elmore; B. R. Palmer; K. N. Han

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of extraction of the cupric tetrachloro complex with quaternary amine is presented as a function of cupric, chloride,\\u000a and amine concentrations and temperature. Initial rate exhibits first order dependence with respect to the concentrations\\u000a of the cupric tetrachloro complex and quaternary amine. Binary interaction between interfacial cupric tetrachloro complex\\u000a and amine is rate controlling. The enthalpy of activation

  19. Separation of platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions containing aluminum, magnesium and iron using solvent extraction and precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Raju, B; Kumar, J Rajesh; Lee, Jin-Young; Kwonc, Hyuk-Sung; Kantam, M Lakshmi; Reddy, B Ramachandra

    2012-08-15

    The solvent extraction and precipitation methods have been used to develop a process to separate platinum and rhodium from a synthetic chloride solutions containing other associated metals such as (mg/L): Pt-364, Rh-62, Al-13880, Mg-6980, Fe-1308 at <1M HCl acidity. At pH 3.4, the quantitative precipitation of Al and Fe was achieved using 10 wt% Na(3)PO(4)·12H(2)O, with ~4% loss of Pt and Rh due to adsorption phenomenon. The selective separation of platinum was carried out with 0.01 M Aliquat 336 (a quaternary ammonium salt) at an aqueous to organic ratio (A/O) of 3.3 in two stages. Stripping of Pt from loaded organic (LO) at O/A ratio 6 with 0.5 M thiourea (tu) and HCl indicated that ~99.9% stripping efficiency. In stripping studies, needle like crystals of Pt were found and identified as tetrakis (thiourea) platinum (II) chloride ([Pt(tu)(4)]Cl(2)). The selective precipitation of rhodium was performed with (NH(4))(2)S from platinum free raffinate with a recovery of >99%. PMID:22664260

  20. Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Matrix Polysaccharide Impedes Fluid Convection and Transport of the Cationic Surfactant Cetylpyridinium Chloride through Bacterial Biofilms?

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshnarayan, Krishnaraj; Shah, Suhagi M.; Libera, Matthew R.; Santostefano, Anthony; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms are composed of bacterial cells encased in a self-synthesized, extracellular polymeric matrix. Poly-?(1,6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) is a major biofilm matrix component in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. In this study we investigated the physical and chemical properties of the PNAG matrix in biofilms produced in vitro by the gram-negative porcine respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and the gram-positive device-associated pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. The effect of PNAG on bulk fluid flow was determined by measuring the rate of fluid convection through biofilms cultured in centrifugal filter devices. The rate of fluid convection was significantly higher in biofilms cultured in the presence of the PNAG-degrading enzyme dispersin B than in biofilms cultured without the enzyme, indicating that PNAG decreases bulk fluid flow. PNAG also blocked transport of the quaternary ammonium compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) through the biofilms. Binding of CPC to biofilms further impeded fluid convection and blocked transport of the azo dye Allura red. Bioactive CPC was efficiently eluted from biofilms by treatment with 1 M sodium chloride. Taken together, these findings suggest that CPC reacts directly with the PNAG matrix and alters its physical and chemical properties. Our results indicate that PNAG plays an important role in controlling the physiological state of biofilms and may contribute to additional biofilm-associated processes such as biocide resistance. PMID:19114520

  1. Quaternary Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The Quaternary Research Center (QRC) fosters interdisciplinary research on the last two million years of the global environment: a time which encompasses massive, abrupt changes of climate, sea level, global biota and ice extent, as well the evolution of humans and the advent of civilization." Divided into six laboratories, the University of Washington's Center studies Cosmogenic Isotopes, Stable Isotopes, Old Quaternary Isotopes, Periglacial environments, quaternary ecology, paleoecology, and remote sensing. Researchers can find a tremendous amount of isotope, carbon dioxide, and chemistry data on the Taylor Dome, a part of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Students and educators can read papers by the center covering topics such as interactions among climate, surface, and tectonics; and glaciations and climate variations in the Pacific Northwest.

  2. Polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yu Sizov; Aleksei F Kolomiets; Alexandr V Fokin

    1992-01-01

    Data appearing since 1975 are correlated for the methods of synthesis of polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides, their reactions with O-, S-, N-, P- and C-nucleophiles, with unsaturated aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, for their behaviour in oxidation and heterocyclisation reactions and in free radical conversions. The bibliography includes 214 references.

  3. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. Adsorption removal of ammonium and phosphate from water by fertilizer controlled release agent prepared from wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuohao Ma; Qian Li; Qinyan Yue; Baoyu Gao; Wenhong Li; Xing Xu; Qianqian Zhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the adsorption of ammonium and phosphate ions from aqueous solution using a new fertilizer controlled release agent (FCRA) which is produced through graft copolymerization with wheat straw, acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC). A series of batch experiments were conducted to examine the effects of solution pH, adsorbent

  5. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meert, K L; Ellis, J; Aronow, R; Perrin, E

    1994-10-01

    We report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child that resulted in multiple-organ-system failure and death. Exchange transfusion and hemodialysis were ineffective in removing significant amounts of chromium or causing sustained clinical improvement. We suggest that immediate, large doses of the reducing agent ascorbic acid would allow effective reduction of hexavalent chromium with less cellular toxicity. PMID:8092606

  6. Dietary Ammonium Chloride for the Acidification of Mouse Urine

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Amy J; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H; Waites, C Robbie; Dominick, Mark A; Schilling, Beth E; Jackson, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    A novel therapeutic compound was found to induce bladder tumors in male rats. Given the location of the tumors and the increased amounts of calcium- and magnesium-containing solids found in the urine of treated animals, we hypothesized that tumorigenesis was secondary to urine crystal formation rather than a direct effect of the drug on urothelium. To investigate the basis for the response, a method of acidifying rodent urine was needed. This study tested the efficacy of 1% dietary NH4Cl in reducing the urinary pH of male mice. After 1 wk, urinary pH (mean ± SD) at 1 h after light onset was 7.51 ± 0.32 among controls compared with 6.21 ± 0.31 for the NH4Cl-fed group. After 2 wk of supplementation, urinary pH was 7.78 ± 0.41 for controls and 6.20 ± 0.30 for the NH4Cl-fed group. To investigate whether the time of collection altered urinary pH, samples also were collected 8 h after the start of the light cycle on the day of the 2-wk collection. Urinary pH was 7.12 ± 0.28 for the control group and 5.80 ± 0.23 for the NH4Cl-fed mice. The pH differences between control and NH4Cl-fed groups and the differences in pH within groups at 1 and 8 h were statistically significant. Dietary NH4Cl is an effective urinary acidifier for mice. When evaluating the pH of mouse urine, care should be taken to compare samples collected at the same time after the start of the light cycle. PMID:19383209

  7. Proton Spin-Lattice Relaxation in Monocrystalline Ammonium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashirov, F. I.

    New symmetry-adapted autocorrelation functions are used in the theoretical description of the nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole relaxation in molecular crystals. They are obtained in the model frame that a molecule rotates by means of the finite angular jumps between the hindered states of the same symmetry in different potential wells. The experimental data of the temperature dependence of the proton relaxation times T1and T1?in the mono- and polycrystalline NH 4Cl are revised. As a result, it is proposed to classify the NH +4ion motion by two kinds of the hindered states corresponding to the two-dimensional ( E) and three-dimensional ( F) irreducible representations of a point group of the cubic system. The dynamical weight of the state Fis defined to be equal to 0.25 and that of the state Eto be equal to 0.73 from the experiments in the ordered phase of NH 4Cl. Based on abstract geometric groups, the respective weights are 0.4 and 0.6. This discrepancy in the weights of the states is explained by the effect of the tetragonal distortion of the tetrahedral site symmetry of the NH +4ion. The result of the prevalence of a C3reorientation in comparison to a C2reorientation of the ion is also justified. Because of the absence of the experimental temperature minima of T1or T1?, assumptions are only made about the dynamical parameters of the NH +4ion motion in the disordered phase of NH 4Cl.

