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1

Queen mandibular pheromone: questions that remain to be resolved  

E-print Network

­ Revised 4 December 2011 ­ Accepted 26 December 2011 Abstract ­ The discovery of `queen substance the mechanisms through which pheromones operate. The discovery of sex pheromone communication in moths occurred range. 9ODA is detected by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) located in the antennae of the bee (Figure

2

How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theorythat social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover ( for R) and sitter ( for s) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background ( for s2) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response.

Camiletti, Alison L.; Awde, David N.; Thompson, Graham J.

2014-01-01

3

Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The state of knowledge on the pheromones of Asian honeybees is discussed. The queen mandibular pheromone is known to elicit\\u000a short- (retinue formation, swarm stabilisation and drone attraction) and long-term (inhibition of queen rearing) behaviours.\\u000a The primer pheromones produced by the mandibular and Dufours glands and the releaser ones associated with alarm and aggregation\\u000a are reviewed. All species appear to

Christian W. W. Pirk; Catherine L. Sole; R. M. Crewe

4

Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 g in a 2 l volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMPs effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

2014-01-01

5

Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)  

PubMed Central

Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 l) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

Nino, Elina L.; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2013-01-01

6

Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone.  

PubMed

Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

Holman, Luke

2014-01-01

7

Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone  

PubMed Central

Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

2014-01-01

8

The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius.  

PubMed

Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and comparative evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen's cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Interspecific variation in the chemical profile is consistent with 3-methylalkanes evolving more slowly than other types of hydrocarbons, perhaps due to differential selection or evolutionary constraints. We argue that the sensory ecology of the worker response imposes strong stabilizing selection on queen pheromones relative to other hydrocarbons. 3-Methylalkanes are also strongly physiologically and genetically coupled with fecundity in at least one Lasius species, which may translate into evolutionary constraints. Our results highlight how honest signalling could minimize evolutionary conflict over reproduction, promoting the evolution and maintenance of eusociality. PMID:23662630

Holman, L; Lanfear, R; d'Ettorre, P

2013-07-01

9

Queen pheromones in Temnothorax ants: control or honest signal?  

PubMed Central

Background The division of reproductive labor among group members in insect societies is regulated by "queen pheromones". However, it remains controversial whether these are manipulative, i.e., actively suppress worker reproduction, or honestly signal the fertility status of the queen to which workers react in their own interest by refraining from laying eggs. Manipulative queen control is thought to lead to an evolutionary arms race between queens and workers, resulting in complex queen bouquets that diverge strongly among different populations and species. In contrast, honest signals would evolve more slowly and might therefore differ less strongly within and among species. Results We aimed at determining the tempo of the evolution of queen signals in two ways. First, we investigated whether queens of Temnothorax ants are capable of controlling egg laying by workers of their own, closely, and distantly related species. Second, we compared the species- and caste-specific patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are assumed to convey information on reproductive status. In mixed-species colonies, queens were not able to fully suppress egg-laying and male production by workers of unrelated species, while workers did not reproduce under the influence of a queen from their own species. Furthermore, the chemical profiles differed more strongly among queens of different species than among the respective workers. Conclusions Our results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbons associated with fecundity are not fully conserved in evolution and evolve slightly faster than worker-specific components in the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons. While this higher rate of evolution might reflect an arms race between queens and workers, the observation that workers still respond to the presence of a queen from another species support the honest signal hypothesis. Future studies need to examine alternative explanations for a higher rate of evolution of queen-specific substances, such as an involvement of such compounds in mating. PMID:21356125

2011-01-01

10

Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing.  

PubMed

A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female fecundity in 64 species of social insects. Our results show that queen pheromones are strikingly conserved across at least three independent origins of eusociality, with wasps, ants, and some bees all appearing to use nonvolatile, saturated hydrocarbons to advertise fecundity and/or suppress worker reproduction. These results suggest that queen pheromones evolved from conserved signals of solitary ancestors. PMID:24436417

Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Romero, Carmen; Oi, Cintia A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Billen, Johan; Wckers, Felix; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wenseleers, Tom

2014-01-17

11

Age dependency of worker bee response to queen pheromone in a four-armed olfactometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Behavioral responses of differently aged worker beesApis mellifera to a queen pheromonal extract were analysed. The bees were tested individually in a four-armed olfactometer, one arm being scented with the pheromonal extract. This extract was prepared from heads of 1417-day-old unmated queens. Among the components of the blend, 470 g 9-keto-2-(E)-decenoic acid, 200 g 9-hydroxy-2-(E)-decenoic acid and 5 gp-hydroxybenzoic

