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Sample records for quaternary ammonium chloride

  1. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10479 Quaternary ammonium compounds... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as quaternary ammonium compounds,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10479 Quaternary ammonium compounds... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as quaternary ammonium compounds,...

  3. Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Isquith, A. J.; Abbott, E. A.; Walters, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The hydrolysis product of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms while chemically bonded to a variety of surfaces. The chemical was not removed from surfaces by repeated washing with water, and its antimicrobial activity could not be attributed to a slow release of the chemical, but rather to the surface-bonded chemical. Images PMID:4650597

  4. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  9. Resistance of Pseudomonas to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Frank W.; Geftic, Sam G.; Gelzer, Justus

    1971-01-01

    Tube dilution experiments showed that benzalkonium chloride (BC)-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of 1,000 μg of BC per ml were at least 20 times more sensitive to polymyxin B and colistin sulfate than the BC-sensitive (BCS) parent strain. BCS cells selected for resistance to 500 μg of polymyxin B per ml remained sensitive to BC. There was little difference in the amount of carbenicillin, gentamicin sulfate, or rifampin needed to prevent growth of either the BCS or BC-resistant (BCR) strains. Growth of BCR cells was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate at a concentration of 400 μg/ml or less, whereas the BCS strain grew at ethylenediaminetetraacetate levels of 10,000 μg/ml. Phenylmercuric acetate and thimerosal inhibited growth of BCR and BCS cells at concentrations of 10 μg/ml or less. BCR cells were cross-resistant to >1,000 μg/ml concentrations of five other quaternary ammonium compounds, including three with C16 alkyls and two with alkyl groups of shorter length. The BCS strain was also resistant to >1,000 μg/ml concentrations of the three quaternary ammonium compounds with C16 alkyl groups but, in addition to BC, was inhibited by 200 μg/ml levels or less of the two quaternary ammonium compounds containing alkyl groups of less than 16 carbon atoms. PMID:4998348

  10. Theoretical study of the reaction of chitosan monomer with 2,3-epoxypropyl-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chloride catalyzed by an imidazolium-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xueli; Yang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2016-08-01

    The molecular mechanism of the graft reaction of 2,3-epoxypropyl-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chloride with chitosan monomer was investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results show that the -NH2 group of chitosan monomer is more reactive than its -OH and -CH2OH groups, and the graft reaction on the -NH2 group is calculated to be exothermic by 20.5kcal/mol with a free energy barrier of 42.6kcal/mol. The reaction cannot benefit from the presence of the intruded water molecule, but can be considerably assisted by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl) ionic liquid. The reaction catalyzed by the ion-pair is calculated to be exothermic by 36.5kcal/mol and the barrier is reduced to 29.3kcal/mol, which are further corrected to 28.0 and 29.1kcal/mol by considering the solvent effect of [Amim]Cl ionic liquid. Calculated results verified the experimental finding that imidazolium-based ionic liquids can promote the reaction of chitosan with epoxy compounds. PMID:27112849

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  12. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Pyridoxine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Koshkin, Sergey A; Iksanova, Alfiya G; Sabirov, Arthur H; Kayumov, Airat R; Nureeva, Aliya A; Zeldi, Marina I; Shtyrlin, Yurii G

    2015-01-01

    A series of 26 quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities against clinically relevant bacterial strains were tested in vitro. The antibacterial activity of mono-ammonium salts increased with the rise of the lipophilicity and compound 3,3,5-trimethyl-8,8-dioctyl-1,7,8,9-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxino[5,4-d]pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-8-ium chloride (2d) reaches a maximum among them. Bis-ammonium salt of pyridoxine 4 with two dimethyloctylamine groups also demonstrated high antibacterial activity despite lower lipophilicity. The results of MTT assay indicated that HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than HSF to quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives. Compounds 2d and 4 did not induce the damage of the DNA and might be of interest in the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:25938426

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  17. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  18. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trialkylamine halides. 721.4095 Section 721.4095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  19. Radiolysis of simple quaternary ammonium salt components of Amberlite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, Surajdevprakash B.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2013-05-01

    The radiation chemical yields of gaseous products, H2 and CH4, in the radiolysis of dry methylammonium chloride, dimethylammonium chloride, trimethylammonium chloride, tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride by γ-rays and 5 MeV helium ions have been investigated. Some of these amines are the different components of the quaternary ammonium resin Amberlite, which is a strongly basic anion exchange resin based on a polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer. Molecular hydrogen yields with γ-radiolysis range from a high of 4.43 molecules per 100 eV for trimethylammonium chloride to 0.07 and 0.05 molecules per 100 eV for tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride, respectively. Yields of methane gas are generally negligible except for trimethylammonium chloride and tetramethylammonium chloride, 0.26 and 0.02 molecules per 100 eV, respectively. Isotopic labeling studies suggest that the first step in H2 production is the breakage of the Nsbnd H bond followed by abstraction of Hrad atom from the methyl groups. EPR analysis shows the formation of both N and C centered radicals. A comparison is made between the radiolysis of Amberlite and its various components.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  9. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  10. Quaternary ammonium biocides: efficacy in application.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  11. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  12. Structural Modifications to Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Coagulants to Inhibit N-Nitrosamine Formation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2016-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (Epi-DMA), are commonly used by water utilities to enhance removal of particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from raw waters. Unfortunately, chloramination of waters treated with quaternary ammonium polymers leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In this study, two approaches were developed to modify polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA to inhibit N-nitrosamine formation. The first approach involved treatment of polymers with methyl iodide (MeI), an alkylating agent, to convert polymer-bound tertiary amine groups to less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups. The second approach involved synthesis of polymers bearing less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups with dipropylamino (DPA) substituents. Treatment with MeI reduced NDMA formation from polymers by ∼75%, while synthesis of DPA-based polymers eliminated NDMA formation and formed N-nitrosodipropylamine, which is 10-fold less carcinogenic than NDMA, at 20-fold lower yields. Bench-scale jar tests demonstrated that both MeI-treated and DPA-based polymers achieved similar removal of particles and DOM as the original polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA at both low and high doses, but formed significantly less N-nitrosamines. This work demonstrates two approaches for modifying quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, which may enable water utilities to meet potential future regulations on N-nitrosamines while maintaining polymer usage to meet existing regulations. PMID:27096602

  13. Quaternary ammonium salts and their antimicrobial potential: targets or nonspecific interactions?

    PubMed

    Tischer, Maximilian; Pradel, Gabriele; Ohlsen, Knut; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years dequalinium chloride has been used successfully as an antiseptic drug and disinfectant, particularly for clinical purposes. Given the success of dequalinium chloride, several series of mono- and bisquaternary ammonium compounds have been designed and reported to have improved antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, many of them exhibit high activity against mycobacteria and protozoa, especially against plasmodia. This review discusses the structure-activity relationships and the modes of action of the various series of (bis)quaternary ammonium compounds. PMID:22113995

  14. Microtitration of various anions with quaternary ammonium halides using solid-state electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1980-01-01

    Many solid-state electrodes were found to respond as endpoint detectors in the potentiometric titration of large inorganic and organic anions with quaternary ammonium halides. The best response was obtained with the iodide and cyanide electrodes although practically any electrode can function as endpoint sensor. The titrants were hexadecylpyridinium chloride and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and Hyamine 1622 may also be used. Some inorganic anions thus titratable are perrhenate, persulfate, ferricyanide, hexafluorophosphate, and hexachloroplatinate. Examples of organic anions titratable are nitroform, tetraphenylborate, cyanotriphenylborate, picrate, long-chain sulfates and sulfonates, and some soaps. The reverse titration of quaternary ammonium halides vs dodecylsulfate is also feasible. Some titrations are feasible in a partially nonaqueous medium.

  15. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Issues Encountered in an Environmental Services Department.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Sullivan, Linda; Booker, Arica; Baker, James

    2016-03-01

    We identified several factors affecting the use of quaternary ammonium-based (Quat) disinfectant in our facility. Microfiber wipers, cotton towels, and 1 of 2 types of disposable wipes soaked in a Quat disinfectant revealed significant binding of the disinfectant. Concentrations of Quat delivered by automated disinfectant dispensers varied widely. PMID:26821275

  16. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  4. Antimicrobial cotton containing N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups by grafting copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yin; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The monomer (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTMAC) was used to treat cotton fibers by grafting copolymerization. The grafted cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM image and FTIR spectra. The treated samples with quaternary ammonium groups could decrease 96.08% of Staphylococcus aureus and 48.74% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 30 min. After chlorination with dilute sodium hypochlorite, the treated cotton fabrics containing both N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups effectively inactivated 100% (log reduction 5.82) of S. aureus and 100% (log reduction 6.26) of E. coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time. The grafting process of cotton fabric has small effect on the thermal stability and tensile strength, which favors the practical application. Compared to the traditional pad-dry-cure method to produce antibacterial materials, the radical grafting copolymerization method occurred in water without any organic solvents involved in the whole treatment.

  5. Novel immobilization of a quaternary ammonium moiety on keratin fibers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Liu, Xin; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for immobilizing a quaternary ammonium moiety on a keratinous substrate for enhanced medical applications. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in the keratin, followed by reaction with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrate was characterized with Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and assessed for its antibacterial efficacy and other performance changes. The results have demonstrated that the quaternary ammonium moiety has been effectively attached onto the keratin structure, and the resultant keratin substrate exhibits a multifunctional effect including antibacterial and antistatic properties, improved liquid moisture management property, improved dyeability and a non-leaching characteristic of the treated substrate. PMID:24971553

  6. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  7. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  8. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Dmochowska, Barbara; Sikora, Karol; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Podgórska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic. PMID:27559394

  9. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Karol; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Podgórska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic. PMID:27559394

  10. Modified quaternary ammonium salts as potential antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Nicoletta; Migotto, Mara; Ilboudo, Denise Patoinewende; Taramelli, Donatella; Stradi, Riccardo; Pini, Elena

    2015-08-01

    A series of new quaternary ammonium salts containing a polyconjugated moiety has been synthesized and characterized; their biological activity as potential antimalarial agents was investigated, as well. All compounds were screened against chloroquine resistant W-2 (CQ-R) and chloroquine sensitive, D-10 (CQ-S) strains of Plasmodium falciparum showing IC50 in the submicromolar range and low toxicity against human endothelial cells. PMID:26081764

  11. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. Thermal properties of quaternary ammonium and pyridinium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, V.P.; Khar'kov, S.N.; Logovotovskaya, V.D.; Belotserkovets, N.I.; Chegolya, A.S.

    1982-12-10

    In the present work an attempt was made at a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the chemical structure of a whole series of cation-active surfactants on the stability to temperature influences, and the general directions of the irreversible transformations at high temperature were established. As a result of a study of processes of thermal decomposition of quaternary ammonium and syridinium salts, quantitative correlations were established according to the influence of the chemical structure of the salts on the limits of thermal stability. On the basis of a detailed analysis of volatile pyrolysis products, concrete schemes of the conversions in the objects studied were proposed.

  16. Sampling and analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) traces in indoor atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Guillaume; Kopferschmitt-Kubler, Marie Christine; Mirabel, Philippe; Pauli, Gabrielle; Millet, Maurice

    2007-10-01

    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) are widely found in disinfectants used in hospitals. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) predominate in the disinfecting formulations. These compounds are strong irritants and can play a role in the induction of Occupational Asthma among the professionals of health and cleaning. In order to evaluate the potential health effect of these quaternary ammonium compounds to hospital employers, the development of an analytical method for their quantification in indoor air was developed. DDAC aerosols are trapped by adsorption on XAD-2 resin SKC tube. The air in hospital buildings was sampled using a constant debit Gillian pump at a flow of 1.0 l/min (+/-5%). Ion Chromatography (IC) was chosen for the analysis of DDAC especially for its high sensitivity and specificity. The Limit of Detection (LOD) by IC for DDAC is 0.56 mug/ml. Therefore the LOD of atmospheric DDAC is 28 microg/m(3) with an air volume of 100 l and a desorption volume of 5 ml. All DDAC air samples were lower than the LOD of the analytical method by IC. Under the standard conditions of use of the disinfecting solutions (Surfanios, Ampholysine Plus and Amphospray 41), the insignificant volatility of DDAC would not seem to be able to contaminate the indoor hospital atmosphere during the disinfection process. However, the DDAC can contaminate working atmospheres if it is put in suspension by aerosolisation. PMID:17180409

  17. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  18. 40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10666 Quaternary ammonium compounds... compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10666 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, bis... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10666 Quaternary ammonium compounds... compounds, bis(fattyalkyl) dimethyl, salts with tannins (PMN P-12-437) is subject to reporting under...

  20. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine. PMID:27083366

  1. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  2. A Novel Route to Recognizing Quaternary Ammonium Cations Using Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackman, Holly M.; Ding, Wei; Bolgar, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and elucidating structures is a commonplace and necessary activity in the pharmaceutical industry with mass spectrometry and NMR being the primary tools for analysis. Although many functional groups are readily identifiable, quaternary ammonium cations have proven to be difficult to unequivocally identify using these techniques. Due to the lack of an N-H bond, quaternary ammonium groups can only be detected in the 1H NMR spectra by weak signals generated from long-range 14N-H coupling, which by themselves are inconclusive evidence of a quaternary ammonium functional group. Due to their low intensity, these signals are frequently not detected. Additionally, ions cannot be differentiated in a mass spectrum as an M+ or [M + H]+ ion without prior knowledge of the compound's structure. In order to utilize mass spectrometry as a tool for determining this functionality, ion cluster formation of quaternary ammonium cations and non-quaternary amines was studied using electrospray ionization. Several mobile phase modifiers were compared; however, the addition of small amounts of trifluoroacetic acid proved superior in producing characteristic and intense [M +2TFA]- clusters for compounds containing quaternary ammonium cations when using negative electrospray. By fragmenting this characteristic ion using CID, nearly all compounds studied could be unambiguously identified as containing a quaternary ammonium cation or a non-quaternary amine attributable to the presence (non-quaternary amine) or absence (quaternary ammonium cation) of the resulting [2TFA + H]- ion in the product spectra. This method of analysis provides a rapid, novel, and reliable technique for indicating the presence of quaternary ammonium cations in order to aid in structural elucidation.

  3. Flocculation of Escherichia coli using a quaternary ammonium salt grafted carboxymethyl chitosan flocculant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Degorce-Dumas, Jean-Regis; Yang, Hu; Guibal, Eric; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2014-06-17

    Only few studies are available on bacteria removal efficiencies and antibacterial properties of flocculants, which is one of the important requirements in water treatment work. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was selected as an example of a Gram-negative bacteria for testing the flocculating properties of a quaternary ammonium salt grafted chitosan (carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride] copolymer; i.e., CMC-g-PDMC). The effect of various flocculation parameters, including flocculant dosage, initial bacterial density, nutrient medium content, and pH were successively investigated. The experimental results indicated that, besides flocculation effects, CMC-g-PDMC also exhibited a bactericidal effect (not requiring additional treatment facilities). Moreover, the flocculation mechanisms were investigated via zeta potential measurements, floc observation, and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra analysis. Apart from its flocculating and settling effect, this chitosan-based material has bactericidal action through the breaking of bacterial cell walls by grafted quaternary ammonium salt. PMID:24871697

  4. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  5. Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Tomohiro; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Key, William O.; William, Brantley; Agee, Kelli A.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Cadenaro, Milena; Tay, Franklin R.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) to comonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This work evaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA (60:30:10) containing 0–15 mass% QAMs A–E (A:2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride; B:[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C:[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D:diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride; E:2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate. Methods Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film t 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from square hollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the other half were tested wet after 3 days of water storage. Results Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600s after light termination, with the exception of 5% MAPTAC (p<0.05). Increase of QAM content within a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young’s moduli of ~700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass% QAMs produced significant reductions in dry Young’s moduli except for 5% B or C. 15 mass% A, B and C lowered the wet Young’s moduli of the resin beams by more than 30%. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of control dry resin was 89±11 MPa. Addition of 5–10 mass% QAMs had no adverse effect on the dry UTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p<0.05), especially when 15 wt% QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of 0.88±0.1 MPa√m. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02±0.06 (p<0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85±0.08 at 5% QAMs to 0.49±0.05 at 15% QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02±0.06 MPa√m that fell to 0.23±0.01 at 15% QAMs. Significance Addition of 10% QAMs increased the degree of conversion of

  6. Determination of quaternary ammonium biocides by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Oscar; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2004-11-26

    In this study we have developed a method for the direct determination of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) homologues and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC), generally used as biocides. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna C18 column and gradient elution. A 50 mM formic acid-ammonium formate buffer at pH 3.5 was used as aqueous phase to allow ion-pair formation with the quaternary ammonium biocides. The detection was carried out using an ion trap mass analyser and electrospray ionisation (ESI) source. Parameters such as the magnitude and duration of the resonant excitation voltage and the magnitude of the trapping RF voltage for full scan tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) experiments were studied to establish the optimal experimental conditions. Instrumental quality parameters of both liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and LC-MS-MS methods were studied and good run-to-run and day-to-day precision values (relative standard deviations, RSDs lower than 11%) and LODs down to 0.1 microg L(-1) (LC-MS-MS) were obtained. Finally, the applicability of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analysis of a spiked water sample and some commercial products containing BAC. PMID:15595655

  7. Antibacterial cotton fibers treated with silver nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan Kyu; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Soojung; Lee, Jintae; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Jaewoong

    2016-10-20

    Cotton fibers were treated chemically with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC), a quaternary ammonium salt, and coated with silver nanoparticles/3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTMS) to increase the antibacterial efficacy. The coating process was accomplished by soaking the cotton fibers into a GTAC solution followed by a dry-cure method, and silver colloid/3-MPTMS solution was then applied at 43°C for 90min. The properties of the cotton fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis. SEM showed a rough surface when the cotton fibers were treated with GTAC/3-MPTMS/silver nanoparticles due to the increasing surface attachment. The existence of silver and 3-MPTMS on the cotton fibers was confirmed by XPS. The cotton fibers treated with both GTAC and silver nanoparticles showed synergistic antibacterial properties against P. aeruginosa. PMID:27474649

  8. Quaternary ammonium derivatives as spasmolytics for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium derivatives such as cimetropium, n-butyl scopolammonium, otilonium and pinaverium bromide have been discovered and developed as potent spasmolytics of the gastrointestinal tract. Their pharmacological activity has been proven in both "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies of hypermotility. "In vitro" experiments showed that they possess antimuscarinic activity at nM level but only pinaverium and otilonium are endowed with calcium channel blocker properties. These latter compounds relaxed the gastrointestinal smooth muscle mainly through a specific inhibition of calcium ion influx through L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Molecular pharmacology trials have indicated that pinaverium and otilonium can bind specific subunits of the calcium channel in the external surface of the plasma membrane and in this way they block the machinery of the contraction. Recent evidence showed that otilonium is able to bind tachykinin NK(2) receptors and not only inhibits one of the major contractile agents but can reduce the activation of afferent nerves devoted to the passage of sensory signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thanks to their typical physico-chemical characteristics, they are poorly absorbed by the systemic circulation and generally remain in the gastrointestinal tract where they exert the muscle relaxant activity by a local activity. Some differences exists in the absorption among these compounds: both n-butyl scopolammonium and cimetropium are partially taken up in the bloodstream, pinaverium has a low absorption (8-10 %) but is endowed with an excellent hepato-biliary excretion and otilonium, which has the lowest absorption (3 %), is almost totally excreted by faeces. Quaternary ammonium derivatives are widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and recent meta-analyses have supported their efficacy in this disease. Due to its therapeutic index, the use of n-butyl scopolammonium is more indicated to treat acute

  9. Tetracalcium phosphate composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate with antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Limkangwalmongkol, Penwadee; Hack, Gary D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Chen, Qianming; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Tooth caries is a carbohydrate-modified bacterial infectious disease, and recurrent caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure. The objective of this study was to develop a novel antibacterial composite using tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) fillers and bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, which is a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). QADM was synthesized using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate and incorporated into a resin. The resin was filled with 40% TTCP and 30% glass particles. The following QADM mass fractions in the composite were tested: 0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on the composites and the colony-forming units (CFUs), metabolic activity, and lactic acid production were measured. The TTCP-QADM composite had flexural strength and elastic modulus similar to those of two commercial composites (p > 0.1). Increasing the QADM content in TTCP composite greatly decreased the bacteria growth and biofilm matrix production. There were significantly more dead bacteria with increasing QADM content. TTCP composite containing 18% QADM had biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production about half of those without QADM. Inversely linear relationships were established between QADM mass fraction and S. mutans biofilm CFU, metabolic activity, and acid production, with correlation coefficients R2 ≥ 0.98. In conclusion, TTCP-QADM composites were developed and the effect of QADM mass fraction on the antibacterial properties of the composite was determined for the first time. The novel TTCP-QADM composites possessing a strong antibacterial capability, together with calcium phosphate ion release and good mechanical properties, are promising for dental restorations to reduce biofilm growth and recurrent caries. PMID:22190356

  10. Evaluation of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Lin, Lexun

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt displays good antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics and it shows appreciable solubility in water. When added to the traditional denture material to form a resin base, it could promote good oral health by improving the oral environment. In this study, chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was added to the denture material following two different methods. After three months of immersion in artificial saliva, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and were scanned by electron microscope. The murine fibroblast cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties were also tested. The result showed no significant differences in the tensile strength and in the proliferation of murine L929 fibroblast cells. The two structures of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified denture material had different degrees of corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. These results indicate that chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material has the potential to become a new generation oral denture composite material. PMID:26718869

  11. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability. PMID:27180820

  12. Antibacterial properties of poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-06-01

    We report excellent antibacterial effect induced by amine-functionalized gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles without external excitations. The idea originates from the excellent antibacterial property of quaternary ammonium salts. The effects of poly(quaternary ammonium) and polyacrylate sodium functional groups as nanoparticle surfactants are compared to show that poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups are the main cause of the induced antibacterial effect. 99.999% of E. coli can be destructed in 10 minutes by simply mixing bacteria with nanoparticle dispersions. The effect of nanoparticle concentrations on the antibacterial property is evaluated. Time required to significantly suppress bacteria growth is studied. The result indicates that the excellent antibacterial property can be introduced to any nanomaterials by using poly(quaternary ammonium) functional groups as surfactants. The engineered nanoparticles can find enormous applications such as self-cleaning surfaces, waste water treatment, Lab-on-a-Chip devices and many more. PMID:22905506

  13. Induction of contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanism of antigen formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schallreuter, K U; Schulz, K H; Wood, J M

    1986-01-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of the eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites at the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable "ion-pairs" are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface. PMID:3830108

  14. Induction of contact drematitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanisms of antigen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, K.R.; Schulz, K.H.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites to the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable ion-pairs are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface.

  15. Antibacterial nanocomposite with calcium phosphate and quaternary ammonium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Weir, M D; Zhang, K; Xu, S M; Chen, Q; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K

    2012-05-01

    Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO(4) release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:22403412

  16. Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ventullo, Roy M.; Larson, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-chain (C12 to C18) quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the density, heterotrophic activity, and biodegradation capabilities of heterotrophic bacteria were examined in situ in a lake ecosystem. Monoalkyl and dialkyl substituted QACs were tested over a range of concentrations (0.001 to 10 mg/liter) in both acute (3 h) and chronic (21 day) exposures. In general, none of the QACs tested had significant adverse effects on bacterial densities in either acute or chronic studies. However, significant decreases in bacterial heterotrophic activity were noted in acute studies at QAC concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure of lake microbial communities to a specific monoalkyl QAC resulted in an adaptive response and recovery of heterotrophic activity. No-observable-effect level in the adapted populations was >10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure also resulted in significant increases in the number and activity of bacteria capable of biodegrading the material. The increase in biodegradation capability was observed at low (microgram per liter) concentrations which are approximately the same as realistic environmental levels. In general, our studies indicated that exposure of lake microbial communities to QACs results in the development of adapted communities which are less sensitive to potential toxic effects and more active in the biodegradation of these materials. PMID:16346991

  17. Synthesis and aggregation behavior of a hexameric quaternary ammonium surfactant.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxun; Hou, Yanbo; Xiang, Junfeng; Yu, Defeng; Wu, Chunxian; Tian, Maozhang; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2011-09-01

    A star-shaped hexameric quaternary ammonium surfactant (PAHB), bearing six hydrophobic chains and six charged hydrophilic headgroups connected by an amide-type spacer group, was synthesized. The self-assembly behavior of the surfactant in aqueous solution was studied by surface tension, electrical conductivity, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and NMR techniques. The results reveal that there are two critical aggregate concentrations during the process of aggregation, namely C(1) and C(2). The aggregate transitions are proved to be caused by the changes of the surfactant configuration through hydrophobic interaction among the hydrocarbon chains. Below C(1), PAHB may present a star-shaped molecular configuration due to intramolecular electrostatic repulsion among the charged headgroups, and large aggregates with network-like structure are observed. Between C(1) and C(2), the hydrophobic interaction among the hydrophobic chains may become stronger to make the hydrophobic chains of the PAHB molecules curve back and pack more closely, and then the network-like aggregates transfer to large spherical aggregates of ∼100 nm. Beyond C(2), the hydrophobic interaction may become strong enough to cause the PAHB molecular configuration to turn into a pyramid-like shape, resulting in the transition of the spherical large aggregates to spherical micelles of ∼10 nm. Interestingly, the PAHB displays high emulsification ability to linear fatty alkyls even at very low concentration. PMID:21797217

  18. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants: microbial adaptation, degradation and ecology.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-06-01

    Disinfectants play an important role in maintaining acceptable health standards by significantly reducing microbial loads as well as reducing, if not eliminating, pathogens. This review focuses on quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), a widely used class of organic disinfectants. Specifically, it reviews the occurrence, microbial adaptation, and degradation of QACs, focusing on recent reports on the ecology of QAC-degraders, the pathways and mechanisms of microbial adaptation which lead to resistance to QACs, as well as to antibiotics. With the help of culture-dependent and nonculture-dependent tools, as well as advanced analytical techniques, a better understanding of the fate and effect of QACs and their biotransformation products is emerging. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and conditions that result in QAC resistance and biodegradation will be instrumental in the prudent use of existing QAC formulations and foster the development of safer disinfectants. Development and implementation of (bio)technologies for the elimination of QACs from treated wastewater effluents will lessen adverse impacts to both humans and the environment. PMID:25864173

  19. Electrochemical properties of quaternary ammonium salts for electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ue, Makoto; Takeda, Masayuki; Takehara, Masahiro; Mori, Shoichiro

    1997-08-01

    The limiting reduction and oxidation potentials and electrolytic conductivities of new quaternary ammonium salts were examined for electrochemical capacitor applications, whose anions have already been tested as lithium salts for lithium battery applications. The anodic stability was in the following order BR{sub 4}{sup {minus}} < ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {le} CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} < (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup {minus}} {le} C{sub 4}F{sub 9}SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} < BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} < PF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} {le} AsF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} < SbF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}. The electrolytic conductivities of Me{sub 4{minus}n}Et{sub n}N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N (n = 0--4) were examined in comparison with Me{sub 4{minus}n}Et{sub n}NBF{sub 4} counterparts. These imide salts showed good solubility, relatively high conductivity, and anodic stability in propylene carbonate. Et{sub 4}N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N was found to be a good supporting salt for low permittivity organic solvents, and it afforded a highly conductive electrolyte system based on the ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate mixed solvent, which is useful for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  20. Interaction of ochratoxin A with quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Szente, Lajos; Matisz, Gergely; Secenji, Györgyi; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely spread nephrotoxic food contaminant mycotoxin. Unfortunately, attenuation or prevention of the toxic effects of OTA is still an unresolved problem. Molecular inclusion of OTA by cyclodextrins (CDs) results in complexes with low stability. In the human organism, OTA exists mostly in the dianionic state (OTA(2-)). Therefore, our major goal was to develop a chemically modified cyclodextrin which gives a more stable complex with OTA than the previously published derivatives and which shows stronger preference towards OTA(2-). In our fluorescence spectroscopic study we demonstrate that quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin (QABCD) fulfils both of these requirements. The calculated stability constant of the QABCD-OTA(2-) complex was 28,840 M(-1) (about 200-fold higher than that of the β-CD-OTA(2-) complex). We hypothesize, that QABCD may be a suitable tool for the decontamination of different OTA-contaminated drinks; furthermore, for alleviation of the toxic effects of OTA, such complex formation may reduce its absorption from the intestine. PMID:25442535

  1. The comparative effects of feeding ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride on urinary calcium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Cole, D E

    1987-11-01

    When either sulfate or chloride is added to the diet, the resulting acid load causes a rise in urinary calcium excretion. There is, however, the possibility that sulfate, which has been shown to complex renal tubular calcium, will further decrease renal calcium reabsorption and thus produce a greater calciuria than chloride. Because addition of a fixed cation (e.g., sodium) to the diet may also stimulate calciuresis, experiments were conducted using metabolizable ammonium to minimize cation effects. Ammonium salts of sulfate, chloride, and carbonate (control) were added to the diets of male rats at 0.3 mequiv./g weight of diet. Twenty-four hour excretion rates of calcium, sulfate, chloride, and net acid were measured at various intervals up to 1 month. As expected, the chloride and sulfate diets were both associated with significantly elevated urine calcium and net acid excretion as compared with controls. However, those fed sulfate exhibited significantly less calcium and acid excretion and absorbed a smaller proportion of the anion load than those given chloride. In a second experiment, the amounts of supplemental sulfate and chloride were adjusted so that total absorptions were similar. At 2 weeks, both calcium and acid excretions in the fixed anion groups were no longer significantly different. Thus, in chronic feeding trials, there appears to be no measurable difference in the calciuretic properties of sulfate and chloride anions. PMID:3449184

  2. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  3. Aqueous ammonia and ammonium chloride hydrates: Principal infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2013-08-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra of aqueous ammonia (NH3) and aqueous ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) were recorded by attenuated total reflectance to obtain their molecular organizations. Factor analysis (FA) of the spectra revealed two hydrates for each species: (NH3)2ṡH2O and NH3ṡ3H2O; NH·HO; and (NH4+,Cl)·3HO, respectively. The hydrate spectra and species abundances were obtained as a function of total concentrations. From this the equilibrium equation between the two ammonia hydrates was determined: 2[(NH)2·HO]+5(HO)2⇌4[NH·3HO] with its equilibrium constant Kα = (2.3 ± 0.6) × 10-5 L3 mol-3. Similarly, for the two ammonium chloride hydrates the equation is 2[(NHCl)2·HO]+5(HO)2⇌4[NHCl·3HO] with its equilibrium constant: Kβ = (4 ± 1) × 10-7 L3 mol-3. Band simulations of the hydrate spectra were compared to that of pure liquid water and parent molecules. For aqueous ammonium chloride solutions the water and all ammonium hydrate bands are slightly displaced from that of pure water and pure ammonium chloride, respectively. However, for ammonia hydrates the situation is different: compared to the gas situation the hydrate water bands have similar displacements as that of pure liquid water; the ammonia deformation bands are also little displaced but the stretching bands are strongly red shifted. These shifts, which are even greater than that in pure liquid water, are attributed to strong hydrogen bonding situations: water-H with N-ammonia and ammonia-H with O-water. This explains the high solubility of ammonia in water. The comparison between the spectra of aqueous ammonium chloride and ammonia hydrates indicates that ammonium ion is not present in aqueous ammonia from 11.3 M down to at least our detection limit of 3 mM NH3.