  8. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ryan Penton

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered nitrogen removal pathway in natural systems. First found to\\u000a be a significant nitrogen sink in the Black Sea anoxic water column in 2003, anammox has shown to be responsible for as much\\u000a as 79% of N2 production in marine sediments. Little is known concerning the significance of anammox in freshwater systems and

  9. Solubility of sodium salts in ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Ghareh Bagh; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; I. M. Alnashef

    2013-01-01

    The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was measured in nine ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). The aim of the study is to assess the potential use of these DESs as solvents and electrolytes for the separation of sodium metal from its salts. The studied DESs were prepared by combining ammonium salts with various

  10. Trospium chloride: A quaternary amine with unique pharmacologic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond W. Pak; Steven P. Petrou; David R. Staskin

    2003-01-01

    The mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of overactive bladder is anticholinergic therapy. Cholinergic blockade is efficacious\\u000a in decreasing the symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence, but also is associated with undesirable side effects\\u000a such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and central nervous system side effects. The property of anticholinergic\\u000a agents that has been associated with increased efficacy and tolerability

  11. Effects of high concentrations of aqueous tetramethylammonium chloride and other salts on the dissociation of phenylphosphonic acid and on the enolization of acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Gulinski, J.; Maciejewska, U.; Stewart, R.

    1988-04-01

    The dissociation constants of benzoic acid and phenylphosphonic acid have been determined in aqueous solutions containing tetramethylammonium chloride at concentrations up to 15 and 13 molal, respectively. The second dissociation constant of phenylphosphonic acid has also been determined in concentrated solutions of alkali halides. Whereas the organic electrolyte increases the observed pK values of the acids, the inorganic electrolytes decrease them. The rate of enolization of acetone, catalyzed by phenylphosphonate dianion is increased by the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride, but is decreased by the presence of inorganic salts, in accordance with the changes in the apparent acidity constants of phenylphosphonate monoanion that the two different kinds of electrolyte bring about. The slope of the Broensted plot for the inorganic salts is 0.76; that for the organic electrolyte is 0.46. Non-quaternary ammonium salts also increase the rate of the phenylphosphonate dianion catalyzed enolization of acetone, but this appears to be due to a considerable extent to the formation of reactive iminium ion intermediates.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  13. Effect of impurities on crystal growth rate of ammonium pentaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin, Ö.; Özdemir, M.; Genli, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid of different concentrations on the growth rate of ammonium pentaborate octahydrate crystals (APBO) was measured and was found to depend on supersaturation in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of impurities in APBO solution increases the growth rate compared with growth from pure solution. It was found that the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid decreases the reaction rate constant kr, while it increases the mass-transfer coefficient, K, of APBO crystals. In pure aqueous solution, the crystal growth rate of APBO is mainly controlled by diffusion. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of APBO crystals in the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid. The mass-transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction order, r were calculated from general mass-transfer equation by using genetic algorithm method making no assumption.

  14. Ammonium imidazolium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C(3)H(5)N(2))(NH(4))[Cr(2)O(7)], the anions and cations are linked through N-H?O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional structure which contains three kinds of layers parallel to (001). One layer contains imidazole cations, the other two layers the ammonium cations and dichromate anions. The dichromate anion has an eclipsed conformation with a dihedral angle of 14.65?(18)° between the mean planes of the O-P-O-P-O backbone. PMID:22589777

  15. Ammonium scandium tetrafluoride.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicholas F; Lightfoot, Philip

    2006-12-01

    The title compound, NH4ScF4, is an addition to the AMF4 family of layered perovskite-like structures. The structure consists of a two-dimensional array of corner-sharing ScF6 octahedra, which produces anionic sheets of stoichiometry [ScF4]- stacked along the c axis. The layers are separated by charge-balancing ammonium cations, which hydrogen bond to the apical F atoms of adjacent layers. This structure may be viewed as a ;single-layer' fluoride analogue of the Dion-Jacobson family of oxides. PMID:17148883

  16. Quaternary Research Association Educational Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Quaternary Research Association (QRA) is an organization comprising archaeologists, botanists, civil engineers, geographers, geologists, soil scientists, zoologists and others interested in research into the problems of the Quaternary. This site describes their activities and organization. This direct link to the educational teaching resources provides access to glacier and glaciation resources.

  17. A novel ammonium ionic liquid based extraction strategy for separating scandium from yttrium and lanthanides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqi Sun; Yang Ji; Lin Guo; Ji Chen; Deqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL)-based extraction is a promising high-efficiency and environmentally benign separation technology. Imidazolium ILs lose their cations or anions to aqueous phase during extraction, the release lead to water pollution. To develop sustainable IL-based extraction system, we firstly investigate quaternary ammonium nitrate IL-based extraction strategy. Alkylated phosphine oxides (Cyanex925) in tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate ([A336][NO3]) are studied for separating Sc from

  18. Evaluation and modeling of benzalkonium chloride inhibition and biodegradation in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Tezel, Ulas; Li, Kexun; Liu, Dongfang; Ren, Rong; Du, Jingxuan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitory effect and biodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with different alkyl chain lengths, was investigated at a concentration range from 5 to 20 mg/L and different biomass concentrations in an activated sludge system. A solution containing glucose and mineral salts was used as the wastewater in all the assays performed. The inhibition of respiratory enzymes was identified as the mode of action of BAC as a result of oxygen uptake rate analysis performed at BAC concentrations ranging between 5 and 70 mg/L. The glucose degradation in the activated sludge at different BAC and biomass concentrations was well-described with Monod kinetics with competitive inhibition. The half-saturation inhibition constant (K(I)) which is equivalent to EC(50) of BAC for the activated sludge tested ranged between 0.12 and 3.60 mg/L. The high K(I) values were recorded at low BAC-to-biomass ratios, i.e. less than 10 mg BAC/g VSS, at which BAC was almost totally adsorbed to biomass and not bioavailable. BAC degradation started as soon as glucose was totally consumed. Although BAC was almost totally adsorbed on the biomass, it was degraded completely. Therefore, BAC degradation was modeled using two-phase biodegradation kinetics developed in this study. This model involves rapid partitioning of BAC to biomass and consecutive degradation in both aqueous and solid phases. The aqueous phase BAC degradation rate was twenty times, on average, higher than the solid phase degradation rate. The specific aqueous (k(I1)) and solid (k(I2)) phase BAC utilization rate constants were 1.25 and 0.31 mg BAC/g VSS h, respectively. The findings of this study would help to understand the reason of extensive distribution of quaternary ammonium compounds in wastewater treatment plant effluents and in natural water systems although QACs are biodegradable, and develop strategies to avoid their release and accumulation in the environment. PMID:21030060

  19. pH responsive properties of non-fouling mixed-charge polymer brushes based on quaternary amine and carboxylic acid monomers.

    PubMed

    Mi, Luo; Bernards, Matthew T; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Qiuming; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we report a tunable mixed-charge copolymer surface containing positively charged quaternary amine monomers ([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride, TMA) and negatively-charged carboxylic acid monomers (2-carboxy ethyl acrylate, CAA). The non-fouling properties of this copolymer coating depend on environmental pH. The surface has charge neutrality under neutral and basic conditions, and is positively charged under acidic conditions due to the protonation of the carboxylic acid group. This transition in surface charge with respect to pH allows the surface to be switched from bacteria-adhesive to bacteria-resistant. We demonstrate that the bacteria adhered to the surface under acidic conditions can be easily released as bulk pH increases. This tunable surface can be used to collect a contaminant and then be externally stimulated to release the contaminant, to allow for analysis of its composition. Its bacteria attraction and release property makes it very promising for decontamination and biomedical applications. PMID:20045182

  20. Quaternary GIS Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of the Quaternary Geographic Information System (GIS) Laboratory at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado. The laboratory supports quantitative spatial analysis of glacier, climate, coastal, and other environmental relationships at high latitudes. Users can access a collection of climate animations for the State of Alaska which show seasonal variation in monthly temperature and precipitation. There is also a set of high-resolution imagery and terrain models for Barrow, Alaska, an animation of the land bridge between Asia and North America, an atlas of paleoglaciation for the state, and links to a variety of other projects involving climatology, paleoclimatology, and glacial geomorphology in the Sate of Alaska.