M.-H. Pham-Delegue; J. Trouiller; E. Bakchine; B. Roger; C. Masson

1991-01-01

12

Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone  

SciTech Connect

A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

1988-03-01

13

Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMPs primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

2007-05-01

14

Effect of pollen diet and honey bee (apis mellifera l.) primer pheromones on worker bee food producing glands  

E-print Network

-foraging and foraging workers exert similar effects on foraging ontogeny suggesting that bees use pheromones to estimate amount of young and old bees and adjust their development accordingly (Leoncini et al., 2004; Pankiw, 2004c). Honey bee queen mandibular...-dependent (Le Conte et al., 2001; Pankiw, 2004b). Additions of relatively small amounts of brood pheromone accelerate foraging ontogeny (Le Conte et al., 2001; Pankiw, 2004b; Pankiw et al., 2004; Sagili, 2007). Conversely, additions of relatively large...

Peters, Lizette Alice

2009-05-15

15

Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufours glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

2008-06-01

16

Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromoneboth were shown to influence onset of foragingdirect worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rssler, Wolfgang

2012-05-01

17

Queen signaling in social wasps.  

PubMed

Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula saxonica, queens emit reliable chemical cues of their true fertility and that these putative queen signals decrease as the colony develops and worker reproduction increases. Moreover, these putative pheromones of D. saxonica show significant conservation with those of Vespula vulgaris and other Vespinae, thereby arguing against fast evolution of signals as a result of a queen-worker arms race ensuing from queen control. Lastly, levels of worker reproduction in these species correspond well with their average colony kin structures, as predicted by the queen signaling hypothesis but not the queen control hypothesis. Altogether, this correlative yet comprehensive analysis provides compelling evidence that honest signaling explains levels of reproductive division of labor in social wasps. PMID:24219699

van Zweden, Jelle S; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2014-04-01

18

Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge  

E-print Network

Review Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge Mark L. Winstona knowledge concerning how honey bee primer pheromones mediate worker activities and colony functions. We/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris Apis mellifera / primer pheromones / queen pheromones / colony integration 1. INTRODUCTION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Guiding robots' behaviors using pheromone communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ongoing project to investigate the uses of pheromones as a means of communication in robotics. The\\u000a particular example of pheromone communication considered here was inspired by queen bee pheromones that have a number of crucial\\u000a functions in a bee colony, such as keeping together and stabilizing the colony. In the context of a robotic system, one

Anies Hannawati Purnamadjaja; R. Andrew Russell

2007-01-01

20

Pheromone Signalling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the

Hart, Adam G.

2011-01-01

21

Queen bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three kinds of bees in a colony: the queen, workers, and drones. The queen bee is the largest bee and her only purpose is to mate with the drone bees and lay eggs. Drones are male bees and their sole job is to mate with the queen. Workers are sterile females, meaning they can't lay eggs. Worker bees collect nectar and food for the queen and her developing larvae and protect the hive. Bees perform dances to tell other bees where and how far away food is located.

Alle Bilder (None;)

2007-05-10

22

Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

2008-08-01

23

Road to Royalty Transition of Potential Queen to Queen in the Primitively Eusocial Wasp Ropalidia marginata  

E-print Network

cannot be using dominance to maintain reproductive monopoly and instead appear to use a pheromone from, this also gave us an opportu- nity to test whether PQ is different from workers in her Dufour's gland docile, the queen maintains reproduc- tive monopoly and is the sole egg layer in a colony. Recently

Gadagkar, Raghavendra

24

Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.  