  4. Inhibition of biofouling by modification of forward osmosis membrane using quaternary ammonium cation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang-Hee; Yu, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-01-01

    In the operation of the forward osmosis (FO) process, biofouling of the membrane is a potentially serious problem. Development of an FO membrane with antibacterial properties could contribute to a reduction in biofouling. In this study, quaternary ammonium cation (QAC), a widely used biocidal material, was conjugated with a silane coupling agent (3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride) and used to modify an FO membrane to confer antibacterial properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that the conjugated QAC was successfully immobilized on the FO membrane via covalent bonding. Bacterial viability on the QAC-modified membrane was confirmed via colony count method and visualized via bacterial viability assay. The QAC membrane decreased the viability of Escherichia coli to 62% and Staphylococcus aureus to 77% versus the control membrane. Inhibition of biofilm formation on the QAC modified membrane was confirmed via anti-biofilm tests using the drip-flow reactor and FO unit, resulting in 64% and 68% inhibition in the QAC-modified membrane against the control membrane, respectively. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified membrane in reducing bacterial viability and inhibiting biofilm formation, indicating the potential of QAC-modified membranes to decrease operation costs incurred by biofouling. PMID:26287832

  5. Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joe J.; Turner, Raymond J.; Joo, Daniel A.; Stan, Michelle A.; Chan, Catherine S.; Allan, Nick D.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are slimy aggregates of microbes that are likely responsible for many chronic infections as well as for contamination of clinical and industrial environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent hospital pathogen that is well known for its ability to form biofilms that are recalcitrant to many different antimicrobial treatments. We have devised a high-throughput method for testing combinations of antimicrobials for synergistic activity against biofilms, including those formed by P. aeruginosa. This approach was used to look for changes in biofilm susceptibility to various biocides when these agents were combined with metal ions. This process identified that Cu2+ works synergistically with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; specifically benzalkonium chloride, cetalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, myristalkonium chloride, and Polycide) to kill P. aeruginosa biofilms. In some cases, adding Cu2+ to QACs resulted in a 128-fold decrease in the biofilm minimum bactericidal concentration compared to that for single-agent treatments. In combination, these agents retained broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that also eradicated biofilms of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Cholerasuis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. To investigate the mechanism of action, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to show that Cu2+ and QACs do not interact in aqueous solutions, suggesting that each agent exerts microbiological toxicity through independent biochemical routes. Additionally, Cu2+ and QACs, both alone and in combination, reduced the activity of nitrate reductases, which are enzymes that are important for normal biofilm growth. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that Cu2+ and QACs are effective combinations of antimicrobials that may be used to kill bacterial biofilms. PMID:18519726

  6. Fusion and Thermal Degradation Behavior of Symmetric Sulfur-Containing Quaternary Ammonium Bromides.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thai L Y; Poiroux, Kaitlyn; O'Brien, Richard A; West, Kevin N; Davis, James H; West, Christy Wheeler

    2016-02-25

    Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in consumer products and industrial processes, where their instability at elevated temperatures limits their range of applications. In this work, the thermal behavior of a new class of quaternary ammonium salts was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. These salts contain a sulfur atom in each chain at the fourth position from the central nitrogen and are thus termed thiaquats. The temperatures at which these salts melt and thermally degrade were determined, and enthalpies and entropies of fusion were evaluated. Their melting points increase with chain lengths, in contrast to the behavior of traditional quaternary ammonium salts. Furthermore, they exhibit enthalpies and entropies of fusion significantly lower than corresponding tetraalkyl analogues. These trends provide physical insight into the molecular-level behavior of these salts, suggesting that they do not fully dissociate upon melting. The thiaquats also exhibit thermal stability to markedly higher temperatures than traditional quaternary ammonium bromides, a phenomenon that can be explained in by strong pairing between the quaternary cation and bromide anion, which inhibits possible decomposition mechanisms. This enhanced thermal stability may enable applications of these salts in processes where traditional salts are not viable, such as phase-transfer-catalyzed systems performed at elevated temperatures. PMID:26849572

  7. Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from quaternary ammonium salts functionalized soybean oil based polyols.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Yari, Abbas; Saeedi-Eslami, Seyyed Nasirodin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a simple and versatile synthetic approach was developed to prepare bactericidal polyurethane coatings. For this purpose, introduction of both quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with well-known antibacterial activity, and reactive hydroxyl groups on to the backbone of soybean oil was considered. Epoxidized soybean oil was reacted with diethylamine and the intermediate tertiary amine containing polyol was reacted with two different alkylating agents, methyl iodide and benzyl chloride, to produce MQAP and BQAP, respectively. These functional polyols were reacted with different diisocyanate monomers to prepare polyurethane coatings. Depending on the structure of monomers used for the preparation of polyurethane coatings, initial modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of samples were in the ranges of 122-339 MPa, 4.6-12.4 MPa and 8.4-46%, respectively. Polyurethane coatings based on isophorone diisocyanate showed proper mechanical properties and adhesion strength (0.41 MPa) for coating application. Study of fibroblast cells interaction with prepared polyurethanes showed promising cells viability in the range of 78-108%. Meanwhile, MQAP based samples with higher concentration of QASs showed better adhesion strength, surface hydrophilicity and antibacterial activity (about 95% bacterial reduction). Therefore, these materials can find applications as bactericidal coating for biomedical devices and implants. PMID:25428057

  8. Incidence of Class 1 Integrons in a Quaternary Ammonium Compound-Polluted Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, W. H.; Abdouslam, N.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of effluent and soil were collected from a reed bed system used to remediate liquid waste from a wool finishing mill with a high use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and were compared with samples of agricultural soils. Resistance quotients of aerobic gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to ditallowdimethylammomium chloride (DTDMAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were established by plating onto nutrient agar containing 5 μg/ml or 50 μg/ml DTDMAC or CTAB. Approximately 500 isolates were obtained and screened for the presence of the intI1 (class 1 integrase), qacE (multidrug efflux), and qacEΔ1 (attenuated qacE) genes. QAC resistance was higher in isolates from reed bed samples, and class 1 integron incidence was significantly higher for populations that were preexposed to QACs. This is the first study to demonstrate that QAC selection in the natural environment has the potential to coselect for antibiotic resistance, as class 1 integrons are well-established vectors for cassette genes encoding antibiotic resistance. PMID:15855499

  9. Direct spectorphotometric assay of quaternary ammonium compounds using bromthymol blue.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J B

    1979-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, and chlorhexidine gluconate were assayed quantitatively by a direct spectrophotometric method with bromthymol blue buffered at pH 7.5. The method shows good results at concentrations of 0--300 microgram/ml and in the presence of epinephrine bitartrate, phenylephrine hydrochloride, pilocarpine hydrochloride, and polyvinyl alcohol. PMID:758444

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Synthesized Quaternary Ammonium Polyamidoamine Dendrimers and Dendritic Polymer Network.

    PubMed

    Zainul Abid, C K V; Jackeray, Richa; Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Asif, S; Singh, Harpal

    2016-01-01

    Water treatment to mitigate microbial contaminants is a major challenge across globe paving the way to develop novel antimicrobial compounds. We aim at architecting antibacterial moiety eventually catering to vast water treatment industry. In this research study, quaternary ammonium functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and PAMAM-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) dendritic polymer network were synthesized. These materials were characterized by various analytical techniques like ATR-FTIR, 1HNMR, DSC etc. Water soluble generation (G) 1.0 PAMAM dendrimer and water insoluble PAMAM G1.0 EGDMA dendritic polymer network were quaternized by reacting with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCI) and octyl iodide (01) respectively. Both quaternary ammonium dendrimer products were found to exhibit potent bactericidal activity against a group of common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. 10 mg/L concentration of liquid PAMAM G1.0 QHCI was efficient to kill 100% bacteria rapidly within an incubation time of just 2 minutes. In addition, quaternary ammonium dendritic polymer network PAMAM G1.0-EGDMA Q OI demonstrated good contact killing antimicrobial property without releasing any active molecule into the surrounding medium and disinfected contaminated water within 5 minutes. Both quaternary ammonium dendrimer and dendritic polymer network showed negligible cytotoxicity in MTT assay indicating their potential as a viable antimicrobial agent. PMID:27398560

  11. Development of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Linkers for Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Burke, Patrick J; Hamilton, Joseph Z; Pires, Thomas A; Setter, Jocelyn R; Hunter, Joshua H; Cochran, Julia H; Waight, Andrew B; Gordon, Kristine A; Toki, Brian E; Emmerton, Kim K; Zeng, Weiping; Stone, Ivan J; Senter, Peter D; Lyon, Robert P; Jeffrey, Scott C

    2016-05-01

    A quaternary ammonium-based drug-linker has been developed to expand the scope of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) payloads to include tertiary amines, a functional group commonly present in biologically active compounds. The linker strategy was exemplified with a β-glucuronidase-cleavable auristatin E construct. The drug-linker was found to efficiently release free auristatin E (AE) in the presence of β-glucuronidase and provide ADCs that were highly stable in plasma. Anti-CD30 conjugates comprised of the glucuronide-AE linker were potent and immunologically specific in vitro and in vivo, displaying pharmacologic properties comparable with a carbamate-linked glucuronide-monomethylauristatin E control. The quaternary ammonium linker was then applied to a tubulysin antimitotic drug that contained an N-terminal tertiary amine that was important for activity. A glucuronide-tubulysin quaternary ammonium linker was synthesized and evaluated as an ADC payload, in which the resulting conjugates were found to be potent and immunologically specific in vitro, and displayed a high level of activity in a Hodgkin lymphoma xenograft. Furthermore, the results were superior to those obtained with a related tubulysin derivative containing a secondary amine N-terminus for conjugation using previously known linker technology. The quaternary ammonium linker represents a significant advance in linker technology, enabling stable conjugation of payloads with tertiary amine residues. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 938-45. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26944920

  12. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... antimicrobial agent, as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied to the sugar juice in the following quantities, based on the weight of the raw cane: Component Parts...

  13. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antimicrobial agent, as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied to the sugar juice in the following quantities, based on the weight of the raw cane: Component Parts...

  14. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... antimicrobial agent, as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied to the sugar juice in the following quantities, based on the weight of the raw cane: Component Parts...

  15. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antimicrobial agent, as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied to the sugar juice in the following quantities, based on the weight of the raw cane: Component Parts...

  16. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter, in raw sugar cane juice. It is added prior to clarification when further processing of the sugar cane juice must be delayed. (d) The additive is applied to the sugar juice in the following quantities, based on the weight of the raw cane: Component Parts per million n-Dodecyl dimethyl...

  17. Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E. ); Daniels, R.D. . School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1992-08-15

    Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.

  18. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride...

  19. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride...

  20. New synthetic aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts as anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Doona; Yang, Jee Sun; Oh, Changmok; Cui, Shuolin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Won, Misun; Lee, Jang-ik; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-11-01

    RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24095759

  1. Selective removal and inactivation of bacteria by nanoparticle composites prepared by surface modification of montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida K S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare new nanocomposites with antibacterial activities by surface modification of montmorillonite using quaternary ammonium compounds that are widely applied as disinfectants and antiseptics in food-processing environments. The intercalation of four quaternary ammonium compounds namely benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate into montmorillonite layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial influences of the modified clay variants against important foodborne pathogens differed based on modifiers quantities, microbial cell densities, and length of contact. Elution experiments through 0.1 g of the studied montmorillonite variants indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes were the most sensitive strains. 1 g of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide intercalated montmorillonites demonstrated maximum inactivation of L. monocytogenes populations, with 4.5 log c.f.u./ml units of reduction. In adsorption experiments, 0.1 g of tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate montmorillonite variants significantly reduced the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus populations by 5.77, 6.33, and 7.38 log units respectively. Growth of wide variety of microorganisms was strongly inhibited to undetectable levels (chloride montmorillonite variants. This investigation highlights that reduction in counts of microbial populations adsorbed to the new nanocomposites was substantially different from that in elution experiments, where interactions of nanocomposites with bacteria were specific and more complex than simple ability to inactivate. Treatment columns packed with modified variants maintained their inactivation capacity to the growth of Salmonella Tennessee and S. aureus populations after 48 h of incubation

  2. Morphology Control of Zn-SiO2 Composite Films Electrodeposited from Aqueous Solution Containing Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgai, T.; Ogushi, K.; Takao, K.

    2013-03-01

    Zn-SiO2 alloys were electrodeposited from acidic aqueous solution containing cationic surfactants such as diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, trimethyl-tetradecyl-ammonium chloride, trimethyl-stearyl-ammonium chloride and dimethyl-distearyl-ammonium chloride. Zn-SiO2 alloy thin films were obtained at the wide current density range from 5 A/dm2 to 100 A/dm2. SiO2 content in deposits was ca. 10 % at the maximum using the solution containing a surfactant with molecular weight range of 200 to 300.

  3. Preparation and antibacterial properties of gelatin grafted with an epoxy silicone quaternary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Li, Junying; Sha, Zuoliang; Zhang, Wenyu; Tao, Furong; Yang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin (GE) was modified with epoxy silicone quaternary ammonium salt (EPSiQA) under alkaline conditions (pH 10-11). Silyl and quaternary ammonium groups were linked to gelatin skeleton simultaneously. It was illustrated by XRD and DSC that the short-range order of GE is destroyed and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of GE drops 10 °C after modification. The measured contact angles and surface free energy calculated by Owens-Wendt equation showed that the surface energy of modified gelatin EPSiQA-GE is mainly contributed by the dispersive component of non-polarity silicone groups, the hydrophobility of EPSiQA-GE increases with the increase of grafted silicone units in gelatin. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration indicated that EPSiQA-GE has bactericidal property against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and has no antibacterial effect on mold. PMID:27093873

  4. Influence of immobilized quaternary ammonium group surface density on antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Alex; Mierczynska, Agnieszka; Barton, Mary; Majewski, Peter; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of medical devices causes infections and is a significant problem in healthcare. The use of antibacterial coatings is considered as a potential solution to this problem and has attracted a great deal of attention. Using concentration density gradients of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds it was demonstrated that a specific threshold of surface concentration is required to induce significant bacterial death. It was determined that this threshold was 4.18% NR4(+) bonded nitrogen with a surface potential of + 120.4 mV. Furthermore, it is shown for the first time that adhesion of constituents of the culture medium to the quaternary ammonium modified surface eliminated any cytotoxicity towards eukaryotic cells such as primary human fibroblasts. The implications of this type of surface fouling on the antimicrobial efficacy of surface coatings are also discussed. PMID:26691649

  5. Analysis of Trace Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) in Vegetables Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lei; Wang, Xiong-Ke; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-08-01

    A reliable, sensitive, and cost-effective method was developed for determining three quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) including dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, and didodecyldimethylammonium chloride in various vegetables using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The variety and acidity of extraction solvents, extraction times, and cleanup efficiency of sorbents were estimated to obtain an optimized procedure for extraction of the QACs in nine vegetable matrices. Excellent linearities (R(2) > 0.992) were obtained for the analytes in the nine matrices. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.7-6.0 and 2.3-20.0 μg/kg (dry weight, dw) in various matrices, respectively. The recoveries in the nine matrices ranged from 70.5% to 108.0% with relative standard deviations below 18.0%. The developed method was applied to determine the QACs in 27 vegetable samples collected from Guangzhou in southern China, showing very high detection frequency with a concentration of 23-180 μg/kg (dw). PMID:26165915

  6. Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts onto kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhua, Xu; Yuehua, Hu; Faqin, Dong; Hao, Jiang; Houqin, Wu; Zhen, Wang; Ruohua, Liu

    2015-06-01

    Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) onto kaolinite have been investigated by flotation tests. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were used as collectors for kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm, 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm, 0 ~ 0.045 mm). The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite have been further explained based on crystal structure considerations by adsorption tests and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the flotation recovery of kaolinite in all different particle size fractions decreases with an increase in pH. As the concentration of collectors increases, the flotation recovery increases. The longer the carbon chain of QAS is, the higher the recoveries of coarse kaolinite (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm and 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm) are. But the flotation recovery of the finest kaolinite (0 ~ 0.045 mm) decreases with chain lengths of QAS collectors increasing, which is consistent with the flotation results of unscreened kaolinite (0 ~ 0.075 mm). It is explained by the froth stability related to the residual concentration of QAS collector in mineral pulp. In lower residual concentration, the froth stability becomes worse. Within the range of flotation collector concentration, it's easy of CTAC to be completely adsorbed by kaolinite in the particle size fraction (0-0.045 mm), which led to lower flotation recovery. Moreover, it is interesting that the coarser particle size of kaolinite is, the higher flotation recovery is. The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite is rationalized based on crystal structure considerations. The results of MD simulations show that the (001) kaolinite surface has the strongest interaction with DTAC, compared with the (00 1) face, (010) and (110) edges. On the other hand, when particle size of kaolinite is altered, the number of basal planes and edge planes is changed. It is observed that the finer kaolinite

  7. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-10-01

    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10 mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. PMID:25303389

  8. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  9. 75 FR 40729 - Residues of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, N-Alkyl (C12-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Exemption In the Federal Register of November 28, 2007 (72 FR... 12-18 ) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. (73 FR 49101) (August 20, 2008). The commenter mistakenly... Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted...

  10. Microbial Community Degradation of Widely Used Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R.; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K.; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Spain, Jim C.

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments. PMID:24951783

  11. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T.; Pentecost, G.

    1993-12-01

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  12. Photoinduced Phase Separation of a Mixed Film of a Photochromic Amorphous Molecular Material and a Quaternary Ammonium Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Ryoji; Nakano, Hideyuki

    2013-03-01

    Phase separation of the mixed film of an azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular material, 4-[bis(9,9-dimethylfluoren-2-yl)amino]azobenzene, and a quaternary ammonium salt, tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate, could be induced to form dissipative self-assembled microstructures not only by heating but also by photoirradiation. Fabrication of a micropattern and a relief grating composed of the quaternary ammonium salt by irradiation of the film followed by rinsing with hexane was demonstrated. The present study indicates that the mixed films of amorphous molecular materials and quaternary salts are novel candidates for micro- and nano-patterning materials.

  13. Immobilization of quaternary ammonium salts on grafting particle polystyrene/SiO 2 and preliminary study of application performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Qi, Changsheng; Liu, Qing

    2008-04-01

    Polystyrene (PSt) was grafted on the surface of silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from" in a solution polymerization system, and grafting particles PSt/SiO 2 was obtained. The chloromethylation reaction of the grafted polystyrene was performed using a novel chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which is un-carcinogenic, and grafting particles CMPS/SiO 2 was gained. Subsequently, grafted CMPS was quaternized (denoted as QPS) using tertiary amine, and finally functional composite-type particles QPS/SiO 2, on which quaternary ammonium groups were immobilized, were prepared. The catalysis activity of the particle QPS/SiO 2 as a triphase catalyst in phase-transfer catalysis systems and its antibacterial activity as a water-insoluble antibacterial material were studied preliminarily. The experimental results show that the particle QPS/SiO 2 exhibits higher catalysis activity as a triphase catalyst for the reaction between benzyl chloride in organic phase and sodium acetate in aqueous phase to form benzyl acetate, and under a mild condition of 60 °C for 7 h of reaction time a conversion of 66% for benzyl chloride can be obtained. The particle QPS/SiO 2 has high antibacterial activity as a water-insoluble antibacterial material against Escherichia coli ( E. coli).

  14. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)-Directed Detoxification of Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride (DMAE-CB)

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lequn; Wang, Yingjie; Tian, Min; Yang, Yanwei; Sun, Jinlong; Ban, Jinghao; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) is a polymerizable antibacterial monomer and has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve bioactive bonding with reliable bacterial inhibitory effects. However, the toxicity of DMAE-CB may hamper its wide application in clinical situations. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of DMAE-CB and explore the possible protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that chemical binding of NAC and DMAE-CB occurred in a time dependent manner. Pre-incubation of fourty-eight hours is required for adequate reaction between DMAE-CB and NAC. DMAE-CB reduced human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) viability in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effects of DMAE-CB were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. NAC alleviated DMAE-CB-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that DMAE-CB induced apoptosis. Collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 were also observed after DMAE-CB treatment. NAC rescued hDPCs from DMAE-CB-induced apoptosis, accompanied by lower level of MMP loss and caspase-3 activity. This study assists to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of DMAE-CB and provides theoretical supports for the searching of effective strategies to reduce toxicity of quaternary ammonium dental monomers. PMID:26274909

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries. PMID:24722581

  16. Medicinal studies of dimeric phenols with multiple quaternary-ammonium pendant arms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Weng, Xiao-Cheng; Song, Yang; Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Yi

    2007-05-01

    A series of biphenol-derived quaternary ammonium salts, originally developed as DNA-cross-linking agents, and carrying either two (i.e., 1) or four (i.e., 2) net positive charges, were investigated for their in vitro DNA-transcription- and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activities. The effects of charge and type of linker between the two phenolic residues were systematically investigated. Several compounds showed good activities in both tests, which makes them potential lead candidates for drug design. PMID:17511008

  17. Reversible phase transformation-type layer shape electrolyte based on POM and quaternary ammonium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuefei; Li, Yunyan; Wu, Qingyin; Ding, Hong; Yan, Wenfu

    2014-02-01

    A novel kind of organic-inorganic layer shape material, polyoxymetalates (POM)-type ionic liquid (IL) with Keggin structure and simple quaternary ammonium salt, (TOAMe)4PW11VO40 (trioctylmethylammonium = TOAMe,…) is synthesized and characterized by IR, UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD), TG-DTA. Its electrochemical property was investigated by cyclic voltammgram. Research results released the vanadium and the POM structure in the compound can process reduction in DMSO, which is unlikely in water solution as a simple hydrated ion because water will protonize substrate.

  18. Reduction of quaternary ammonium-induced ocular surface toxicity by emulsions: an in vivo study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liang, H.; Brignole-Baudouin, F.; Rabinovich-Guilatt, L.; Mao, Z.; Riancho, L.; Faure, M.O.; Warnet, J.M.; Lambert, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the toxicological profiles of two quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and cetalkonium chloride (CKC), in standard solution or cationic emulsion formulations in rabbit eyes using newly developed in vivo and ex vivo experimental approaches. Methods Seventy eyes of 35 adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. They were randomly divided into five groups: 50 µl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PBS containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Sol and CKC Sol, respectively), and emulsion containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Em and CKC Em, respectively) were applied to rabbit eyes 15 times at 5-min intervals. The ocular surface changes induced by these eye drops were investigated using slit-lamp examination, flow cytometry (FCM), impression cytology (IC) on conjunctiva, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Standard immunohistology in cryosections was also examined for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45+ infiltrating and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)+ apoptotic cells. Results Clinical observations and IVCM showed that the highest toxicity was induced by BAK Sol, characterized by damaged corneal epithelium and a high level of inflammatory infiltration. BAK Em and CKC Sol presented moderate effects, and CKC Em showed the lowest toxicity with results similar to those of PBS. Conjunctival imprints analyzed by FCM showed a higher expression of RLA-DR and TNFR1 markers in BAK Sol-instilled eyes than in all other groups, especially at 4 h. Immunohistology was correlated with in vivo and ex vivo findings and confirmed this toxicity profile. A high level of infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells and TUNEL+ apoptotic cells was observed in limbus and conjunctiva, especially in QAC solution-receiving eyes compared to QAC emulsion-instilled eyes. Conclusions The acute administration of 15 instillations at 5 min intervals was a rapid and

  19. The association effect of quaternary ammonium salt on carboxymethyl cellulose and its analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Chanjuan; Yang, Shengke

    2015-01-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) has been extensively used in petroleum, geology, common household chemicals, food, medicine and other industries, owing to its excellent water-soluble, emulsifying, water retention and film forming properties. It is known as 'industrial monosodium glutamate'. However, the research of the test method on CMC is far behind the research of its actual application value. This study showed that, weak acid or weak basic medium, the carboxyl groups dissociated from CMC, existing as a big negative ion, which can form ion-association complexes with some quaternary ammonium cations through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The absorption spectrum changes and Triton-X100 can increase the sensitivity of the system. The maximum absorption wavelengths are, respectively, about 256 nm for dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (LTAB), 244 nm for tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB) and 240 nm for cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) with CMC. The reactions show very high sensitivities and the maximum molar absorption coefficients are 1.10 × 10(4) L/(mol·cm) for LTAB system, 1.24 × 10(6) L/(mol·cm) for TTAB system and 1.78 × 10(6) L/(mol·cm) for CTAB system. This method is simple and rapid, and can be applied for the spectrophotometric determination of trace CMC in the supernatant of centrifuged drilling mud. PMID:26360741

  20. Anti-herpesviral effects of a novel broad range anti-microbial quaternary ammonium silane, K21.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Nitish; Kimmerling, Kirk; Johnston, Allen D; Krueger, Gerhard R; Ablashi, Dharam V; Prusty, Bhupesh K

    2016-07-01

    We have created a novel quaternary ammonium silane, K21 through sol-gel chemistry, using an ethoxylated version of an organosilane quaternary ammonium compound and TetraEthyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) as precursors. Previous studies using the precursor molecule quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and a methacryloxy version of K21, primarily designed for use in dental healthcare, have shown inhibited growth properties against several types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Candida albicans etc. Here we tested the effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 in in vitro cell culture infection models. Our results show growth inhibitory effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 infection. PMID:27181377

  1. Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Yudovin-Farber, Ira; Bahir, Ran; Domb, Abraham J; Weiss, Ervin I

    2006-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles embedded at 1%w/w with clinically used bonding, flowable and hybrid dental composite resins and cured by light polymerization was studied. The antibacterial activity was tested with Streptoccocus mutans by: (i) the agar diffusion test (ADT); (ii) the direct contact test; (iii) bacterial growth in the materials elute; (iv) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (p<0.001) was found in all three types of composite resins incorporated with the synthesized nanoparticles. The effect lasted for at least 1 month. SEM demonstrated bacterial debris and no streptococcal chains at 24h of bacterial contact. The addition of 1%w/w of nanoparticles did not affect the flexural modulus and the flexural strength of the dental composite materials. The results indicate that quaternary ammonium PEI nanoparticles immobilized in resin-based materials have a strong antibacterial activity upon contact without leach-out of the nanoparticles and without compromise in mechanical properties. PMID:16564083

  2. In Vitro Activity of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants against Streptococcal, Chlamydial, and Gonococcal Infective Agents.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Ângela S; Nunes, Alexandra; Milho, Catarina; Mota, Luís Jaime; Borrego, Maria J; Gomes, João P; Vaz, Winchil L C; Vieira, Otília V

    2016-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are widely used, cheap, and chemically stable disinfectants and topical antiseptics with wide-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Within this group of compounds, we recently showed that there are significant differences between the pharmacodynamics of n-alkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants (QAS) with a short (C12) alkyl chain when in vitro toxicities toward bacterial and mammalian epithelial cells are compared. These differences result in an attractive therapeutic window that justifies studying short-chain QAS as prophylactics for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and perinatal vertically transmitted urogenital infections (UGI). We have evaluated the antimicrobial activities of short-chain (C12) n-alkyl QAS against several STI and UGI pathogens as well as against commensal Lactobacillus species. Inhibition of infection of HeLa cells by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis was studied at concentrations that were not toxic to the HeLa cells. We show that the pathogenic bacteria are much more susceptible to QAS toxic effects than the commensal vaginal flora and that QAS significantly attenuate the infectivity of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis without affecting the viability of epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa. N-Dodecylpyridinium bromide (C12PB) was found to be the most effective QAS. Our results strongly suggest that short-chain (C12) n-alkyl pyridinium bromides and structurally similar compounds are promising microbicide candidates for topical application in the prophylaxis of STI and perinatal vertical transmission of UGI. PMID:26976875

  3. Theoretical studies on CO2 capture behavior of quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Kun; Chen, Kexian; Hou, Chenglong; Fang, Mengxiang

    2016-05-14

    Quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) are novel CO2 sorbents as they have high capacity, high stability and high binding energy. Moreover, the binding energy of ionic pairs to CO2 is tunable by changing the hydration state so that the sorbent can be regenerated through humidity adjustment. In this study, theoretical calculations were conducted to reveal the mechanism of the humidity swing CO2 adsorption, based on model compounds of quaternary ammonium cation and carbonate anions. The electrostatic potential map demonstrates the anion, rather than the cation, is chemically preferential for CO2 adsorption. Further, the proton transfer process from water to carbonate at the sorbent interface is successfully depicted with an intermediate which has a higher energy state. By determining the CO2 adsorption energy and activation energy at different hydration states, it is discovered that water could promote CO2 adsorption by reducing the energy barrier of proton transfer. The adsorption/desorption equilibrium would shift to desorption by adding water, which constitutes the theoretical basis for humidity swing. By analyzing the hydrogen bonding and structure of the water molecules, it is interesting to find that the CO2 adsorption weakens the hydrophilicity of the sorbent and results in release of water. The requirement of latent heat for the phase change of water could significantly reduce the heat of adsorption. The special "self-cooling" effect during gas adsorption can lower the temperature of the sorbent and benefit the adsorption isotherms. PMID:27115032

  4. Reversible hemostatic properties of sulfabetaine/quaternary ammonium modified hyperbranched polyglycerol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiying; Weinhart, Marie; Lai, Benjamin; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran; Brooks, Donald E

    2016-04-01

    A library of hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) functionalized with different mole fractions of zwitterionic sulfabetaine and cationic quaternary ammonium ligands was synthesized and characterized. A post-polymerization method was employed that utilized double bond moieties on the dendritic HPG for the coupling of thiol-terminated ligands via UV initiated thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The proportions of different ligands were precisely controlled by varying the ligand concentration during the irradiation process. The effect of the polymer library on hemostasis was investigated using whole human blood. It was found that polymer with ≥40% of alkenes converted to positive charges and the remainder to sulfabetaines caused hemagglutination at ≥1 mg/mL, without causing red blood cell lysis. The quaternary ammonium groups can interact with the negative charged sites on the membranes of erythrocytes, which provides the bioadhesion. The zwitterionic sulfabetaine evidently provides a hydration layer to partially mask the adverse effects that are likely to be caused by cationic moieties. The polymer was also found able to enhance platelet aggregation and activation in a concentration and positive charge density-dependent manner, which would contribute to initiating hemostasis. In a variety of other assays the material was found to be largely biocompatible. The polymer-induced hemostasis is obtained by a process independent of the normal blood clotting cascade but dependent on red blood cell agglutination, where the polymers promote hemostasis by linking erythrocytes together to form a lattice to entrap the cells. PMID:26885776

  5. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells. PMID:26447826

  6. Polydimethylsiloxane-polymethacrylate block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Zhou, Fang; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    Block copolymers PDMS-b-PDMAEMA were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization involving N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) macro-chain transfer agent. And, the tertiary amino groups in PDMAEMA were quaternized with n-octyliodide to provide quaternary ammonium salts (QPDMAEMA). The well-defined copolymers generated composition variation and morphology evolvement on film surfaces, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that the enrichment of QPDMAEMA brought about lower elemental ratios of Si/N on the film surfaces. The surface morphologies evolved with the variations of QPDMAEMA content, and the variation trend of film roughness was exactly opposite to that of water contact angle hysteresis. With regard to structure-antimicrobial relationships, the copolymer films had more evident antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis, and the surfaces with heterogeneous morphology and higher N+ content presented better antimicrobial activity. The functionalized copolymers based PDMS and quaternary ammonium salts materials have the potential applications as antimicrobial coatings.

  7. Porous polymers bearing functional quaternary ammonium salts as efficient solid catalysts for the fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Sheng; Zhu, Dongliang; Zou, Yan; Zhao, Jing

    2016-07-01

    A series of porous polymers bearing functional quaternary ammonium salts were solvothermally synthesized through the free radical copolymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) and functionalized quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained polymers feature highly cross-linked matrices, large surface areas, and abundant halogen anions. These polymers were evaluated as heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2 in the absence of co-catalysts and solvents. The results revealed that the synergistic effect between the functional hydroxyl groups and the halide anion Br- afforded excellent catalytic activity to cyclic carbonates. In addition, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least five cycles without significant loss in activity.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts for anticancer chemotherapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jee Sun; Song, Doona; Ko, Won Jin; Kim, Bunyea; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Park, Song-Kyu; Won, Misun; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Kyeong; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects involving induction of RhoB. Most of these compounds, featuring open-ring forms of aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts, exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities in human cancer cell lines, including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. In further evaluation, the representative compound N,N-diethyl-N-(2-(N-methyltetradecanamido)ethyl)prop-2-en-1-aminium bromide (3b) exhibited potent pro-apoptotic activity, through RhoB activation, in HeLa cells. PMID:23567950

  9. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  10. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Sekhavat Pour, Zahra; Makvandi, Pooyan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2015-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing antibacterial polymeric materials. In the present work, novel antibacterial cross-linked blend films were prepared based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary ammonium starch (ST-GTMAC) using citric acid (CA) as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linker. The ST-GTMAC was successfully synthesized from reaction between water-soluble oxidized starch and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). The effect of ST-GTMAC, CA and GA contents on the swelling, solubility, mechanical and thermal properties of the films was investigated. It was found that incorporation of ST-GTMAC reduced UV-transmittance and provided antibacterial properties, increasing GA content increased tensile strength and decreased solubility and swelling degree of the films, while CA acted as plasticizer when its concentration was above 10 wt%. The results showed that ST-GTMAC/PVA/CA/GA film has fair antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These results suggest that the prepared film might be used as potential antibacterial material in medical and packaging applications. PMID:26188297

  11. Crystal structures of three new N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L.; Toscano, Rubén A.; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo­methyl­ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN+·I−, (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di­phenyl­but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], C20H25IN+·I−, (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di­phenyl­pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN+·I−, (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di­phenyl­hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo­methyl-N,N-di­methyl­ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I− inter­actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an ‘enanti­opure’ compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯I− and C—H⋯π inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C—H⋯I− inter­actions which, together with the I⋯I− inter­actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I− inter­actions, there are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present. PMID:26594414

  12. Crystal structures of three new N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Múnera-Orozco, Carolina; Ocampo-Cardona, Rogelio; Cedeño, David L; Toscano, Rubén A; Ríos-Vásquez, Luz Amalia

    2015-10-01

    In the crystals of the title N-halo-methyl-ated quaternary ammonium salts, C19H23IN(+)·I(-), (I) [systematic name: N-(4,4-di-phenyl-but-3-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], C20H25IN(+)·I(-), (II) [systematic name: N-(5,5-di-phenyl-pent-4-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], and C21H27IN(+)·I(-), (III) [systematic name: N-(6,6-di-phenyl-hex-5-en-1-yl)-N-iodo-methyl-N,N-di-methyl-ammonium iodide], there are short I⋯I(-) inter-actions of 3.564 (4), 3.506 (1) and 3.557 (1) Å for compounds (I), (II) and (III), respectively. Compound (I) crystallizes in the Sohncke group P21 as an 'enanti-opure' compound and is therefore a potential material for NLO properties. In the crystal of compound (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯I(-) and C-H⋯π inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of ribbons along [100]. In (II), there are only C-H⋯I(-) inter-actions which, together with the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, lead to the formation of helices along [010]. In (III), apart from the I⋯I(-) inter-actions, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present. PMID:26594414

  13. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y.

    2007-01-01

    A one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms is described for a widely used bioactive drug: chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. After conversion to its free base, the parent drug was methylated using substoichiometric amounts of methyl iodide dissolved in ether; the charged quaternary…

  14. Combined Hydrous Ferric Oxide and Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Tailoring of Granular Activated Carbon for Concurrent Arsenate and Perchlorate Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, M.; Cannon, F; Parette, R; Yoon, S; Chen, W

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was tailored with both iron and quaternary ammonium surfactants so as to concurrently remove both arsenate and perchlorate from groundwater. The iron (hydr)oxide preferentially removed the arsenate oxyanion but not perchlorate; while the quaternary ammonium preferentially removed the perchlorate oxyanion, but not the arsenate. The co-sorption of two anionic oxyanions via distinct mechanisms has yielded intriguing phenomena. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) with these dually prepared media employed synthetic waters that were concurrently spiked with arsenate and perchlorate; and these trial results showed that the quaternary ammonium surfactants enhanced arsenate removal bed life by 25-50% when compared to activated carbon media that had been preloaded merely with iron (hydr)oxide; and the surfactant also enhanced the diffusion rate of arsenate per the Donnan effect. The authors also employed natural groundwater from Rutland, MA which contained 60 microg/L As and traces of silica, and sulfate; and the authors spiked this with 40 microg/L perchlorate. When processing this water, activated carbon that had been tailored with iron and cationic surfactant could treat 12,500 bed volumes before 10 microg/L arsenic breakthrough, and 4500 bed volumes before 6 microg/L perchlorate breakthrough. Although the quaternary ammonium surfactants exhibited only a slight capacity for removing arsenate, these surfactants did facilitate a more favorably positively charged avenue for the arsenate to diffuse through the media to the iron sorption site (i.e. via the Donnan effect).

  15. Quaternary ammonium compounds can be abundant in some soils and are taken up as intact molecules by plants.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Studies of organic nitrogen (N) cycling and uptake by plants have focused on protein amino acids, but the soil solution includes organic N compounds from many other compound classes. The two aims of this study were to characterize the 30-50 most abundant molecules of small (< 250 Da), nonpeptide organic N in the soil solution from six soils, and to determine if two ecologically disparate species (nonmycorrhizal Banksia oblongifolia and mycorrhizal Triticum aestivum) have the ability to take up intact molecules of three quaternary ammonium compounds (betaine, carnitine and acetyl-carnitine). Protein amino acids were dominant components of the pool of small nonpeptide organic N in all soils. The most abundant other compound classes were quaternary ammonium compounds (1-28% of nonpeptide small organic N) and nonprotein amino acids (3-19% of nonpeptide small organic N). B. oblongifolia and T. aestivum took up intact quaternary ammonium compounds from dilute hydroponic solution, while T. aestivum growing in field soil took up intact quaternary ammonium compounds injected into soil. Results of this study show that the pool of organic N in soil is more diverse and plants have an even broader palate than is suggested by most of the literature on organic N. PMID:23397895

  16. Electrochemical co-deposition of magnesium with lithium from quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Matsumoto, Mami; Egashia, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    Electrochemical deposition of magnesium (Mg) has been successfully achieved from an ionic liquid (IL) solution based on quaternary ammonium salt containing lithium (Li) salt. Irreversible electrochemical behavior was generally observed in the IL-based electrolytes containing simple Mg salt. In the IL-based electrolyte dissolving both Mg and Li salts, electrochemical reduction and oxidation of magnesium cation (Mg 2+) have become detectable. Such reversible processes correspond respectively to cathodic deposition and anodic dissolution of metallic Mg, which are accompanied by the co-deposition/co-dissolution of Li. Potentiostatic electrolysis of IL dissolving binary Mg and Li salts gave metallic deposit consisting of both elements with total current efficiency of ca. 52%.