  1. Adsorption of ammonium ion by coconut shell-activated carbon from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Ramasamy; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Mandal, Asit Baran; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium ions are one of the most encountered nitrogen species in polluted water bodies. High level of ammonium ion in aqueous solution imparts unpleasant taste and odor problems, which can interfere with the life of aquatics and human population when discharged. Many chemical methods are developed and being used for removal of ammonium ion from aqueous solution. Among various techniques, adsorption was found to be the most feasible and environmentally friendly with the use of natural-activated adsorbents. Hence, in this study, coconut shell-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared and used for the removal of ammonium ion by adsorption techniques. Ammonium chloride (analytical grade) was purchased from Merck Chemicals for adsorption studies. The CSAC was used to adsorb ammonium ions under stirring at 100 rpm, using orbital shaker in batch experiments. The concentration of ammonium ion was estimated by ammonia distillate, using a Buchi distillation unit. The influence of process parameters such as pH, temperature, and contact time was studied for adsorption of ammonium ion, and kinetic, isotherm models were validated to understand the mechanism of adsorption of ammonium ion by CSAC. Thermodynamic properties such as ?G, ?H, and ?S were determined for the ammonium adsorption, using van't Hoff equation. Further, the adsorption of ammonium ion was confirmed through instrumental analyses such as SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The optimum conditions for the effective adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC were found to be pH 9.0, temperature 283 K, and contact time 120 min. The experimental data was best followed by pseudosecond order equation, and the adsorption isotherm model obeyed the Freundlich isotherm. This explains the ammonium ion adsorption onto CSAC which was a multilayer adsorption with intraparticle diffusion. Negative enthalpy confirmed that this adsorption process was exothermic. The instrumental analyses confirmed the adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC. PMID:22562341

  2. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ping Zheng; Chong-jian Tang; Jin Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to\\u000a the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable\\u000a in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic\\u000a nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both

  3. A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hayyan; M. A. Hashim; M. Hayyan; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. AlNashef

    2013-01-01

    In this work, low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) content is introduced as a possible biodiesel production feedstock alternative. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using ammonium-based deep eutectic solvent which consisted of hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) (PTSA) and salt (i.e. N,N-diethylenethanol ammonium chloride) as a novel recyclable catalyst (DEAC-DES). The

  4. Ammonium transport in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine

    2010-01-01

    Ammonium excretion into the urine is the main mechanism of renal acid excretion. Ammonium is produced by epithelial cells of the proximal tubule and then secreted into the luminal fluid. However, before its final excretion into urine, ammonium ion is reabsorbed by the thick ascending limb (TAL), and accumulated in the interstitium to build up a corticopapillary gradient of ammonium which is necessary for the final diffusion of the gas NH3 in parallel to active proton secretion. Recent evidence has been provided by the study of several mouse models of renal acidosis. Particularly, it has been shown that the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE4 is a critical step of ammonium absorption by the TAL, and also that NH3 diffusion across the membrane of collecting duct cells requires the presence of the recently identified gas channel Rhcg. This review is an update on the different mechanisms of ammonium transport along the nephron, with a particular emphasis on these new molecules. PMID:21170885

  5. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. Effect of Algicidal Quaternaries on the Germicidal Activity of Chlorine on Swimming Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    Koski, T. A.; Ortenzio, L. F.; Stuart, L. S.

    1967-01-01

    The Swimming Pool Water Disinfectant Test Method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists was used to determine the effect of the accepted level of 2 ppm of some commercial quaternary ammonium algicides on the germicidal activity of chlorine. Accurate determinations on the amounts of residual available chlorine in chlorine-quaternary mixtures could not be made by the usual chemical methods. This made it necessary to base all comparisons on the starting concentrations of available chlorine rather than the final concentration as specified in the method employed. No evidence was obtained to support the use of lower concentrations of residual available chlorine for disinfection in the presence of algicidal quaternaries than those commonly recognized as effective by the American Public Health Association. The rate of kill against the gram-positive test organism Streptococcus faecalis was faster in quaternary-chlorine mixtures than in the sodium hypochlorite control solutions. The practical significance of this result in the bench method identified cannot be ascertained in the absence of more sensitive and precise chemical procedures for determining concentrations of residual available chlorine in the presence of quaternaries or in actual swimming pool tests. PMID:4965942

  7. Saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits and the Poplar River, East Poplar Oil Field, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits in and near the East Poplar oil field may be as much as 12.4 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone. The saline-water contamination affects 9-60 billion gallons of ground water. Saline- contaminated water moves westward through Quaternary glacial deposits and merges with southward-flowing water in Quaternary alluvium in the Poplar River valley. Saline ground water discharges into the Poplar River, and increases the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of the river. The probable source of saline-water contamination in the Quaternary deposits is brine that is a byproduct of the production of crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area.

  8. TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE [AND IRIS SUMMARY] (EXTERNAL PEER REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl chloride (CAS No. 74-87-3) is a gaseous chlorohydrocarbon under ambient conditions. It is principally used in the manufacture of silicones, agrichemicals, methyl cellulose and quaternary amines. Numerous case reports involving overexposure over the last 60 years indicate t...

  9. Quaternary deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel's composition consisting of a major portion of hydrocarbons, which boils in the gasoline range, and from 30-10,000 ppm of a quaternized polyoxyalkylene amine salt of molecular weight 500-2500. This polyoxyalkylene moiety is characterized as consisting of 1-30 oxyalkylene units with 2-4 carbon atoms apiece. The aforementioned amine moiety consists of 1-2 amine nitrogen atoms and from about 2-40 carbon atoms. In addition, the fuel is characterized as containing a connecting moiety linking the polyoxyalkylene moiety and the amine moiety and within which the anion of the quaternized polyoxylakylene amine salts is composed of either chloride, bromide, or iodide.

  10. Enantioselective Construction of Cyclic Quaternary Centers: (-)-Mesembrine

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    Enantioselective Construction of Cyclic Quaternary Centers: (-)-Mesembrine Douglass F. Taber, (-)-mesembrine 1. Amide 2 should be a useful chiron for the enantioselective construction of cyclic quaternary of mesembrine2,3 and its analogues is the enantioselective construction of the chiral quaternary center.4 We

  11. Efflorescence relative humidity of airborne sodium chloride particles: A theoretical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonggang Gao; Shing Bor Chen; Liya E. Yu

    2007-01-01

    The previously developed theoretical model [Gao, Y., Chen, S.B., Yu, L.E., 2006. Efflorescence relative humidity for ammonium sulfate particles. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 110, 7602–7608], which has successfully predicted the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) particles at room temperature, is employed to estimate the ERH of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in sizes ranging from 6nm to

  12. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: molecular interactions, mechanical properties and tackiness.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a natural clay, on the properties of polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs). Two commercially available aqueous QPM dispersions were studied: Eudragit(®) RS 30D and Eudragit(®) RL 30D (the dry copolymers containing 5 and 10% quaternary ammonium groups, respectively). The composite QPM-MAS films were prepared by casting. Importantly, QPM interacted with MAS and formed small flocculates prior to film formation. Continuous films were obtained up to MAS contents of 19% (referred to the QPM dry mass). ATR-FTIR and PXRD revealed that the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups of QPM interacted with negatively charged SiO(-) groups of MAS, creating nanocomposite materials. This interaction led to improved thermal stability of the composite films. The puncture strength and elongation at break of dry systems decreased with increasing MAS content. In contrast, the puncture strength of the wet QPM-MAS films (upon exposure to acidic or neutral media) increased with increasing MAS content. Furthermore, incorporation of MAS into QPM films significantly decreased the latter's tackiness in the dry and wet state. These findings suggest that nanocomposite formation between QPM and MAS in the systems can enhance the strength of wet films and decrease their tackiness. Thus, MAS offers an interesting potential as novel anti-tacking agent for QPM coatings. PMID:24144950