PubMed

Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00h and over 3-35days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test. PMID:22081302

Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-Lpez, Leopoldo; Snchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutirrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

2011-11-01

25

Alternative mating behaviors of the queen polymorphic ant Temnothorax longispinosus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mating behaviors of ants fall into two categories: female calling, in which a female alate releases pheromones that attract males, and male swarming, in which large male aggregations attract females. Female calling is common in species with queens that return to their natal nest to found colonies dependently after mating, while male swarming is common in species with queens that disperse to found independently. In some species that display both founding strategies, a queen-size polymorphism has evolved in which dependent-founding queens are smaller than independent-founding queens. Dependent founding is likely difficult if gynes (virgin queens) are mating in distant swarms. Therefore, a queen may adopt one or the other mating strategy based on its size and founding behavior. We investigated mating behaviors in the queen-polymorphic ant, Temnothorax longispinosus. Observations in laboratory mating arenas indicated that small gynes exhibited significantly lower flight activity than large gynes. Both forms mated in male swarms, and neither form exhibited female calling. The reduced flight activity of the small morph may facilitate returning to the natal nest after mating, provided the mating swarm is located nearby. Therefore, alternative colony-founding behaviors may be possible without the evolution of female-calling behavior; however, the reduced flight activity of small morphs may require that mating swarms are not distant from the natal nest.

Howard, Kenneth J.; Kennedy, David

2007-11-01

26

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University  

E-print Network

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University Sustainability Strategic Framework #12;Sustainability Framework 2 Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Queen's Sustainability Mission

Abolmaesumi, Purang

27

Queens College Undergraduate Science  

E-print Network

Queens College Undergraduate Science Research Day! ! Organized by the Division of Math & Natural Sciences, Queens College, CUNY! ! ! ! Queens College is proud of the outstanding research conducted by our students, and we welcome you to learn more about their work. Undergraduates conducting science research

Engel, Robert

28

Queens College Undergraduate Science  

E-print Network

Queens College Undergraduate Science Research Day ! Organized by the Division of Math & Natural Sciences, Queens College, CUNY ! ! ! Queens College is proud of the outstanding research conducted by our students, and we welcome you to learn more about their work. Undergraduates conducting science research

Engel, Robert

29

We know that the wasps 'know': cryptic successors to the queen in Ropalidia marginata.  

PubMed

Unlike other primitively eusocial wasps, Ropalidia marginata colonies are usually headed by remarkably docile and behaviourally non-dominant queens who are nevertheless completely successful in maintaining reproductive monopoly. As in other species, loss of the queen results in one of the workers taking over as the next queen. But unlike in other species, here, the queen's successor cannot be predicted on the basis of dominance rank, other behaviours, age, body size or even ovarian development, in the presence of the former queen. But the swiftness with which one and only one individual becomes evident as the potential queen led us to suspect that there might be a designated successor to the queen known to the wasps, even though we cannot identify her in the queen's presence. Here, we present the results of experiments that support such a 'cryptic successor' hypothesis, and thereby lend credence to the idea that queen (and potential queen) pheromones act as honest signals of their fertility, in R. marginata. PMID:18796389

Bhadra, Anindita; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

2008-12-23

30

Emergency Management Queen's University  

E-print Network

Emergency Management Plan Queen's University 1 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Distribution List Record of Revision Queen's Emergency Management Plan 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Aim and Objectives 3.0 Authority/Chain of Command 4.0 Initiation of the Plan/Activation Process 5.0 Communications/Notifications (Call Out

Linder, Tamás

31

Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

2012-01-01

32

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes  

E-print Network

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes viernes, 17 de. Experts suggest that insects may have been using the chemicals to signal fertility for roughly 150 million these pheromones evolved could provide a window onto how social insects developed their cooperative living system

Wenseleers, Tom

33

Ultrastructural and chemical characterization of egg surface of honeybee worker and queen-laid eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Worker policing in honeybees predicts the evolution of a mechanism to discriminate between queenand worker-born eggs. Although it has been postulated that this discrimination is based on an egg recognition pheromone, neither the chemistry nor the glandular source were elucidated. To verify whether egg discrimination might be based on structural differences, we compared the ultrastructure surface of queen-laid diploid

Tamar Katzav-Gozansky; Victoria Soroker; Josef Kamer; Claudia M. Schulz; Wittko Francke; Abraham Hefetz

2003-01-01

34

Chemical communication in Ropalidia marginata: Dufour's gland contains queen signal that is perceived across colonies and does not contain colony signal.  