  17. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  18. Bio-based ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts: properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Renjith; Rao, Talasila P; Devaki, Sudha J

    2014-03-26

    In the present work, we describe the preparation, properties, and applications of novel ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts (QSs) of 3-pentadecylphenol, a bio-based low-cost material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. Amphotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in QSs was characterized using a combination of techniques, such as DSC, PLM, XRD, SEM, and rheology, which revealed the formation of one, two, and three dimensionally ordered mesophases in different length scales. On the basis of these results, a plausible mechanism for the formation of specific modes of packing in various mesophases was proposed. Observation of anisotropic ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability suggests their application as a solid electrolyte. PMID:24571658

  19. Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium salts of polyoxometalate anions: Fluorous biphasic oxidation catalysis with and without fluorous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Maayan, Galia; Fish, Richard H.; Neumann, Ronny

    2003-05-28

    Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium cations, [CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}CH{sub 3}N{sup +} (RFN{sup +}), were synthesized and used as counter cations for the [WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 12-} (M = Mn(II), Zn(II)), polyoxometalate. The (RFN{sup +}){sub 12}[WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW9O{sub 34}){sub 2}] compounds were fluorous biphasic catalysts for alcohol and alkenol oxidation, and alkene epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Reaction protocols with or without a fluorous solvent were tested. The catalytic activity and selectivity was affected both by the hydrophobicity of the solvent and the substrate.

  20. Biotreatment on cellulose fluff pulp: quaternary ammonium salts finish and grafting with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Ghemati, Djamila; Oudia, Atika; Aliouche, Djamel; Lamouri, Saad

    2009-11-01

    For its potential performances to be expanded, cellulose needs to be processed in different ways. Therefore, an object of the present work was to provide a chemical modification of cellulose through: a specific finish with two quaternary ammonium salts (namely Aliquat 336 and Aliquat 1529, respectively). Chemical grafting of beta-cyclodextrin derivative (beta-CD) onto fibers followed by the inclusion of benzoic acid in the grafted CD cavities as a probe chemical. Physicochemical properties and performances of the untreated and treated fibers have been determined with infrared spectra, microscopy, swelling measurements, antimicrobial finishing tests, and dye adsorption. Our results show that cellulose fibers can be efficiently modified with no significant changes in its structural and surface properties; the treated fibers show an attractive behavior in swelling, dye adsorption and antibacterial activity. PMID:19089647

  1. Low Temperature Double-Layer Capacitors Using Asymmetric and Spiro-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J. (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors capable of operating at extremely low temperatures (e.g., as low as -80.degree. C.) are disclosed. Electrolyte solutions combining a base solvent (e.g., acetonitrile) and a cosolvent are employed to lower the melting point of the base electrolyte. Example cosolvents include methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, propionitrile, butyronitrile, and 1,3-dioxolane. A quaternary ammonium salt including at least one of triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) and spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF.sub.4), is used in an optimized concentration (e.g., 0.10 M to 0.75 M), dissolved into the electrolyte solution. Conventional device form factors and structural elements (e.g., porous carbon electrodes and a polyethylene separator) may be employed.

  2. Preparation and characterization of quaternary ammonium chitosan hydrogel with significant antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Yang, Jing; Wu, Huan; Hu, Zhihai; Yi, Jiayan; Tong, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan (HACC)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogels were prepared using gamma radiation. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was characterized using FT-IR. The results revealed that HACC, PVA and PEO were perfectly compatible and interacted via the hydrogen bonds. As revealed by SEM, scaffolds with a homogeneous interconnected pore structure were obtained after lyophilizing the hydrogels. The influence of different radiation doses and weight ratios on properties including gel content, swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties were investigated. It indicated that the hydrogels had the good swelling ability, water evaporation rate and mechanical properties. In vitro antibacterial activity assessment, the hydrogels exhibited a pronounced inhibitory effect against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Therefore, the hydrogels showed a promising potential to be applied as wound dressing. PMID:25895959

  3. Dental primer and adhesive containing a new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Arola, Dwayne D.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main reason for restoration failure is secondary caries caused by biofilm acids. Replacing the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all operative work. The objectives of this study were to incorporate a new quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg) into a primer and an adhesive, and to investigate their effects on antibacterial and dentin bonding properties. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) served as control. DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated with NAg into primer/adhesive. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the new DMADDM were orders of magnitude lower than those of a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Uncured primer with DMADDM had much larger inhibition zones than QADM (p<0.05). Cured primer/adhesive with DMADDM-NAg greatly reduced biofilm metabolic activity (p<0.05). Combining DMADDM with NAg in primer/adhesive resulted in less CFU than DMADDM alone (p<0.05). Lactic acid production by biofilms was reduced by 20-fold via DMADDM-NAg, compared to control. Incorporation of DMADDM and NAg into primer/adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. Conclusions A new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated into primer/adhesive for the first time. The bonding agents are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at tooth-restoration margins to inhibit caries. DMADDM and NAg are promising for use into a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:23353068

  4. Cationic curdlan: Synthesis, characterization and application of quaternary ammonium salts of curdlan.

    PubMed

    Suflet, Dana M; Popescu, Irina; Pelin, Irina M; Nicolescu, Alina; Hitruc, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble curdlan derivatives containing quaternary ammonium groups with a degree of substitution up to 0.15 were synthesized using different cationic agents in alkaline medium. The chemical structure of curdlan derivatives was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The influence of some reaction conditions (temperature, time, and molar ratio) on the degree of substitution and the viscosimetic behaviour were studied. The degree of substitution increased with the amount of the cationization agent per anhydroglucose unit and was higher when the glycidyl reagents were used, compared with the case when the reagents contained chloro-hydroxypropyl groups. The viscosity behaviour of these new derivatives of curdlan in aqueous solutions and the values of intrinsic viscosities calculated using different semi-empirical equations denote a high hydrodynamic dimension of the macromolecular coils. The interaction of these cationic curdlan derivatives with an anionic curdlan (monobasic curdlan phosphate) was studied in situ by turbidimetric measurements and after 24h by optical density and dynamic light scattering. The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes was influenced by the degree of substitution, the nature of the quaternary substituent, and by the ionic strength of the aqueous solution. The morphology of the polyelectrolyte complexes particles in dry state was examined by atomic force microscopy. PMID:25843873

  5. High levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 using ammonium chloride as the sole nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Kekez, B D; Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Jakovljevic, D M; Stefanovic Kojic, J R; Markovic, M D; Beskoski, V P; Vrvic, M M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 isolated from a petroleum sludge sample was investigated. High levan yield was obtained in a wide range of sucrose concentrations (up to 400 g/L) and, contrary to most levan-producing strains, using ammonium chloride as the sole N source. Interaction between sucrose, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium in a low sucrose (60-200 g/L) and a high sucrose (300-400 g/L) system was analyzed by response surface methodology. According to the calculated model in the low sucrose system, maximum predicted levan yield was 47.8 g/L (sucrose 196.8 g/L, ammonium chloride 2.4 g/L, pH 7.0), while in the high sucrose system, levan yield was 99.2 g/L (sucrose 397.6 g/L, ammonium chloride 4.6 g/L, pH 7.4). In addition, protective effect of microbial levan against copper toxicity to Daphnia magna is observed for the first time. The acute toxicity (48 h EC50) of copper decreased from 0.14 to 0.44 mg/L by levan in concentration of 50 ppm. PMID:25592434

  6. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING...

  7. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING...

  8. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING...

  9. Effect of cotton pectin content and bioscouring on alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous research has shown both the rate and the total amount of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) exhausted from a bulk solution of ADBAC are significantly greater for greige cotton nonwovens than cotton nonwovens that have been both scoured and bleached. The presence of pectin ...

  10. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on differently pretreated nonwoven cotton substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  11. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  12. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  13. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  14. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  15. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...) Amount. One tablet per 15 to 30 pounds of body weight every 4 to 6 hours.1 (2) Indications for use....

  16. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  17. Effect of ten quaternary ammonium cations on tetrachloromethane sorption to clay from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The mineral surface of Wyoming bentonite (clay) was modified by replacing inorganic ions by each of 10 quaternary ammonium compounds, and tetrachloromethane sorption to the modified sorbents from water was studied. Tetrachloromethane sorption from solution to clay modified with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, benzyltrimethyl-, or benzyltriethylammonium cations generally is characterized by relatively high solute uptake, isotherm nonlinearity, and competitive sorption (with trichloroethene as the competing sorbate). For these sorbents, the ethyl functional groups yield reduced sorptive capacity relative to methyl groups, whereas the benzyl group appears to have a similar effect on sorbent capacity as the methyl group. Sorption of tetrachloromethane to clay modified with dodecyldimethyl(2-phenoxyethyl)-, dodecyltrimethyl-, tetradecyltrimethyl-, hexadecyltrimethyl-, or benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide is characterized by relatively low solute uptake, isotherm linearity, and noncompetitive sorption. For these sorbents, an increase in the size of the nonpolar functional group(s) causes an increase in the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc). No measurable uptake of tetrachloromethane sorption by the unmodified clay or clay modified by ammonium bromide was observed. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  18. Quaternary ammonium salts with tetrafluoroborate anion: Phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact of four quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TEA][BF4], tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TBA][BF4], tetrahexylammonium tetrafluoroborate [THA][BF4], and tetraoctylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TOA][BF4] on the growth and development of spring barley and common radish. Analogous tests were performed with the inorganic salt ammonium tetrafluoroborate [A][BF4] for comparison purposes. Results indicated that the phytotoxicity of the QAS applied is dependent on the concentration of the substance and their number of carbon atoms. The most toxic compound was [TBA][BF4], causing the greatest drop in fresh weight of both study plants, similar to the phytotoxic effects of [A][BF4]. All the tested compounds caused oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish seedlings due to a drop in the chlorophyll content. Stress was also observed in plants, which was indicated by the increased level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) such as H2O2 and lipid peroxidation of MDA (malondialdehyde). Due to the stress, both plants displayed changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that changes in chlorophyll levels and peroxidase activity are the best biomarkers to determine oxidative stress in plants. PMID:26551221

  19. Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

    2014-11-26

    Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

  20. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). Design: We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. Results: We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX−M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX−M9 plus bla SHV−12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens. PMID:27462306

  1. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-15

    A new borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}(i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) N{sup +} cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents. - Graphical abstract: The new quaternary ammonium borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 17}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] contains a 3D supramolecular network formed by hydrogen bond linked [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions and shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, excitation light, and solvents. Highlights: ► A novel quaternary ammonium borate was synthesized. ► It possesses a supramolecular network fomed by H-bonded [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions. ► This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating treatment, excitation light, and solvents.

  2. The Nature of Excess Intercalation of a Quaternary Ammonium Compound in Smectite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafer, D. A.; Giese, R.

    2010-12-01

    Particular clay minerals, such as the French green clay used by Brunet de Courssou in the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans, have intrinsic antibacterial properties that surpass those of most conventional antibiotic treatments. The antimicrobial properties of the French green clay, comprised of 24% Fe-illite and 50% Fe-smectite, have been reproduced by a synthetically generated organically modified smectite (organoclay). The quaternary ammonium compound hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) must undergo a cation exchange process in excess of the calculated cation exchange capacity (CEC) to render the clay antimicrobial. This work explores the position of the excess bonding within the clay lattice so as to challenge the hydrophobic bonding hypothesis proposed by Zhao et al (2003) concerning excess intercalation. After determining the CEC of BP smectite, organoclays were produced containing concentrations of one, two, and three times the CEC of HDTMA. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) on a scale of 2 to 20 degrees 2theta was conducted on each of the three organoclays to infer the loading capacity of the smectite by means of the clay’s d-spacing as a proxy for expansion. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitatively determined the surfactant retained on the clay by measuring the residual HDTMA in solution after extracting the organoclay. The d-spacing of the three organoclays implied that the first CEC of HDTMA entered the interlayer as an anion by means of a cation exchange process while the second and third CEC were incorporated into the clay lattice by means of a “hydrophobic bonding” mechanism in which the excess surfactants formed associations with the counterion Br+. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra will be collected to determine the specific attachment of the excess bonding within the clay structure.

  3. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  4. Oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish exposed to quaternary ammonium salts with hexafluorophosphate anion.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Pawłowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), including ionic liquids (ILs), constitute a huge group of substances, which due to their desirable physical and chemical properties still attracts great interest in many industrial sectors. An increased concentration of this compound in the environment may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may pose a potential threat to all organisms, including terrestrial higher plants. The present study demonstrates the interaction of three QAS with PF6(-) anions - tetramethylammonium [TMA][PF6], tetrabutylammonium [TBA][PF6], and tetrahexylammonium [THA][PF6] hexafluorophosphates - and its impact on the physiological and biochemical changes in spring barley seedlings and common radish plants. A similar study was also carried out by introducing the inorganic salt - ammonium hexafluorophosphate [A][PF6] to the soil; the results showed the soil became highly toxic to both plants. All the salts used led to significant changes in the metabolism of both spring barley and common radish which can be evidenced, for example, by a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), and total chlorophyll (Chla + b), as well as carotenoids (Car). The decrease in assimilation pigments was linearly correlated with an increasing concentration of QAS in the soil. QAS and [A][PF6] led to the formation of oxidative stress in both experimental plants, as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in their cells and the changes in H2O2 level. In response to stress, the plants synthesized enzymatic free radicals (ROS) scavengers that lead to changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as significantly increased peroxidase (POD) activity. A decrease in the content of assimilation pigments and an increased POD activity are the most reliable indices of oxidative stress, and concurrently the signs of premature plants aging. Common radish proved to be more resistant to the

  5. Porous polymers bearing functional quaternary ammonium salts as efficient solid catalysts for the fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng; Zhu, Dongliang; Zou, Yan; Zhao, Jing

    2016-12-01

    A series of porous polymers bearing functional quaternary ammonium salts were solvothermally synthesized through the free radical copolymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) and functionalized quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained polymers feature highly cross-linked matrices, large surface areas, and abundant halogen anions. These polymers were evaluated as heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2 in the absence of co-catalysts and solvents. The results revealed that the synergistic effect between the functional hydroxyl groups and the halide anion Br(-) afforded excellent catalytic activity to cyclic carbonates. In addition, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least five cycles without significant loss in activity. PMID:27365001

  6. Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minghua; Gu, Guotuan; Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol-gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the top layer of the surface lowered the surface free energy. Textiles coated with this coating showed excellent water repellent property, and water contact angle (CA) increased from 133° on cotton fabrics treated with pure PFSC without silica sol pretreatment up to 145°. The oil repellency was also improved and the contact angle of CH 2I 2 droplet on the fabric surface reached to 131°. In contrast, the contact angle of CH 2I 2 on the fabric surface treated with pure PFSC was only 125°.

  7. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April-June 1982. [Ammonium paramolybdate; stannous chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments have been carried out in a stirred autoclave under nitrogen. Tetralin was employed as solvent, and the catalyst, when used, was ammonium paramolybdate (impregnated) or stannous chloride (powdered). Production of pentane-soluble oil was higher in the runs with catalysts, but the net hydrogen transfer from tetralin to coal was less when catalyst was used. Coal and powdered stannous chloride exhibited a marked synergistic effect on the dehydrogenation of tetralin. A free radical mechanism was suggested to explain this effect, and model experiments with bibenzyl (but no coal) gave results that were consistent with this mechanism. An apparent synergistic effect of coal and impregnated ammonium paramolybdate was shown to be attributable simply to improved distribution (higher surface area) of the impregnated catalyst.

  8. Asymmetric trifluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes by cooperative catalysis with (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoxiang; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qi; Chen, Fu-Xue

    2012-12-21

    A general enantioselective trifluoromethylation of aldehydes has been developed using (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt as the cooperative catalyst. Thus, a wide range of aromatic aldehydes have been converted to the corresponding products in up to 92% yield and 81% ee at 2 mol% of catalyst loading. The greatly enhanced activity and enantioselectivity result from the initiative generation of active [(IPr)CuCF(3)] as well as additional coordination activation of other copper species. PMID:23085678

  9. The controlled synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles in quaternary ammonium ionic liquids by simple heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Shimou; Liu, Yusheng; Fu, Haiying; Wu, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    Stable gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colloids were synthesized in a class of quaternary ammonium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (QAILs), [Me3NC2H4OH] + [ZnnCl2n + 1] - (n = 1 or 2), by heating in air at 135-145 °C. The QAIL was employed as a solvent, a reducing agent, and as a stabilizer. The size of the QAIL-AuNPs can be varied between 20 and 40 nm by changing the reaction temperature. A symproportionation reaction was employed to further decrease the size of the AuNPs by the addition of Au3 + ions. The surface covering of QAIL on the AuNPs had a significant impact on their surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which was red-shifted. The AuNPs synthesized by this simple and environmentally friendly reaction can be realized in several minutes and also exhibit high stability and good reproducibility, providing a new facile approach to metal nanoparticle preparation.

  10. Fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fang; Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-01

    Symmetrically structured fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) were sequentially synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chain transfer agent with dithiocarbonate groups at both ends. Then, the CBABC-type block copolymers were quaternized with n-octyliodide to tether quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) groups in the PDMAEMA blocks for the antimicrobial use. The obtained fluorosilicone copolymers showed clear variations in the C-N+ composition and surface morphology on their films depending on the content of the PHFBMA blocks, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the symmetrical CBABC structure favored PDMS and QAS tethered blocks migrating to the film surface. With the mass percentage of the PHFBMA increased from 0 to 32.5%, the surface roughness of the copolymer film decreased gradually with a tendency to form a smooth surface. Owing to the surface properties, fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing a certain amount of PHFBMA with higher C-N+ content and relatively smooth morphology demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. The functionalized multi-block copolymers based on fluorosilicone and QAS groups would have potential applications in antimicrobial coatings.

  11. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-Na; Kemp, Lisa K; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-Pin; Blizzard, John D; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G; Messer, Regina L W; Wu, Christine D; Mao, Jing; Bryan Brister, L; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Arola, Dwayne D; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    The design of antimicrobial polymers to address healthcare issues and minimize environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially hydrolyzed QAMS co-polymerized with 2,2-[4(2-hydroxy 3-methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. The kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is the Focus of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Toxicity to Mammalian Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Costa, Gabriel N.; Domingues, Neuza S.; Santos, Maria S.; Moreno, António J. M.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants have long been known to have microbicidal action and have been extensively used as antiseptics and disinfectants for a variety of general hygiene and clinical purposes. Among surfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are known to be the most useful antiseptics and disinfectants. However, our previous toxicological studies showed that QAC are also the most toxic surfactants for mammalian cells. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie QAC toxicity is a crucial first step in their rational use and in the design and development of more effective and safer molecules. We show that QAC-induced toxicity is mediated primarily through mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian columnar epithelial cell cultures in vitro. Toxic effects begin at sublethal concentrations and are characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. At very low concentrations, several QAC act on mitochondrial bioenergetics through a common mechanism of action, primarily by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration initiated at complex I and, to a lesser extent, by slowing down coupled ADP phosphorylation. The result is a reduction of cellular energy charge which, when reduced below 50% of its original value, induces apoptosis. The lethal effects are shown to be primarily a result of this process. At higher doses (closer to the critical micellar concentration), QAC induce the complete breakdown of cellular energy charge and necrotic cell death. PMID:23529737

  13. A novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized lesions in tooth enamel around orthodontic brackets are caused by acids from cariogenic biofilm. This study aimed to develop a novel antibacterial orthodontic cement by incorporating a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) into a commercial orthodontic cement, and to investigate the effects on microcosm biofilm response and enamel bond strength. DMADDM, a recently-synthetized antibacterial monomer, was incorporated into orthodontic cement at 0%, 1.5%, 3% and 5% mass fractions. Bond strength of brackets to enamel was measured. A microcosm biofilm model was used to measure metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and colony-forming units (CFU) on orthodontic cements. Shear bond strength was not reduced at 3% DAMDDM (p > 0.1), but was slightly reduced at 5% DMADDM, compared to 0% DMADDM. Biofilm viability was substantially inhibited when in contact with orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM. Biofilm metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and CFU were much lower on orthodontic cement containing DMADDM than control cement (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM inhibited oral biofilms without compromising the enamel bond strength, and is promising to reduce or eliminate demineralization in enamel around orthodontic brackets. PMID:25035230

  14. Ionic Compatibilization of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Quaternary Ammonium Salt and Their Melt Extrusion with Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmaiah, Malladi; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    On account to their high mechanical properties along with high reinforcing capacity, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) could be the ultimate choice for polymer nanocomposites as filler. Recently, different strategies have been investigated for the melt extrusion of CNC-based polymer nanocomposites because it is a solvent-free process and because this technique is more viable for commercial industrialization. However, most thermoplastic polymers are processed at high temperatures, and sulfuric acid preparation of CNC limits the processing because of surface sulfate groups degradation. In this study we profitably used these negatively charged groups, and quaternary ammonium salt was ionically adsorbed on CNC by a simple aqueous method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize adsorbed CNC, and changes in polarity were investigated by contact angle measurements. Modified CNC was extruded with polypropylene at 190 °C, and the ensuing composites were characterized in terms of mechanical (by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests), thermal (by differential scanning calorimetry), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy) properties. The melt rheology of PP-based nanocomposites was also reported. PMID:26990597

  15. Building a Better Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC): Branched Tetracationic Antiseptic Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Forman, Megan E; Jennings, Megan C; Wuest, William M; Minbiole, Kevin P C

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria contaminate surfaces in a wide variety of environments, causing severe problems across a number of industries. In a continuation of our campaign to develop novel antibacterial quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as useful antiseptics, we have identified a starting material bearing four tertiary amines, enabling the rapid synthesis of several tris- and tetracationic QACs. Herein we report the synthesis and biological activity of a series of 24 multiQACs deemed the "superT" family, and an investigation of the role of cationic charge in antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity, as well as toxicity. This class represents the most potent series of QACs reported to date against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) as low as 0.25 and 25 μm, respectively. Based on the significant cell-surface-charge differences between bacterial and eukaryotic cells, in certain cases we observed excellent efficacy-to-toxicity profiles, exceeding a 100-fold differential. This work further elucidates the chemical underpinnings of disinfectant efficacy versus toxicity based on cationic charge. PMID:27245743

  16. Unique inner pore properties of BK channels revealed by quaternary ammonium block.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyan; Aldrich, Richard W

    2004-07-01

    Potassium channels have a very wide distribution of single-channel conductance, with BK type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels having by far the largest. Even though crystallographic views of K(+) channel pores have become available, the structural basis underlying BK channels' large conductance has not been completely understood. In this study we use intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium compounds to probe the pore of BK channels. We show that molecules as large as decyltriethylammonium (C(10)) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA) have much faster block and unblock rates in BK channels when compared with any other tested K(+) channel types. Additionally, our results suggest that at repolarization large QA molecules may be trapped inside blocked BK channels without slowing the overall process of deactivation. Based on these findings we propose that BK channels may differ from other K(+) channels in its geometrical design at the inner mouth, with an enlarged cavity and inner pore providing less spatially restricted access to the cytoplasmic solution. These features could potentially contribute to the large conductance of BK channels. PMID:15197222

  17. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review on occurrence, fate and toxicity in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Cui, Fang; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zhong-zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang; Zhu, Meng-ying; Shen, Liu-qing

    2015-06-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely applied in household and industrial products. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. Although QACs are considered to be aerobically biodegradable, the degradation is affected by its chemical structures, dissolved oxygen concentration, complexing with anionic surfactants, etc. High abundance of QACs has been detected in sediment and sludge samples due to its strong sorption and resistance to biodegradation under anoxic/anaerobic conditions. QACs are toxic to a lot of aquatic organisms including fish, daphnids, algae, rotifer and microorganisms employed in wastewater treatment systems. And antibiotic resistance has emerged in microorganisms due to excessive use of QACs in household and industrial applications. The occurrence of QACs in the environment is correlated with anthropogenic activities, such as wastewater discharge from WWTPs or single source polluters, and sludge land application. This article also reviews the analytical methods for determination of QACs in environmental compartments including surface water, wastewater, sewage sludge and sediments. PMID:25770948

  18. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: An Antimicrobial Mainstay and Platform for Innovation to Address Bacterial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Megan C; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2015-07-10

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have represented one of the most visible and effective classes of disinfectants for nearly a century. With simple preparation, wide structural variety, and versatile incorporation into consumer products, there have been manifold developments and applications of these structures. Generally operating via disruption of one of the most fundamental structures in bacteria-the cell membrane-leading to cell lysis and bacterial death, the QACs were once thought to be impervious to resistance. Developments over the past decades, however, have shown this to be far from the truth. It is now known that a large family of bacterial genes (generally termed qac genes) encode efflux pumps capable of expelling many QAC structures from bacterial cells, leading to a decrease in susceptibility to QACs; methods of regulation of qac transcription are also understood. Importantly, qac genes can be horizontally transferred via plasmids to other bacteria and are often transmitted alongside other antibiotic-resistant genes; this dual threat represents a significant danger to human health. In this review, both QAC development and QAC resistance are documented, and possible strategies for addressing and overcoming QAC-resistant bacteria are discussed. PMID:27622819

  19. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-na; Gong, Shi-qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures. PMID:26903314

  20. CO2 capture from simulated fuel gas mixtures using semiclathrate hydrates formed by quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Seo, Yongwon

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies were undertaken on the semiclathrate hydrates formed from a fuel gas mixture of H2 (60%) + CO2 (40%) in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and fluoride (TBAF). The inclusion of QASs demonstrated significantly stabilized hydrate dissociation conditions. This effect was greater for TBAF than TBAB. However, due to the presence of dodecahedral cages that are partially filled with water molecules, TBAF showed a relatively lower gas uptake than TBAB. From the stability condition measurements and compositional analyses, it was found that with only one step of semiclathrate hydrate formation with the fuel gas mixture from the IGCC plants, 95% CO2 can be enriched in the semiclathrate hydrate phase at room temperature. The enclathration of both CO2 and H2 in the cages of the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and the structural transition that results from the inclusion of QASs were confirmed through Raman and (1)H NMR measurements. The experimental results obtained in this study provide the physicochemical background required for understanding selective partitioning and distributions of guest gases in the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and for investigating the feasibility of a semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture process. PMID:23718261

  1. Selectivity Control in Synergistic Liquid-Liquid Anion Exchange of Univalent Anions via Structure-Specific Cooperativity between Quaternary Ammonium Cations and Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence upon the structure of the alkylammonium cation. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). C4P has the unique ability in its cone anion-binding conformation to accept an appropriately sized electropositive species in the resulting cup formed by its four electron-rich pyrrole groups, while BTU is not expected to be predisposed for a specific host-guest interaction with the quaternary ammonium cations. It was therefore hypothesized that synergism between C4P and methyltri(C8,10)alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) would be uniquely pronounced owing to insertion of the methyl group of the Aliquat cation into the C4P cup, and we present herein data supporting this expectation. While synergism is comparatively weak for both exchangers with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is indeed so strong that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, unraveling the observed selectivity behavior and resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336+ with Cl , Br , OAcF3 , NO3 , and I . The uniquely strong positive cooperativity between A336 and C4P underscores the advantage of a supramolecular approach in the design of synergistic anion exchange systems.

  2. N-Alkyl Ammonium Resorcinarene Salts as High-Affinity Tetravalent Chloride Receptors.

    PubMed

    Beyeh, N Kodiah; Pan, Fangfang; Bhowmik, Sandip; Mäkelä, Toni; Ras, Robin H A; Rissanen, Kari

    2016-01-22

    N-Alkyl ammonium resorcinarene salts (NARYs, Y=triflate, picrate, nitrate, trifluoroacetates and NARBr) as tetravalent receptors, are shown to have a strong affinity for chlorides. The high affinity for chlorides was confirmed from a multitude of exchange experiments in solution (NMR and UV/Vis), gas phase (mass spectrometry), and solid-state (X-ray crystallography). A new tetra-iodide resorcinarene salt (NARI) was isolated and fully characterized from exchange experiments in the solid-state. Competition experiments with a known monovalent bis-urea receptor (5) with strong affinity for chloride, reveals these receptors to have a much higher affinity for the first two chlorides, a similar affinity as 5 for the third chloride, and lower affinity for the fourth chloride. The receptors affinity toward chloride follows the trend K1 ≫K2 ≫K3 ≈5>K4, with Ka =5011 m(-1) for 5 in 9:1 CDCl3/[D6]DMSO. PMID:26671730

  3. Degradation of imidazolium- and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 °C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 °C but much lower stability at 80 °C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed. PMID:23067022

  4. A gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) anion-exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell: design, synthesis, and properties.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Xu, Xin; Peng, Sikan; Xiu, Ruijie; Xiang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    To reconcile the tradeoff between conductivity and dimensional stability in AEMs, a novel Gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) (GQ-PEEK) membrane was designed and successfully synthesized by a green three-step procedure that included polycondensation, bromination, and quaternization. Gemini quaternary ammonium cation groups attached to the anti-swelling PEEK backbone improved the ionic conductivity of the membranes while undergoing only moderate swelling. The grafting degree (GD) of the GQ-PEEK significantly affected the properties of the membranes, including their ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, and ionic conductivity. Our GQ-PEEK membranes exhibited less swelling (≤ 40 % at 25-70 °C, GD 67 %) and greater ionic conductivity (44.8 mS cm(-1) at 75 °C, GD 67 %) compared with single quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone). Enhanced fuel cell performance was achieved when the GQ-PEEK membranes were incorporated into H2 /O2 single cells. PMID:25346412

  5. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  6. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri; Roman, Audrey; Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo

    2013-07-01

    launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Effect of charge density of bonding agent containing a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate on antibacterial and bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Quaternary amine charge density is important because when the negatively-charged bacteria contact the positive quaternary amine charge, the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could be disrupted. There has been no report on the effects of charge density on the antibacterial efficacy of dental bonding agents. The objective of this study was to synthesize a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate, and investigate the effects of charge density of bonding agent on bacteria early-attachment, biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) and dentin bond strength. Methods Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) with an alkyl chain length of 16 was synthesized and mixed into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer (SBMP) at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. A microtensile dentin bond test was performed. The density of quaternary ammonium groups was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) early-attachment was examined at 4 hours, and biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results All groups had similar microtensile bonding strengths (mean ± sd; n = 40) of about 60 MPa (p > 0.1). Quaternary amine charge density of bonding agents monotonically increased with increasing DMAHDM mass fraction. Bacteria early-attachment coverage greatly decreased with increasing DMAHDM content in the resin. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by almost 5 log, compared to SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent was inversely proportional to bacteria early-attachment coverage and biofilm CFU. Significance Increasing the quaternary amine charge density of dentin bonding agent resin was shown to greatly reduce S. mutans attachment and decrease biofilm CFU by four orders of magnitude, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The new DMAHDM is promising for use in bonding agents and other antibacterial restorative materials to inhibit caries. PMID:24534376

  8. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: theoretical modeling and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, Andrey V; Tarasov, Peter A; Semianov, Konstantin A; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-03-01

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, elasticity and critical tension of membrane) through their sphering and lysis measured by a scanning flow cytometer (SFC). SFC allows measuring the light-scattering pattern (indicatrix) of an individual cell over the angular range from 10 degrees to 60 degrees . Comparison of the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated light scattering patterns allows discrimination of spherical from non-spherical erythrocytes and evaluation of volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual spherical cells. Three different processes were applied for erythrocytes sphering: (1) colloid osmotic lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride, (2) isovolumetric sphering in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and albumin in neutrally buffered isotonic saline, and (3) osmotic fragility test in hypotonic media. For the hemolysis in ammonium chloride, the evolution of distributions of sphered erythrocytes on volume and hemoglobin content was monitored in real-time experiments. The analysis of experimental data was performed in the context of a statistical approach, taking into account that parameters of erythrocytes vary from cell to cell. PMID:18083194

  9. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  10. Analysis of residual products in benzyl chloride used for the industrial synthesis of quaternary compounds by liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2009-02-01

    In industrial and pharmaceutical processes, the study of residual products becomes essential to guarantee the quality of compounds and to eliminate or minimize toxic residual products. Knowledge about the origin of impurities (raw materials, processes, the contamination of industrial plants, etc.) is necessary in preventive treatment and in the control of a product's lifecycle. Benzyl chloride is used as raw material to synthesize several quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, which may have pharmaceutical applications. Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, toluene, chloro derivatives of toluene, and dibenzyl ether are compounds that may be found as impurities in technical benzyl chloride. We proposed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation of these compounds, testing two stationary phases with different dimensions and particle sizes, with the application of photodiode array-detection. The linearity for four possible impurities (benzaldehyde, toluene, alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene, and 2-chlorotoluene) ranged from 0.1 to 10 microg/mL, limits of detection from 11 to 34 ng/mL, and repeatability from 1% to 2.9% for a 0.3-1.2 microg/mL concentration range. The method was applied to samples of technical benzyl chloride, and alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene and benzaldehyde were identified by spectral analysis and quantitated. The selection of benzyl chloride with lower levels of impurities is important to guarantee the reduction of residual products in further syntheses. PMID:19222920

  11. Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically-strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Methods The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. Ng was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tertbutylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2×2×25 mm (n = 6). Composite disks (diameter = 9 mm, thickness = 2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n = 6). Two commercial composites were used as controls. Results Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p > 0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p < 0.05). Significance QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly-antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have

  12. Synthesis of new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer for incorporation into CaP nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenchen; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Deng, Dongmei; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Composites are the principal material for tooth cavity restorations due to their esthetics and direct-filling capabilities. However, composites accumulate biofilms in vivo, and secondary caries due to biofilm acids is the main cause of restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to: (1) synthesize new antibacterial monomers; and (2) develop nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and antibacterial monomer. Methods Two new antibacterial monomers were synthesized: dimethylaminohexane methacrylate (DMAHM) with a carbon chain length of 6, and dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) with a chain length of 12. A spray-drying technique was used to make NACP. DMADDM was incorporated into NACP nanocomposite at mass fractions of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3%. A flexural test was used to measure composite strength and elastic modulus. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to measure viability, metabolic activity, and lactic acid production of biofilms on composites. Results The new DMAHM was more potent than a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). DMADDM was much more strongly antibacterial than DMAHM. The new DMADDM-NACP nanocomposite had strength similar to that of composite control (p > 0.1). At 3% DMADDM in the composite, the metabolic activity of adherent biofilms was reduced to 5% of that on composite control. Lactic acid production by biofilms on composite containing 3% DMADDM was reduced to only 1% of that on composite control. Biofilm colony-forming unit (CFU) counts on composite with 3% DMADDM were reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Significance New antibacterial monomers were synthesized, and the carbon chain length had a strong effect on antibacterial efficacy. The new DMADDM-NACP nanocomposite possessed potent anti-biofilm activity without compromising load-bearing properties, and is promising for antibacterial and remineralizing dental

  13. Effects of Quaternary-Ammonium-Based Formulations on Bacterial Community Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Ledder, Ruth G.; Moore, Louise E.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Gilbert, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as adjuncts to hygiene in domestic cleaning products. Current concern that the increased use of such biocides in consumer products might contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of a QAC-containing domestic cleaning fluid on the population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of domestic sink drain biofilm communities. QAC susceptibilities of numerically dominant, culturable drain bacteria (15 genera, 17 species) were determined in vitro before and after repeated QAC exposure (14 passages). A fully characterized drain microcosm was then exposed to short-term (12 days) and long-term (3 months) dosing with a QAC-containing domestic detergent (QD). QAC exposure of isolated cultures caused both increases (three species) and circa twofold decreases (six species) in QAC susceptibility. The susceptibility of Ralstonia sp. was considerably decreased following 14 consecutive QAC passages. Control drain microcosm biofilms maintained dynamic stability, as evidenced by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Bacterial population densities were largely unaffected during short-term exposure to use levels of QD, although 50% QD caused circa 10-fold viability reductions. DGGE analysis supported these observations; identified the major microcosm genera as Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Erwinia, and Enterobacter, and showed that aeromonads increased in abundance under 10 to 50% QD. Long-term exposure of the microcosms to QD did not significantly alter the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility. These data demonstrate the recalcitrance of domestic drain biofilms toward QAC and that although repeated QAC exposure of drain isolates in pure culture results in susceptibility change in some test bacteria, such changes do not necessarily occur within complex communities. PMID:15184143

  14. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Menghang; Shahane, Sampada A.; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially leads to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC{sub 50} potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 {mu}M. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC{sub 50} value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo.