  13. Determination of benzethonium chloride in anthrax vaccine adsorbed by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiaoling Wang; Alfred V. Del Grosso; Joan C. May

    2006-01-01

    A novel and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of benzethonium chloride (BZC) in anthrax vaccine was developed. Adjuvant Alhydrogel was removed by syringe filter after a simple sample pretreatment—acidification prior to injection. Chromatography was performed by isocratic reverse phase separation with methanol\\/262mM ammonium acetate (80\\/20, v\\/v) on an endcapped C18 column with diode array detector (DAD). The method showed

  14. Distinct Mechanisms of Block of Kv1.5 Channels by Tertiary and Quaternary Amine Clofilium Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill V. Steidl; Andrea J. Yool

    2001-01-01

    The quaternary ammonium compound clofilium and its tertiary amine derivative LY97241 were used to analyze mechanisms of block in a voltage-gated potassium channel. Wild-type and mutant Kv1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were recorded by two-electrode voltage clamp. Open-channel block to 20% of the control current amplitude was induced reversibly by 50?M clofilium or 200?M LY97241, and was seen as

  15. Ammonium Ion Requirement for the Cell Cycle of Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Charlotte

    1978-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium has a defined cell cycle in which small cells elongate to about five times their original length and then divide by fragmentation. The nitrogen requirement for production of maximal number of colony-forming units was assessed by varying concentrations and kinds of nitrogen source in the medium. Ferric ammonium citrate at a concentration in 7H10 medium of 0.17 ?mol/ml or ammonium chloride at 0.25 ?mol/ml as the nitrogen source permitted the cells to elongate and to undergo limited division, with the final culture at 4 × 107 colony-forming units per ml. Ammonium chloride at 2.5 ?mol/ml or glutamine at 1.37 ?mol/ml supported completion of the cell cycle with final colony-forming units at about 5 × 108/ml. Other amino acids, including glutamic acid, at 2.5 ?mol/ml did not support completion of the cell cycle, although in most cases an intermediate number of colony-forming units per milliliter were formed. Limited uptake of [14C]glutamic acid and uptake of [14C]glutamine were not detectable until cell fission began. Cells not limited for nitrogen took up five times as much 35S during fission as limited cells did during the same time. The nonlimited cells contained 10 times as much sulfolipid as the nitrogen-limited cells at the end of the cell cycle. These results demonstrate that rapidly dividing cells of M. avium utilize amino acids and sulfur and also synthesize sulfolipids in events that are apparently separable from metabolic functions of elongating cells. The results are contrasted with those found for other mycobacteria in which no cell cycle has been demonstrated. Images PMID:624592

  16. Wettability of Ammonium Nitrate Prills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QUEENIE S. M. KWOK; PEETER KRUUS; DAVID E. G. JONES

    2004-01-01

    The wettability of ammonium nitrate (AN) prills is one of the primary factors determining the physical stability and detonation behavior of ANFO. The wettabilities of various types of AN prills were compared using capillary penetration measurements. Complementary characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) were performed to rationalize the observed differences in wettability. The wettability of AN

  17. Cyclo-hexyl-ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Aboud, Mohamed F A; Shemsi, Ahsan M; Addurihem, Emad S; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Chidan Kumar, C S; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-03-01

    In the title salt, C6H14N(+)·NO3 (-), the cyclo-hexyl ring adopts a chair conformation. The ammonium group occupies an equatorial position and the crystal struture is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:24764971

  18. Influence of Heterogeneous Ammonium Availability on Bacterial

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    and the Expression of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Transporter Genes during in Situ Bioremediation of Uranium bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders microbial processes during bioremediation. Introduction

  19. Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I; Taktak, Nehad E M

    2014-10-13

    Chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a series of quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora and fungi Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans were evaluated. The results proved that the grafting of benzyl moiety or quaternization of the derivatives onto chitosan molecule was successful in inhibiting the microbial growth. Moreover, increase water-solubility of the compounds by quaternization significantly increased the activity against bacteria and fungi. Exocellular enzymes including polygalacturonase (PGase), pectin-lyase (PLase), polyphenol oxidase (PPOase) and cellulase were also affected at 1000 mg/L. These compounds especially quaternary-based chitosan derivatives that have good inhibitory effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in crop protection. PMID:25037402

  20. Robustness of Quaternary glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganopolski, Andrei; Brovkin, Victor; Calov, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    In spite of significant progress in paleoclimate reconstructions and modeling some aspects of Quaternary climate cycles are still poorly understood. Among them is the question of whether glacial cycles are deterministic and solely externally forced or, at least partially, they are stochastic. The answer to this question can only be obtained using a comprehensive Earth system models which incorporates all major components of the Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land surface, northern hemisphere ice sheets, terrestrial biota and soil carbon, aeolian dust and marine biogeochemistry. Here, we used the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The model was optimally tuned to reproduce climate, ice volume and CO2 variability for the last 0.8 million years. Using the same model version, we performed a large set of simulations covering the entire Quaternary (3 million years). By starting the model at different times (with the time step of 100,000 years) and using identical initial conditions we run the model for 500,000 years using the Earth's orbital variations as the only prescribed radiative forcing. We show that within less than 100,000 years after the beginning of each experiment the modeling results converge to the same solution which depends only on the orbital forcing and boundary conditions, such as topography and terrestrial sediment thickness for the ice sheets or volcanic CO2 outgassing for the carbon cycle. By using only several sets of the Northern Hemisphere orography and sediment thickness which represent different stages of landscape evolution during Quaternary, we are able to reproduce all major regimes of Quaternary long-term climate variability. Our results thus strongly support the notion that Quaternary glacial cycles are deterministic and externally forced.

  1. Measurement and Prediction of Potassium Chloride Movement in an Unsaturated Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Phillips

    2004-01-01

    In south-east Queensland, Australia, extensive areas of sandy soils (Podosols) with shallow (<1 m) watertables are used for exotic pine tree production. Leaching of surface-applied fertilizers (di-ammonium phosphate and potassium chloride) in these soils has been suggested as a contributing factor in a decline in local groundwater quality. This study investigated the movement of potassium chloride (KCl) in horizontal columns of

  2. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  3. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  4. Highly sensitive ammonium tetraazidoaurates(III).

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Galvez-Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Nöth, Heinrich

    2005-12-26

    The preparation and characterization of selected ammonium and methylammonium tetraazidoaurates(III) are reported. All ammonium salts were shown to be highly explosive materials. The first crystal structure of such an ammonium salt, that of [Me(4)N][Au(N(3))(4)], features polymeric units of the anion, which are linked by weak Au...Au interactions. PMID:16363826

  5. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Proesmans; L. Luan; S. J. Buelow

    1996-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate

  6. Synthesis of MCM-41 molecular sieves in the presence of dialkyl dimethyl ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, V.R.; Sayari, A. [Universite Laval, Ste-Foy (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    In the synthesis of MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves the chain length of the surfactant template plays a major role in determining the pore dimensions of the resulting material. The effect of the bulkiness of quaternary ammonium template on the pore size of mesoporous silicates has been studied using various dialkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide salts. These templates were prepared by refluxing long chain N,N-dimethyl alkyl amines and bromo alkanes for 24 h. The obtained silicates were characterized by various techniques including XRD, nitrogen and benzene adsorption, FTIR, {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and electron microscopy. The relationship between the length of both alkyl groups and the pore size of the material will be presented.

  7. Role of tetraalkyl(benzyl)ammonium alkoxides in the catalysis of the alkaline dehydrochlorination reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shavanov, S.S.; Tolstikov, G.A.; Shutenkova, T.V.; Viktorov, G.A.

    1988-01-10

    The reaction was conducted by the action of aqueous NaOH taken as a 50% solution at a molar ratio to dichloroethane of 2:1 at 50-55 C in the 1% of catalyst on the dichloroethane. The results of the experiments indicated the rising activity of the tetra-alkyl(benzyl) ammonium alkoxides as the lipophilicity of the anion increased, which proceeds in the organic phase. Reaction was effected through a complex formed by the association of quaternary ammonium salts with a hydroxyl-containing compound, the solvation of the associated species with the organochlorine substrate, and coordination with NaOH. The reaction goes in the organic phase and on the interphase surface.