PubMed

Queens of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata appear to maintain reproductive monopoly through pheromone rather than through physical aggression. Upon queen removal, one of the workers (potential queen, PQ) becomes extremely aggressive but drops her aggression immediately upon returning the queen. If the queen is not returned, the PQ gradually drops her aggression and becomes the next queen of the colony. In a previous study, the Dufour's gland was found to be at least one source of the queen pheromone. Queen-worker classification could be done with 100% accuracy in a discriminant analysis, using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands. In a bioassay, the PQ dropped her aggression in response to the queen's Dufour's gland macerate, suggesting that the queen's Dufour's gland contents mimicked the queen herself. In the present study, we found that the PQ also dropped her aggression in response to the macerate of a foreign queen's Dufour's gland. This suggests that the queen signal is perceived across colonies. This also suggests that the Dufour's gland in R. marginata does not contain information about nestmateship, because queens are attacked when introduced into foreign colonies, and hence PQ is not expected to reduce her aggression in response to a foreign queen's signal. The latter conclusion is especially significant because the Dufour's gland chemicals are adequate to classify individuals correctly not only on the basis of fertility status (queen versus worker) but also according to their colony membership, using discriminant analysis. This leads to the additional conclusion (and precaution) that the ability to statistically discriminate organisms using their chemical profiles does not necessarily imply that the organisms themselves can make such discrimination. PMID:21112330

Mitra, Aniruddha; Saha, Paromita; Chaoulideer, Maximilian Elihu; Bhadra, Anindita; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

2011-02-01

35

WELCOMETO QUEEN'S FACULTY OF EDUCATION  

E-print Network

WELCOMETO QUEEN'S FACULTY OF EDUCATION #12 or the 2nd time for #QueensEduc! en> holterm>nn 8en>holterm>nn10 ;>y I love that @QueensEduc is "all about>il>desous> definitely lucked out at my placement @QueensBEd have amazing associates!! #queensu#education #12

Abolmaesumi, Purang

36

The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

37

QUEENS COLLEGE Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

to campus each year to take part in the college's Commencement and Homecoming celebrations. In 1937, undaunted by the Great Depression, Queens College welcomed its first students, many of them the sons

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

38

Pheromone-mediated reproductive dominance hierarchies among pseudo-clonal honeybee workers  

E-print Network

Pheromone-mediated reproductive dominance hierarchies among pseudo-clonal honeybee workers (Apis are characterised by well-developed reproductive division of labour between the queen and workers. Here, we test whether this reproductive division of labour is evident in both the socially parasitic workers that invade

39

Hexyl Decanoate, the First Trail Pheromone Compound Identified in a Stingless Bee, Trigona recursa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona

Stefan Jarau; Claudia M. Schulz; Michael Hrncir; Wittko Francke; Ronaldo Zucchi; Friedrich G. Barth; Manfred Ayasse

2006-01-01

40

QUEENS COLLEGE Undergraduate Bulletin20122013  

E-print Network

and Homecoming celebrations. In 1937, undaunted by the Great Depression, Queens College welcomed its first.qc.cuny.edu #12;As we celebrate our 75th Anniversary, Queens College is old enough that generations of our

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

41

Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed. PMID:21786084

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2011-09-01

42

Combativeness among oriental hornet queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queens of the Oriental hornet are aggressive towards one another in the beginning of the active season, during the months of May, June and July: they defend their Lebenraum within the nest and do not enable any other queen to enter their territory. At that period any encounter between two queens, whether within the nest of the one or anawhere

J. S. Ishay; Z. A. Dotan; A. Pinchasov

1983-01-01

43

Queen's New Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the Danish tale Emperor's New Clothes and Lady Gaga's Orbit dress, we designed and implemented a wearable computing costume, Queen's New Clothes, which appears plain to naked eyes but exhibits changing patterns on photos taken at different time and location. The project explores the dual status of fashion in both the physical world and the digital world. It

Li Bian; Lining Yao; Matthew Hirsch

2011-01-01

44

Trapping pheromonal components with silicone rubber tubes: fatty acidsecretions in honeybees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We describe the use of pieces of silicone tubing to analyse the mandibular gland components of queen and worker honeybees and show that these compounds can be efficiently trapped on bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) treated pieces of tubing. The use of this technique rather than that of solid phase microextraction (SPME) techniques with commercially available fibres that have been shown to

Robin M. Crewe; Robin F. A. Moritz; H. Michael G. Lattorff

2004-01-01

45

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

46

Workers of a polistes paper wasp detect the presence of their queen by chemical cues.  