  15. Sanitizing in Dry-Processing Environments Using Isopropyl Alcohol Quaternary Ammonium Formula.

    PubMed

    Kane, Deborah M; Getty, Kelly J K; Mayer, Brian; Mazzotta, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Dry-processing environments are particularly challenging to clean and sanitize because introduced water can favor growth and establishment of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of an isopropyl alcohol quaternary ammonium (IPAQuat) formula for eliminating potential Salmonella contamination on food contact surfaces. Clean stainless steel coupons and conveyor belt materials used in dry-processing environments were spot inoculated in the center of coupons (5 by 5 cm) with a six-serotype composite of Salmonella (approximately 10 log CFU/ml), subjected to IPAQuat sanitizer treatments with exposure times of 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, and then swabbed for enumeration of posttreatment survivors. A subset of inoculated surfaces was soiled with a breadcrumb-flour blend and allowed to sit on the laboratory bench for a minimum of 16 h before sanitation. Pretreatment Salmonella populations (inoculated controls, 0 s treatment) were approximately 7.0 log CFU/25 cm(2), and posttreatment survivors were 1.31, 0.72, and < 0.7 (detection limit) log CFU/25 cm(2) after sanitizer exposure for 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, respectively, for both clean (no added soil) and soiled surfaces. Treatment with the IPAQuat formula using 30-s sanitizer exposures resulted in 5.68-log reductions, whereas >6.0-log reductions were observed for sanitizer exposures of 1 and 5 min. Because water is not introduced into the processing environment with this approach, the IPAQuat formula could have sanitation applications in dry-processing environments to eliminate potential contamination from Salmonella on food contact surfaces. PMID:26735036

  16. Characterization and bioactivity of novel calcium antagonists - N-methoxy-benzyl haloperidol quaternary ammonium salt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhu, Wei; Zhong, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Fu-Chun; Gao, Fen-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Han; Zheng, Yan-Shan; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. The possible working mechanisms of these haloperidol derivatives were also explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Novel calcium antagonists were synthesized by amination. Compounds were screened for their activity of vasodilation on isolated thoracic aortic ring of rats. Their cardiac side effects were explored. The patch-clamp, confocal laser microscopy and the computer-fitting molecular docking experiments were employed to investigate the possible working mechanisms of these calcium antagonists. RESULTS The novel calcium antagonists, X1, X2 and X3 showed stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect than that of classical calcium antagonists. They blocked L-type calcium channels with an potent effect order of X1 > X2 > X3. Consistently, X1, X2 and X3 interacted with different regions of Ca2+-CaM-CaV1.2 with an affinity order of X1 > X2 > X3. CONCLUSIONS The new halopedidol derivatives X1, X2 and X3 are novel calcium antagonists with stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect. They could have wide clinical application. PMID:26544729

  17. Quaternary ammonium compounds as water channel blockers. Specificity, potency, and site of action.

    PubMed

    Detmers, Frank J M; de Groot, Bert L; Müller, E Matthias; Hinton, Andrew; Konings, Irene B M; Sze, Mozes; Flitsch, Sabine L; Grubmüller, Helmut; Deen, Peter M T

    2006-05-19

    Excessive water uptake through Aquaporins (AQP) can be life-threatening and reversible AQP inhibitors are needed. Here, we determined the specificity, potency, and binding site of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block Aquaporin water permeability. Using oocytes, externally applied TEA blocked AQP1/AQP2/AQP4 with IC50 values of 1.4, 6.2, and 9.8 microM, respectively. Related tetraammonium compounds yielded some (propyl) or no (methyl, butyl, or pentyl) inhibition. TEA inhibition was lost upon a Tyr to Phe amino acid switch in the external water pore of AQP1/AQP2/AQP4, whereas the water permeability of AQP3 and AQP5, which lack a corresponding Tyr, was not blocked by TEA. Consistent with experimental data, multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations showed one stable binding site for TEA, but not tetramethyl (TMA), in AQP1, resulting in a nearly 50% water permeability inhibition, which was reduced in AQP1-Y186F due to effects on the TEA inhibitory binding region. Moreover, in the simulation TEA interacted with charged residues in the C (Asp128) and E (Asp185) loop, and the A(Tyr37-Asn42-Thr44) loop of the neighboring monomer, but not directly with Tyr186. The loss of TEA inhibition in oocytes expressing properly folded AQP1-N42A or -T44A is in line with the computationally predicted binding mode. Our data reveal that the molecular interaction of TEA with AQP1 differs and is about 1000-fold more effective on AQPs than on potassium channels. Moreover, the observed experimental and simulated similarities open the way for rational design and virtual screening for AQP-specific inhibitors, with quaternary ammonium compounds in general, and TEA in particular as a lead compound. PMID:16551622

  18. Mapping peptide thiol accessibility in membranes using a quaternary ammonium isotope-coded mass tag (ICMT)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chiao-Yung; London, Erwin; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains a diverse array of proteins, including receptors, channels, and signaling complexes, that serve as decision-making centers. Investigation of membrane protein topology is important for understanding the function of these types of protein. Here, we report a method to determine protein topology in the membrane that utilizes labeling of cysteine with isotope-coded mass tags. The mass tags contain a thiol reactive moiety, linker, and a quaternary ammonium group to aid ionization in the mass spectrometer and were synthesizes as both light and heavy (deuterated) forms. The probes were found to be membrane impermeable when applied to lipid vesicles. To assess the utility of the probes for mapping peptide thiol topology, we employed a two-step labeling procedure. Vesicles containing α-helical transmembrane peptides were labeled with heavy (or light) probe, solubilized by detergent, and then labeled by an excess of the complementary probe. Peptide for which the cysteine was oriented in the center of the lipid bilayer was not labeled until the lipid vesicles were lysed with detergent, consistent with the membrane impermeability of the probes and reduced ionization of the thiol in the hydrophobic membrane. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned in the head group zone of the lipid bilayer was labeled rapidly. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned below the head group abutting the hydrocarbon region was labeled at a reduced rate compared to the fully accessible cysteine. Moreover, the effect of lipid bilayer structure on the kinetics of peptide and lipid flipping in the bilayer was readily measured with our two-step labeling method. The small sample size required, the ease and rapidity of sample preparation, and the amenability of MALDI-TOF mass spectral to analysis in the presence of lipids will enable future facile investigation of membrane proteins in a cellular context. PMID:23725486

  19. Effect of siloxane spacer length on organosilicon bi-quaternary ammonium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chuanming; Cui, Yuezhi; Yang, Pengfei; Zhang, Huayong; Mao, Dejiang; Cui, Xiao; Li, Junying

    2015-04-01

    A series of organosilicon Bola-form bi-quaternary ammonium amphiphiles, [OH5C3(C2H5)2N+-(CH2)3-Si(CH2)3-O-(Si(CH3)2O)n-Si(CH2)3⋯(CH2)3-N+(C2H5)2C3H5O]Cl2- (SinN2Cl2, n=0, 4, 6, 8), with the same headgroups and different length of hydrophobic linkage has been synthesized. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of each amphiphiles was determined by equilibrium surface tension. With the increased length of hydrophobic siloxane spacer, the CMC values follow the order of Si8N2Cl2

  20. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Shahane, Sampada; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao, Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially lead to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC50 potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 μM. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC50 value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo. PMID:21362439

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  2. Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: Elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Coker, A; Kümmerer, K

    2008-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectants, detergents and fabric softeners. Anionic detergents are one of the most widely used chemical substances. QACs and anionic surfactants can form ionic pairs. In the present study we investigated the biodegradability of QACs in the presence of different anionic surfactants. The biodegradability of three QACs, namely benzalkonium chloride (BAC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC) and ethacridine lactate (EL), when applied as single substances and in combination with anionic surfactants such as benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), LAS, naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) was studied applying the closed bottle test (CBT) [OECD 301D, 1992. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Closed bottle test. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris] at a ratio of 1:1 (mol:mol). Biodegradation was monitored by measuring oxygen concentration in the test vessels with an oxygen electrode in accordance with international standard methods [ISO 5414, 1990. Water quality - determination of dissolved oxygen. In: German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, New York, Basel Cambridge]. Primary elimination of the QACs and of LAS was monitored by LC-MS/MS. There was little biodegradability of the QACs as either single compounds or in the presence of organic counter ions. The biodegradability of the organic counter ions was lower in the presence of QACs as compared to the single substances. Primary elimination of the QACs by sorption took place. PMID:18439651

  3. Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes to Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers Is Mediated by a Novel Efflux Pump Encoded by emrE.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Ziegler, Jennifer; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Reimer, Aleisha; Kitts, David D; Gilmour, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    A novel genomic island (LGI1) was discovered in Listeria monocytogenes isolates responsible for the deadliest listeriosis outbreak in Canada, in 2008. To investigate the functional role of LGI1, the outbreak strain 08-5578 was exposed to food chain-relevant stresses, and the expression of 16 LGI1 genes was measured. LGI1 genes with putative efflux (L. monocytogenes emrE [emrELm]), regulatory (lmo1851), and adhesion (sel1) functions were deleted, and the mutants were exposed to acid (HCl), cold (4°C), salt (10 to 20% NaCl), and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (QACs). Deletion of lmo1851 had no effect on the L. monocytogenes stress response, and deletion of sel1 did not influence Caco-2 and HeLa cell adherence/invasion, whereas deletion of emrE resulted in increased susceptibility to QACs (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the MICs of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, acriflavine, and triclosan. In the presence of the QAC benzalkonium chloride (BAC; 5 μg/ml), 14/16 LGI1 genes were induced, and lmo1861 (putative repressor gene) was constitutively expressed at 4 °C, 37 °C, and 52 °C and in the presence of UV exposure (0 to 30 min). Following 1 h of exposure to BAC (10 μg/ml), upregulation of emrE (49.6-fold), lmo1851 (2.3-fold), lmo1861 (82.4-fold), and sigB (4.1-fold) occurred. Reserpine visibly suppressed the growth of the ΔemrELm strain, indicating that QAC tolerance is due at least partially to efflux activity. These data suggest that a minimal function of LGI1 is to increase the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to QACs via emrELm. Since QACs are commonly used in the food industry, there is a concern that L. monocytogenes strains possessing emrE will have an increased ability to survive this stress and thus to persist in food processing environments. PMID:26590290

  4. Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes to Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers Is Mediated by a Novel Efflux Pump Encoded by emrE

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Jennifer; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Reimer, Aleisha; Kitts, David D.; Gilmour, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    A novel genomic island (LGI1) was discovered in Listeria monocytogenes isolates responsible for the deadliest listeriosis outbreak in Canada, in 2008. To investigate the functional role of LGI1, the outbreak strain 08-5578 was exposed to food chain-relevant stresses, and the expression of 16 LGI1 genes was measured. LGI1 genes with putative efflux (L. monocytogenes emrE [emrELm]), regulatory (lmo1851), and adhesion (sel1) functions were deleted, and the mutants were exposed to acid (HCl), cold (4°C), salt (10 to 20% NaCl), and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (QACs). Deletion of lmo1851 had no effect on the L. monocytogenes stress response, and deletion of sel1 did not influence Caco-2 and HeLa cell adherence/invasion, whereas deletion of emrE resulted in increased susceptibility to QACs (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the MICs of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, acriflavine, and triclosan. In the presence of the QAC benzalkonium chloride (BAC; 5 μg/ml), 14/16 LGI1 genes were induced, and lmo1861 (putative repressor gene) was constitutively expressed at 4°C, 37°C, and 52°C and in the presence of UV exposure (0 to 30 min). Following 1 h of exposure to BAC (10 μg/ml), upregulation of emrE (49.6-fold), lmo1851 (2.3-fold), lmo1861 (82.4-fold), and sigB (4.1-fold) occurred. Reserpine visibly suppressed the growth of the ΔemrELm strain, indicating that QAC tolerance is due at least partially to efflux activity. These data suggest that a minimal function of LGI1 is to increase the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to QACs via emrELm. Since QACs are commonly used in the food industry, there is a concern that L. monocytogenes strains possessing emrE will have an increased ability to survive this stress and thus to persist in food processing environments. PMID:26590290

  5. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. PMID:27045632

  6. Design of chiral urea-quaternary ammonium salt hybrid catalysts for asymmetric reactions of glycine Schiff bases†

    PubMed Central

    Tiffner, Maximilian; Novacek, Johanna; Busillo, Alfonso; Gratzer, Katharina; Massa, Antonio; Waser, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional chiral urea-containing quaternary ammonium salts can be straightforwardly synthesised in good yield and with high structural diversity via a scalable and operationally simple highly telescoped sequence starting from trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine. These novel hybrid catalysts were systematically investigated for their potential to control glycine Schiff bases in asymmetric addition reactions. It was found that Michael addition reactions and the herein presented aldol-initiated cascade reaction can be carried out to provide enantiomeric ratios up to 95 : 5 and good yields under mild conditions at room temperature. PMID:26504516

  7. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent

  8. Reversible Swelling of Chitosan and Quaternary Ammonium Modified Chitosan Brush Layers: Effect of pH and Counter Anion Size and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Yee, Michael Q; Eckmann, Yonaton Y; Hickok, Noreen J; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell J

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the swelling of grafted polycationic brushes as a function of pH and anion type. The brushes are chitosan (CH) and chitosans with 27% and 51% degree of substitution (DS) of quaternary ammonium salt, denoted as CH-Q(25) and CH-Q(50), respectively. The water content and swelling behaviors are monitored using in situ quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The pH varies from ~3.5 to 8.5, and the counter anion types include chloride, acetate, and citrate. At fixed pH, the water content and brush swelling increase as the DS increases. Whereas the CH-Q(50) brush layer shows symmetric swelling with a minimum near pH = 4.5, the swelling of CH and CH-Q(25) is relatively constant as pH decreases from 8.2 to 5.5, and then begins to increase near pH 4. These studies indicate that the symmetric swelling of CH-Q(50) is likely attributed to increasing protonation of primary amines for pH values below pH 6.5 and the quaternary ammonium salts above pH 6.5. At pH 4, the swelling of the CH brush increases upon exchanging the smaller chloridewith a bulkier acetate anion, which is less effective at screening intra/inter molecular repulsion. In contrast, upon exchanging the acetate with trifunctional citrate, CH and CH-Q(25) brushes collapse by 53 and 42%, respectively, because the citrate forms ionic cross-links. To test antibacterial properties, silicon oxide, CH and CH-Q(50) brush layers are exposed to 10(7)-10(8) cfu/ml of S. aureus for two days at 37 °C and exposed to stepped shear stresses in 2 min intervals. Whereas an S. aureus biofilm adheres strongly to silicon oxide and CH for stresses up to 12 dyne/cm(2), biofilms on CH-Q(50) detach at a relatively low shear stress, 1.5 dyne/cm(2). Due to their high degree of swelling that can be tuned via pH, counterion size and type, chitosan and quaternary modified chitosans have potential as responsive coatings for applications including MEMS/NEMS devices and drug eluting implants. PMID:23209343

  9. Reversible Swelling of Chitosan and Quaternary Ammonium Modified Chitosan Brush Layers: Effect of pH and Counter Anion Size and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Yee, Michael Q.; Eckmann, Yonaton Y.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the swelling of grafted polycationic brushes as a function of pH and anion type. The brushes are chitosan (CH) and chitosans with 27% and 51% degree of substitution (DS) of quaternary ammonium salt, denoted as CH-Q25 and CH-Q50, respectively. The water content and swelling behaviors are monitored using in situ quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The pH varies from ~3.5 to 8.5, and the counter anion types include chloride, acetate, and citrate. At fixed pH, the water content and brush swelling increase as the DS increases. Whereas the CH-Q50 brush layer shows symmetric swelling with a minimum near pH = 4.5, the swelling of CH and CH-Q25 is relatively constant as pH decreases from 8.2 to 5.5, and then begins to increase near pH 4. These studies indicate that the symmetric swelling of CH-Q50 is likely attributed to increasing protonation of primary amines for pH values below pH 6.5 and the quaternary ammonium salts above pH 6.5. At pH 4, the swelling of the CH brush increases upon exchanging the smaller chloridewith a bulkier acetate anion, which is less effective at screening intra/inter molecular repulsion. In contrast, upon exchanging the acetate with trifunctional citrate, CH and CH-Q25 brushes collapse by 53 and 42%, respectively, because the citrate forms ionic cross-links. To test antibacterial properties, silicon oxide, CH and CH-Q50 brush layers are exposed to 107–108 cfu/ml of S. aureus for two days at 37 °C and exposed to stepped shear stresses in 2 min intervals. Whereas an S. aureus biofilm adheres strongly to silicon oxide and CH for stresses up to 12 dyne/cm2, biofilms on CH-Q50 detach at a relatively low shear stress, 1.5 dyne/cm2. Due to their high degree of swelling that can be tuned via pH, counterion size and type, chitosan and quaternary modified chitosans have potential as responsive coatings for applications including MEMS/NEMS devices and drug eluting implants. PMID:23209343

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Momordica Charantia in Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thenmozhi, A. Justin; Subramanian, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia fruit extract (MCE) in ammonium chloride-induced (AC) hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced in adult male Wistar rats (180–200 g) by intraperitoneal injections of ammonium chloride (100 mg kg−1 body weight) thrice a week. The effect of oral administration (thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks) of MCE (300 mg kg−1 body weight) on blood ammonia, plasma urea, serum liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in normal and experimental animals was analyzed. Hyperammonemic rats showed a significant increase in the activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and liver markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were decreased in the liver and brain tissues. Treatment with MCE normalized the above-mentioned changes in hyperammonemic rats by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC-induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Our results indicate that MCE exerting the antioxidant potentials and maintaining the cellular integrity of the liver tissue could offer protection against AC-induced hyperammonemia. However, the exact underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated, and examination of the efficacy of the active constituents of the M. charantia on hyperammonemia is desirable. PMID:20047891

  11. Cooperative Binding of Divalent Diamides by N-Alkyl Ammonium Resorcinarene Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Beyeh, N Kodiah; Ala-Korpi, Altti; Pan, Fangfang; Jo, Hyun Hwa; Anslyn, Eric V; Rissanen, Kari

    2015-06-22

    N-Alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides, stabilized by an intricate array of hydrogen bonds leading to a cavitand-like structure, bind amides. The molecular recognition occurs through intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen and the amide hydrogen of the guests and the cation-anion circular hydrogen-bonded seam of the hosts, as well as through CH⋅⋅⋅π interactions. The N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides cooperatively bind a series of di-acetamides of varying spacer lengths ranging from three to seven carbons. Titration data fit either a 1:1 or 2:1 binding isotherm depending on the spacer lengths. Considering all the guests possess similar binding motifs, the first binding constants were similar (K1:10(2)  M(-1)) for each host. The second binding constant was found to depend on the upper rim substituent of the host and the spacer length of the guests, with the optimum binding observed with the six-carbon spacer (K2:10(3)  M(-2)). Short spacer lengths increase steric hindrance, whereas longer spacer lengths increase flexibility thus reducing cooperativity. The host with the rigid cyclohexyl upper rim showed stronger binding than the host with flexible benzyl arms. The cooperative binding of these divalent guests was studied in solution through (1)H NMR titration studies and supplemented by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), X-ray crystallography, and mass spectrometry. PMID:26014834

  12. Halogenated solvent interactions with N,N-dimethyltryptamine: formation of quaternary ammonium salts and their artificially induced rearrangements during analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Riby, Philip G; Gartz, Jochen; Alder, John F

    2008-07-01

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1a are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. This particular attribute attracts great interest from a variety of scientific and also clandestine communities. Our recent research has confirmed that DMT reacts with dichloromethane (DCM), either as a result of work-up or storage to give a quaternary N-chloromethyl ammonium salt 2a. Furthermore, this was observed to undergo rearrangement during analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with products including 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4 (2-Me-THBC). This study further investigates this so far unexplored area of solvent interactions by the exposure of DMT to other halogenated solvents including dibromomethane and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The N-bromomethyl- and N-chloroethyl quaternary ammonium derivatives were subsequently characterised by ion trap GC-MS in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS mode and by NMR spectroscopy. The DCE-derived derivative formed at least six rearrangement products in the total ion chromatogram. Identification of mass spectrometry generated by-products was verified by conventional or microwave-accelerated synthesis. The use of deuterated DCM and deuterated DMT 1b provided insights into the mechanism of the rearrangements. The presence of potentially characteristic marker molecules may allow the identification of solvents used during the manufacture of controlled substances, which is often neglected since these are considered inert. PMID:18455334

  13. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  14. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds by potentiometric titration with an ionic surfactant electrode: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Price, Randi; Wan, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A potentiometric titration for determining the quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) commonly found in antimicrobial products was validated by a single laboratory. Traditionally, QACs were determined by using a biphasic (chloroform and water) manual titration procedure. Because of safety considerations regarding chloroform, as well as the subjectivity of color indicator-based manual titration determinations, an automatic potentiometric titration procedure was tested with quaternary nitrogen product formulations. By using the Metrohm Titrando system coupled with an ionic surfactant electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, titrations were performed with various QAC-containing formulation products/matrixes; a standard sodium lauryl sulfate solution was used as the titrant. Results for the products tested are sufficiently reproducible and accurate for the purpose of regulatory product enforcement. The robustness of the method was measured by varying pH levels, as well as by comparing buffered versus unbuffered titration systems. A quantitation range of 1-1000 ppm quaternary nitrogen was established. Eight commercially available antimicrobial products covering a variety of matrixes were assayed; the results obtained were comparable to those obtained by the manual titration method. Recoveries of 94 to 104% were obtained for spiked samples. PMID:21140668

  15. Ammonium Sulfate Improves Detection of Hydrophilic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds through Decreased Ion Suppression in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Eiji; Masaki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-11-17

    Hydrophilic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) include derivatives of carnitine (Car) or choline, which are known to have essential bioactivities. Here we developed a technique for improving the detection of hydrophilic QACs using ammonium sulfate (AS) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). In MALDI mass spectrometry for brain homogenates, the addition of AS greatly increased the signal intensities of Car, acetylcarnitine (AcCar), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by approximately 300-, 700-, and 2500-fold. The marked improvement required a higher AS concentration than that needed for suppressing the potassium adduction on phosphatidylcholine and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Adding AS also increased the signal intensities of Car, AcCar, and GPC by approximately 10-, 20-, and 40-fold in MALDI-IMS. Consequently, the distributions of five hydrophilic QACs (Car, AcCar, GPC, choline, and phosphocholine) were simultaneously visualized by this technique. The distinct mechanism from other techniques such as improved matrix application, derivatization, or postionization suggests the great potential of AS addition to achieve higher sensitivity of MALDI-IMS for various analytes. PMID:26492538

  16. Effect of quaternary ammonium salts on carrier-mediated transport of lanthanide ions through cellulose triacetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, M.

    1993-05-01

    Fluxes of all lanthanides, except promethium, across cellulose triacetate membranes were determined by using mixtures of o-nitrophenyl n-octyl ether and quaternary ammonium salts as plasticizers, and 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (BMPP) and 4-trifluoroacetyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (TMPP) as carriers. The quaternary ammonium salts used were didodecyldimethyl-, distearyldimethyl-, tetrahexyl-, tetraoctyl-, and tetradecylammonium bromides [referred to as (C{sub 12}){sub 2}NBr, (C{sub 18}){sub 2}NBr, (C{sub 6}){sub 4}NBr, (C{sub 8}){sub 4}NBr, and (C{sub 10}){sub 4}NBr, respectively]. The effect of these ammonium bromides on the flux was demonstrated. For membranes containing 0.1 M (C{sub 12}){sub 2}NBr and (C{sub 18}){sub 2}NBr, BMPP exhibited considerably high fluxes. The fluxes of lanthanum and cerium using BMPP for (C{sub 12}){sub 2}NBr were higher than those of the other lanthanides. For the membranes containing 0.5 M (C{sub 12}){sub 2}NBr and 0.1 M (C{sub 18}){sub 2}NBr, however, no difference in flux among the lanthanides was observed. The fluxes using TMPP for (C{sub 12}){sub 2}NBr and (C{sub 18}){sub 2}NBr were very small, with the exception of some lanthanides. Appreciably high fluxes were observed for membranes containing 0.1 M (C{sub 6}){sub 4}NBr using BMPP. For (C{sub 8}){sub 4}NBr and (C{sub 10}){sub 4}NBr, BMPP exhibited low fluxes. For these membranes using TMPP, the lanthanides were scarcely transported. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion. PMID:21446721

  18. The qacG gene on plasmid pST94 confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in staphylococci isolated from the food industry.

    PubMed

    Heir, E; Sundheim, G; Holck, A L

    1999-03-01

    The 2.3 kb resistance plasmid pST94 revealed a new gene (qacG) encoding resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BC), a commonly used quaternary ammonium disinfectant, and the intercalating dye ethidium bromide (Eb) in staphylococci isolated from the food industry. The 107 amino acid QacG protein showing 69.2% identity to the staphylococcal multi-drug resistance protein Smr is a new member of the small multi-drug resistance (SMR) protein family. QacG conferred resistance via proton dependent efflux. An additional ORF on pST94 encoded a protein with extensive similarity to replication proteins of other Gram-positive bacteria. Gene constructs containing the qacG and smr gene region combined with the smr or qacG promoter, respectively, indicated that QacG is more efficient than Smr and that qacG has a weaker promoter. Resistant qacG-containing cells could be adapted to withstand higher concentrations of BC. Adapted qacG-containing cells showed increased resistance mainly to BC. In contrast, adaptation of sensitive cells showed cross-resistance development to a range of compounds. Induction of proton-dependent efflux was observed for BC-adapted staphylococci cells not containing qacG. The ability of sublethal concentrations of BC to develop cross-resistance and induce efflux mechanisms could be of practical significance; it should be considered before use of any new disinfectant and in the design of better disinfection procedures. PMID:10196743

  19. Influence of pH and diluent on the ion-pair solvent extraction of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Takahashi, K.; Okuwaki, A.

    2006-07-01

    The influence of pH and diluent on the ion-pair solvent extraction of benzene polycarboxylic acids have been investigated for the separation of the coal oxidation products, which are formed by the treatment with alkaline solutions at high temperatures. Although the extent of the solvent extraction of benzoic acid (1BE) with a quaternary ammonium reagent (tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride) into chloroform and benzene did not change at a very acidic and alkaline solutions, those of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (12BE) and trimellitic acid (124BE) somewhat decreased at very low pH and very high pH. The magnitudes of the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex}) of 1BE using a different diluent decreased in the order benzene {gt} carbontetrachloride {gt} 1,2-dichloroethane {gt} cyclohexane {gt} hexane {gt} chloroform {gt} 1-octanol and those of 12BE decreased in the order benzene {gt} cyclohexane {gt} carbontetrachloride {gt} hexane {gt} 1,2-dichloroethane {gt} chloroform. The inspection of the correlation between the values of K{sub ex} and several parameters of the diluent implies that the magnitude of K{sub ex} can be described by using the dielectric constant and the solubility parameter of diluent.

  20. N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and dichloromethane: rearrangement of quaternary ammonium salt product during GC-EI and CI-MS-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Wainwright, Mark; Riby, Philip G; Alder, John F

    2008-05-12

    N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1 is a simple tryptamine derivative with powerful psychoactive properties. It is abundant in nature and easily accessible through a variety of synthetic routes. Most work-up procedures require the use of organic solvents and halogenated representatives are often employed. DMT was found to be reactive towards dichloromethane, either during work-up or long term storage therein, which led to the formation of the quaternary ammonium salt N-chloromethyl-DMT chloride 2. Analysis of this side-product by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS), both in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS modes, gave only degradation products. For example, 2 could not be detected but appeared to have rearranged to 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4, whereas HPLC analysis enabled the detection of 2. GC-MS is a standard tool for the fingerprinting of drug products. The identification of a particular synthetic route is based on the analysis of impurities, provided these side products can be established to be route-specific. The in situ detection of both 3 and 4 within a DMT sample may have led to erroneous conclusions with regards to the identification of the synthetic route. PMID:18242916

  1. Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Méchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

  2. The Effect of Ammonium Chloride Concentration in In Vitro Maturation Culture on Ovine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Golchin, Ali; Asadpour, Reza; Roshangar, Leila; Jafari-Jozani, Raziallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ammonium is produced in culture medium due to amino acids degradation and has adverse effect on in vitro culture of embryo. In the current study, the purpose was to evaluate the effects of ammuniom chloride (AC) on in vitro oocyte maturation rate and early embryo development in the sheep and its effect on the expression of Bcl-2. Methods: In vitro maturation (IVM) was performed in the presence of various concentrations (0, 29, 88,132,176 μM/ml) of ammonium chloride (NH 4 CL) (AC). Meiotic maturation, embryonic development and expression of Bcl2 gene in Blastocyst cells were determined. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post HOC test, and values with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The highest concentration (176 μM) of AC significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after IVM compared with the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, significantly lower rates of MII oocytes were found in the 176 μM AC group compared with the 29 μM AC group. The percentage of zygotes developing to blastocysts in 176 μM AC was lower than the other group. Also, supplementation of the oocyte maturation media with 176 μM AC decreased Bcl2 expression. Conclusion: Our results suggested that significant increase in IVM rate could be obtained with supplementation maturation medium with AC in a dose dependent manner. Increased AC concentration led to lower blastocyst rate under normal condition. However, regulation of pro–apoptotic (Bcl-2) gene did not change with different concentrations of AC supplementing. PMID:27478767

  3. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  8. Phase and extraction equilibria in water-polyethyleneglycol ethers of monoethanolamides of synthetic fatty acid-ammonium chloride systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnov, A. E.; Golovkina, A. V.; Kudryashova, O. S.; Denisova, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Phase equilibria in layering systems of water, polyethyleneglycol ethers of monoethanolamides of synthetic fatty acids (SFAs) (synthamide-5), and ammonium chloride are studied. The possibility of using such systems for the liquid extraction of metal ions is evaluated. The effect the nature of salting-out agents has on the processes of segregation of the systems has been considered.

  9. Selective Production of Electrostatically-Bound Adducts of Alkyl Cations/Polyoxoanions by the Collision-Induced Fragmentations of Their Quaternary Ammonium Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Xu, Chong; Fan, YanXuan; Fan, LinYuan; Zhang, XiuHui; Hu, ChangWen

    2013-06-01

    Solutions of the quaternary ammonium salts of a set of classic polyoxometalates (POMs) (Keggin [XM12O40]n-, Dawson [P2W18O62]6-, and Lindqvist [M6O19]2- (X = P, Si; M = W, Mo) were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of quaternary ammonium-associated clusters were investigated by their collision-induced dissociations to elucidate their fragmentation mechanisms. It was found that the quaternary ammonium-associated clusters had distinctive dissociation characteristics. Moreover, the mono-quaternary ammonium-associated clusters, {NR4[POMs]}(n-1)-, shared a common fragmentation feature, that is, they decomposed exclusively into their respective alkyl cation-bound clusters irrespective of the different cation sizes and the different natures of the polyoxoanions. The optimized geometries and the binding energies of the mono cation-bound Lindqvist POM-based clusters were obtained by calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the gas-phase fragmentations of these noncovalent complexes between organic amines and inorganic POM anions by a combination of theory and mass spectrometry.

  10. Synthesis, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation of novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Solano, Lucas N; Nelson, Grady L; Ronayne, Conor T; Lueth, Erica A; Foxley, Melissa A; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Gurrapu, Shirisha; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2015-12-15

    Novel functionalized quaternary ammonium curcuminoids have been synthesized from piperazinyl curcuminoids and Baylis-Hillman reaction derived allyl bromides. These molecules are found to be highly water soluble with increased cytotoxicity compared to native curcumin against three cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2, MDA-MB-231, and 4T1. Preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of a representative curcuminoid 5a in healthy mice indicates that this molecule is well tolerated based on normal body weight gains compared to control group. Furthermore, the efficacy of 5a has been tested in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model of MIAPaCa-2 and has been found to exhibit good tumor growth inhibition as a single agent and also in combination with clinical pancreatic cancer drug gemcitabine. PMID:26561365

  11. Gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and a novel quaternary ammonium salt for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guiqiang . E-mail: wgqiang@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen; Li Mingyu; Zhang Jinbo; Kang Junjia; Lin Yuan . E-mail: a1703@iccas.ac.cn; Fang Shibi; Xiao Xurui

    2004-11-02

    Gel polymer electrolytes were prepared by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a mixture of polysiloxane with quaternary ammonium side groups (PSQAS), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and iodine. The influence of PAN content on the ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes and the charge-transfer kinetic performance in counterelectrode-electrolyte interface was investigated. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the gel polymer electrolyte containing 5 wt.% PAN showed the best photovoltaic performance; a maximum incident photon conversion efficiency of 63% at 520 nm was obtained, the short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}), the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the fill factor (FF) were 7 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.565 V and 0.65, respectively. The corresponding overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) is 4.3%.