  8. Introduction Preliminaries Construction of Quaternary Sequences Construction of Familes References New Construction of Quaternary Sequences

    E-print Network

    No, Jong-Seon

    Introduction Preliminaries Construction of Quaternary Sequences Construction of Familes References New Construction of Quaternary Sequences with Good Correlation Using Binary Sequences with Good University May 28, 2010 May 28, 2010 2010 CITS 2nd 1/ 34 #12;Introduction Preliminaries Construction

  9. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  10. Quaternary glaciation of Mount Everest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis A. Owen; Ruth Robinson; Douglas I. Benn; Robert C. Finkel; Nicole K. Davis; Chaolu Yi; Jaakko Putkonen; Dewen Li; Andrew S. Murray

    2009-01-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slopes of Mount Everest is examined using field mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological methods, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating. Six major sets of moraines are present representing significant glacier advances or still-stands. These date to >330ka (Tingri moraine), >41ka (Dzakar moraine), 24–27ka (Jilong

  11. Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). 721.10569... § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a...identified generically as tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). 721.10569... § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a...identified generically as tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN...

  14. Surface interaction of quaternary amines with hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Beard; J. Hare

    2002-01-01

    Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has shown specific 1?1 (ionic) interaction between cationic alkyl\\u000a quaternary surfactant molecules and the anionic sulfonate groups present on the hair surface. The primary driving force for\\u000a the adsorption of alkyl quaternary amine molecules to the surface of the hair from aqueous solution is the ionic interaction\\u000a between quaternary groups and the surface

  15. Fertilizer Facts: May 1998, Number 18 Spring Wheat Response to Potassium and Chloride

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    , potassium nitrate, and ammonium chloride. Plot size was six rows wide and 20 feet long. Locations were samples. Calcium nitrate extractable Cl was measured from 0-1 foot and 1-2 foot depth soil samples. Grain soils, sufficient soil water for crop production (as determined by the Brown probe), and good

  16. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. The Influence of the Anionic Counter-Ion on the Activity of Ammonium Substituted Hoveyda-Type Olefin Metathesis Catalysts in Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu?ajski, ?ukasz; Grela, Karol

    Polar olefin metathesis catalysts, bearing an ammonium group are presented. The electron withdrawing ammonium group not only activates the catalysts electronically, but at the same time makes the catalysts more hydrophilic. Catalysts can be therefore efficiently used not only in traditional media, such as methylene chloride and toluene, but also in technical-grade alcohols, alcohol— water mixtures and in neat water. Finally, in this overview the influence of the anionic counter-ion on the activity of ammonium substituted Hoveyda-type olefin metathesis catalysts in aqueous media is presented.

  18. Nitric oxide supplementation alleviates ammonium toxicity in the submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Song He; Li, Wei; Wang, Pei Fang; Li, Li

    2011-01-01

    The likely protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against ammonium toxicity were investigated in the submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. The plants were subjected to ammonium stress (3mM ammonium chloride) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10 ?M), an NO donor. Treatment with SNP significantly increased the NO content and partially reversed the ammonium-induced negative effects, including membrane damage and the decrease in levels of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, glutathione and ascorbic acid. Further, SNP application increased the catalytic activities of ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, but decreased that of NADH-oxidase. Histochemical staining showed that SNP application caused a significant decrease in the levels of superoxides and hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, application of other breakdown products of SNP (10 ?M sodium ferrocyanide, 10 ?M sodium nitrite and 10 ?M sodium nitrate) failed to show any protective effect. The results suggest that the increased intracellular NO, resulting from SNP application, improved the antioxidant capacity of H. verticillata plants in coping with ammonium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20655590

  19. Coal cleaning employing quaternary salts: Annual report, March 1, 1986-February 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Sarvela, D.P.; Murdie, N.

    1987-05-01

    Present New Source Performance Standards and the prospect of new acid rain legislation at the federal level require that methods be developed to remove substantial portions of sulfur from Illinois Basin coals. This report describes an innovative approach to coal desulfurization. In this approach, quaternary ammonium salts are employed as catalysts to swell coal. The process is designed to address three basic problems which exist in Illinois Basin coals. First, the pyrite in these coals is at a high level and is very finely dispersed. Therefore, the pyrite particles cannot be liberated by conventional coal cleaning techniques. Second, the porosity of these coals is routinely high but is closed to many reactants because of the lack of feeder and transitional pore structure. Third, the high organic sulfur levels require that some sort of chemical desulfurization occur before most Illinois coals meet NSPS standards. The swelling of coals by quaternary salt results in the liberation of the smallest pyrite and inertinite particles of the coal. Furthermore, cracks occur in the coal particle after swelling. These cracks are associated with the larger size pyrite material embedded in -60 mesh ground coal. Only small amounts of quaternary salt are exchanged on the coal. In some cases, a small amount of exchange results in pore enlargement. Under other conditions, chemical desulfurization of organic sulfur is observed. Relationships between the conditions of exchange, mineral and inertinite liberation, pore enlargement, and coal desulfurization are discussed. The results suggest that: (1) quaternary salts may be used to interrupt oxidation degradation of the coal; (2) coals might be liquified employing specific quaternary salt treatments; and (3) under specific conditions, organic sulfur may be attacked selectively. 3 refs., 22 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

    Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

  1. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  2. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  3. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  4. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 4 (Flammable Solids), Class 5 (Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides), and Division 1.5 Materials § 176.410 Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...

  5. Ammonium homeostasis and human Rhesus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Planelles, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The brain ammonium production is detoxified by astrocytes, the gut ammonium production is detoxified by hepatic cells, and the renal ammonium production plays a major role in renal acid excretion. As a result of ammonium handling in these organs, the ammonium and pH values are strictly regulated in plasma. Up until recently, it was accepted that mammalian cell transmembrane ammonium transport was due to NH(4)(+) transport by non-specific transporting systems, and to non-ionic NH(3) diffusion, whereas lower organisms (such as bacteria, yeasts and plants) were endowed with specific ammonium transporters (Amts). Sequence homologies between Amts and human Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins (RhAG, from erythroid cells, and RhBG and RhCG from epithelial cells) raised the hypothesis that Rh glycoproteins act as specific ammonium transporters, further sustained by the polarized distribution of RhBG and RhCG in gut, kidney and liver. Results from functional studies agree that Rh glycoproteins are the first ammonium transporters reported in mammals. However, the nature of the transported specie(s) is much debated: in particular, it is proposed that Rh glycoproteins mediate a direct NH(3) transport, or that they mediate an indirect NH(3) transport (resulting from NH(4)(+) for H(+) exchange). Direct NH(3) transport (associated or not with NH(4)(+) transport) raises the exciting hypothesis that Rh glycoproteins may also transport other gases than NH(3) (namely, CO(2)). PMID:17106214

  6. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  7. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Global Tungsten and Powders, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); SUNY at Binghamton, Materials Science Program, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)], E-mail: joel.christian@sylvania.com; Whittingham, M. Stanley [SUNY at Binghamton, Materials Science Program, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  8. Biological Treatment of Ammonium-Rich Wastewater with the Partial Nitrification and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinglin Xie; Xiaoxia Li; Shaoyuan Bai; Yanhong Li

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the nitrogen removal efficiency by using the combined partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process for high-strength ammonium synthetic wastewater. The partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactors were inoculate with domesticated sludge and operated respectively during the startup period. Subsequently, they were combined for stable operation when the partial nitrification

  9. Physiological and phylogenetic study of an ammonium-oxidizing culture at high nitrite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nico C G; Kampschreur, Marlies J; Wanders, Wouter; van der Pol, Willem L J; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Jetten, Mike S M