PubMed

Differences in long-chain hydrocarbon mixtures among reproductive and nonreproductive individuals have been often revealed in social insects. However, very few papers demonstrated that these signatures actually act as contact pheromones used by nonreproductive to recognize the presence of a related queen in the colony. Cuticular and glandular hydrocarbons of Polistes paper wasps have been extensively studied, but, until now, the perception and recognition of such cues was not demonstrated. In this paper, we show, for the first time in Vespidae, that Polistes gallicus workers distinguish nestmates from alien individuals and queens from workers by the hydrocarbon mixtures of the Van der Vecht organ secretion (VVS). We also demonstrated that stroking behavior (a peculiar behavior of Polistes by which queens probably lay VVS on the nest) acts as an inhibitor of ovarian development in workers. PMID:17644826

Dapporto, Leonardo; Santini, Antonio; Dani, Francesca R; Turillazzi, Stefano

2007-10-01

47

D. Deceased Q. Queen's Graduate  

E-print Network

D. Deceased Q. Queen's Graduate D/Q Name (Queen's Degrees) Degree Year D ABBOTT, The Hon. Dr. Justice D.C. LL.D. 1960 ABED, Fazle Hasan LL.D. 1994 ABELLA, Rosalie LL.D. 1985 D ABERDEEN, Her Excellency (The Countess of Marchioness) LL.D. 1897 D ABERDEEN, His Excellency the Marquis of LL.D. 1894 ABUELAISH

Ellis, Randy

48

Queen Mary, University of London  

E-print Network

for students at Queen Mary 13 Queen Mary Students' Union 15 Student Finance 17 Money - students' tips to make. With everything in one place, it's easier for students to balance their studies with extra-curricular activities are excellent, and the social life of the College is legendary. The Students' Union boasts a large range

Chittka, Lars

49

Queen Mary, University of London  

E-print Network

students love Queen Mary so much? 01 Why study at the University of London? 05 Accommodation at Queen Mary - students' tips to make it go further 21 Part-time work 23 London on the cheap 27 Update on the job market, and the social life of the College is legendary. The Students' Union supports a big range of clubs and societies

Chittka, Lars

50

2013 VIEWBOOK welcome to Queen's  

E-print Network

. Surrounded by bright, motivated peers, and aided and encouraged by Queen's supportive atmosphere, you local school kids with the chance to attend a summer science camp. It's immersing yourself in Queen with graduation. The friendships you make will last the rest of your life. Wherever you go, whatever path you

Graham, Nick

51

Queen's University School of Music  

E-print Network

Queen's University School of Music Entry Audition Request Form Personal Information: Mr. Ms. Name: ____________________________________________________________________ Province: _______________ Postal Code: ______________________________ Country studied on this instrument: _______ Accompanist needed? Yes No Reference Information (Music Instructor

Ellis, Randy

52

Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.  

PubMed

Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees. PMID:16718558

Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

2006-07-01

53

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Lofstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

54

Nonsyndromic Mandibular Symphysis Cleft  

PubMed Central

Median cleft of lower lip and mandible is a rare congenital anomaly described as cleft number 30 of Tessier's classification. In minor forms only lower lip cleft is seen. We report the case of a patient with median cleft of lower lip, severe ankyloglossia, cleft of mandibular symphysis, and residual cleft involving on right soft palate and associated with other facial clefts. These deformities were corrected in multiple stage procedure, consisting of release of the tongue from floor of the mouth and lower alveolus and fixation of the mandibular cleft done with right iliac bone graft using stainless steel miniplate. PMID:24711928

Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nadella, Koteswara Rao; Uppaluru, Vijayalakshmi; Kodali, Rama Mohan; Nallamothu, Ranganadh

2014-01-01

55

Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders  

E-print Network

Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders In January, 2013, Civil Engineering students are in the final year of their civil engineering degree. Olga and Mikhaela are the co-presidents for the Queen

Graham, Nick

56

Reflections on the "N" + "k" Queens Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "N" queens problem is a classic puzzle. It asks for an arrangement of "N" mutually non-attacking queens on an "N" x "N" chessboard. We discuss a recent variation called the "N" + "k" queens problem, where pawns are added to the chessboard to allow a greater number of non-attacking queens to be placed on it. We describe some of what is known

Chatham, Doug

2009-01-01

57

Enteric bacteria mandibular osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis of the mandible is a relatively rare inflammatory disease that usually stems from the odontogenic polymicrobial flora of the oral cavity. We are reporting 2 unusual cases of mandibular osteomyelitis resulting from enteric bacteria infection. In one patient, abundant clinical evidence suggested a diagnosis of a chronic factitious disease, whereas in the second patient no obvious etiology was found. PMID:15897844

Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Edney, Timothy; Jaques, Bertrand

2005-06-01

58

Measuring mandibular motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

1977-01-01

59

Mandibular reconstruction in children.  