  12. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents: a route for the mass production of graphane.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Amr M; Patten, Hollie V; Li, Zheling; Chen, Yiqiang; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-14

    We demonstrate a facile and scalable electrochemical approach to exfoliate graphite, which permits in situ hydrogenation of the resultant graphene via a solvated NR(4+) graphite compound in quaternary ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp(3) C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphene. The resulting materials consist of micrometre-sized and predominantly monolayer to few layers thick hydrogenated graphenic flakes. A large band gap (∼4 eV) further establishes the high level of hydrogenation. It is also possible to tune the band gap introduced to the graphene by controlling the level of hydrogenation. The mechanism of the exfoliation and hydrogenation is also discussed. PMID:26074262

  13. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  14. Introduction of poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid)] branches onto starch for cotton warp sizing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhifeng; Liu, Fengdan

    2016-03-15

    An attempt has been made to reveal the effect of amphoteric poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-co-acrylic acid) [P(ATAC-co-AA)] branches grafted onto the backbones of starch upon the adhesion-to-cotton, film properties, and desizability of maize starch for cotton warp sizing. Starch-g-poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid) [S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA)] was prepared by the graft copolymerization of 2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ATAC) and acrylic acid (AA) with acid-converted starch (ACS) in aqueous medium using Fe(2+)-H2O2 initiator. The adhesion was evaluated in term of bonding strength according to the FZ/T 15001-2008 whereas the film properties considered included tensile strength, work and percentage elongation at break. The evaluation was undertaken through the comparison of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) with ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride). It was found that the amphoteric branch was able to significantly improve the adhesion and mitigate the brittleness of starch film. Zeta potential of cooked S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) paste, depending on the mole ratio of ATAC to AA units on P(ATAC-co-AA) branches, had substantial effect on the adhesion and desizability. Increasing the mole ratio raised the potential, which favored the adhesion but disfavored the removal of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) from sized cotton warps. Electroneutral S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) was superior to negatively grafted starch in adhesion and to positively grafted starch in desizability. Generally, it showed better sizing property than ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), and had potential in the application of cotton warp sizing. PMID:26794764

  15. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of new aromatic quaternary ammonium bromides: precursors for ionic liquids and complexation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu . E-mail: makrla@cc.jyu.fi; Ropponen, Jarmo; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2004-10-01

    Series of new aromatic R{sub 2}R'{sub 2}N{sup +}Br{sup -} (R=benzyl, 4-methylbenzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl; R'=ethyl, methyl, isopropyl) or RR'{sub 2}NH{sup +}Br{sup -}-type (R=benzyl, R'=isopropyl) quaternary ammonium bromides were prepared by using novel synthetic route in which a formamide (N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-diisopropylformamide) is treated with aralkyl halide in presence of a weak base. The compounds were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Structures of the crystalline compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction, and in addition the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. Three of the compounds crystallized in monoclinic, two in orthorhombic and one in triclinic crystal system, showing ion pairs, which are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds and weak {pi}-{pi} interactions between the phenyl rings. Three of the compounds appeared as viscous oil or waxes. Finally, TG/DTA and DSC methods were used to analyze thermal properties of the prepared compounds. The lowest melting points were obtained for diethyldi-(2-phenylethyl)ammonium bromide (122.2{sup o}C) and for diethyldi-(3-phenylpropyl)-ammonium bromide (109.1{sup o}C). In general, decomposition of the compounds started at 170-190{sup o}C without identifiable cleavages, thus liquid ranges of 30-70{sup o}C were observed for some of the compounds.

  17. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved. PMID:26674548

  18. O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunxiao; Kang, Hong; Yang, Wanqiu; Sun, Jinyan; Liu, Chunlong; Cheng, Guogang; Rong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    A novel complex chitosan derivative, O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (O-2'-HACC), was synthesized and used to make nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. We found that O-2'-HACC had high antimicrobial activity, low toxicity, and a high safety level. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was then encapsulated in the O-2'-HACC nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs) by the ionic crosslinking method, and the properties of the resulting nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs had regular spherical morphologies and high stability, with an encapsulation efficiency of 95.68 ± 2.2% and a loading capacity of 58.75 ± 4.03%. An in vitro release assay indicated that release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs occurred slowly. Specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs intranasally had much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than did those immunized intramuscularly or with live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs are a novel drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications. PMID:26076628

  19. Surface chemical study on the covalent attachment of hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan to titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofen; Wang, Ling; Guo, Shengrong; Lei, Lei; Tang, Tingting

    2011-10-01

    An anti-microbial and bioactive coating could not only reduce the probability of infection related to titanium implants but also support the growth of surrounding osteogenic cells. Our previous study has showed that hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) with a DS (degrees of substitution) of 18% had improved solubility and significantly higher antibacterial activities against three bacteria which were usually associated with infections in orthopaedics. In the current study, HACC with a DS of 18% coating was bonded to titanium surface by a three-step process. The titanium surface after each individual reaction step was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) of Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XPS results demonstrated that there were great changes in the atomic ratios of C/Ti, O/Ti, and N/Ti after each reaction step. The XPS high resolution and corresponding devolution spectra of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and titanium were also in good coordination with the anticipated reaction steps. Additionally, the absorption bands around 3365 cm -1 (-OH vibration), 1664 cm -1 (Amide I), 1165 cm -1 ( νas, C-O-C bridge), and the broad absorption bands between 958 cm -1 and 1155 cm -1 (skeletal vibrations involving the C-O stretching of saccharide structure of HACC) verified that HACC was successfully attached to titanium surface.

  20. Gamma radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride onto starch.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohua; Song, Weiqiang; Ti, Yongzhou; Qu, Lingbo; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zheng, Hongjuan

    2013-01-30

    Corn starch graft copolymers were prepared from acrylamide/dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride binary monomers (AM/DMDAAC) by a simultaneous radiation grafting method, and were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. The copolymers with high grafting ratio and high grafting efficiency of binary monomers were achieved at absorbed doses of 2 kGy and 3 kGy using a 6:9.8:4.2 (w/w/w) ratio of starch/AM/DMDAAC, but their cationic degrees were low. Grafting ratio, grafting efficiency and cationic degree of the copolymers increased with increasing AM content in comonomer mixtures and then decreased at 3kGy using a 6:14 ratio of starch:total comonomers, but their cationic degrees generally decreased with increasing AM content. The grafting ratio, the grafting efficiency and the cationic degree of the copolymers increased, but the grafting efficiency of DMDAAC decreased with varying starch/(AM+DMDAAC) ratio from 6:3 to 6:18 at 3 kGy by using a fixed 7:3 ratio of AM:DMDAAC. PMID:23218310

  1. [Growth inhibition and mechanism of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride on Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Ge, Fei; Tao, Neng-Guo; Zhu, Run-Liang; Wang, Na

    2009-06-15

    Growth inhibition of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC), a cationic surfactants, on Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at batch culture in laboratory. Furthermore, the corresponding mechanisms were studied by the determination of absorption capacity, Zeta potential, activity of acid phosphatase and ultrastructure of algae. Results show that the growth inhibition by CATC is enhanced with its concentration increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L, and 96 h-EC50 of CTAC is 0.18 mg/L. In the presence of 0.3 mg/L CTAC in 8 d, the inhibition efficiency of biomass reaches 70.7%. Meanwhile, the absorption of nitrogen and iron is inhibited 83.9% and 86.2% respectively with Zeta potential of algae cell increasing from -12.5 mV to -6.7 mV. Furthermore, the relative activity of acid phosphatase declines to 23.1% at the same time. Plasmolysis, distortion of pyrenoid and swelling of lysosome is observed in the cell. Above phenomena indicates that CTAC increases the Zeta potential of algae cell and thus inhibites the absorption of nitrogen and iron. In addition, CTAC may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and change the ultrastructure of algae cell. PMID:19662866

  2. In situ LIF temperature measurements in aqueous ammonium chloride solution during uni-directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafii, M. Behshad; Lum, Chee L.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    2010-04-01

    We present in situ whole-field measurements of the temperature field using laser-induced fluorescence in a study of bottom-chilled uni-directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. We utilize a two-color, two-dye, ratiometric approach to address the significant spatial and temporal variations of laser sheet intensity field due to refractive index variations caused by the evolving concentration and temperature fields. In our work we take advantage of two temperature sensitive fluorescent dyes with opposite temperature sensitivities in order to increase the overall sensitivity and temperature resolution of the measurements. The resulting temperature sensitivity (about 4% K-1) is more than a factor of two higher than the original work of Sakakibara and Adrian (Exp Fluids 26:7-15, 1999) with a sensitivity 1.7% K-1. In situ measurements of the temperature field during solidification are presented, along with temperature characteristics of some of the complex flow features, such as plumes and fingers.

  3. Electrochemical studies on a zinc-lead-cadmium alloy in aqueous ammonium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, D. P.; Udhayan, R.

    Studies are reported of the anodic polarization behaviour of a zinc-lead-cadmium alloy in aqueous ammonium chloride solution over a wide range of current densities between 5 and 1000 mA cm-2. A casting method is employed to prepare the electrode; the alloying constituents are analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It is found that both the internal resistance and the anodic potential of the systems are at a minimum in 5.5 N NH 4Cl. The data has been compared with those obtained for pure zinc and it is concluded that the present alloy is a better electrode throughout the poplarization range of this investigation. A conventional weight-loss method shows that the corrosion rate is greater than that exhibited by pure zinc. Scanning electron micrographs of the post-immersed surface are compared with those for the pre-immersed surface. Supplementary investigations of linear polarization have been conducted in order to gain an understanding of the system for a narrow perturbation range of potential.

  4. Insights into the transport of aqueous quaternary ammonium cations: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Himanshu N; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Yang, Yuan; Felberg, Lisa E; Voth, Gregory A; Herring, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relative effects of ammonium substituent groups (we primarily consider tetramethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium cations) and anion species (OH(-), HCO3(-), CO3(2-), Cl(-), and F(-)) on ion transport by combining experimental and computational approaches. We characterize transport experimentally using ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients measured from NMR. These experimental results are interpreted using simulation methods to describe the transport of these cations and anions considering the effects of the counterion. It is particularly noteworthy that we directly probe cation and anion diffusion with pulsed gradient stimulated echo NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, corroborating these methods and providing a direct link between atomic-resolution simulations and macroscale experiments. By pairing diffusion measurements and simulations with residence times, we were able to understand the interplay between short-time and long-time dynamics with ionic conductivity. With experiment, we determined that solutions of benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide have the highest ionic conductivity (0.26 S/cm at 65 °C), which appears to be due to differences for the ions in long-time diffusion and short-time water caging. We also examined the effect of CO2 on ionic conductivity in ammonium hydroxide solutions. CO2 readily reacts with OH(-) to form HCO(-)3 and is found to lower the solution ionic conductivity by almost 50%. PMID:24437699

  5. Physical and chemical properties of an antimicrobial Bis-GMA free dental resin with quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-ting; He, Jing-wei; Lin, Zheng-mei; Liu, Fang; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity, physicochemical properties of the quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate monomer N,N-bis[2-(3-(methacryloyloxy)propanamido)-ethyl]-N-methylhexadecyl ammonium bromide (IMQ-16) containing diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/tricyclodecane dimethanol diacrylate (SR833s) resin system and compare with bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin system. It was hypothesized that the physical and chemical properties of the experimental polymers would be comparable with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA polymer and IMQ-16 monomer could endow the UDMA/SR833s resin with antibacterial activity. Double bond conversion (DC) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mechanical properties including flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM) were measured by three-point bending test with bars of 2mm×2mm×25mm. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL) were also investigated. Antibacterial activity of obtained polymers against Streptococcus mutans Ingbitt (S. mutans) was tested through direct contact test (DCT). The presence of antibacterial activity due to soluble components was also investigated by agar diffusion test (ADT). All of the polymers containing IMQ-16 exhibited improvements in WS and WSL, while maintaining equivalent DC and FS relative to the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA control system. Incorporation of 17% and 20% of IMQ-16 into UDMA/SR833s resin reduced the viable counts of S. mutans after incubation on the surface of the materials and produced no inhibition zones around the cured discs in ADT. UDMA/SR833s resin system is promising to formulate an antibacterial polymer with equivalent or even higher physicochemical properties relative to Bis-GMA/TEGDMA formulation. IMQ-16 is capable to endow UDMA/SR833s resin system with significant antibacterial activity when the mass ratio is 17% or 20%. PMID:26688422

  6. Effects of freezing, drying, ultraviolet irradiation, chlorine, and quaternary ammonium treatments on the infectivity of myxospores of Myxobolus cerebralis for Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Ronald P; McDowell, Terry S; Mukkatira, Kaveramma; MacConnell, Elizabeth; Petri, Brian

    2008-06-01

    The effects of freezing, drying, ultraviolet irradiation (UV), chlorine, and a quaternary ammonium compound on the infectivity of the myxospore stage of Myxobolus cerebralis (the causative agent of whirling disease) for Tubifex tubifex were examined in a series of laboratory trials. Freezing at either -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C for a period of 7 d or 2 months eliminated infectivity as assessed by the absence of production of the actinospore stage (triactinomyxons [TAMs]) from T. tubifex cultures inoculated with treated myxospores over a 4-5-month period. Myxospores retained infectivity when held in well water at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C for 7 d and when held at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C d for 2 months. In contrast, no TAMs were produced from T. tubifex cultures inoculated with myxospores held at 20 degrees C for 2 months. Drying of myxospores eliminated any evidence of infectivity for T. tubifex. Doses of UV from 40 to 480 mJ/cm2 were all effective for inactivating myxospores of M. cerebralis, although a few TAMs were detected in one replicate T. tubifex culture at 240 mJ/cm2 and in one replicate culture at 480 mJ/cm2. Treatments of myxospores with chlorine bleach at active concentrations of at least 500 mg/L for 15 min largely inactivated myxospore infectivity for T. tubifex. Likewise, there was no evidence of TAMs produced by T. tubifex inoculated with myxospores treated with alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) at 1,500 mg/L for 10 min. Treatments of myxospores with 1,000-mg/L ADBAC for 10 min reduced TAM production in T. tubifex cultures sevenfold relative to that in cultures inoculated with an equal number of untreated myxospores. These results indicate that myxospores of M. cerebralis demonstrate a selective rather than broad resistance to selected physical and chemical treatments, and this selective resistance is consistent with conditions that myxospores are likely to experience in nature. PMID:18783133

  7. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  8. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 1. Separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-02-15

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt has been investigated. The retention mechanism of aromatic carboxylic acids was discussed on the basis of both ion-pair partition model and ion-exchange model. The retention behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids possessing one (or two) carboxylic acid group(s) followed the ion-pair partition model, where linear free energy relationship was observed between the capacity factor and the extraction equilibrium constants of benzoic acid and naphthalene carboxylic acid. Besides, the retention behavior followed ion-exchange model with increasing the number of carboxylic acids, where the capacity factor of benzene polycarboxylic acids is proportional to the association constants between aromatic acids and quaternary ammonium ions calculated on the basis of an electrostatic interaction model.

  9. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 2. Application for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.

  10. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  11. Quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil: an efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for halophile green microalgal transformation.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Fariba; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halophile green microalga, is considered a robust photobioreactor and a remarkable cost beneficial system for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. In this study, with low overall cost, a proper cationic lipid was synthesized from renewable soybean oil as an efficient gene delivery carrier for D. salina cells to create appropriate protein-producing transformed cell lines. To obtain an effective carrier, quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil (QASSO) was synthesized through the ring opening reaction of the epoxy groups of epoxidized soybean oil with diethylamine. QASSO was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared instruments. QASSO was used to prepare nanolipoplex construct using plasmid DNA molecules containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. These nanolipoplexes (QASSO-pGFP, N/P=3) and QASSO had diameter of 63.62 and 110.63 nm, and zeta potential of -68.89 and 48.25 mV at pH 7.0, respectively. Results indicated the GFP gene expression and cytoplasmic accumulation of GFP protein in the transformants after incubation under desirable conditions for 48 h and 1 week. The transformation efficiency was quantitatively assayed by flow cytometry, which yielded transformations of 58.87% and 48.34% for QASSO and 38.32% and a negligible percentage for Polyfect® after 48 h and 1 week incubation, respectively. PMID:25451567

  12. Solution behavior and solid phase transitions of quaternary ammonium surfactants with head groups decorated by hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Song, Binglei; Shang, Shibin; Song, Zhanqian

    2012-09-15

    Hydrogen bonds are strong intermolecular interactions, which are very important in molecular aggregation and new phase formation. Three long-chain quaternary ammonium surfactants, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-octadecylammonium bromide with one hydroxyl group, N-ethyl-N,N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl)-N-octadecylammonium bromide with two hydroxyl groups and N,N,N-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-N-octadecylammonium bromide with three hydroxyl groups, abbreviated as SHQ, DHQ, and THQ, respectively, were synthesized in this work. Their solution behavior and solid phase transitions were investigated by surface tension, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The hydrogen bonds introduced by the substituted hydroxyl groups promoted surfactant adsorption at the air/water interface and aggregation in solution. In the crystal state, an increased number of hydroxyl groups caused a larger tilt angle of the long axis of surfactant molecules with the layer normal. Above certain temperatures, SHQ and DHQ formed highly ordered smectic T and smectic A phases while THQ only formed less ordered smectic A phase. The weakened electrostatic attractions between opposite ions and the thicker polar sublayers of mesophases caused by the enhanced number of hydrogen bonds are responsible for the mesophase formation and transition of these surfactants. PMID:22762982

  13. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40 min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates.

  14. Sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries labeled by quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Bąchor, Remigiusz; Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Kluczyk, Alicja; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and straightforward method for high-throughput analysis of single resin beads from one-bead-one-compound combinatorial libraries with high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The application of an efficient method of peptide derivatization by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) formation increases ionization efficiency and reduces the detection limit, allowing analysis of trace amounts of compounds by ESI-MS. Peptides, synthesized on solid support, contain a new cleavable linker composed of a Peg spacer (9-aza-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-10-on-heptadecanoic acid), lysine with ɛ-amino group marked by the N,N,N-triethylglycine salt, and methionine, which makes possible the selective cleavage by cyanogen bromide. Even a small portion of peptides derivatized by QAS cleaved from a single resin bead is sufficient for sequencing by HR ESI-MS/MS experiments. The developed strategy was applied to a small training library of α chymotrypsin substrates. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed method in combinatorial chemistry. PMID:22740104

  15. Quaternary ammonium compounds in urban estuarine sediment environments--a class of contaminants in need of increased attention?

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    The distributions of wastewater-derived quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were determined in surficial sediments (n = 47) collected from the urbanized lower Hudson River basin. The most abundant class of QACs were dialkyldimethylammonium compounds (DADMACs, with C8 to C18 carbon chain lengths; median ΣDADMAC = 26 μg/g), followed by benzylalkyldimethylammonium compounds (BAC, C12-C18; 1.5 μg/g), and alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMAC, primarily C16 and C18; 0.52 μg/g). The concentrations of total QACs are higher than those of other conventional organic contaminants determined on the same samples (e.g., median ΣPAH level of 2.1 μg/g). Comparatively high concentrations, correlations with sewage derived contaminants, and the relatively constant compositions of QACs observed over large areas suggest that many sediment-sorbed QACs can be relatively persistent in receiving waters. Unusually large concentration-dependent sorption is considered as a mechanism that likely affects persistence of these intrinsically biodegradable chemicals under field conditions. There has been comparatively little field-based research on these classes of cationic surfactants; given the levels of QACs observed here, it is suggested that further investigation is warranted. PMID:20804121

  16. Antibiofouling Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membrane Modified by Quaternary Ammonium Compound: Direct Contact-Killing versus Induced Indirect Contact-Killing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingran; Ma, Jinxing; Tang, Chuyang Y; Wang, Zhiwei; Ng, How Yong; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-05-17

    Widespread applications of membrane technology call for the development of antibiofouling membranes. For the traditional contact-killing strategy, the antibacterial action is restricted to the surface: the membrane loses its antibiofouling efficacy once its surface is completely covered with a fouling layer. However, in this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes blended with quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) exhibited a surprisingly lasting antimicrobial activity in the vicinity of the membrane surface. The results indicated that QAC was capable of driving surface segregation with a high structural stability, and the QAC modified membrane shows clear antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Covering the modified membrane surface by an abiotic alginate layer resulted in a loss of antibacterial efficiency by 86.2%. In contrast, the antibacterial efficiency was maintained after developing a biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus of 30 μm in thickness. The current study may suggest that bacteria affected by contact-killing might interact with other bacteria in the vicinity, resulting in retarded biofilm growth. The antibiofouling effect and associated mechanism of the QAC modified membrane were further validated in a membrane bioreactor during long-term operation. PMID:27104660

  17. Quaternary ammonium groups exposed at the surface of silica nanoparticles suitable for DNA complexation in the presence of cationic lipids.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Nora; Adumeau, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Ravaine, Serge; Mornet, Stéphane

    2015-05-28

    The production of silica nanoparticles (NPs) exposing quaternary ammonium groups (NPQ(+)) has been achieved using an optimized chemical surface functionalization protocol. The procedures of surface modification and quaternization of amino groups were validated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Compared to nonquaternized aminated NP, the colloidal stability of NPQ(+) was improved for various pH and salt conditions as assessed by ζ potential and light scattering measurements. In the context of their use for nucleic acid delivery, DNA efficiently bound to NPQ(+) analyzed by cosedimentation assays for a large pH range and various NaCl concentrations and exhibited a better efficacy at basic pH than nonquaternized NP. The study of NPQ(+)/DNA/cationic lipids ternary complexes was carried out with 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and analyzed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Cryo-EM images showed ternary assemblies where condensed DNA strands are sandwiched between the NPQ(+) surface and the cationic lipid bilayer. Because of an unusual electrostatic colloidal stability of NPQ(+) and a high propensity to bind DNA molecules particularly at high salt concentrations, a novel type of ternary assembly has been formed that might impact the delivery properties of these complexes including their stability in biological environment. PMID:25950202

  18. Environmental assessment of an alkyl dimethyl benyzl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) based mollusicide using laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, M.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C.; Petrille, J.C.

    1995-06-01

    A series of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental impact of n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) when used to control zebra mussels and other types of macrofouling organism in industrial cooling systems. The ADBAC-based molluscicide was tested as pure product and often detoxification with bentonite clay. Six flow-through acute tests were conducted to estimate the toxicity of ADBAC. In addition three chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of complexing the ADBAC-based molluscicide with a bentonite clay as a detoxification strategy. A 29-day CO{sub 2} Production test was also conducted to evaluate the biodegradability of the molluscicide. Of the six species tested in acute flow-through experiments, D. magna (LC{sub 50} = 0.02 mg ADBAC/L) was the most sensitive species followed by Mysidopsis bahia (LC{sub 50} = 0.08 mg ADBAC/L), Menidia beryllina (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), P. promelas (LC{sub 50} = 0.36 mg ADBAC/L), Cyprinodon variegatus (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (LC{sub 50} = 1.01 mg ADBAC/L). In the detoxification studies the three test species were exposed to treatment levels of: 0:0, 2.5:0, 2.5:25, 2.5:37.5, 2.5:50, 2.5:75, and 0:75 as mg/L ADBAC:clay. Bentonite clay was found to be an effective detoxification agent for this molluscicide at all treatment levels, except for the 2.5:25 treatment. In addition, a biodegradation study showed that the ADBAC-based molluscicide was readily biodegradable by unacclimated activated sludge microorganisms releasing 65.9% of the theoretical possible CO{sub 2} after 29 days.

  19. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mündel, Toby; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hawke, Emma; Leikis, Murray; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% V˙O2peak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P<0.05). During the PLA condition, the mRNA content of mitochondrial- and glucose-regulating proteins was elevated immediately following exercise (P<0.05). In the early phase (0–2 h) of post-exercise recovery during ACID, PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome C, FOXO1, GLUT4, and HKII mRNA levels were not different from resting levels (P>0.05); the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08). Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle. PMID:26656911

  20. Extraction of benzene and naphthalene carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Nagano, H.; Okuwaki, A.

    2005-07-01

    The ion-pair solvent extraction of benzene- and naphthalene-carboxylic acids has been investigated as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products, which are formed by treatment with alkaline solutions at high temperatures. It was possible that benzene- and naphthalene-dicarboxylic acids are extracted into several types of organic solvents with quaternary ammonium ions. The extraction equilibrium constants (K{sub ex}) for benzoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1-naphthoic acid, 2-naphthoic acid, 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid into chloroform were determined at 20{sup o}C. The difference of K{sub ex} among the aromatic acids was sufficiently large for designing a separation method for these aromatic acids. It was unexpected that the extraction of dicarboxylic acids was slower than that of monocarboxylic acids, although the ion-pair formation of aromatic carboxylate ion with quaternary ammonium ion is normally considered as a diffusion control reaction in aqueous phase. Thus, this fact suggests that the phase transfer of the ion-pair from aqueous to organic phase is the rate-determining step. Liner-free-energy relationship was observed for the monocarboxylic acids using different quaternary ammonium salts while that was ambiguous for the dicarboxylic acids. This is due to the steric influence of the counter ions for the magnitude of K{sub ex}.

  1. A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

  2. New lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels containing quaternary ammonium salt with superabsorbent capacity for organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2014-09-10

    Water and soil pollution by organic pollutants from petrochemical plants has become one of the major environmental problems in recent years. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels with ionic groups dissociable in nonpolar organic solvents show an enhanced swelling ability in a corresponding media attributed to the electrostatic repulsion and osmotic pressure provided by dissociated ionic groups. Here, we synthesized new lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels based on an easily available electrolyte monomer, methacryloxyethyl dimethyloctane ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (MODAT), and a lipophilic neutral monomer, dodecyl acrylate by radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking. The resultant lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels could absorb plenty of organic solvents with dielectric constants lower than 20 and exhibited a high absorbing ability at a wide range of temperatures (0-40 °C). The maximum swelling degree could reach as high as 200 g/g in some media, such as 1,2-dichloroethane (199.4 g/g) and dichloromethane (204 g/g), which was much higher than that of the nonionic gel without the addition of MODAT. Moreover, the resultant lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels could release most of the absorbed solvents within several hours and then be reused. It is expected that this new type of lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels may be a suitable candidate as organic pollutant absorbents. PMID:25134413

  3. Retention behavior of long chain quaternary ammonium homologues and related nitroso-alkymethylamines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Several chromatographic methods have been utilized to study the retentionbehavior of a homologous series of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides (ABDAC) and the corresponding nitroso-n-alkylmethylamines (NAMA). Linear correlation of the logarithmic capacity factor (k') with the number of carbons in the alkyl chain provides useful information on both gas chromatographic (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatographich (HPLC) retention parameters of unknown components. Under all conditions empolyed, GC methodology has proved effective in achieving complete resolution of the homologous mixture of NMA despite its obvious inadequacy in the separation of E-Z configurational isomers. Conversely, normal-phase HPLC on silica demonstrates that the selectivity (a) value for an E-Z pair is much higher than that for an adjacent homologous pair. In the reversed-phase HPLC study, three different silica-based column systems were examined under various mobile phase conditions. The extent of variation in k' was found to be a function of the organic modifier, counter-ion concentration, eluent pH, nature of counter-ion, and the polarity and type of stationary phase. The k'—[NaClO4] profiles showed similar trends between the ABDAC and the NAMA series, supporting the dipolar electronic structures of the latter compounds. Mobile phase and stationary phase effects on component separation are described. The methodology presented establishes the utility of HPLC separation techniques as versatile analytical tools for practical application.

  4. Identification of Environmental Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Direct Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Herron, Josi; Reese, Rosalyn C; Tallman, Keri A; Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Porter, Ned A; Xu, Libin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to identify environmental molecules that can inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, potentially leading to the same biochemical defects as observed in cholesterol biosynthesis disorders, which are often characterized by congenital malformations and developmental delay. Using the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network developed by EPA, we first carried out in silico screening of environmental molecules that display structures similar to AY9944, a known potent inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ(7)-reductase (DHCR7)-the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis. Molecules that display high similarity to AY9944 were subjected to test in mouse and human neuroblastoma cells for their effectiveness in inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis by analyzing cholesterol and its precursor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that a common disinfectant mixture, benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), exhibits high potency in inhibiting DHCR7, as suggested by greatly elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Subsequent structure-activity studies suggested that the potency of BACs as Dhcr7 inhibitors decrease with the length of their hydrocarbon chain: C10 > C12 ≫ C14 > C16. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed upregulation of the genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis and downregulation of the genes related to cholesterol efflux, suggesting a feedback response to the inhibition. Furthermore, an oxidative metabolite of 7-DHC that was previously identified as a biomarker in vivo was also found in cells exposed to BACs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that certain environmental molecules could potently inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, which could be a new link between environment and developmental disorders. PMID:26919959

  5. On-chip cell lysis by antibacterial non-leaching reusable quaternary ammonium monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Aly Saad Aly, Mohamed; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

    2016-02-01

    Reusable antibacterial non-leaching monolithic columns polymerized in microfluidic channels designed for on-chip cell lysis applications were obtained by the photoinitiated free radical copolymerization of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) in the presence of a porogenic solvent. The microfluidic channels were fabricated in cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrates by laser micromachining. The monolithic columns have the ability to inhibit the growth of, kill and efficiently lyse Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) (ATCC 4698) and Kocuria rosea (ATCC 186), and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 12633) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) by mechanically shearing the bacterial membrane when forcing the cells to pass through the narrow pores of the monolithic column, and simultaneously disintegrating the cell membrane by physical contact with the antibacterial surface of the column. Cell lysis was confirmed by off-chip PCR without the need for further purification. The influence of the cross-linking monomer on bacterial growth inhibition, leaching, lysis efficiency of the monolithic column and its mechanical stability within the microfluidic channel were investigated and analyzed for three different cross-linking monomers: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (1,6-HDDMA). Furthermore, the bonding efficiency of two X-PMMA substrates with different cross-linking levels was studied. The monolithic columns were shown to be stable, non-leaching, and reusable for over 30 lysis cycles without significant performance degradation or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between lysis cycles. PMID:26671610

  6. The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride onto cotton nonwoven hydroentangled substrates at the solid-liquid interface is minimized by additive chemistries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quaternary ammonium compounds, commonly referred to as quats, are cationic surfactants widely used as the active biocide ingredient for disposable disinfecting wipes. The cationic nature of quats results in a strong ionic interaction and adsorption onto wipes materials that have an anionic surface ...

  7. Effects of antibacterial primers with quaternary ammonium and nano-silver on S. mutans impregnated in human dentin blocks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D.; Liu, Huaibing; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies developed antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the effect of antibacterial primers containing QADM and NAg on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) the effect of QADM or NAg alone or in combination, and the effect of NAg mass fraction, on S. mutans viability in dentin. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. QADM and NAg were incorporated into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP primer control, control + 10% QADM (mass %), control + 0.05% NAg, control + 10% QADM + 0.05% NAg, control + 0.1% NAg, and control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg. S. mutans were impregnated into dentin blocks, then a primer was applied. The viable colony-forming units (CFU) were then measured by harvesting the bacteria in dentin using a sonication method. Results Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg had bacteria inhibition zone 8-fold that of control (p < 0.05). The sonication method successfully harvested bacteria from dentin blocks. Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg inhibited S. mutans in dentin blocks, reducing the viable CFU in dentin by three orders of magnitude, compared to control dentin without primer. Using QADM+NAg was more effective than QADM alone. Higher NAg content increased the potency. Dentin shear bond strength was similar for all groups (p > 0.1). Significance Antibacterial primer with QADM and NAg were shown to inhibit the S. mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time. Bonding agent containing QADM and NAg is promising to eradicate bacteria in tooth cavity and inhibit caries. The QADM and NAg may have applicability to other adhesives, cements, sealants and composites. PMID:23422420

  8. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene N.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera. PMID

  9. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene N; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-03-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera. PMID

  10. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-03-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3-18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P < 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3-18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit caries

  11. Highly fluorescent C-dots obtained by pyrolysis of quaternary ammonium ions trapped in all-silica ITQ-29 zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovi, Herme G.; Valencia, Susana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    C-dots obtained in the homogeneous phase may exhibit a broad particle size distribution. The formation of C-dots within nanometric reaction cavities could be a methodology to gain control on their size distribution. Among the various possibilities, in the present work, the cavities of small pore size zeolites have been used to confine C-dots generated by the pyrolysis of the organic structure directing agent present in the synthesis of these crystalline aluminosilicates. To explore this methodology, ITQ-29 zeolite having a Linde type A (LTA) structure was prepared as pure silica with 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3.2.1-ij]quinolinium as the organic structure directing agent. Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 550 °C of a pure-silica ITQ-29 sample (cubic particles of 4 μm edge) renders a highly fluorescent zeolite containing about 15 wt% of the carbonised residue. While another small pore zeolite, ITQ-12 (ITW), also renders photoluminescent C-dots under similar conditions, medium or large pore zeolites, such as silicalite (MFI) or pure silica Beta (BEA), failed to produce fluorescent powders under analogous thermal treatment and only decomposition and complete removal of the corresponding quaternary ammonium ion templates was observed for these zeolites. The dissolution of the pyrolysed ITQ-29 zeolite framework and the extraction of the carbon residue with ethyl acetate have allowed the characterisation of C-dots with particle sizes between 5 and 12 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.4 upon excitation at 350 nm that is among the highest reported for non-surface functionalized C-dots. Photoluminescence varies with the excitation wavelength and is quenched by oxygen. Pyrolysed ITQ-29 powders can act as fluorescent oxygen sensors.