    2008-06-01

    Oxidation of high-strength ammonium wastewater can lead to exceptionally high nitrite concentrations; therefore, the effect of high nitrite concentration (> 400 mM) was studied using an ammonium-oxidizing enrichment culture in a batch reactor. Ammonium was fed to the reactor in portions of 40-150 mM until ammonium oxidation rates decreased and finally stopped. Activity was restored by replacing half of the medium, while biomass was retained by a membrane. The ammonium-oxidizing population obtained was able to oxidize ammonium at nitrite concentrations of up to 500 mM. The maximum specific oxidation activity of the culture in batch test was about 0.040 mmol O(2)g(-1)proteinmin(-1) and the K(s) value was 1.5 mM ammonium. In these tests, half of the maximum oxidation activity was still present at a concentration of 600 mM nitrite and approximately 10% residual activity could still be measured at 1200 mM nitrite (pH 7.4), or as a free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 6.6 mg l(-1). Additional experiments showed that the inhibition was caused by nitrite and not by the high sodium chloride concentration of the medium. The added ammonium was mainly converted into nitrite and no nitrite oxidation was observed. In addition, gaseous nitrogen compounds were detected and mass balance calculations revealed a nitrogen loss of approximately 20% using this system. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonium monooxygenase (amoA) genes of the obtained enrichment culture showed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosococcus mobilis cluster dominated the two clone libraries. Approximately 25% of the 16S rRNA clones showed a similarity of 92% to Deinococcus-like organisms. Specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes confirmed that these microbes comprised 10-20% of the microbial community in the enrichment. The Deinococcus-like organisms were located around the Nitrosomonas clusters, but their role in the community is currently unresolved. PMID:18289820

  10. Structure-activity relationship for quaternary ammonium compounds hybridized with poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Melo, Leticia D; Palombo, Renata R; Petri, Denise F S; Bruns, Michael; Pereira, Edla M A; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2011-06-01

    Hybrid films from poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), or tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB) were characterized by determination of wettability, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, active compounds diffusion to water, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with determination of atomic composition on the films surface, and biocidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. QAC mobility in the films increased from DODAB to CTAB to TPAB. Diffusion and optimal hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance imparted the highest bioactivity to CTAB. DODAB sustained immobilization at the film surface killed bacteria upon contact. TPAB ability to diffuse was useless because of its unfavorable hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance for bioactivity. PMID:21591705

  11. Cyclic voltammetry of metallic acetylacetonate salts in quaternary ammonium and phosphonium based deep eutectic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Chakrabarti; N. P. Brandon; F. S. Mjalli; L. Bahadori; I. M. Al Nashef; M. A. Hashim; M. A. Hussain; C. T. J. Low; V. Yufit

    2013-01-01

    Seven commercially sourced acetylacetonate salts were investigated in deep eutectic solvents (DESs that were prepared from ethylene glycol and trifluoroacetamide hydrogen bond donors) by cyclic voltammetry, to identify electrolytes suitable for future applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Although the solubilities are low and on the order of 0.02 mol·L-1 for the most soluble salts, some were found to display

  12. Delimiting the binding site for quaternary ammonium lidocaine derivatives in the acetylcholine receptor channel.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J M; Karlin, A

    1998-11-01

    The triethylammonium QX-314 and the trimethylammonium QX-222 are lidocaine derivatives that act as open-channel blockers of the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor. When bound, these blockers should occlude some of the residues lining the channel. Eight residues in the second membrane-spanning segment (M2) of the mouse-muscle alpha subunit were mutated one at a time to cysteine and expressed together with wild-type beta, gamma, and delta subunits in Xenopus oocytes. The rate constant for the reaction of each substituted cysteine with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA) was determined from the time course of the irreversible effect of MTSEA on the ACh-induced current. The reactions were carried out in the presence and absence of ACh and in the presence and absence of QX-314 and QX-222. These blockers had no effect on the reactions in the absence of ACh. In the presence of ACh, both blockers retarded the reaction of extracellularly applied MTSEA with cysteine substituted for residues from alphaVal255, one third of the distance in from the extracellular end of M2, to alphaGlu241, flanking the intracellular end of M2, but not with cysteine substituted for alphaLeu258 or alphaGlu262, at the extracellular end of M2. The reactions of MTSEA with cysteines substituted for alphaLeu258 and alphaGlu262 were considerably faster in the presence of ACh than in its absence. That QX-314 and QX-222 did not protect alphaL258C and alphaE262C against reaction with MTSEA in the presence of ACh implies that protection of the other residues was due to occlusion of the channel and not to the promotion of a less reactive state from a remote site. Given the 12-A overall length of the blockers and the alpha-helical conformation of M2 in the open state, the binding site for both blockers extends from alphaVal255 down to alphaSer248. PMID:9806969

  13. Antibacterial poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) fibrous membranes modified with quaternary ammonium moieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yao; Xin-song Li; K. G. Neoh; Zhi-long Shi; E. T. Kang

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) fibrous membranes were developed via electrospinning, followed by surface modification which involved plasma pretreatment, UV-induced graft copolymerization of\\u000a 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) and quaternization of the grafted pyridine groups with hexylbromide. The success of modification with\\u000a quaternized pyridinium groups on the PDLLA fibrous membranes was ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The\\u000a antibacterial activities of these membranes were assessed

  14. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of quaternary ammonium cephalosporins with 3-pyrazolylpyridinium derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwan Young Chang; Sung Hoon Kim; Ghilsoo Nam; Jae Hong Seo; Joong Hyup Kim; Deok-Chan Ha

    2000-01-01

    Cephalosporins with 3-pyazolylpyridinium at C-3 position, which is supposed to exhibit synergic activity of ceftazidime and cefoselis, were synthesized and their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative was inspected.

  15. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????? BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL N-SUBSTITUTED CHITOSAN DERIVATIVES CONTAINING QUATERNARY AMMONIUM FUNCTIONALITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Daly; Warayuth Sajomsang; Varawut Tangpasuthadol; Supawan Tantayanon

    ????????: ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????????????????? MIC ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4 ????????????????????????? ?????? ????????? (aliphatic) ????????? (aromatic) ?????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? (heterocyclic aromatic) ??????? ????????????? (mono, di- saccharides)?????????????????????? Schiff base ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? (intermediate) Schiff base ??????????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????????????????? (the extents of N-substitutions; ES) ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? 3-?????-2-???????????????????????????????? ??????? (Quat-188) ??????????? quaternizing agent ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (MIC) 2 ???? ??? E. coli

  16. Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe J. Harrison; Raymond J. Turner; Daniel A. Joo; Michelle A. Stan; Catherine S. Chan; Nick D. Allan; Helen A. Vrionis; Merle E. Olson; Howard Ceri

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are slimy aggregates of microbes that are likely responsible for many chronic infections as well as for contamination of clinical and industrial environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent hospital pathogen that is well known for its ability to form biofilms that are recalcitrant to many different antimicrobial treatments. We have devised a high-throughput method for testing combinations of antimicrobials

  17. Surface modification and antibacterial activity of electrospun polyurethane fibrous membranes with quaternary ammonium moieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yao; Xinsong Li; K. G. Neoh; Zhilong Shi; E. T. Kang

    2008-01-01

    A novel antibacterial material was developed by surface modification of electrospun polyurethane (PU) fibrous membranes, using a process which involved plasma pretreatment, UV-induced graft copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), and quaternization of the grafted pyridine groups with hexylbromide. The success of modification with poly(4-vinyl-N-hexyl pyridinium bromide) groups on these was ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphologies and mechanical properties

  18. Quaternary Ammonium Salts (QAS) Modified Polysiloxane Biocide Supported on Silica Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rózga-Wijas; U. Mizerska; W. Fortuniak; J. Chojnowski; R. Ha?asa; W. Werel

    2007-01-01

    Three types of silica particles modified with vinyl groups were obtained: (i) xerogel formed by hydrolytic polycondensation\\u000a of the mixture of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 1,1,1,7?tetramethoxy-3,5,7-trimethyl-3,5,7-trivinyltetrasiloxane, (ii) mesoporous\\u000a silica obtained from the same precursors in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and (iii) commercial\\u000a Fluka silica gel 60A with a vinyltriethoxysilane-treated surface. Vinyl groups on these silica materials were transformed