PubMed

Facial deformities due to loss of mandibular segments in children lead to severe functional and psychological disturbances. Such deformities should be corrected taking into account both contour and function. In addition, they should be planned for long-term growth and performed in the fewest possible surgical stages. This article presents the experience in seven cases of mandibular reconstruction in children after surgical ablation for benign conditions. We performed a scapular flap in one case and fibular flaps in six. The mean age of the patients was 9.1 years. Follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 5 years. All flaps survived. No osseous remodeling was needed in any case. All patients showed symmetrical facial and mandibular growth, as well as adequate masticatory function. Excision of the tumor and reconstruction should be carried out in the same surgical procedure whenever possible. The fibula was used in most cases because of its easy dissection, the ample amount of bone it provides, and the potential to redirect it. The author favors mandibular reconstruction in children with a free flap, as this approach offers adequate form and function in the long term. PMID:10980513

Olvera-Caballero, C

2000-01-01

60

The joy of sex pheromones  

PubMed Central

Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140 PMID:24030282

Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

2013-01-01

61

The joy of sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. PMID:24030282

Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

2013-10-01

62

Queen's University The Principal's Commission  

E-print Network

1 Queen's University The Principal's Commission M t l H lthon Mental Health Lynann Clapham, Roy · Consider national and international trends in mental health issues among post- secondary aged students; · Explore best practices for addressingp p g mental health issues on university campuses; · Examine how

Ellis, Randy

63

Significance of chirality in pheromone science.  

PubMed

Pheromones play important roles in chemical communication among organisms. Various chiral and non-racemic pheromones have been identified since the late 1960s. Their enantioselective syntheses could establish the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring pheromones and clarified the relationships between absolute configuration and bioactivity. For example, neither the (R)- nor (S)-enantiomer of sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle Gnathotrichus sulcatus, is behaviorally active, while their mixture is bioactive. In the case of olean, the olive fruit fly pheromone, its (R)-isomer is active for the males, and the (S)-isomer is active for the females. About 140 chiral pheromones are reviewed with regard to their stereochemistry-bioactivity relationships. Problems encountered in studying chirality of pheromones were examined and analyzed to think about possible future directions in pheromone science. PMID:17855097

Mori, Kenji

2007-12-15

64

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.  

PubMed

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

2010-07-01

65

Queen Victoria, her physicians, and her cataracts.  

PubMed

Decreasing vision due to cataracts became a significant problem for Queen Victoria toward the end of the 19th century. Her personal physician, Sir James Reid, obtained consultations with two eminent British ophthalmologists, George Lawson and Edward Nettleship. The Queen was not satisfied, and requested an opinion from the German professor Hermann Pagenstecher. All the doctors agreed on the diagnosis, but the Queen never underwent surgery. PMID:8009431

Ravin, J G

1994-01-01

66

Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.  

PubMed Central

An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The pheromone also interacted cooperatively with GMP to shorten the aggregation period. The pheromone behaved chemically as a low-molecular-weight lipid. Images PMID:6276369

Stephens, K; Hegeman, G D; White, D

1982-01-01

67

Queen's by the numbers Our student body  

E-print Network

of Canada. Visit Us: Undergraduate Admission Office of the University Registrar Queen's University 74 Union Concurrent Education Engineering (Applied Science) Fine Art Kinesiology and Health Studies Music Nursing

Graham, Nick

68

The Queen Mary Magazine Summer 2003  

E-print Network

for healthcare professionals and widening participation in medicine, dentistry, nursing, midwifery and allied Queen Mary undergraduates. Our Students' Union was the only association within the University of London

Chittka, Lars

69

Characterization of queen-specific components of the fluid released by fighting honey bee queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Swarming honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies rear supernumerary young queens that compete for the limited resources (workers) necessary for founding a new colony. Young queens often fight to death. During fights, queens often release rectal fluid with a strong smell of grapes, after which they temporarily stop fighting. This potentially reduces the risk of deadly injury. The fluid