  12. Highly fluorescent C-dots obtained by pyrolysis of quaternary ammonium ions trapped in all-silica ITQ-29 zeolite.

    PubMed

    Baldovi, Herme G; Valencia, Susana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Asiri, Abdullah M; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-02-01

    C-dots obtained in the homogeneous phase may exhibit a broad particle size distribution. The formation of C-dots within nanometric reaction cavities could be a methodology to gain control on their size distribution. Among the various possibilities, in the present work, the cavities of small pore size zeolites have been used to confine C-dots generated by the pyrolysis of the organic structure directing agent present in the synthesis of these crystalline aluminosilicates. To explore this methodology, ITQ-29 zeolite having a Linde type A (LTA) structure was prepared as pure silica with 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3.2.1-ij]quinolinium as the organic structure directing agent. Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 550 °C of a pure-silica ITQ-29 sample (cubic particles of 4 μm edge) renders a highly fluorescent zeolite containing about 15 wt% of the carbonised residue. While another small pore zeolite, ITQ-12 (ITW), also renders photoluminescent C-dots under similar conditions, medium or large pore zeolites, such as silicalite (MFI) or pure silica Beta (BEA), failed to produce fluorescent powders under analogous thermal treatment and only decomposition and complete removal of the corresponding quaternary ammonium ion templates was observed for these zeolites. The dissolution of the pyrolysed ITQ-29 zeolite framework and the extraction of the carbon residue with ethyl acetate have allowed the characterisation of C-dots with particle sizes between 5 and 12 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.4 upon excitation at 350 nm that is among the highest reported for non-surface functionalized C-dots. Photoluminescence varies with the excitation wavelength and is quenched by oxygen. Pyrolysed ITQ-29 powders can act as fluorescent oxygen sensors. PMID:25516465

  13. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin HK

    2016-01-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3–18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P < 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3–18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit

  14. Survival of Adhering Staphylococci during Exposure to a Quaternary Ammonium Compound Evaluated by Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging▿

    PubMed Central

    Crismaru, Mihaela; Asri, Lia A. T. W.; Loontjens, Ton J. A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; de Vries, Joop; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) on the survival of adhering staphylococci on a surface were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Four strains with different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for the QAC were exposed to three different concentrations of the QAC in potassium phosphate buffer (0.5×, 1×, and 2× MBC) while adhering to glass. Adhering staphylococci were repeatedly imaged with AFM in the contact mode, and the cell surface was found to wrinkle upon progressive exposure to the QAC until bacteria disappeared from the substratum. Higher concentrations of QAC yielded faster wrinkling and the disappearance of bacteria during imaging. Two slime-producing staphylococcal strains survived longer on the surface than two non-slime-producing strains despite similar MICs and MBCs. All staphylococci adhering in unscanned areas remained adhering during exposure to QAC. Since MICs and MBCs did not relate to bacterial cell surface hydrophobicities and zeta potentials, survival on the surface is probably not determined by the direct interaction of QAC molecules with the cell surface. Instead, it is suggested that the pressure of the AFM tip assists the incorporation of QAC molecules in the membrane and enhances their bactericidal efficacy. In addition, the prolonged survival under pressure from slime-producing strains on a surface may point to a new protective role of slime as a stress absorber, impeding the incorporation of QAC molecules. The addition of Ca2+ ions to a QAC solution yielded longer survival of intact, adhering staphylococci, suggesting that Ca2+ ions can impede the exchange of membrane Ca2+ ions required for QAC incorporation. PMID:21876063

  15. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  16. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Feron, O.; Wibo, M.; Christen, M. O.; Godfraind, T.

    1992-01-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1313732

  17. Interaction of pinaverium (a quaternary ammonium compound) with 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites in rat ileum smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Feron, O; Wibo, M; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1992-02-01

    1. The interaction of pinaverium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, with binding sites for (L-type) calcium channel blockers was investigated in rat ileum smooth muscle. 2. Pinaverium inhibited [3H]-(+)-PN200-110 ([3H]-(+)-isradipine) specific binding to tissue homogenates incompletely (Ki 0.38 microM; maximal inhibition 80%). In contrast, binding to single cell preparations (obtained by collagenase treatment) and to saponin-treated homogenates was completely inhibited. These data are compatible with the view that, in untreated homogenates, 20% of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding sites are not accessible to pinaverium because it is associated with sealed inside-out vesicles. 3. Pinaverium bromide increased the apparent KD of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding to saponin-treated homogenates but did not significantly affect the Bmax value. Moreover, the dissociation rate constant of [3H]-(+)-isradipine binding was not changed by pinaverium. These data suggest that pinaverium interacts with the dihydropyridine binding site in a competitive manner. However, in contrast to uncharged dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, pinaverium inhibited, rather than stimulated, [3H]-diltiazem binding to rat brain membranes (at 30-37 degrees C). 4. Although Bmax values of [3H]-(+)-isradipine were similar in homogenates prepared from tissue and cells (collagenase-treated), the KD value was significantly higher in cell homogenates (166 vs 95 pM). Similarly, the Ki value of pinaverium was higher in cell preparations than in tissue homogenates (0.77 vs 0.38 microM). Thus, collagenase can significantly modify the dihydropyridine recognition site.5. The competitive interaction of pinaverium, a permanently charged drug, with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to intact cells and its absence of interaction with [3H]-(+)-isradipine bound to sealed inside-out vesicles imply that the dihydropyridine receptor lies near the external surface of the plasma membrane. PMID:1313732

  18. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V.; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  19. Evaluation of a novel commercial quaternary ammonium compound for eradication of Mycobacteria, HCV and HBV in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elkholy, Yasmine Samy; Hegab, Asmaa Sayed; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Hassan, Reem Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopes are a common source of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. It is therefore important to identify high-level disinfectants capable of eliminating or killing all vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. Aldehydebased disinfectants are most commonly used in clinical practice but resistance has recently been detected and side effects associated with these disinfectants are well documented. In this study, we evaluated Virusolve+® EDS, a novel quaternary ammonium compound formulation supplied by Amity international, against Mycobacterium bovis (ATCC-27289), hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive serum and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive serum. We also compared its efficacy against Cidex® (glutaraldehyde 2%), an aldehyde-based disinfectant. M. bovis showed no growth after 10 weeks with either Virusolve+® or Cidex®. Virusolve+® achieved a 10(4)- fold reduction in the initial 10(6) HCV load under clean conditions (without red blood cells) for 20 min, whereas Cidex® achieved this reduction under clean and dirty conditions (without and with red blood cells, respectively) after both 10 and 20 min. Both Virusolve+® and Cidex® were able to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity under clean conditions after 10 and 20 min, whereas under dirty conditions they were only able to eradicate virus infectivity after 20 min. Virusolve+® EDS when compared with Cidex® showed equal mycobactericidal activity completely eradicating M. bovis. However, both showed comparable virucidal activity against HBV, which was more effective under clean conditions, emphasizing the importance of the cleaning step in endoscope reprocessing. Cidex® was more effective at eradicating HCV under dirty conditions after a short contact time. PMID:26727900

  20. A solid phase honey-like channel method for synthesizing urea-ammonium chloride cocrystals on industrial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bingchun; Mao, Meiling; Liu, Yanhong; Guo, Jinyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Erbao

    2016-05-01

    Unanticipated a new and simple urea-ammonium chloride cocrystal synthesis method on industrial scale was found during attempts to produce a kind of granulated compound fertilizer. The aggregation of fertilizer powder can make the interaction among particles from loose to close, which generate mechanical pressure and in turn act as the driving force to benefit cocrystal growth. Additionally, the honeycomb-like channels constructed by other coexisting compound make the water evaporates more moderate, which can help the formation of supersaturated solution at suitable rate, further promote the growth of cocrystal. This approach possibly opens a new route toward the developing methodologies for cocrystal synthesis.

  1. Antibacterial effects of quaternary bis-phosphonium and ammonium salts of pyridoxine on Staphylococcus aureus cells: A single base hitting two distinct targets?

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Elena V; Zeldi, Marina I; Pugachev, Mikhail V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Kuznetsova, Svetlana V; Evtygin, Vladimir E; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Kayumov, Airat R; Shtyrlin, Yurii G

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of quaternary bis-phosphonium and bis-ammonium salts of pyridoxine with lipophilic substituents on the survival and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus cells. We found that, while originating from the same base, they exhibit considerably different antimicrobial mechanisms. In the presence of Ca(2+) ions the MIC and MBC values of ammonium salt increased 100-fold, suggesting that Ca(2+) ions can successfully impede the membrane Ca(2+) ions exchange required for ammonium salt incorporation. In contrast, in the presence of quaternary phosphonium salt, the artificial capsular-like material was formed around the cells and the filamentous and chain-like growth of the cells was observed suggesting the disruption of the cell division mechanisms. Altogether, both pyridoxine derivatives successfully inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis) and Escherichia coli considerably, while demonstrated nearly no effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We suggest that due to their effects on distinct and likely complementary targets the derivatives of pyridoxine represent potentially perspective antibacterials with complicated adaptation and thus with lower risk of drug resistance development. PMID:26712620

  2. 77 FR 47291 - Residues of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3) of FFDCA... Quaternaries can be found at 73 FR 37852 (July 2, 2008). IV. Aggregate Exposures In examining aggregate...- HQ-OPP-2006-0572 determined that risks from aggregate exposure are safe, 72 FR 51180 (September...

  3. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  4. Recognition of N-alkyl and N-aryl acetamides by N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides.

    PubMed

    Beyeh, N Kodiah; Ala-Korpi, Altti; Cetina, Mario; Valkonen, Arto; Rissanen, Kari

    2014-11-10

    N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chlorides are stabilized by an intricate array of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds that leads to cavitand-like structures. Depending on the upper-rim substituents, self-inclusion was observed in solution and in the solid state. The self-inclusion can be disrupted at higher temperatures, whereas in the presence of small guests the self-included dimers spontaneously reorganize to 1:1 host-guest complexes. These host compounds show an interesting ability to bind a series of N-alkyl acetamide guests through intermolecular hydrogen bonds involving the carbonyl oxygen (C=O) atoms and the amide (NH) groups of the guests, the chloride anions (Cl(-)) and ammonium (NH2(+)) cations of the hosts, and also through CH⋅⋅⋅π interactions between the hosts and guests. The self-included and host-guest complexes were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR titration, and mass spectrometry. PMID:25257765

  5. A review of methods for the analysis of orphan and difficult pesticides: glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium and phenoxy acid herbicides, and dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the chromatography/MS methodologies for analysis of pesticide residues of orphan and difficult chemical classes in a variety of sample matrixes including water, urine, blood, and food. The review focuses on pesticide classes that are not commonly included in multiresidue analysis methods such as highly polar or ionic herbicides including glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium, and phenoxy acid herbicides, and some of their major degradation or metabolite products. In addition, dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides, which are thermally unstable and have stability issues in some solvents or sample matrixes, are also examined due to their special needs in residue analysis. PMID:25145125

  6. Effect of a novel quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) on adhesion and antibacterial properties of dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M; Simão, Luzia C; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin-dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in μTBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p>0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of μTBS after 12 months of storage (p=0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p>0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all

  7. Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP) on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Yasmine M.; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M.; Simão, Luzia C.; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M. M.; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in μTBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of μTBS after 12 months of storage (p = 0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for

  8. Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antibacterial primer and adhesive are promising to help combat biofilms and recurrent caries. The objectives of this study were to compare novel bonding agent containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) with bonding agent containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg) in antibacterial activity, contact-inhibition vs. long-distance inhibition, glucosyltransferases (gtf) gene expressions, and cytotoxicity for the first time. Methods QADM and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer. Microtensile dentin bond strength was measured. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm on resin surface (contact-inhibition) as well as S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface (long-distance inhibition) were tested for metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid production, and gtf gene expressions. Eluents from cured primer/adhesive samples were used to examine cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts. Results Bonding agent with QADM greatly reduced CFU and lactic acid of biofilms on the resin surface (p < 0.05), while having no effect on S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. In contrast, bonding agent with NAg inhibited not only S. mutans on the resin surface, but also S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. Bonding agent with QADM suppressed gtfB, gtfC and gtfD gene expressions of S. mutans on its surface, but not away from its surface. Bonding agent with NAg suppressed S. mutans gene expressions both on its surface and away from its surface. Bonding agents with QADM and NAg did not adversely affect microtensile bond strength or fibroblast cytotoxicity, compared to control (p > 0.1). Significance QADM-containing adhesive had contact-inhibition and inhibited bacteria on its surface, but not away from its surface. NAg-containing adhesive had long-distance killing capability and inhibited bacteria on its surface and away from its surface. The novel antibacterial

  9. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  10. Efficient adsorption of both methyl orange and chromium from their aqueous mixtures using a quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Pei; Cai, Jun; Xiao, Shoujun; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-01

    A quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent (CS-CTA-MCM) was prepared by combination of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Various techniques were used to characterize the molecular structure, surface morphology, and magnetic feature of this composite adsorbent. CS-CTA-MCM was employed for the removal of Cr(VI) and methyl orange (MO), an anionic dye, from water in respective single and binary systems. Compared with chitosan magnetic adsorbent (CS-MCM) without modification, CS-CTA-MCM shows evidently improved adsorption capacities for both pollutants ascribed to the additional quaternary ammonium salt groups. Based on the adsorption equilibrium study, MO bears more affinity to CS-CTA-MCM than Cr(VI) causing a considerable extent of preferential adsorption of dye over metal ions in their aqueous mixture. However, at weak acidic solutions, Cr(VI) adsorption is evidently improved due to more efficient Cr(VI) forms, i.e. dichromate and monovalent chromate, binding to this chitosan-based adsorbent. Thus chromium could be efficient removal together with MO at suitable pH conditions. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics indicate that adsorptions of Cr(VI) and MO by CS-CTA-MCM both follow a homogeneous monolayer chemisorption process. This magnetic adsorbent after saturated adsorption could be rapidly separated from water and easily regenerated using dilute NaOH aqueous solutions then virtually reused with little adsorption capacity loss. PMID:27060639

  11. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  12. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  13. Ethyl­enedi­ammonium chloride thio­cyanate

    PubMed Central

    Karoui, Sahel; Kamoun, Slaheddine; Michaud, François

    2013-01-01

    In the ethyl­enedi­ammonium dication of the title salt, C2H10N2 2+·Cl−·SCN−, the N—C—C—N torsion angle is 72.09 (12)°. In the crystal, an extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network, formed by N—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, holds all the ions together. PMID:23723830

  14. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

  15. Poly-(acryl amine-co-dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) graft starch flocculant for cleaning-up of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changhu; Yang, Juxiang; Li, Jiangtao; Fang, Zhenhua; He, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Graft starch flocculant (GSF) was synthesized by copolymerization of carboxymethylated soluble starch, acryl amine and dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride using ceric ammonium nitrate (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 as the polymerization initiator. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope, the structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the surface area was measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The experimental results showed that the GSF had huge pore volume, high specific area and proper reaction groups, which could enhance its ability to adsorb heavy metal ions. The adsorption behavior was investigated through batch experiments in simulated Cu(2+)and Pb(2+) ions wastewater, and adsorption characteristics were affected by many factors, such as flocculant concentration, pH of the solution and adsorption time. Finally, the optimal adsorption parameters were gained, with GSF density of 0.024 mg·L(-1), pH of 8 and a reaction time of 30 min. Application experiments adequately demonstrated that the removal ratio of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions for the local wastewater reached about 50% based on the above optimized condition. PMID:27191560

  16. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect

    Supeno; Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  17. Effect of polyester blends in hydroentangled raw and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics on the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics (applicable for wipes) including raw cotton, bleached cotton, and their blends with polyester (PES) were stu...

  18. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on low-weight greige and bleached cotton nonwovens in different aqueous environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) on cotton nonwovens is dependent on pretreatment of the substrate, more specifically whether it is greige or bleached fabric. In this work we examine the effect of varying the chemical and physical propert...

  19. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations using UV/vis spectroscopy. Results show greige...

  20. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  1. Use of ammonium chloride solutions to remove sulfonate surfactants from crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, N.O.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a method for removal of sulfonate surfactants having a molecular weight of about 600 gram/equivalents or less from crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing from 50 parts per million up to 15 weight percent the surfactants, comprising (a) adding a synthetic brine having a NH/sub 4//sup +/ concentration of from about 0.005 molar to about 0.1 molar to crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing the sulfonate surfactants, the brine comprising water and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of (NH/sub 4/)/sub n/X, where X is at least one ion selected from the group consisting of sulfate, nitrate or halide and n is the valence of X, the brine being prepared from fresh water containing substantially no detrimental salts selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Zn, and Ba salts; (b) agitating at a temperature of from about 90F to about 150F the crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing sulfonate surfactants and synthetic brine to ensure thorough mixing and react the NH/sub 4//sup +/ with the sulfonate surfactants and produce a mixture containing water soluble ammonium sulfonate, and (c) allowing the mixture of (b) to separate into aqueous and organic phases, the aqueous phase containing predominantly brine and ammonium sulfonate, and removing the aqueous phase containing predominately brine and sulfonates from the organic phase containing predominately crude oil.

  2. Selectivity control in synergistic liquid-liquid anion exchange of univalent anions via structure-specific cooperativity between quaternary ammonium cations and anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-10-01

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence on the structure of the alkylammonium cation that suggests a supramolecular cooperative effect. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). Whereas synergism is comparatively weak when either methyltri(C(8,10))alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or tetraheptylammonium chloride is used with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is so pronounced that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336(+) with Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(F3)(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-). PMID:22931168

  3. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  4. Aging Effects on the Properties of Imidazolium-, Quaternary Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids Used in Fuel and Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B.; Smith, L. Taylor; Williamson, Tyler K.; Kendrick, Sarah E.

    2013-11-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long-term aging effect of the temperature on these materials. Imizadolium-, quaternary ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidnium-based ILs with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 h (15 weeks) at 200 °C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. Finally, it was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  5. Preparation of the chitosan grafted poly (quaternary ammonium)/Fe3O4 nanoparticles and its adsorption performance for food yellow 3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Geng, Jianqiang; Zhuang, Yunxia; Zhao, Jian; Chu, Liqiu; Luo, Xiaoxuan; Zhao, Ying; Guo, Yanwen

    2016-11-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives can be used to modify magnetic materials to promote the adsorption properties of the magnetic materials and avoid the weakness of chitosan and its derivatives. In the present study, chitosan grafted poly(trimethyl allyl ammonium chloride) (CTS-g-PTMAAC) was prepared by graft copolymerization; then it was coated on the surfaces of the sodium citrate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SC-Fe3O4) to prepare a novel composite CTS-g-PTMAAC/SC-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, with which possesses abundant surface positive charges. The structure and properties of the CTS-g-PTMAAC/SC-Fe3O4 composite magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, TEM, VSM, and zeta potential. The dye adsorption characteristics of the CTS-g-PTMAAC/SC-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were determined using the food yellow 3 aqueous solutions as a model food effluent. Effect of pH of the dye solution on the adsorption of food yellow 3 was determined and compared with N-2-hydroxylpropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan coated sodium citrate-Fe3O4 (CTS-g-HTCC/SC-Fe3O4) composite magnetic nanoparticles. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, adsorption thermodynamics, and desorption and reusability of the magnetic nanoparticles were investigated. PMID:27516279

  6. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of new norcantharidin-conjugated hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan derivatives as polymer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Yanggong; Wang, Feihu; Lv, Li; Liu, Jieying; Li, Mingna; Guo, Aijie; Jiang, Jinjun; Shen, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2013-09-10

    New norcantharidin-conjugated hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan derivatives (NCTD-HACCs) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Two NCTD-HACCs with different degrees of substitution (DS) (12.2% and 24.8%) were obtained, which had good water solubility. NCTD was released from the NCTD-HACCs via hydrolysis, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4 and presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the NCTD-HACC was endocytosized into MGC80-3 cells and the uptaken amount increased as incubation time. Compared with free NCTD, the NCTD-HACCs showed lower in vitro anti-tumor activity against human gastric cancer MGC80-3 cells, but higher in vivo tumor growth inhibition in S180 tumor-bearing mice. The in vivo near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence real-time imaging result showed the fluorescence intensity in tumor was much higher than that in heart, liver, spleen and lung (except kidney) after i.v. injection of the FITC-labeled NCTD-HACC2, indicating specific accumulation of the NCTD-HACC in tumor. PMID:23742972

  7. Removal of ammonium chloride generated by ammonia slip from the SNCR process in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Minoya, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sameshima, Ryoji

    2009-03-01

    The selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process is one of the methods used to reduce NO(x) to N(2) and H(2)O by injecting NH(3) or urea solution into a high-temperature furnace. Merits of this method include simple handling, low cost, and energy savings. However, a critical problem of the SNCR process is the generation of ammonia slip; in reactions with HCl in flue gas, ammonium chloride is generated and forms detached white plumes near the stack. Using a laboratory-scale experimental apparatus, we examined the possibility of NH(4)Cl collection and removal by a bag filter (BF). The molar NH(3)/HCl ratio of the compound collected at the filter was nearly one, regardless of gas temperature, retention time, and concentration, confirming the formation of NH(4)Cl. The NH(4)Cl generation ratio increased as reaction temperature decreased, indicating that the collection efficiency of NH(4)Cl should increase if the BF is operated at the lowest possible temperature while avoiding the critical point causing low-temperature corrosion (e.g., 150 degrees C). In addition, the use of activated carbon injection in the front of the BF and the dust layer on the BF are expected to capture slipped ammonia at the BF and reduce NH(4)Cl fume generation in the stack. PMID:19108871

  8. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  9. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  10. Removal of As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from aqueous environments by poly(acrylonitril-co-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Dudu, Tuba Ersen; Sahiner, Mehtap; Alpaslan, Duygu; Demirci, Sahin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-09-15

    Cationic poly(Acrylonitril-co-Acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl Ammonium Chloride) (p(AN-co-APTMACl)) hydrogels in bulk were synthesized by using acrylonitrile (AN) and 3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (APTMACl) as monomers. The prepared hydrogels were exposed to amidoximation reaction to replace hydrophobic nitrile groups with hydrophilic amidoxime groups that have metal ion binding ability. Those replacements were increased the hydrogels absorption capacity for As(V) and Cr(VI). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms equations were utilized to obtain the best-fitted isotherm model for the absorption of the ions at different metal ion concentrations. The absorption data of As(V) ion were fitted well to Freundlich isotherm while those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm. The maximum absorption of poly(3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)) and amid-p(AN-co-APTMACl) macro gels were 22.39 mg and 21.83 mg for As(V), and 30.65 mg and 18.16 mg for Cr(VI) ion per unit gram dried gel, respectively. Kinetically, the absorption behaviors of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and those of As(V) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 1st order kinetic model. PMID:26188989

  11. On the effect of ion pairing of Keggin type polyanions with quaternary ammonium cations on redox potentials in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Neumann, Ronny

    2016-08-10

    The electrochemical properties of Keggin type polyoxometalates Qn[XW12O40] (X = P, Si, B; Q = n-tetraoctylammonium and n-trioctylmethylammonium) in organic solvents were investigated in order to understand the interrelation between the redox potentials, solvents and ion pairing. A logarithmic correlation between the dielectric constant of the solvent (ε ranged from 4.8 to 46.6) and the reduction potential of the [PW12O4](3-)/[PW12O4](4-) couple was found. This reduction potential increased significantly when the surface charge of the polyoxometalate went from 3- to 5-. The investigation of the ion pairing properties by diffusion NMR revealed the presence of intimate ion pairs in less polar solvents (e.g. dichloromethane) and less compact ion pairs in more polar solvents (e.g. DMSO). Using a V atom within the polyoxometalate an NMR experiment showed that a n-trioctylmethyl ammonium cation bonded to the polyoxometalate anion more intimately than a n-tetraoctyl ammonium cation. PMID:27465599

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly with plasmid DNA of a quaternary ammonium derivative of pectic galactan and its fluorescent labeling for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Chintakunta, Ramesh; Buaron, Nitsa; Kahn, Nicole; Moriah, Amana; Lifshiz, Rinat; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry; Kost, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Quaternized derivatives of pectic galactan (QPG) were synthesized by a reaction of pectic galactan (PG) with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution under mild reaction conditions. The results showed that the concentration of CHPTAC and NaOH has great impact on the quaternization reaction. QPG was found to interact electrostatically with plasmid DNA in aqueous solution to form complexes in globular condensed morphology in a nanometer scale size ranging from 60 to 160nm. Complexes formed with QPG fluorescently labeled with 5-DTAF (QPG-5-DTAF) were introduced to the C6 rat glioma cell line, and were found to be able to enter the cell and approach the nucleus within 24h. The results suggest that this type of modified natural polysaccharide may have an advantage as a biocompatible and biodegradable gene delivery carrier and furthermore may serve as a cell specific carrier. PMID:27312642

  13. 'Remote' adiabatic photoinduced deprotonation and aggregate formation of amphiphilic N-alkyl-N-methyl-3-(pyren-1-yl)propan-1-ammonium chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Shibu; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-11-30

    The absorption and emission properties of a series of amphiphilic N-alkyl-N-methyl-3-(pyren-1-yl)propan-1-ammonium chloride salts were investigated in solvents of different polarities and over a wide concentration range. For example, at 10(-5) M concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF), salts with at least one N-H bond exhibited broad, structureless emissions even though time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) experiments indicated negligible static or dynamic intermolecular interactions. Salts with a butylene spacer or lacking an N-H bond showed no discernible structureless emission; their emission spectra were dominated by the normal monomeric fluorescence of a pyrenyl group and the TCSPC histograms could be interpreted on the basis of intramolecular photophysics. The broad, structureless emission is attributed to an unprecedented, rapid, adiabatic proton-transfer to the medium, followed by the formation of an intramolecular exciplex consisting of amine and pyrenyl groups. The proposed mechanism involves excitation of a ground-state conformer of the salts in which the ammonium group sits over the pyrenyl ring due to electrostatic stabilization. At higher concentrations, with longer N-alkyl groups, or in selected solvents, electronic excitation of the salts led to dynamic and static excimeric emissions. For example, whereas the emission spectrum of 10(-3) M N-hexyl-N-methyl-3-(pyren-1-yl)propan-1-ammonium chloride in THF consisted of comparable amounts of monomeric and excimeric emission, the emission from 10(-5) M N-dodecyl-N-methyl-3-(pyren-1-yl)propan-1-ammonium chloride in 1:9 (v:v) ethanol/water solutions was dominated by excimeric emission, and discrete particles near micrometer size were discernible from confocal microscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments. Comparison of the static and dynamic emission characteristics of the particles and of the neat solid of N-dodecyl-N-methyl-3-(pyren-1-yl)propan-1-ammonium chloride indicate that molecular

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. Methods The experimental material was prepared from a 2∶1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4∶3∶1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Results S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. Conclusion The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution

  15. Reduction of mastitis caused by experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by use of a quaternary ammonium and halogen-mixture teat dip.

    PubMed

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C

    2002-01-01

    A teat-dip formulation containing sodium dichloro isocyanuric acid, bronopol, and quaternary ammonium was tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections (IMI) using an experimental challenge model. Sixty-two Jersey cows from the Hill Farm Research Station (Homer, LA) were used in an 8-wk controlled infection trial to evaluate the teat dip. During the afternoon milking, Monday through Friday for 8 wk, all teats of each cow were immersed to a depth of approximately 25 mm in a challenge suspension containing approximately 5 x 10(7) cfu of Staphylococcus aureus and approximately 5 x 10(7) cfu of Streptococcus agalactiae immediately after milking machines were removed. Immediately after challenge, the distal 25 mm of two contralateral teats were dipped with the experimental teat dip; the remaining two teats served as undipped controls. The experimental teat dip reduced the number of new Staph. aureus IMI by 70.9% and reduced the number of new Strep. agalactiae IMI by 60.0%. Teat end and teat skin condition were characterized as normal and without irritation at the completion of the study. The combination of the three germicides in this experimental teat dip is unique and an effective formulation without adverse effects on condition of teat ends or teat skin. PMID:11860119

  16. Closed-state inactivation involving an internal gate in Kv4.1 channels modulates pore blockade by intracellular quaternary ammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D; Szanto, Tibor G; Panyi, Gyorgy; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel activation depends on interactions between voltage sensors and an intracellular activation gate that controls access to a central pore cavity. Here, we hypothesize that this gate is additionally responsible for closed-state inactivation (CSI) in Kv4.x channels. These Kv channels undergo CSI by a mechanism that is still poorly understood. To test the hypothesis, we deduced the state of the Kv4.1 channel intracellular gate by exploiting the trap-door paradigm of pore blockade by internally applied quaternary ammonium (QA) ions exhibiting slow blocking kinetics and high-affinity for a blocking site. We found that inactivation gating seemingly traps benzyl-tributylammonium (bTBuA) when it enters the central pore cavity in the open state. However, bTBuA fails to block inactivated Kv4.1 channels, suggesting gated access involving an internal gate. In contrast, bTBuA blockade of a Shaker Kv channel that undergoes open-state P/C-type inactivation exhibits fast onset and recovery inconsistent with bTBuA trapping. Furthermore, the inactivated Shaker Kv channel is readily blocked by bTBuA. We conclude that Kv4.1 closed-state inactivation modulates pore blockade by QA ions in a manner that depends on the state of the internal activation gate. PMID:27502553

  17. Ion distribution in quaternary-ammonium-functionalized aromatic polymers: effects on the ionic clustering and conductivity of anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Weiber, E Annika; Jannasch, Patric

    2014-09-01

    A series of copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s that have precisely two, three, or four quaternary ammonium (QA) groups clustered directly on single phenylene rings along the backbone are studied as anion-exchange membranes. The copolymers are synthesized by condensation polymerizations that involve either di-, tri-, or tetramethylhydroquinone followed by virtually complete benzylic bromination using N-bromosuccinimide and quaternization with trimethylamine. This synthetic strategy allows excellent control and systematic variation of the local density and distribution of QA groups along the backbone. Small-angle X-ray scattering of these copolymers shows extensive ionic clustering, promoted by an increasing density of QA on the single phenylene rings. At an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.1 meq g(-1), the water uptake decreases with the increasing local density of QA groups. Moreover, at moderate IECs at 20 °C, the Br(-) conductivity of the densely functionalized copolymers is higher than a corresponding randomly functionalized polymer, despite the significantly higher water uptake of the latter. Thus, the location of multiple cations on single aromatic rings in the polymers facilitates the formation of a distinct percolating hydrophilic phase domain with a high ionic concentration to promote efficient anion transport, despite probable limitations by reduced ion dissociation. These findings imply a viable strategy to improve the performance of alkaline membrane fuel cells. PMID:25044778

  18. Antifouling and antimicrobial mechanism of tethered quaternary ammonium salts in a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix studied using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuji; Majumdar, Partha; Chisholm, Bret; Stafslien, Shane; Chen, Zhan

    2010-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials containing chemically bound (''tethered'') quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties are being developed as new contact-active antimicrobial coatings. Such coatings are designed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms on surfaces for a variety of applications which include ship hulls and biomedical devices. The antimicrobial activity of these coatings is a function of the molecular surface structure generated during film formation. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study polymer surface structures at the molecular level in different chemical environments. SFG was successfully used to characterize the surface structures of PDMS coatings containing tethered QAS moieties that possess systematic variations in QAS chemical composition in air, in water, and in a nutrient growth medium. The results indicated that the surface structure was largely dependent on the length of the alkyl chain attached to the nitrogen atom of the QAS moiety as well as the length of alkyl chain spanning between the nitrogen atom and silicon atom of the QAS moiety. The SFG results correlated well with the antimicrobial activity, providing a molecular interpretation of the activity. This research showed that SFG can be effectively used to aid in the development of new antimicrobial coating technologies by correlating the chemical structure of a coating surface to its antimicrobial activity. PMID:20345165

  19. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water, Quaternary Ammonium and Lactic Acid-Based Solutions in Controlling Microbial Contamination of Food Cutting Boards Using a Manual Spraying Technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju N; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Bactericidal activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), quaternary ammonium (QUAT), and lactic acid-based solutions was investigated using a manual spraying technique against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that were inoculated onto the surface of scarred polypropylene and wooden food cutting boards. Antimicrobial activity was also examined when using cutting boards in preparation of raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. Viable counts of survivors were determined as log10 CFU/100 cm(2) within 0 (untreated control), 1, 3, and 5 min of treatment at ambient temperature. Within the first minute of treatment, NEW and QUAT solutions caused more than 3 log10 bacterial reductions on polypropylene surfaces whereas less than 3 log10 reductions were achieved on wooden surfaces. After 5 min of treatment, more than 5 log10 reductions were achieved for all bacterial strains inoculated onto polypropylene surfaces. Using NEW and QUAT solutions within 5 min reduced Gram-negative bacteria by 4.58 to 4.85 log10 compared to more than 5 log10 reductions in Gram-positive bacteria inoculated onto wooden surfaces. Lactic acid treatment was significantly less effective (P < 0.05) compared to NEW and QUAT treatments. A decline in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed (0.5 to <2 log10 reductions were achieved within the first minute) when both cutting board types were used to prepare raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. PMID:27027449

  20. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    PubMed

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types. PMID:25583342

  1. Closed-state inactivation involving an internal gate in Kv4.1 channels modulates pore blockade by intracellular quaternary ammonium ions

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Szanto, Tibor G.; Panyi, Gyorgy; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel activation depends on interactions between voltage sensors and an intracellular activation gate that controls access to a central pore cavity. Here, we hypothesize that this gate is additionally responsible for closed-state inactivation (CSI) in Kv4.x channels. These Kv channels undergo CSI by a mechanism that is still poorly understood. To test the hypothesis, we deduced the state of the Kv4.1 channel intracellular gate by exploiting the trap-door paradigm of pore blockade by internally applied quaternary ammonium (QA) ions exhibiting slow blocking kinetics and high-affinity for a blocking site. We found that inactivation gating seemingly traps benzyl-tributylammonium (bTBuA) when it enters the central pore cavity in the open state. However, bTBuA fails to block inactivated Kv4.1 channels, suggesting gated access involving an internal gate. In contrast, bTBuA blockade of a Shaker Kv channel that undergoes open-state P/C-type inactivation exhibits fast onset and recovery inconsistent with bTBuA trapping. Furthermore, the inactivated Shaker Kv channel is readily blocked by bTBuA. We conclude that Kv4.1 closed-state inactivation modulates pore blockade by QA ions in a manner that depends on the state of the internal activation gate. PMID:27502553

  2. Improvement of separation efficiencies of anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic silica capillary columns modified with polyacrylates and polymethacrylates containing tertiary amino or quaternary ammonium groups.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuta; Ikegami, Tohru; Horie, Kanta; Hara, Takeshi; Jaafar, Jafariah; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2009-10-30

    Anion-exchange (AEX) columns were prepared by on-column polymerization of acrylates and methacrylates containing tertiary amino or quaternary ammonium groups on monolithic silica in a fused silica capillary modified with anchor groups. The columns provided a plate height (H) of less than 10 microm at optimum linear velocity (u) with keeping their high permeability (K=9-12 x 10(-14) m2). Among seven kinds of AEX columns, a monolithic silica column modified with poly(2-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl methacrylates) (HMPMA) showed larger retentions and better selectivities for nucleotides and inorganic anions than the others. The HMPMA column of 410 mm length produced 42,000-55,000 theoretical plates (N) at a linear velocity of 0.97 mm/s with a backpressure of 3.8 MPa. The same column could be employed for a fast separation of inorganic anions in 1.8 min at a linear velocity of 5.3 mm/s with a backpressure of 20 MPa. In terms of van Deemter plot and separation impedance, the HMPMA column showed higher performance than a conventional particle-packed AEX column. The HMPMA column showed good recovery of a protein, trypsin inhibitor, and it was applied to the separation of proteins and tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a gradient elution, to provide better separation compared to a conventional particle-packed AEX column. PMID:19683243

  3. Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health?