  19. Intriguing Role of a Quaternary Ammonium Cation in the Dissociation Chemistry of Keggin Polyoxometalate Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Li, Chenchen; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Xu, Chong; Yan, Jie; Cui, Fengyun; Hu, Changwen

    2012-02-01

    The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of Keggin polyoxometalate anions with molecular formula of TBAn[XM12O40] (X = P, Si; M = Mo, W) were studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The bare polyoxoanions [XM12O40]n- as well as the non-covalent complexes {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- and {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3- displayed characteristic dissociation pathways. Fragmentation of [XM12O40]n- led to pairs of complementary product anions whose total stoichiometry and charge matched those of the precursor anion, consistent with the previous study by Ma et al. The nature of the non-covalent interaction between [XM12O40]n- and TBA+ was addressed in detail via the example of {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)-. The non-covalent interaction [1] primarily dominated by the Coulombic attraction of the opposite charges completely changed the dissociation chemistry of [XM12O40]n-. The non-covalent complexes {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- and {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3-, formed by the charge reduction during the electrospray process, underwent distinct dissociation routes: {TBA[XM12O40]}(n-1)- fragmented to give rise to its product ion {(C4H9)[XM12O40]}(n-1)- by cleaving the N-C covalent bond inside the TBA+ cation whereas {TBAm[XM12O40]2}3- dissociated into a pair of product ions, {TBAi[XM12O40]}2- and {TBAm-i[XM12O40]}-, by breaking the non-covalent bond between [XM12O40]n- and TBA+. In addition, energy-variable CID was used to map the relative stabilities of the ion clusters in the gas phase, which was in excellent agreement with the relative orders of thermal stability in the condensed phase.

  20. Effect of a quaternary ammonium salt on propylene carbonate structure in slit-shape carbon nanopores.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akimi; Iiyama, Taku; Ohba, Tomonori; Ozeki, Sumio; Urita, Koki; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2010-02-24

    The effect of addition of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et(4)NBF(4)) on the structure of propylene carbonate (PC) confined in slit-shaped carbon nanopores of activated carbon fiber (pore width = 1.0 nm) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo simulation. PC molecules are randomly packed in the slit carbon nanopores of 1 nm in the absence of Et(4)NBF(4). Addition of Et(4)N(+) and BF(4)(-) ions promotes formation of considerably ordered double layers of PC molecules even in the highly restricted slit pore space. PC molecules can accept these ions efficiently. This structural modulation function of PC molecular assemblies should contribute to the evolution of supercapacitance in carbon nanopores. PMID:20121090

  1. Study of cyclic quaternary ammonium bromides by B3LYP calculations, NMR and FTIR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Brycki, Bogumi?; Szulc, Adrianna; Kowalczyk, Iwona

    2010-08-01

    N,N-dioctyl-azepanium, -piperidinium and -pyrrolidinium bromides 1-3, have been obtained and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations have also been carried out. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles calculated by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach have been presented. Both FTIR and Raman spectra of 1-3 are consistent with the calculated structures in the gas phase. The screening constants for 13C and 1H atoms have been calculated by the GIAO/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach and analyzed. Linear correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C chemical shifts and the computed screening constants confirm the optimized geometry. PMID:20714318

  2. Determination of quaternary ammonium pesticides by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    2001-04-20

    A method for the direct determination of paraquat, diquat, chlormequat and difenzoquat in water samples, using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed. No sample preparation was required and the detection limits were below the European Union maximum residue levels. The chromatographic separation was performed using an XTera MS C8 column. The concentration of the ion pair reagent, the pH and the gradient elution were optimized to give high recoveries and good chromatographic resolution between quats. The detection was carried out using an ion trap as mass analyzer. Parameters such as the magnitude and duration of the resonant excitation voltage and the magnitude of the trapping RF voltage for full scan tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) experiments were studied to establish the optimal experimental conditions. Moreover, the accurate optimization of these parameters allowed MS-MS experiments of low mass ions, below m/z 200, providing unambiguous peak identification. Finally, the reproducibility of the proposed method was shown by good run-to-run and day-to-day precision values and its applicability to the determination of quats in drinking water was evaluated using spiked samples. PMID:11358204

  3. Photoaffinity labeling and quaternary structure of the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    PubMed

    Hucho, F; Layer, P; Kiefer, H R; Bandini, G

    1976-08-01

    Membrane fragments from electric tissue of Torpedo californica containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are composed of four different polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 40,000 (alpha), 48,000 (beta), 62,000 (gamma), and 66,000 (delta). The alpha and beta chains are still present in all and gamma and delta in some of the receptor preparations after Triton X-100 extraction and purification by affinity chromatography. All components of the receptor react covalently with the photoaffinity label 4-azido-2-nitrobenzyltrimethylammonium fluoroborate, the delta chain incorporating less of the reagent as compared to the alpha and beta chains. Agonists and antagonists containing a quaternary ammonium group protect all chains against the label; the principal neurotoxin from Naja naja siamensis protects the alpha chain only. We conclude that the alpha chain binds the neurotoxin from Naja naja, the alpha and beta chains are involved in the binding of ligands with quaternary ammonium groups, and the function of the gamma and delta chains remains to be determined. PMID:1066671

  4. Photoaffinity labeling and quaternary structure of the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    PubMed Central

    Hucho, F; Layer, P; Kiefer, H R; Bandini, G

    1976-01-01

    Membrane fragments from electric tissue of Torpedo californica containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are composed of four different polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 40,000 (alpha), 48,000 (beta), 62,000 (gamma), and 66,000 (delta). The alpha and beta chains are still present in all and gamma and delta in some of the receptor preparations after Triton X-100 extraction and purification by affinity chromatography. All components of the receptor react covalently with the photoaffinity label 4-azido-2-nitrobenzyltrimethylammonium fluoroborate, the delta chain incorporating less of the reagent as compared to the alpha and beta chains. Agonists and antagonists containing a quaternary ammonium group protect all chains against the label; the principal neurotoxin from Naja naja siamensis protects the alpha chain only. We conclude that the alpha chain binds the neurotoxin from Naja naja, the alpha and beta chains are involved in the binding of ligands with quaternary ammonium groups, and the function of the gamma and delta chains remains to be determined. Images PMID:1066671

  5. Dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, John le G.

    1987-12-01

    Two dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate are attributed to reorientations of mixed-isotope ammonium ions. Loss peaks were observed between 20 and 40 K and obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.5 kcal/mol for the stronger relaxation. The dipole moment is of the order of 0.015 D.

  6. Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

    Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

  7. Ammonium nonanoate broadcast application over onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Racer (40% ammonium nonaoate) is a potential contact herbicide for weed control in organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determin...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  1. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Review)] Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record...order on certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Certain Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No....

  2. Structure-activity relationship of quaternary acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - outlook for early myasthenia gravis treatment.

    PubMed

    Komloova, M; Musilek, K; Dolezal, M; Gunn-Moore, F; Kuca, K

    2010-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a rare autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder mainly caused by antibodies being targeted against the muscle acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). The loss of AChRs leads to a defect in neuromuscular transmission resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Although once an often fatal illness, Myasthenia gravis can now be well managed with relatively safe and effective treatments. However, the severe myasthenic cases associated with thymus tumors remain often fatal exception in the management of the disease. The early treatment includes the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) which enhance neuromuscular transmission. To ensure a peripheral effect, charged molecules are used, particularly quaternary ammonium salts. The structure of AChEIs has been continuously modified to obtain the optimal ratio between AChE inhibition and potential side-effects. This review summarizes progress in the use of quaternary compounds as AChE inhibitors in vitro with respect to their structure and inhibitory ability. Namely, carbamic acid esters, piperidinium and pyridinium salts, bisquaternary pyridinium salts and heterogeneous quaternary inhibitors are all discussed. Among data found in the literature, many compounds have shown promising inhibition of AChE when compared to commercial standards (pyridostigmine, neostigmine). Besides a promising inhibitory ability, selectivity for AChE versus butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) for the most potent compounds (sub-nanomolar IC(50)) was also identified. PMID:20345342