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Kristin; Langsrud, Solveig; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Sunde, Marianne; Yazdankhah, Siamak P

    2010-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used biocides that possess antimicrobial effect against a broad range of microorganisms. These compounds are used for numerous industrial purposes, water treatment, antifungal treatment in horticulture, as well as in pharmaceutical and everyday consumer products as preserving agents, foam boosters, and detergents. Resistance toward QACs is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as modifications in the membrane composition, expression of stress response and repair systems, or expression of efflux pump genes. Development of resistance in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has been related to application in human medicine and the food industry. QACs in cosmetic products will inevitably come into intimate contact with the skin or mucosal linings in the mouth and thus are likely to add to the selection pressure toward more QAC-resistant microorganisms among the skin or mouth flora. There is increasing evidence of coresistance and cross-resistance between QACs and a range of other clinically important antibiotics and disinfectants. Use of QACs may have driven the fixation and spread of certain resistance cassette collectors (class 1 integrons), currently responsible for a major part of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria. More indiscriminate use of QACs such as in cosmetic products may drive the selection of further new genetic elements that will aid in the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus in limiting our treatment options for microbial infections. PMID:20370507

  4. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit biofilm growth and enhance performance for activated carbon air-cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yinan; An, Jingkun; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The slow diffusion of hydroxyl out of the catalyst layer as well as the biofouling on the surface of cathode are two problems affecting power for membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In order to solve both of them simultaneously, here we simply modify activated carbon air-cathode using a bifunctional quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) by forced evaporation. The maximum power density reaches 1041 ± 12 mW m-2 in an unbuffered medium (0.5 g L-1 NaCl), which is 17% higher than the control, probably due to the accelerated anion transport in the catalyst layer. After 2 months, the protein content reduced by a factor of 26 and the power density increases by 33%, indicating that the QAC modification can effectively inhibit the growth of cathodic biofilm and improve the stability of performance. The addition of NaOH and QAC epoxy have a negative effect on power production due to the clogging of pores in catalyst layer.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of small R {sub 2} R {sup '} {sub 2}N{sup +} X {sup -}-type quaternary ammonium halides

    SciTech Connect

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu . E-mail: makrla@cc.jyu.fi; Mansikkamaeki, Heidi; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2005-06-15

    Twenty-one R {sub 2} R {sup '} {sub 2}N{sup +} X {sup -} -type (R=methyl or ethyl, R {sup '}=alkyl, X=Br or I) quaternary ammonium (QA) halides have been prepared by using a novel one-pot synthetic route in which a formamide (dimethyl-, diethylformamide, etc.) is treated with alkyl halide in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate. The formation of QA halides was verified with {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of four QA halides (two bromide and two iodide) were determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction, and the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. The thermal properties of all compounds were studied using TG/DTA and DSC methods. The smallest compounds decomposed during or before melting. The decreasing trend of melting points was observed when the alkyl chain length was increased. The liquid ranges of 120-180 deg. C were observed for compounds with 5-6 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The low melting points and wide liquid ranges suggest potential applicability of these compounds for example as ionic liquids precursors.

  6. Synthesis, structure and in vitro antibacterial activities of new hybrid disinfectants quaternary ammonium compounds: pyridinium and quinolinium stilbene benzenesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Chanawanno, Kullapa; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-09-01

    The series of pyridinium (1-10) and quinolinium (11-20) stilbene benzenesulfonates have been synthesized and their structures were investigated by UV-vis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, compound 5 was also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has been determined. The quinolinium derivatives exhibited two very potent characteristic activities, namely, (i) specific activity to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and (ii) with broad band spectrum activity. Compounds 11, 13 and 14 are the most active showing broad spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecalis) and gram-negative bacterium (Shigella sonnei). The MICs of these compounds were found to be better than that of Benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the commercially used disinfectant. PMID:20619939

  7. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salen)Co(III) complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Eo, Seong Chan; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan

    2014-01-01

    Summary The (salen)Co(III) complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA) copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalate)s were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalate)s because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1) and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5) + water (present as impurity) + ethanol (deliberately fed)], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (M w/M n, 1.05–1.5). Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (M n up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively). The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (f PA, 0.23) showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 °C) than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 °C). PMID:25161738

  8. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-03-15

    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible. PMID:26907546

  9. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings IX: an investigation of novel antifouling/fouling-release coatings containing quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Partha; Lee, Elizabeth; Patel, Nehal; Ward, Kaley; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; Chisholm, Bret J; Boudjouk, Philip; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Thompson, Stephanie E M

    2008-01-01

    Polysiloxane coatings containing chemically-bound ("tethered") quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties were investigated for potential application as environmental-friendly coatings to control marine biofouling. A combinatorial/high-throughput approach was applied to the investigation to enable multiple variables to be probed simultaneously and efficiently. The variables investigated for the moisture-curable coatings included QAS composition, ie alkyl chain length, and concentration as well as silanol-terminated polysiloxane molecular weight. A total of 75 compositionally unique coatings were prepared and characterized using surface characterization techniques and biological assays. Biological assays were based on two different marine microorganisms, a bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica and a diatom, Navicula incerta, as well as a macrofouling alga, Ulva. The results of the study showed that all three variables influenced coating surface properties as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics. The incorporation of QAS moieties into a polysiloxane matrix generally resulted in an increase in coating surface hydrophobicity. Characterization of coating surface morphology revealed a heterogeneous, two-phase morphology for many of the coatings investigated. A correlation was found between water contact angle and coating surface roughness, with the contact angle increasing with increasing surface roughness. Coatings based on the QAS moiety containing the longest alkyl chain (18 carbons) displayed the highest micro-roughness and, thus, the most hydrophobic surfaces. With regard to AF and FR properties, coatings based on the 18 carbon QAS moieties were very effective at inhibiting C. lytica biofilm formation and enabling easy removal of Ulva sporelings (young plants) while coatings based on the 14 carbon QAS moities were very effective at inhibiting biofilm growth of N. incerta. PMID:18368587

  10. Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

  11. MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Part 7: highly soluble and in vivo active quaternary ammonium analogue D13-9001, a potential preclinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuka, Masami; Kuru, Noriko; Yokomizo, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Atsunobu; Takemura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuki; Kanda, Hiroko; Nitanai, Hironobu; Namba, Kenji; Yoshida, Kumi; Imamura, Yuichiro; Zhang, Jason Z; Lee, Ving J; Watkins, William J

    2007-11-15

    A series of 4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives, substituted at the 2-position with piperidines bearing quaternary ammonium salt side chains, were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to potentiate the activity of the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin (LVFX) and the beta-lactam aztreonam (AZT) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Attachment of the charged entity using an N-ethylcarbamoyloxy linker led to the discovery of the highly soluble compound 22 (D13-9001), which maintained good potency in vitro and displayed excellent activity in vivo in a rat pneumonia model of P. aeruginosa. PMID:17869116

  12. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  13. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of <350°C, ammonium salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while

  14. Ultrasensitive quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in milligram fresh plant with a quaternary ammonium derivatization reagent by pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ting; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2016-07-22

    Determination of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in limited sample amount is vital to elucidating their tissue- and even local tissue-specific signaling pathway and physiological effects on plant growth and development. In this work, an ultra-sensitive quantification method was established for endogenous BRs in milligram fresh plant by using pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (PT-SPE-UPLC-MS/MS), in which a quaternary ammonium phenyl boronic acid, 4-borono-N,N,N-trimethylbenzenaminium iodide (BTBA) was first developed for chemical derivatization of BRs. Due to the cationic quaternary ammonium group of BTBA, the ionization efficiencies of the BRs chelates with BTBA (BTBA-BRs) were enhanced by 1190-448785 times, which is the highest response enhancement factor among all derivatization reagents reported for BRs. In addition, PT-SPE packed with C18 sorbent was first used for purifying BRs from plant extracts, so the required sample amount was minimized, and recoveries higher than 91% were achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the minimal detectable amounts (MDA) of five target BRs were in the range of 27-94 amol, and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) were >0.9985 over four orders of magnitude. The relative recoveries of 75.8-104.9% were obtained with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 18.7% and 19.6%, respectively. Finally, three BRs were successfully quantified in only 5mg fresh rice plant samples, and 24-epiBL can even be detected in only 0.5mg FW rice leaf segments. It is the first time that the BRs content in sub-milligram fresh plant sample has been quantified. PMID:27338695

  15. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively. PMID:24958543

  16. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-01

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W-1 and 5.08 × 1010 Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm-2. Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector.

  17. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-12

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W(-1) and 5.08 × 10(10) Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm(-2). Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector. PMID:26684002

  18. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  19. Optimization of structural and dielectric properties of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) polymer in a desired frequency and temperature window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, investigations of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposites and pure PDADMAC synthesized by wet chemical technique have been carried out. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis have been performed to reveal the structural details of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite (PNC). The dielectric behavior of pure polymer and PNC has been recorded, which results in higher value of the real and imaginary part of dielectric constant for PNC, as compared with pure PDADMAC. The increase is attributed to the addition of CdSe quantum dots to the pure polymer. The contribution of ionic and electronic polarization has been observed at higher frequency. The theoretical fitting of Cole-Cole function to the experimental data of dielectric constant of PNC and pure PDADMAC results in the determination of relaxation time and conductivity of space charge carriers. The CdSe loaded polymer nanocomposite has been used as an electrolyte in the battery fabrication with configuration Al/PNC/Ag2O. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for both samples in a frequency window of 1 kHz-5 MHz and at different temperatures varying from 298 K to 523 K. Activation energy (Ea) has been determined for pure polymer as well as PNC and is found to be less for PNC, as compared with pure polymer. Further, impedance measurement at different temperatures results in two frequency ranges corresponding to ionic conduction and blocking electrode effect. The value of bulk resistance for pure polymer and PNC has been found to be 3660 Ω and 442 Ω, respectively, at 298 K temperature. Electric modulus has been determined and is observed to support the dielectric constant data; it further reveals the deviation from Debye behavior at a higher frequency.

  20. Biological evaluation of N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan as a carrier for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Sun, Yanwei; Chen, Gang; Rong, Guangyu; Kang, Hong; Jin, Zheng; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-20

    Mucosal immune system plays a very important role in antiviral immune response. We prepared Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) encapsulated in N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (N-2-HACC) nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs) by an ionic cross linking method, and assessed the potential of N-2-HACC-NPs as a mucosal immune delivery carrier. The properties of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential and particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs have regular spherical morphologies and high stability; with 303.88±49.8nm mean diameter, 45.77±0.75mV Zeta potential, 94.26±0.42% encapsulation efficiency and 54.06±0.21% loading capacity. In vitro release assay indicated that the release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs is slow. The NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs have good biological characteristics, very low toxicity and high level of safety. Additionally, specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs showed much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than commercial attenuated live Newcastle disease vaccine, and NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs reached the sustainable release effect. Our study here provides a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs, and the N-2-HACC-NPs should be a potential drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications. PMID:27261727

  1. Biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride by Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, T; Okamoto, T; Nishiyama, N

    2000-04-01

    Bacteria that degrade didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were isolated from activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture with DDAC as a sole carbon source. One of the isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4, degraded DDAC to produce decyldimethylamine and subsequently, dimethylamine, as the intermediates. The TN4 strain also assimilated the other quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), alkyltrimethyl- and alkylbenzyldimethyl-ammonium salts, but not alkylpyridinium salts. TN4 was highly resistant to these QACs and degraded them by an N-dealkylation process. These data mean that there are some QAC-resistant and QAC-degrading bacteria such as TN4 in the environment. PMID:10792522

  2. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  3. Functionalization of C-4-methoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene with several ammonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Suryadi B.; Saputro, Agung N. C.; Rinanto, Yudi

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of new quaternary ammonium modified calix[4]resorcinarenes were accomplished by the reaction of C-4-methoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene (I) with various ammonium compounds i.e. (1) (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, (2) glycydiltrimethylammonium chloride, and (3) N-hexadecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide. The modification processes were carried out through just over one-step reaction by using minimal solvent and suitable reaction conditions to yield resorcinarene II, III, and IV, respectively. All products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR data. Solid morphology of some resorcinarenes was determined using SEM equipped with EDX detector. Based on the spectral properties of 1H-NMR, all calixresorcinarene compounds were isolated in the molecular shape of the chair (C2h) conformation.

  4. Analysis of residual products in triethylbenzylammonium chloride by HPLC. Study of the retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2006-04-01

    The control of industrial products for minimization of their impact on the environment and human health requires the development of specific analysis methods. Information provided by these methods about toxic components, by-products, and other derivatives may also be useful to reduce the possible impact of industrial products. The studied compound in this paper, triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBA), is mainly used in industrial synthesis. This quaternary compound and its residual products coming from quaternization reaction (benzyl chloride, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol) are analyzed by HPLC. The separation is based on control of the silanophilic contribution to TEBA retention because of the quaternary nature of this compound. The effect of the three buffers (sodium acetate, ammonium acetate, and sodium formate) and their concentrations in the chromatographic behavior of the quaternary compound is examined. The buffer cation and anion regulate TEBA retention. Also, the concentration of the quaternary compound is another parameter that had influence in some aspects of its chromatographic behavior (e.g., retention and symmetry). The proposed method is applied to TEBA synthesis along, with the formation and removal of impurities with the results compared with those obtained for the quaternary compound benzalkonium chloride. PMID:16620516

  5. QuEChERS-based purification method coupled to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Dong, Hao; Wu, Yuluan; Guo, Xindong; Hou, Xiangchang; Wang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    QuEChERS-based purification coupled with UPLC-MS/MS method, was developed for six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) determination in dairy products. Powder samples were firstly dispersed by water. Protein in liquid milk was precipitated and sample solution was extracted by acetonitrile. QuEChERS-based purification was used to purify the solution. QACs were finally separated by HILIC column and detected in MRM mode of MS/MS under ESI(+). The stable isotope benzyl-2,3,4,5,6-d5-dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide (C14-BAC-d5) was used as an internal standard. This method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy. Linear relations were favorable for QACs over the selected concentration ranges of 0.2-50μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.4-14.5μg/kg. Recoveries were between 91.2% and 115% with RSDs of 2.8-7.5% for intra-day precision and 3.7-6.7% for inter-day precision. This validated method was successfully applied to determine the QACs concentrations in dairy products. PMID:27374511

  6. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in estuarine sediments by LC-ToF-MS: very high positive mass defects of alkylamine ions provide powerful diagnostic tools for identification and structural elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and robust method of analysis for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in marine sediments is presented. Methods for extraction, sample purification, and HPLC-Time-of-Flight-MS analysis were optimized, providing solutions to problems associated with analysis of QACs, such as dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) and benzalkonium (BAC) compounds experienced previously. Recognized in this study are the exceptionally high positive mass defects characteristic of alkylammonium or protonated alkylamine ions. No alternative and chemically-viable elemental formulas exist within 25.2 mDa when the number of double bond equivalents is low, effectively allowing facile discrimination of this compound class in complex mixtures. Accurate mass measurements of diagnostic collision induced dissociation fragment ions and heavy isotope peaks were obtained and also seen to be uniquely heavy compared to other elemental formulae. In the case of BACs, the ability to resolve masses of alkylamine fragment ions is greater than it is for molecular ions, opening up a wide range of potential applications. The power of utilizing a combination of approaches is illustrated with the identification of non-targeted DADMAC C8:C8 and C8:C10, two widely used biocides previously unreported in environmental samples. Concentrations of QACs in sewage-impacted estuarine sediments (up to 74 μg/g) were higher than concentrations of other organic contaminants measured in the same or nearby samples, suggesting further study is needed. PMID:19739657

  7. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. PMID:25469865

  8. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  9. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  10. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  11. Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Rao, M. S.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-11-01

    High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability and for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity particularly against gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Fuel additive containing inner quaternary ammonium salt

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-05-06

    As a fuel additive is disclosed. It is the reaction product of a polymer having an amine group and an alpha-beta-unsaturated C3-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acid. Also disclosed herein is a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such a reaction product as a detergent.

  13. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  14. Synthesis and application of a quaternary phosphonium polymer coagulant to avoid N-nitrosamine formation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Pignatello, Joseph J; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2014-11-18

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) are widely used for coagulating and removing negatively charged particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from drinking water. Their use, however, has been linked to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines as byproducts during chloramine-based drinking water disinfection. In this study, a novel quaternary phosphonium cationic polymer, poly(diallyldiethylphosphonium chloride) (polyDADEPC), was synthesized such that the quaternary nitrogen atom of polyDADMAC was substituted with a phosphorus atom. Formation potential tests revealed that even under strong nitrosation conditions, polyDADEPC and related lower-order P-based compounds formed oxygenated and not nitrosated products. Bench-scale jar tests using three different source waters further demonstrated that polyDADEPC achieved coagulation performance comparable to commercial polyDADMACs for particle and DOM removals within the typical dose range used for drinking water treatment. This work highlights the potential use of a phosphonium coagulant polymer, polyDADEPC, as a viable alternative to polyDADMAC to avoid nitrosated byproduct formation during chloramination. PMID:25322258

  15. Quaternary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The primary purpose of the Quaternary investigation is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The investigation will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.

  16. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Shabanpour, Ziba; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Khubani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance toward quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as biofilm formation. Objectives: In this study, the effects of benzalkonium chloride on planktonic growth and biofilm formation by some field isolates of animal bacterial pathogens were investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates of each) were examined for effects of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. For all the examined strains in the presence of benzalkonium chloride, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of disinfectant. Results: The means of strains growth increase after the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were significant in all the bacteria (except for E. coli in 1/32 and S. agalactiae in of 1/8 MIC). Biofilm formation increased with decrease of antiseptics concentration; a significant increase was found in all the samples. The most turbidity related to S. aureus and the least to Salmonella. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against quaternary ammonium compounds is increasing which can increase the bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:25793094

  17. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  18. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  19. Decolourisation of palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater using Poly-Diallyldimethyl Ammonium Chloride (polyDADMAC) and other chemical coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrim, A. Y.; Dexter, Z. D.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent was expected as a future source of renewable biogas. Nevertheless,colours in palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater (POMBPW) causes negative perception among the public and the wastewater is difficult to be treated biologically. In this study, the performance of various chemical coagulants i.e., calcium lactate, magnesium hydroxide, ferric chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate i.e. CK-800, CK-1000, and polyDADMAC, forPOMBPW colour removal were investigated. PolyDADMAC (1,000 mg/L) shows best colour removal (∼48%). The main coagulation process with polyDADMACcould be due to charge neutralization-bridging mechanism. The zeta potential analysis supports the finding where the value became positive as the dosage increases. The addition of polyDADMAC has increased the conductivity of the treated wastewater up to 9.22%; however, the final pH is maintained (8.0-8.3). It can be deduced that polyDADMAC has potential to treat POMBPW at low dosage.

  20. Enrichment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Aqueous Solutions Using Fe3O4 Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Poly Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaolin; Cao, Yuting; Sang, Weiguo; Li, Tianhua; Gan, Ning; Zheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) grafted carboxyl groups of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with cationic polyelectrolyte poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) (MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4), are successfully synthesized and used for the extraction of six kinds of major toxic polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a large volume of water solution. The hydrophilicity of the PDDA cage can enhance the dispersibility of sorbents in water samples, and the superparamagnetism of the Fe3O4 NPs facilitate magnetic separation which directly led to the simplification of the extraction procedure. With the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) technique based on the MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4 sorbents, it requires only 30 min to extract trace levels of PCBs from 500 mL water samples. When the eluate condensed to 1.0 mL, concentration factors for PCBs became over 500. The spiked recoveries of several real water samples for PCBs were in the range of 73.3–98.9% with relative standard deviations varying from 3.8% to 9.4%, reflecting good accuracy of the method. Therefore, preconcentration of trace level of PCBs by using this MWCNTs-COO−/PDDA@Fe3O4 sorbent, which are stable for multiple reuses, from water solution can be performed. PMID:22754371

  1. Liquid chromatography of hydrocarbonaeous quaternary amines on cyclodextrin bonded silica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDAC) were resolved into homologous components by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cyclodextrin-bonded silica stationary phase. With a few exceptions, results from this study are similar to those obtained from traditional reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that the presence of electrolytes in aqueous mobile phases is not a critical factor in determining the success of HPLC separation. Under normal HPLC conditions, a mobile phase consisting of either methanol–water (50:50) or acetonitrile–water (30:70) was employed for obtaining adequate resolution of the quaternary ammonium mixtures. Although the percent organic modifier–water profiles were similar to those in previous studies with these compounds, resolution (R) and selectivity (α) parameters were found to be quite susceptible to changes in the mobile phase solvent composition. The retention behavior of the cationic analytes in the homologous series is consistent with the hydrophobic-interaction concept proposed for the retention mechanism via dominant inclusion complex formation. Several electrolytes were chosen for a study of the counter ion effect on the chromatographic characteristics of ABDAC components. Among the electrolytes examined, the perchlorate ion was found most likely to act as an ion-pairing counter ion for ammonium cations in the HPLC system studied. A correlation study established linear relationships between the chain length of ABDAC and the logarithmic capacity factor (k2). The analytical utility of the HPLC method was demonstrated by the analysis of various unknown mixtures.

  2. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  4. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) to agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lei; Sun, Teng-Fei; Zheng, Mei-Jie; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) used as cationic surfactants are intensively released into environment to be pollutants receiving more and more concerns. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), one of commonly used alkyl QACs, to five types of agricultural soils at low concentrations (1-50mg/L) was investigated using batch experiments. DTAC sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and reached reaction equilibrium within 120min. Both Freundlich model and Langmuir model fitted well with DTAC isotherm data with the latter better. DTAC sorption was spontaneous and favorable, presenting a physical sorption dominated by ion exchanges. Sorption distribution coefficient and sorption affinity demonstrated that soil clay contents acted as a predominant phase of DTAC sorption. DTAC could display a higher mobility and potential accumulation in crops in the soils with lower clay contents and lower pH values. Sorption of DTAC was heavily affected by ions in solution with anion promotion and cation inhibition. PMID:27101455

  6. Ammonium chloride, an inhibitor of phagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages, concurrently induces phagosome-endosome fusion, and opens a novel pathway: studies of a pathogenic mycobacterium and a nonpathogenic yeast.

    PubMed

    Hart, P D; Young, M R

    1991-10-01

    The weak base ammonium chloride has been previously reported to inhibit lysosomal movements and phagosome-lysosome (Ph-L) fusion in cultured mouse macrophages (M phi), thus reducing delivery, to an intraphagosomal infection, of endocytosed solutes that have concentrated in secondary lysosomes. We have now addressed the question, whether NH4Cl might affect any direct interaction (if it exists) between such infection phagosomes and earlier, nonlysosomal compartments of the endocytic pathway, i.e., solute-containing endosomes. The phagosomes studied were formed after ingestion of the mouse pathogen Mycobacterium microti and the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and the endosomes were formed after nonreceptor-mediated endocytosis of electronopaque and fluorescent soluble markers. By electron microscopy, survey of the cell profiles of M phi that had been treated with 10 mM NH4Cl so that Ph-L fusion was prevented, and that displayed many ferritin-labeled endosomes, revealed numerous examples of the fusion of electronlucent endosomes, revealed numerous examples of the fusion of electronlucent vesicles with phagosomes, whether containing M. microti bacilli or S. cerevisiae yeasts. Fusion was recognized by transfer of label and by morphological evidence of fusion in progress. The fusing vesicles were classed as endosomes, not NH4Cl-lysosomes, by their appearance and provenance, and because lysosome participation was excluded by the concurrent, NH4Cl-caused block of Ph-L fusion and associated lysosomal stasis. No evidence of such phagosome-endosome (Ph-E) fusion was observed in profiles from M phi treated with chloroquine, nor in those from normal, untreated M phi. NH4Cl-treated living M phi that had ingested yeasts at 37 degrees C, followed by endocytosis of lucifer yellow at 17 degrees C (to accumulate labeled endosomes and postpone label passing to lysosomes), were then restored to 37 degrees C. Fluorescence microscopy showed that as many as half of the yeast

  7. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo­ylmeth­oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy­droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene–tetra­ethyl­ammonium chloride (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Omran, Omran A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 +·Cl−, contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo­yl)meth­oxy]-trihy­droxy-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene mol­ecules, two tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene ‘buckets’. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the thia­calixarene mol­ecules, tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å3, but no solvent mol­ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  8. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo-ylmeth-oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy-droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene-tetra-ethyl-ammonium chloride (1/1).

    PubMed

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Omran, Omran A; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 (+)·Cl(-), contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo-yl)meth-oxy]-trihy-droxy-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene mol-ecules, two tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene 'buckets'. In the crystal, extensive O-H⋯O, O-H⋯S and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O, C-H⋯S and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions link the thia-calixarene mol-ecules, tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å(3), but no solvent mol-ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  9. Quaternary and Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, J. T.; Graf, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights conferences and meetings of organizations involved with quaternary geology and geomorphology, including International Union of Quaternary Research Conference held in Moscow. The impetus of a revision of "The Quaternary of the United States" resulted from this conference. Includes activities/aims of "Friends of the Pleistocene"…

  10. Analysis of benzalkonium chloride in the effluent from European hospitals by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column ion-pairing and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, K; Eitel, A; Braun, U; Hubner, P; Daschner, F; Mascart, G; Milandri, M; Reinthaler, F; Verhoef, J

    1997-07-11

    A highly reproducible and specific method for the analysis of the quaternary ammonium compound, benzalkonium chloride, in effluents from European hospitals is presented. Benzalkonium chloride was extracted with end-capped RP-18 solid-phase cartridges and was selectively eluted. The resulting solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After elution from the analytical column of the HPLC system, 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulfonate was added continuously as a fluorescence marker, forming a hydrophobic ion-pair with benzalkonium chloride. The ion-pair was analyzed by fluorescence detection. The method was applied to highly complex effluent samples from different sized European hospitals. The measured concentrations were between 0.05 and 6.03 mg/l. The amounts emitted per bed and year were 4.5-362 g and did not correlate with the size of the hospital. The total amounts were 2.6-909 kg/year. PMID:9253191

  11. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC50 values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I-V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10-15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I-V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. PMID:23313619

  12. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  13. A hybridization approach to efficient TiO2 photodegradation of aqueous benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Suchithra, Padmajan Sasikala; Carleer, Robert; Ananthakumar, Solaippan; Yperman, Jan

    2015-08-15

    TiO2 get positively charged upon UV-irradiation and repel the cationic pollutants away from the surface. Hybridization of AC onto TiO2 (ACT) tends catalyst surface negatively charged besides providing highly favorable adsorptions sites for cationic pollutants. The photodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a quaternary ammonium surfactant and a pharmaceutical, is investigated with ACT. The surface charge of the catalyst in surfactant and non-surfactant aqueous dispersion under UV-irradiation is investigated and explained. The anomalous increase in COD values at the beginning of BKC-photodegradation is explained. The intermediate products formed are identified in both solution and solid phase. Trace amount of dodecane remained adsorbed on the catalyst surface after 1h UV-irradiation, but complete mineralization of BKC is achieved with 2h UV-irradiation. We propose that BKC photodegradation starts by central fission of benzyl CN bond followed by dealkylation, and demethylation steps. PMID:25855569

  14. Quaternary ammonium borohydride adsorption in mesoporous silicate MCM-48

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, Michael J; Daemen, Luke L; Hartl, Monika A

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic borohydrides have a high gravimetric hydrogen density but release H2 only under energetically unfavorable conditions. Surface chemistry may help in lowering thermodynamic barriers, but inclusion of inorganic borohydrides in porous silica materials has proved hitherto difficult or impossible. We show that borohydrides with a large organic cation are readily adsorbed inside mesoporous silicates, particularly after surface treatment. Thermal analysis reveals that the decomposition thermodynamics of tetraalkylammonium borohydrides are substantially affected by inclusion in MCM-48. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data show that the compounds adsorb on the silica surface. Evidence of pore loading is supplemented by DSC/TGA, XRD, FTIR, and BET isotherm measurements. Mass spectrometry shows significant hydrogen release at lower temperature from adsorbed borohydrides in comparison with the bulk borohydrides. INS data measured for partially decomposed samples indicates that the decomposition of the cation and anion is likely simultaneous. Additionally, these data confirm the formation of Si-H bonds on the silica surface upon decomposition of adsorbed tetramethylammonium borohydride.

  15. Syntheses and characterization of amphiphilic quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pedro, Rafael; Schmitt, Carla C; Neumann, Miguel G

    2016-08-20

    Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives possess improved physico-chemical properties and could be used as carriers in drug delivery systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of an amphiphilic system involving (5-pentyl) trimethylammonium and dodecyl aldehyde-modified chitosan. Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)HNMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembled aggregates formed in aqueous solution have hydrophobic cores that were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The critical aggregation concentration of the aggregates in water varied from 0.004 to 0.037g/L and the average size distribution was in the 230-500nm range. The ζ-potential (+15.5 to +44.8mV) confirmed that the surfaces of the aggregates were positively charged and stable in physiological-like environments. TEM images suggest that the aggregates have a spherical shape, showing good agreement with DLS results. These results suggest that the synthesized copolymers have the capability of being used as carriers for hydrophobic drugs. PMID:27178913

  16. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addison disease, or increased salt intake. If both chloride and sodium levels are high in a person on a ... anything else I should know? Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda ...

  17. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Ammonium Cationized Polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M. A.; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F.

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  18. Polybenzimidazole-crosslinked poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane groups as high-performance anion exchange membrane for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wangting; Zhang, Geng; Li, Jin; Hao, Jinkai; Wei, Feng; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Jiying; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    Development of anion exchange membrane (AEM) with high conductivity, good dimensional stability, desirable toughness and long life-time simultaneously is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. Herein, a novel AEM (denoted as PBI-c-PVBC/OH) is fabricated by applying polybenzimidazole (PBI) and 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) as the macromolecular crosslinker and quaternizing reagent for poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC), respectively. With the aid of crosslinking by PBI, PBI-c-PVBC/OH exhibits good flexibility and strength both in dry and water-saturated state. Moreover, high hydroxide conductivity (>25 mS cm-1 at room temperature) and low swelling ratio (∼13%) is obtained, especially the swelling ratio nearly does not increase with temperature. The membrane is also advanced for the superior chemical stability in alkaline environment due to the stable polymer backbone and ionic conductive group (only one nitrogen atom in a DABCO molecule is quaternized). Furthermore, a peak power density of 230 mW cm-2 at 50 °C is obtained on the H2/O2 fuel cell using PBI-c-PVBC/OH, and the membrane presents high durability both in the constant current and continuous open circuit voltage testing. Therefore, it is considered that the PBI crosslinking together with DABCO quaternization can be regarded as a promising strategy in the development of AEM for fuel cells.

  19. Evaluation of the irritancy and hypersensitivity potential following topical application of didecyldimethylammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Shane, Hillary; Long, Carrie; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean; Marshall, Nikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound that is used in numerous products for its bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal properties. There have been clinical reports of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions in exposed individuals; however, the sensitization potential of DDAC has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of DDAC following dermal exposure in a murine model. DDAC induced significant irritancy (0.5 and 1%), evaluated by ear swelling in female Balb/c mice. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 0.0625–1%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.17%. Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B-cells (IgE+B220+) and measurement of total serum IgE levels. Additional phenotypic analyses revealed significant and dose-responsive increases in the absolute number of B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% and 1% DDAC) at Day 10 following 4 days of dermal exposure. There was also a significant and dose-responsive increase in the number of activated CD44 + CD4 + and CD8+ T-cells and CD86+ B-cells and dendritic cells following exposure to all concentrations of DDAC. These results demonstrate the potential for development of irritation and hypersensitivity responses to DDAC following dermal exposure and raise concerns about the use of this chemical and other quaternary ammonium compounds that may elicit similar effects. PMID:27216637

  20. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  1. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, M.D.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-11-17

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  2. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  3. Effect of ammonium on bacterial adherence to bladder transitional epithelium.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C L; Stauffer, C; Mulholland, S G; Griffith, D P

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of urease-producing bacteria depends on the ability of urease to degrade urea into ammonia and thereby to alkalinize the urine. Infections caused by urease-producing organisms such as Proteus mirabilis are particularly difficult to manage clinically. We have shown that the layer of glycosaminoglycans at the bladder surface protects against infection by blocking the adherence of bacteria to the epithelium. To determine whether urease-producing urinary pathogens owe their virulence in part to an ability to inactivate the protective effect of the glycosaminoglycan layer, we tested the ability of ammonium chloride to alter bacterial adherence to the normal vesical mucosa. We used an in vivo adherence assay that we have described previously in rabbits. Control animals received sodium chloride adjusted to the same pH as the ammonium chloride. We found that 0.25 M ammonium chloride significantly increases bacterial adherence to normal vesical mucosa as compared to adherence in controls receiving 0.25 M sodium chloride (p less than 0.05). These data suggest that urease plays a hitherto undescribed role in bacterial virulence by altering the antiadherence activity of the glycosaminoglycan layer present at the transitional cell surface. PMID:6376829

  4. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  6. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  9. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  13. The growth and dissolution of ammonium perchlorate crystals in a fluidized bed crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrikulu, S. Ü.; Eroğlu, I.; Bulutcu, A. N.; Özkar, S.

    1998-11-01

    The growth and the dissolution of ammonium perchlorate crystals were studied in pure and in sodium chloride containing aqueous solutions, in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of sodium chloride in the solution reduced the growth and the dissolution rates of ammonium perchlorate crystals. The growth rates were interpreted in terms of supersaturation levels. The orders and rate constants were reported. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by diffusion for the crystal growth of ammonium perchlorate in pure aqueous solution. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth of ammonium perchlorate crystals in the presence of sodium chloride in solution.

  14. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. Steroidal Ammonium Compounds as New Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhigang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Jiazhi; Liu, Zhiying; Yang, Yue; Qiu, Guofu; Xiao, Yuling; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming; Zhou, Xiaoju; Hong, Xuechuan

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are widely used as an anesthesia auxiliary in surgery, which induce relaxation of skeletal muscles by blocking signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Many neuromuscular blocking agents s were developed over the past decades, but none of them fully meets the needs of the clinic by various reasons. In this study, a series of quaternary ammonium steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were synthesized and evaluated on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms for their bioactivities. The initial separation of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds turned out to be very challenging on regular silica gel chromatography. Therefore, a facile purification method, in which the silica gel was pretreated with methanolic sodium bromide solution, was finally achieved. Compounds 3g (0.36 μm) and 4g (0.37 μm) exhibited excellent neuromuscular blocking activities, which were about sixfold to sevenfold higher in potency than that of rocuronium (2.50 μm). In addition, other bis-quaternized compounds also showed good potencies close to that of rocuronium. Furthermore, the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series was also elucidated. Benzyl group was found to be a promising quaternary group in this series. PMID:26684806

  16. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  17. Impact of chain length on antibacterial activity and hemocompatibility of quaternary N-alkyl and n,n-dialkyl chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, Priyanka; Benediktssdóttir, Berglind E; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha Á; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E; Sørensen, Kasper K; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Jensen, Knud J; Másson, Már

    2015-05-11

    A highly efficient method for chemical modification of chitosan biopolymers by reductive amination to yield N,N-dialkyl chitosan derivatives was developed. The use of 3,6-O-di-tert-butyldimethylsilylchitosan as a precursor enabled the first 100% disubstitution of the amino groups with long alkyl chains. The corresponding mono N-alkyl derivatives were also synthesized, and all the alkyl compounds were then quaternized using an optimized procedure. These well-defined derivatives were studied for antibacterial activity against Gram positive S. aureus, E. faecalis, and Gram negative E. coli, P. aeruginosa, which could be correlated to the length of the alkyl chain, but the order was dependent on the bacterial strain. Toxicity against human red blood cells and human epithelial Caco-2 cells was found to be proportional to the length of the alkyl chain. The most active chitosan derivatives were found to be more selective for killing bacteria than the quaternary ammonium disinfectants cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, as well as the antimicrobial peptides melittin and LL-37. PMID:25830631

  18. Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae

    We report on a series of experiments in which a Hele-Shaw cell containing aqueous solutions of NH4Cl was translated at prescribed rates through a steady temperature gradient. The salt formed the primary solid phase of a mushy layer as the solution solidified, with the salt-depleted residual fluid driving buoyancy-driven convection and the development of chimneys in the mushy layer. Depending on the operating conditions, several morphological transitions occurred. A regime diagram is presented quantifying these transitions as a function of freezing rate and the initial concentration of the solution. In general, for a given concentration, increasing the freezing rate caused the steady-state system to change from a convecting mushy layer with chimneys to a non-convecting mushy layer below a relatively quiescent liquid, and then to a much thinner mushy layer separated from the liquid by a region of active secondary nucleation. At higher initial concentrations the second of these states did not occur. At lower concentrations, but still above the eutectic, the mushy layer disappeared. A simple mathematical model of the system is developed which compares well with the experimental measurements of the intermediate, non-convecting state and serves as a benchmark against which to understand some of the effects of convection. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.

  19. (Methyldiphenyl­phospho­ranylidene)­ammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Valerio-Cárdenas, Cintya; Ortiz-Frade, Luis; Grévy M., Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C13H15NP+·Cl−, was obtained by hydrolysis of the N-trimethysilyl derivative of methydiphenyl­imino­phosphine. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings in the cation is 61.5 (3)°. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds links the two components, forming a centrosymmetric 2 + 2 aggregate. PMID:21582794

  20. Separation of platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions containing aluminum, magnesium and iron using solvent extraction and precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Raju, B; Kumar, J Rajesh; Lee, Jin-Young; Kwonc, Hyuk-Sung; Kantam, M Lakshmi; Reddy, B Ramachandra

    2012-08-15

    The solvent extraction and precipitation methods have been used to develop a process to separate platinum and rhodium from a synthetic chloride solutions containing other associated metals such as (mg/L): Pt-364, Rh-62, Al-13880, Mg-6980, Fe-1308 at <1M HCl acidity. At pH 3.4, the quantitative precipitation of Al and Fe was achieved using 10 wt% Na(3)PO(4)·12H(2)O, with ~4% loss of Pt and Rh due to adsorption phenomenon. The selective separation of platinum was carried out with 0.01 M Aliquat 336 (a quaternary ammonium salt) at an aqueous to organic ratio (A/O) of 3.3 in two stages. Stripping of Pt from loaded organic (LO) at O/A ratio 6 with 0.5 M thiourea (tu) and HCl indicated that ~99.9% stripping efficiency. In stripping studies, needle like crystals of Pt were found and identified as tetrakis (thiourea) platinum (II) chloride ([Pt(tu)(4)]Cl(2)). The selective precipitation of rhodium was performed with (NH(4))(2)S from platinum free raffinate with a recovery of >99%. PMID:22664260

  1. Ammonium inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Burris, R.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The effect of oxygen, ammonium ion, and amino acids on nitrogenase activity in the root-associated N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae was investigated in comparison with Azospirillum spp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum. H. seropedicae is microaerophilic, and its optimal dissolved oxygen level is from 0.04 to 0.2 kPa for dinitrogen fixation but higher when it is supplied with fixed nitrogen. No nitrogenase activity was detected when the dissolved O{sub 2} level corresponded to 4.0 kPa. Ammonium, a product of the nitrogenase reaction, reversible inhibited nitrogenase activity when added to derepressed cell cultures. However, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity was only partial even with concentrations of ammonium chloride as high as 20 mM. Amides such as glutamine and asparagine partially inhibited nitrogenase activity, but glutamate did not. Nitrogenase in crude extracts prepared from ammonium-inhibited cells showed activity as high as in extracts from N{sub 2}-fixing cells. The pattern of the dinitrogenase and the dinitrogenase reductase revealed by the immunoblotting technique did not change upon ammonium chloride treatment of cells in vivo. No homologous sequences were detected with the draT-draG probe from Azospirillum lipoferum. There is no clear evidence that ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase is involved in the ammonium inhibition of H. seropedicae. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone decreased the intracellular ATP concentration and inhibited the nitrogenase activity of whole cells. The ATP pool was significantly disturbed when cultures were treated with ammonium in vivo.

  2. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles. PMID:26510611

  3. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide assisted hydrothermal growth of hematite hollow cubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Yao, Jia-Liang

    2010-11-15

    Hematite hollow cubes have been prepared by forced hydrolysis of ferric chloride solutions under hydrothermal conditions. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the transformation process from akageneite to hematite were investigated in detail. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide was a critical factor influencing the phase transformation process of akageneite and the final morphology of the as-prepared products. With cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, hematite hollow cubes and porous spheres were obtained. Otherwise only dense cubes were observed even prolonging reaction time or increasing reaction temperature. The mechanism was proposed.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl2.6H2O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  6. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Studies on Abnormally High Ammonium of Natural Origin in A Coastal Aquifer-aquitard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiao, J. J.; Cherry, J.

    2010-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen concentration in water bodies is regarded as an environmental contamination because of its possible harm to human bodies and significant ecological effects. Previous studies commonly concerned on elevated nitrogen in water of anthropogenic origins, such as agricultural, domestic, sewage and industrial discharges, because people realize that it is necessary to manage negative influences of human being to the natural environment. Understanding contamination sources of nitrogen is crucial for both waste discharge management and pollutants cleanup. This study was aimed to 1) understand the spatial distribution of abnormally high ammonium groundwater in the Quaternary basalt aquifer in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China; 2) to distinguish sources of recharge to the basalt aquifer; and 3) to identify the origin of the ammonium in the aquitard and aquifer system. Total 40 boreholes were drilled, and approximately 1000 deposit samples from the aquitard and over 200 groundwater samples from the Quaternary basalt aquifer were collected. A cluster of 7 piezometers was installed in Minzhong Town to study the hydraulic relationships between the aquitard and the basalt aquifer. The results demonstrated that the greater groundwater ammonium concentrations were preserved in the aquifer buried deeper. The ammonium concentration up to 390 mg/L was observed in the basalt sand and gravel Pleistocene aquifer of 20-50m deep, and this is the greatest concentration ever reported for natural groundwater globally. The Quaternary aquitard, which contained abundant sedimentary organic matter and was mainly composed of silt and clay, provided a strict anaerobic environment for sedimentary organic matter mineralization and ammonium preservation. Ammonium concentrations in the aquifer were predominantly controlled by the aquitard ammonium content. This naturally occurring abnormally high ammonium in the Quaternary sediments is areally extensive (over 1600 km2). Great

  7. Extraction of the fluoride-, chloride-, and bromide complexes of the elements Nb, Ta, Pa, and 105 into aliphatic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, W.; Kratz, J. V.; Strub, E.; Zauner, S.; Brüchle, W.; Pershina, V.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Adams, J. L.; Gregorich, K. E.; Hoffman, D. C.; Laue, C.; Lee, D. M.; McGrath, C. A.; Shaughnessy, D. K.; Strellis, D. A.; Sylwester, E. R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the halide complex formation of element 105 in HCl/HF mixtures and extractions into triisooctyl amine (TIOA) had been performed with the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA II. Element 105 was shown to be sorbed on the column from 12 M HCl/0.02 M HF together with its lighter homologues Nb, Ta and the pseudohomologue Pa. In elutions with 10 M HCl/0.025 M HF, 4 M HCl/0.02 M HF, and 0.5 M HCl/0.01 M HF, the extraction sequence Ta>Nb>105>Pa was observed and element 105 behaved very differently from its closest homologue Ta. As it is not possible within reasonable effort to model the many presumably mixed fluoride-chloride complexes involved in these studies, theoretical calculations were performed in the pure chloride system predicting a reversed sequence of extraction. To verify this experimentally, and in order to perform a systematic study of halide complexation of the group 5 elements, new batch extraction experiments for Nb, Ta, and Pa were performed with the quaternary ammonium salt Aliquat 336 in pure HF, HCl, and HBr solutions. Based on these results, new chromatographic column separations were elaborated to study separately the fluoride and chloride complexation of element 105 with ARCA II. In the system Aliquat 336/HF, after feeding of the activity onto the column in 0.5 M HF, element 105 did not elute in 4 M HF (Pa fraction) but showed a higher distribution coefficient close to that of Nb (and Ta). In the system Aliquat 336/HCl, after feeding onto the column in 10 M HCl, element 105 showed a distribution coefficient in 6 M HCl close to that of Nb establishing an extraction sequence Pa>Nb≥105>Ta which is theoretically predicted by considering the competition between hydrolysis and complex formation.

  8. Effect of impurities on crystal growth rate of ammonium pentaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ö.; Özdemir, M.; Genli, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid of different concentrations on the growth rate of ammonium pentaborate octahydrate crystals (APBO) was measured and was found to depend on supersaturation in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of impurities in APBO solution increases the growth rate compared with growth from pure solution. It was found that the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid decreases the reaction rate constant kr, while it increases the mass-transfer coefficient, K, of APBO crystals. In pure aqueous solution, the crystal growth rate of APBO is mainly controlled by diffusion. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of APBO crystals in the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid. The mass-transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction order, r were calculated from general mass-transfer equation by using genetic algorithm method making no assumption.

  9. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa­hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa­hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 + cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  10. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III).

    PubMed

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from In(III) cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa-hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular-pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa-hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2](-) layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2](-) layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 (+) cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  11. Ammonium and potassium removal from swine liquid manure using clinoptilolite, chabazite and faujasite zeolites.

    PubMed

    Montégut, Gaëtan; Michelin, Laure; Brendlé, Jocelyne; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Patarin, Joël

    2016-02-01

    This study concerns cationic exchanges performed in order to remove ammonium and potassium cations from manure by using various zeolites: clinoptilolite, chabazite and NaX faujasite. First, the effect of temperature (25 °C and 40 °C) on the exchange rate between zeolites and an ammonium chloride solution was investigated. Then, cationic exchanges were performed on these three zeolites using on one side a mixed ammonium and potassium chloride solution reproducing the chemical composition of a swine manure and on the other side the corresponding liquid manure. No significant difference was observed on the exchange rate and the trapping of ammonium cations by changing the temperature (25 or 40 °C). Clinoptilolite showed a good selectivity towards ammonium cations using model (NH4Cl, and mixed NH4Cl/KCl) solutions but is less efficient with the liquid manure. Chabazite and faujasite were found more efficient than clinoptilolite for trapping ammonium cations. However, NaX faujasite enables trapping 3 times more ammonium cations than chabazite from manure (60 and 20 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, chabazite allowed to trap the same amount of potassium cations than NaX faujasite (33 and 35 mg/g, respectively). PMID:26686066

  12. Paleosols in central Illinois as potential sources of ammonium in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glessner, J.J.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI¯), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3¯), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4

  14. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid. PMID:27097666

  15. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. ...

  16. Biochemistry of growth inhibition by ammonium ions in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryll, T.; Valley, U.; Wagner, R. . Cell Culture Techniques Dept.)

    1994-06-20

    The intracellular pool of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine has been shown to act as a central target during the inhibitory action of ammonium ions in vitro cultivated mammalian cell cultures. This pool has been demonstrated to be elevated at the end of a batch cultivation and very quickly as a response to exogenously applied ammonium chloride by using four different cell lines (hybridoma, BHK, CHO, and Ltk-929). The amount of enlarged UDP aminohexoses is correlated to the inhibitor concentration and additionally dependent on the cell line. The formation of the UDP sugars is associated with a transient reduction of the UTP pool. Moreover, the quick formation of UDP-GNAC is strictly dependent on the presence of, glucose and ammonium. Both metabolites act as biochemical precursors. Additionally, the formation of UDP-GNAc after ammonium application has been shown to increase with an elevated cultivation pH and to be independent of the inhibition of transcription and translation processes. The intracellular amount of UDP-GNAc correlates with the level of growth inhibition in mammalian cell lines.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of tetraethylammonium bromide and chloride on the growth and development of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Barbara; Biczak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), which also include ionic liquids, constitute a vast group of chemical compounds that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may constitute a potential threat to all its elements, including terrestrial higher plants. This paper presents the effect of tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA][Cl] and tetraethylammonium bromide [TEA][Br] on the growth and development of spring barley and common radish. The applied QAS were characterized with phytotoxicity dependent on the concentration of compound and characteristics of the study plants. Spring barley turned out to be highly susceptible plant to the analyzed compounds, which was confirmed by % inhibition of length of plants, root length and fresh weight of plants and by calculated values for EC50, NOEC as well as LOEC. On the contrary, a common radish revealed the resistance to QAS used in the study; although, phytotoxic symptoms were still observed when high concentrations of dry weight of soil were applied (1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg). The applied QAS caused oxidative stress symptoms, mainly in spring barley seedlings, which were manifested by decreased assimilation of pigments content, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in plant cells and with a changed activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:26844662

  18. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs... neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  3. Quaternary alkaloids of tinospora species.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G; Nwaiwu, J

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of quaternary alkaloids in TINOSPORA (and PARABAENA) species (Menispermaceae) has been studied. The main components were generally the protoberberine bases berberine and palmatine, with jatrorrhizine an occasional minor constituent, and the aporphine base magnoflorine. Choline was also often present. Only magnoflorine was detected in the PARABAENA material examined. PMID:17404996

  4. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  5. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  6. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  7. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  8. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  9. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. PMID:22366608

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Tang, Chong-jian; Jin, Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control. Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will accelerate application of the process in future. This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process. PMID:18500782

  11. Comparative DFT study of crystalline ammonium perchlorate and ammonium dinitramide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weihua; Wei, Tao; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Heming

    2008-05-22

    The electronic structure, vibrational properties, absorption spectra, and thermodynamic properties of crystalline ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have been comparatively studied using density functional theory in the local density approximation. The results shows that the p states for the two solids play a very important role in their chemical reaction. From the low frequency to high frequency region, ADN has more motion modes for the vibrational frequencies than AP. The absorption spectra of AP and ADN display a few, strong bands in the fundamental absorption region. The thermodynamic properties show that ADN is easier to decompose than AP as the temperature increases. PMID:18396853

  12. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  13. TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE [AND IRIS SUMMARY] (EXTERNAL PEER REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl chloride (CAS No. 74-87-3) is a gaseous chlorohydrocarbon under ambient conditions. It is principally used in the manufacture of silicones, agrichemicals, methyl cellulose and quaternary amines. Numerous case reports involving overexposure over the last 60 years indicate t...

  14. Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

  15. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: molecular interactions, mechanical properties and tackiness.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a natural clay, on the properties of polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs). Two commercially available aqueous QPM dispersions were studied: Eudragit(®) RS 30D and Eudragit(®) RL 30D (the dry copolymers containing 5 and 10% quaternary ammonium groups, respectively). The composite QPM-MAS films were prepared by casting. Importantly, QPM interacted with MAS and formed small flocculates prior to film formation. Continuous films were obtained up to MAS contents of 19% (referred to the QPM dry mass). ATR-FTIR and PXRD revealed that the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups of QPM interacted with negatively charged SiO(-) groups of MAS, creating nanocomposite materials. This interaction led to improved thermal stability of the composite films. The puncture strength and elongation at break of dry systems decreased with increasing MAS content. In contrast, the puncture strength of the wet QPM-MAS films (upon exposure to acidic or neutral media) increased with increasing MAS content. Furthermore, incorporation of MAS into QPM films significantly decreased the latter's tackiness in the dry and wet state. These findings suggest that nanocomposite formation between QPM and MAS in the systems can enhance the strength of wet films and decrease their tackiness. Thus, MAS offers an interesting potential as novel anti-tacking agent for QPM coatings. PMID:24144950

  16. Melaminium chloride hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Janczak, J; Perpétuo, G J

    2001-09-01

    The crystals of a new melaminium salt, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium chloride hemihydrate, C(3)H(7)N(6)(+).Cl(-).0.5H(2)O, are built up from single-protonated melaminium residues, chloride anions and water molecules. The protonated melaminium cations lie on a twofold axis, while the chloride anions and water molecule lie on the m plane. The melaminium residues are interconnected by N-H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the (001) plane. The chains of melaminium residues form a three-dimensional network through hydrogen-bond interactions with chloride anions and water molecules. PMID:11588391

  17. Preparation and characterization of ammonium-functionalized silica nanoparticle as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinshui; Ma, Shi; Zang, Lingjie

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (PEI) was successfully modified to silica nanoparticle (QPEI/SiO2) as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution. The isotherm and kinetics of dye adsorption were studied, which showed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. The maximum adsorption capacity of QPEI/SiO2 for methyl orange is 105.4 mg/g. The equilibrium time for methyl orange adsorption onto QPEI/SiO2 was as short as 10 min, indicating that the adsorbent has a strong affinity for methyl orange. The adsorption capacities of the methyl orange are slightly influenced by the pH in the range of 3.2-9.6. The QPEI/SiO2 adsorbent can be used in the wide pH range, which is different from other adsorbent. This may attribute to the quaternary ammonium carrying positive charges in acidic and basic solution.

  18. Determinants of quaternary association in legume lectins

    PubMed Central

    Brinda, K.V.; Mitra, Nivedita; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the sequence of amino acids in proteins code for its tertiary structure. It is also known that there exists a relationship between sequence and the quaternary structure of proteins. The question addressed here is whether the nature of quaternary association can be predicted from the sequence, similar to the three-dimensional structure prediction from the sequence. The class of proteins called legume lectins is an interesting model system to investigate this problem, because they have very high sequence and tertiary structure homology, with diverse forms of quaternary association. Hence, we have used legume lectins as a probe in this paper to (1) gain novel insights about the relationship between sequence and quaternary structure; (2) identify the sequence motifs that are characteristic of a given type of quaternary association; and (3) predict the quaternary association from the sequence motif. PMID:15215518

  19. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs as a white powder or a hard... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is...

  20. Ammonium Ion Requirement for the Cell Cycle of Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Charlotte

    1978-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium has a defined cell cycle in which small cells elongate to about five times their original length and then divide by fragmentation. The nitrogen requirement for production of maximal number of colony-forming units was assessed by varying concentrations and kinds of nitrogen source in the medium. Ferric ammonium citrate at a concentration in 7H10 medium of 0.17 μmol/ml or ammonium chloride at 0.25 μmol/ml as the nitrogen source permitted the cells to elongate and to undergo limited division, with the final culture at 4 × 107 colony-forming units per ml. Ammonium chloride at 2.5 μmol/ml or glutamine at 1.37 μmol/ml supported completion of the cell cycle with final colony-forming units at about 5 × 108/ml. Other amino acids, including glutamic acid, at 2.5 μmol/ml did not support completion of the cell cycle, although in most cases an intermediate number of colony-forming units per milliliter were formed. Limited uptake of [14C]glutamic acid and uptake of [14C]glutamine were not detectable until cell fission began. Cells not limited for nitrogen took up five times as much 35S during fission as limited cells did during the same time. The nonlimited cells contained 10 times as much sulfolipid as the nitrogen-limited cells at the end of the cell cycle. These results demonstrate that rapidly dividing cells of M. avium utilize amino acids and sulfur and also synthesize sulfolipids in events that are apparently separable from metabolic functions of elongating cells. The results are contrasted with those found for other mycobacteria in which no cell cycle has been demonstrated. Images PMID:624592

  1. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.375 Maduramicin ammonium. A tolerance is established for residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium...

  2. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.375 Maduramicin ammonium. A tolerance is established for residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium...

  3. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  4. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.375 Maduramicin ammonium. A tolerance is established for residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  13. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  16. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  17. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  18. Genetic Characterization of Plasmid-Associated Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes Strain from the 1998-1999 Outbreak ▿

    PubMed Central

    Elhanafi, Driss; Dutta, Vikrant; Kathariou, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. PMID:20971860

  19. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  20. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. PMID:27558337

  1. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of Quaternary Proline Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Calaza, M. Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This review describes available methods for the diastereoselective and asymmetric synthesis of quaternary prolines. The focus is on the preparation of α-functionalized prolines with the pyrrolidine moiety not embedded in a polycyclic frame. The diverse synthetic approaches are classified according to the bond which is formed to complete the quaternary skeleton. PMID:19655047

  3. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-01

    A new borate [C6H16N][B5O6(OH)4] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B5O6(OH)4]- anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH3)3(i-C3H7) N+ cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents.

  4. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  5. Role of tetraalkyl(benzyl)ammonium alkoxides in the catalysis of the alkaline dehydrochlorination reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shavanov, S.S.; Tolstikov, G.A.; Shutenkova, T.V.; Viktorov, G.A.

    1988-01-10

    The reaction was conducted by the action of aqueous NaOH taken as a 50% solution at a molar ratio to dichloroethane of 2:1 at 50-55 C in the 1% of catalyst on the dichloroethane. The results of the experiments indicated the rising activity of the tetra-alkyl(benzyl) ammonium alkoxides as the lipophilicity of the anion increased, which proceeds in the organic phase. Reaction was effected through a complex formed by the association of quaternary ammonium salts with a hydroxyl-containing compound, the solvation of the associated species with the organochlorine substrate, and coordination with NaOH. The reaction goes in the organic phase and on the interphase surface.

  6. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  7. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  8. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  9. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  10. A comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, chloride and potassium loss in conventional and conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage impact on dissolved losses of ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) during rotational cotton and peanut production was evaluated. Tillage treatments were strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT). Winter cover crops were used in both tillage...

  11. Dissolved nitrogen, chloride, and potassium loss from fields in conventional and conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Losses of soluble nutrients from cropland and their transport to surface and groundwater are a continuing water quality concern. In this study we evaluated tillage impact on dissolved losses of ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) during rotational cotton ...

  12. Characterization of incubation experiments and development of an enrichment culture capable of ammonium oxidation under iron-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2015-02-01

    Incubation experiments were conducted using soil samples from a forested riparian wetland where we have previously observed anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Production of both nitrite and ferrous iron was measured repeatedly during incubations when the soil slurry was supplied with either ferrihydrite or goethite and ammonium chloride. Significant changes in the microbial community were observed after 180 days of incubation as well as in a continuous flow membrane reactor, using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 454 pyrosequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. We be Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6), belonging to the Acidimicrobiaceae family, whose closest cultivated relative is Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum (with 92% identity) and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (with 90% identity), might play a key role in this anaerobic biological process that uses ferric iron as an electron acceptor while oxidizing ammonium to nitrite. After ammonium was oxidized to nitrite, nitrogen loss proceeded via denitrification and/or anammox.

  13. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  14. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  15. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  16. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  17. Crystallization kinetics of ammonium perchlorate in MSMPR crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrıkulu, S. Ü.; Eroğlu, İ.; Bulutcu, A. N.; Özkar, S.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of supersaturation level, sodium chloride (NaCl) as impurity, and the suspension density of the crystallizer content on the crystallization kinetics of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were studied in a mixed-suspension mixed-product removal crystallizer. The product crystals have a plate-like morphology. The crystal size distribution is not affected by the supersaturation level. There was a deviation from the ideal population density where the growth rate of pure AP crystallization was size dependent with the order of 0.4 according to Abegg, Stevens and Larson (ASL) model. However, the ASL model was not found to be suitable to express the growth rate of the crystals in NaCl containing AP solution. Also when suspension density of the crystallizer increased, secondary nucleation was observed.

  18. Dissolved chloride markedly changes the nanostructure of the protic ionic liquids propylammonium and ethanolammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas; Callear, Samantha K; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2016-06-29

    The bulk nanostructure of 15 mol% propylammonium chloride (PACl) dissolved in propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and 15 mol% ethanolammonium chloride (EtACl) in ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN) has been determined using neutron diffraction with empirical potential structure refinement fits. For both the PAN:PACl and EtAN:EtACl mixtures, data for three different scattering contrasts were simultaneously fit, and the structures determined and compared to that of the pure ionic liquids. Strong electrostatic interactions between chloride and cation charged groups, as well as the alcohol moiety of EtAN, lead to marked changes in local ion packing that alter the liquid structure. In PAN, the addition of chloride modifies but does not significantly disrupt the bicontinuous amphiphilic nanostructure of the IL. Tight packing of ammonium groups around chloride favours a gauche conformer for the cation which shrinks the apolar domains and brings the terminal methyls nearer the polar domains. The weakly-clustered nanostructure of EtAN, a consequence of the terminal hydroxyl, is overwhelmed by strong chloride-cation interactions. Ethanolammonium binds tightly to chloride in a monodentate fashion via either its alcohol or ammonium charge centre, or through both in a bidentate arrangement by adopting a gauche or eclipsed conformer. PMID:26878966

  19. Formation of light absorbing organo-nitrogen species from evaporation of droplets containing glyoxal and ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A.; Zhao, R.; Richard, L.; Liggio, G.; Li, S.; Abbatt, J.

    2013-12-01

    Formation of particle-phase organo-nitrogen compounds has been recently proposed via aqueous chemistry of glyoxal and ammonium sulfate in both dark and illuminated conditions. In the atmosphere, glyoxal can partition into aqueous droplets containing significant levels of different inorganic salts but their molecular interactions are still not well understood. Upon droplet evaporation, both the organics and inorganic ions become highly concentrated, accelerating reactions between them. To demonstrate this process, we investigated the formation of organo-nitrogen and light absorbing materials in evaporating droplets containing glyoxal and different ammonium salts including ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride. Our results demonstrate that evaporating glyoxal-ammonium sulfate droplets produce light absorbing species on a time scale of seconds, which is orders of magnitude faster than observed in bulk solutions. Using aerosol mass spectrometry, we show that particle-phase organics with high N:C ratios were formed when ammonium salts were used, and that the presence of sulfate ions promoted this chemistry. Since sulfate can also significantly enhance the Henry's law partitioning of glyoxal, our results highlight the atmospheric importance of such inorganic-organic interactions in aqueous phase aerosol chemistry.

  20. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate. PMID:24145916

  1. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  2. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  3. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  4. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  5. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  6. Photoaffinity labeling and quaternary structure of the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    PubMed Central

    Hucho, F; Layer, P; Kiefer, H R; Bandini, G

    1976-01-01

    Membrane fragments from electric tissue of Torpedo californica containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are composed of four different polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 40,000 (alpha), 48,000 (beta), 62,000 (gamma), and 66,000 (delta). The alpha and beta chains are still present in all and gamma and delta in some of the receptor preparations after Triton X-100 extraction and purification by affinity chromatography. All components of the receptor react covalently with the photoaffinity label 4-azido-2-nitrobenzyltrimethylammonium fluoroborate, the delta chain incorporating less of the reagent as compared to the alpha and beta chains. Agonists and antagonists containing a quaternary ammonium group protect all chains against the label; the principal neurotoxin from Naja naja siamensis protects the alpha chain only. We conclude that the alpha chain binds the neurotoxin from Naja naja, the alpha and beta chains are involved in the binding of ligands with quaternary ammonium groups, and the function of the gamma and delta chains remains to be determined. Images PMID:1066671

  7. Equilibrium studies of sodium-ammonium potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium exchanges on clinoptilolite zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Jama, M.A.; Yuecel, H. )

    1989-12-01

    Forward and reverse ion-exchange isotherms for the binary sodium-ammonium, potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium systems on clinoptilolite have been measured in aqueous solutions at a total concentration of 0.1 equiv/dm{sup 3} and at 298 K. Prior to exchange experiments it was attempted to prepare homoionic forms of the zeolite by exhaustive treatments with appropriate salt solutions of cations. With no binary exchanges, full replacement of the cation by the ammonium ion is observed, which conflicts with some earlier work on clinoptilolite. Despite the observed partial exchange levels, clinoptilolite shows a very high preference for ammonium ion over sodium and calcium but not over potassium. Thermodynamic values for the exchanges were calculated and compared with data in the literature. Both the selectivity and thermodynamic affinity sequence, in agreement with previous work reported in the literature, are K{sup +} > NH{sub 4}{sup +} > Na{sup +} > Ca{sup 2+}.

  8. Comparative toxicity of ammonium and nitrate compounds to Pacific treefrog and African clawed frog tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.

    1999-10-01

    The effects of ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium nitrate on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla [Baird and Girard]) and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis [Daudin]) tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. The 10-d ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate LC50s for P. regilla were 55.2 and 89.7 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N, respectively. The 10-d LC50s for X. laevis for the three ammonium compounds ranged from 45 to 64 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The 10-d sodium nitrate LC50s were 266.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 1,236.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of ammonium compound based on reduced length or weight was 24.6 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for P. regilla and 99.5 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for X. laevis. The lowest sodium nitrate LOAELs based on reduced length or weight were {lt}30.1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 126.3 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. Calculated un-ionized NH{sub 3} comprised 0.3 to 1.0% of measured NH{sub 4}-N concentrations. Potential harm to amphibians could occur if sensitive life stages were impacted by NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N in agricultural runoff or drainage for a sufficiently long period.

  9. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  10. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...This proposed rule would implement anti-terrorism measures to better secure the homeland. The Department of Homeland Security would regulate the sale and transfer of ammonium nitrate pursuant to section 563 of the Fiscal Year 2008 Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act with the purpose of preventing the use of ammonium nitrate in an act of terrorism. This proposed rule seeks......

  11. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908 (notice of proposed rulemaking... Program Web site in mid-October at http://www.dhs.gov/ files/ ] programs/ammonium-nitrate-security-program...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate...

  12. Ammonium nonanoate broadcast application over onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Racer (40% ammonium nonaoate) is a potential contact herbicide for weed control in organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determin...

  13. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  14. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  15. Book Review: Reconstructing Quaternary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgland, David R.; Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.

    2016-02-01

    A third edition of this, the foremost Quaternary textbook, is most welcome, coming seventeen years after the 1997 second edition (which was 13 years after the first). The general impression is one of advancement, not least because of the extensive updating of literature cited and examples used, with the status maintained of an impressive compendium of a specialism with a very wide subject base. Some changes are cosmetic, with chapter and section headers having a more modern style and a profusion of new colour photographs and diagrams. Some of the latter are redrawn from black and white figures in the previous edition, although not all have been improved, as some are smaller and have been simplified. For example, black and white Fig. 3.10 of the Second Edition compares very favourably with the much smaller colour 3.17 in this latest volume (erratic sources). On the plus side, the number change, for a figure that appears in the same place within the chapter, shows that the latest edition is considerably better illustrated than its predecessor, perhaps accounting for a significant proportion of the increased page total (up from 446 to 538).

  16. Quaternary glaciation of Mount Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Robinson, Ruth; Benn, Douglas I.; Finkel, Robert C.; Davis, Nicole K.; Yi, Chaolu; Putkonen, Jaakko; Li, Dewen; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slopes of Mount Everest is examined using field mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological methods, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating. Six major sets of moraines are present representing significant glacier advances or still-stands. These date to >330 ka (Tingri moraine), >41 ka (Dzakar moraine), 24-27 ka (Jilong moraine), 14-17 ka (Rongbuk moraine), 8-2 ka (Samdupo moraines) and ˜1.6 ka (Xarlungnama moraine), and each is assigned to a distinct glacial stage named after the moraine. The Samdupo glacial stage is subdivided into Samdupo I (6.8-7.7 ka) and Samdupo II (˜2.4 ka). Comparison with OSL and TCN defined ages on moraines on the southern slopes of Mount Everest in the Khumbu Himal show that glaciations across the Everest massif were broadly synchronous. However, unlike the Khumbu Himal, no early Holocene glacier advance is recognized in the Rongbuk valley. This suggests that the Khumbu Himal may have received increased monsoon precipitation in the early Holocene to help increase positive glacier mass balances, while the Rongbuk valley was too sheltered to receive monsoon moisture during this time and glaciers could not advance. Comparison of equilibrium-line altitude depressions for glacial stages across Mount Everest reveals asymmetric patterns of glacier retreat that likely reflects greater glacier sensitivity to climate change on the northern slopes, possibly due to precipitation starvation.

  17. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tami R.; Ward, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  18. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  19. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: Water uptake kinetics and film permeability.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of different amounts of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) to polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs, here Eudragit RS and RL). MAS contains negatively charged SiO(-) groups, while QPM contains positively charged quaternary ammonium groups. The basic idea is to be able to provide desired water and drug permeability by simply varying the amount of added MAS. Thin, free films of varying composition were prepared by casting and exposed to 0.1M HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The water uptake kinetics and water vapor permeability of the systems were determined gravimetrically. The transport of propranolol HCl, acetaminophen, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben across thin films was studied using side-by-side diffusion cells. A numerical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to determine the apparent compound diffusion coefficients, partition coefficients between the bulk fluids and the films as well as the apparent film permeability for these compounds. The addition of MAS resulted in denser inner film structures, at least partially due to ionic interactions between the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups and the negatively charged SiO(-) groups. This resulted in lower water uptake, reduced water vapor permeability and decreasing apparent compound diffusivities. In contrast, the affinity of the investigated drugs and parabens to the films substantially increased upon MAS addition. The obtained new knowledge can be helpful for the development of novel coating materials (based on QPM-MAS blends) for controlled-release dosage forms. PMID:26004005

  20. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...