  3. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  4. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: Water uptake kinetics and film permeability.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of different amounts of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) to polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs, here Eudragit RS and RL). MAS contains negatively charged SiO(-) groups, while QPM contains positively charged quaternary ammonium groups. The basic idea is to be able to provide desired water and drug permeability by simply varying the amount of added MAS. Thin, free films of varying composition were prepared by casting and exposed to 0.1M HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The water uptake kinetics and water vapor permeability of the systems were determined gravimetrically. The transport of propranolol HCl, acetaminophen, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben across thin films was studied using side-by-side diffusion cells. A numerical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to determine the apparent compound diffusion coefficients, partition coefficients between the bulk fluids and the films as well as the apparent film permeability for these compounds. The addition of MAS resulted in denser inner film structures, at least partially due to ionic interactions between the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups and the negatively charged SiO(-) groups. This resulted in lower water uptake, reduced water vapor permeability and decreasing apparent compound diffusivities. In contrast, the affinity of the investigated drugs and parabens to the films substantially increased upon MAS addition. The obtained new knowledge can be helpful for the development of novel coating materials (based on QPM-MAS blends) for controlled-release dosage forms. PMID:26004005

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol doped with nickel chloride hexahydrate as conductor polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limon, B.; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Silva-Andrade, F.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2004-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a viscous solution, with blue clear appearance, not has odor, when is deposited, as a film dry the appearance is clear transparent and has high flexibility. This polymer no has double link and don not has p orbital that permit the conductivity. However, can be doped with salts as ammonium dichromate and nickel chloride hexahydrate NiCl26H2O constructing a good conductor polymer with a resistivity around 300 ohms cm. Conserving the high flexibility opened new possibilities and applications.

  6. Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activities of Quaternary Pyridinium

    E-print Network

    Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activities of Quaternary Pyridinium Functionalized Polynorbornenesa] They found that polymers with higher cationic functionality had stronger antibacterial activity. Sepa- rately, it was shown that methacrylate based polymers with pendant pyridinium moieties exhibited antibacterial activity

  7. Tn6188 - a novel transposon in Listeria monocytogenes responsible for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M; Cotter, Paul D; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ?qacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes strains. PMID:24098567

  8. Ligand-enabled multiple absolute stereocontrol in metal-catalysed cycloaddition for construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmatsu, Kohsuke; Imagawa, Naomichi; Ooi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The development of a general catalytic method for the direct and stereoselective construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres remains a formidable challenge in chemical synthesis. Here, we report a highly enantio- and diastereoselective [3+2] annulation reaction of 5-vinyloxazolidinones and activated trisubstituted alkenes catalysed by a palladium complex bearing a newly devised phosphine ligand with a chiral ammonium salt component, which enables the single-step construction of three contiguous stereocentres, including vicinal all-carbon quaternary stereocentres, in a five-membered heterocyclic framework. This stereoselective cycloaddition protocol relies on the remarkable ability of the chiral ligand to rigorously control the absolute stereochemistry of each chiral centre associated with the multiple bond-forming events, and provides a reliable catalytic process for the asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized pyrrolidines.

  9. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  10. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  11. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment. PMID:25587644

  12. New urethane oligodimethacrylates with quaternary alkylammonium for formulating dental composites.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Popa, Ionela D; Buruiana, Emil C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare urethane dimethacrylates containing quaternary alkyl (C16, C12) ammonium and polyethylene glycol short sequences (Mn, 400 g/mol) and to investigate their behaviour in some experimental formulations in order to evaluate their potential applicability in the dental composites field. The structure of urethane dimethacrylates has been confirmed by (1)H ((13)C) NMR and FTIR spectra, as well as by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography measurements. The effects of the cationic macromers on the properties of the filled/non-filled composites were examined through FTIR, photoDSC, and specific measurements as volumetric polymerization shrinkage, water sorption/solubility, contact angle, mechanical parameters, and morphology. The monomer compositions based on cationic dimethacrylate (6.88-27.52 wt%), BisGMA-analogue (48.18-68.82 wt%) and TEGDMA (23.3 wt%) showed a good photoreactivity in terms of double bond conversion (DC, 50.07-68.81 %) and polymerization rate (Rp, 0.099-0.141 s(-1)) measured by photoDSC compared to a control sample (BisGMA-1/TEGDMA: DC, 45.91 %; Rp, 0.162 s(-1)), while the polymerization shrinkage increased in acceptable limits (5.37-7.74 vol%). The mechanical properties (compressive, flexural and diametral tensile strength) of the composite resin incorporating 70 wt% silanized zirconium silicate micro/nanopowder can be modulated by the initial co-monomer concentrations. PMID:24435527

  13. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joel B.; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)—(NH 4) 6[H 2W 12O 40]* nH 2O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a?12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application.

  14. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  15. Ice Age refugia and Quaternary extinctions: An issue of Quaternary evolutionary palaeoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John R.; Cooper, Alan

    2008-12-01

    Quaternary palaeoecology, as a discipline, involves the analysis of a large range of fossil organisms from the last ca. 2 million years. This paper considers the role that these Quaternary records can take in better understanding the evolution of those organisms. We also discuss the surprisingly low uptake of evolutionary biology in Quaternary palaeoecological studies. This leads us to encourage an advance on both these fronts with a greater degree of collaboration with phylogeographic and ancient DNA researchers. These discussions accompany a summary of a special issue of Quaternary Science Reviews representing the proceedings of the XVII INQUA held in Cairns Australia in 2007. This special issue includes papers on a wide variety of Quaternary evolutionary palaeoecological and population dynamic subjects including extinct Pacific Island palm trees, Beringian beetles, Scandinavian trees, and the effects on human and animal populations of an extraterrestrial impact event in the Late Glacial of North America.

  16. Ammonium nitrate induced cracking of a dryer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Clegg; R. Tomlins; M. J. Mackay

    2011-01-01

    After less than 1year of service, extensive cracking of two ammonium nitrate prill dryers was found. The cracking was found to be ammonium nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking and the failure was attributed to a lack of post-weld stress relieving of the fabricated structures. It was considered likely that the SCC would occur more slowly once the cracks had progressed beyond

  17. Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARC STROUS; J. GIJS KUENEN; MIKE S. M. JETTEN

    1999-01-01

    The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations

  18. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride show resistance to other membrane-active agents but not to clinically relevant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, M F; Jones, M V; Lambert, P A

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to determine whether strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can adapt to growth in increasing concentrations of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and whether co-resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents occurs. Attempts were made to determine what phenotypic alterations accompanied resistance and whether these explained the mechanism of resistance. Strains were serially passaged in increasing concentrations of BKC in static nutrient broth cultures. Serotyping and genotyping were used to determine purity of the cultures. Two strains were examined for cross-resistance to other disinfectants and antibiotics by broth dilution MIC determination. Alterations in outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expressed were examined by SDS-PAGE. Cell surface hydrophobicity and charge, uptake of disinfectant and proportion of specific fatty acid content of outer and cytoplasmic membranes were determined. Two P. aeruginosa strains showed a stable increase in resistance to BKC. Co-resistance to other quaternary ammonium compounds was observed in both strains; chloramphenicol and polymyxin B resistance were observed in one and a reduction in resistance to tobramycin observed in the other. However, no increased resistance to other biocides (chlorhexidine, triclosan, thymol) or antibiotics (ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin) was detected. Characteristics accompanying resistance included alterations in outer membrane proteins, uptake of BKC, cell surface charge and hydrophobicity, and fatty acid content of the cytoplasmic membrane, although no evidence was found for alterations in LPS. Each of the two strains had different alterations in phenotype, indicating that such adaptation is unique to each strain of P. aeruginosa and does not result from a single mechanism shared by the whole species. PMID:11909837

  20. The effect of pressure on neutron irradiated ammonium chromates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Stamouli

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pressure on neutron irradiated ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate has been studied. Compression was found to have no effect on the retention and on the M and DP yields in both salts. Pressure applied before heating was found to retard annealing in ammonium chromate, while it appeared to have no influence on the annealing of ammonium dichromate.