Giorgina Bernasconi; Laurent Bigler; Manfred Hesse; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1999-01-01

70

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ants/queen.html BEING QUEEN BY PETER TYSON  

E-print Network

a nutritious, high-calorie diet called "royal jelly." This diet turns her into a fertile queen, and if she to lift a finger except to produce royal heirs. But being queen isn't all peaches and cream. Queens of all

Wenseleers, Tom

71

Queen of Hearts (and Communications)  

E-print Network

. Watkins argues that nov- els such as !e Secret History of the Most Renowned Q. Elizabeth and the E. of Essex recast the queen as a celeb- rity "gure: For an emerging bourgeois readership, Elizabeths politics mat- tered less than her identity as a... poisoning her erotic ri- vals.23 It is important to note, however, that images of Elizabeth were predom- inantly negative immediately after her death. Some reports of her deathbed suggest she was torn up with guilt over the Earl of Essexs execution...

Upsdell, Shanxi

2008-07-01

72

Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSHcVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

Smith, Dean P.

2013-01-01

73

Hormones, pheromones and reproductive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish commonly use reproductive hormones (steroids and prostaglandins) both as endogenous signals between reproductive tract and brain and as exogenous signals (hormonal pheromones) that synchronize gamete maturation and\\/or spawning interactions between and among conspecifics. This dual function for hormonal products not only extends traditional concepts that sex hormone actions are limited to reproductive synchrony within the individual, but also implies

Norm Stacey

2003-01-01

74

Original article Numbers of spermatozoa in queens  

E-print Network

Original article Numbers of spermatozoa in queens and drones indicate multiple mating of queens, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka (Received 24 November 1989; accepted 3 May 1990) Summary Drones.67106 spermatozoa in their spermathecae. In A adreniformis, drones had an average of 0.13106

Boyer, Edmond

75

Original article Physiography influences honeybee queen's choice  

E-print Network

of the area Cordovan (cd) drones were kept, while black drones were flying in the periphery. The virgin queens the orientation of queens demonstrated in these experiments and the orientation of drones underline the validity and drones and their mating dis- tance is important for breeding programs using open mating. The thorough

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Original article The insemination of queen honeybees  

E-print Network

complete mixing of the semen collected from several drones. queen honeybee / instrumental insemination / diluted semen INTRODUCTION During natural mating the queen honeybee collects the semen from 8-10 drones in the spermatheca. In the case of instrumental insemination, the semen is collected from a similar number of drones

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University  

E-print Network

Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University In response to the need in industrial research and development for engineers with a greater knowledge of applied mathematics and modelling techniques, Queen's Univer- sity offers a unique program in Mathematics and Engineering. This program, the only one of its

Linder, Tamás

78

2009 2013 QUEEN'S SCHOOL OF BUSINESS  

E-print Network

2009 ­ 2013 QUEEN'S SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK #12;HOW WE DO IT: Our programs excellent undergraduate and graduate education to students from across Canada and around the world · We partnership between Queen's School of Business and Cornell University, students have the opportunity to earn

Graham, Nick

79

FOOD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT QUEEN'S HOSPITALITY SERVICES  

E-print Network

FOOD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT QUEEN'S HOSPITALITY SERVICES May 2008 #12;In recent years, a sustainability movement has taken root at Queen's. The impacts of the movement can be seen across campus sustainability position within the their student government ­The AMS, The Engineer Society open the Tea Room

Ellis, Randy

80

Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued  

E-print Network

Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: November 27, 2013 Page No.: 1: The Department of Environmental Health & Safety 1.0 Introduction Queen's University acknowledges that the use of the Aboriginal culture and heritage. This standard operating procedure outlines the University's guidelines

Graham, Nick

81

Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College Announcement  

E-print Network

College Divisions will be participating in this event. All students, parents, and family are invitedUndergraduate Research Conference at Queens College 2nd Announcement There will be an Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College sponsored by the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

Engel, Robert

82

"The Queen Elizabeth Forest Park (QEFP) was  

E-print Network

"The Queen Elizabeth Forest Park (QEFP) was designated by the Forestry Commission in 1953 to mark the coronation of Queen Elizabeth. It attracts over a million visitors a year to its stunning landscape of forest that is passionate about tourism, recreation, wildlife and communities. Visitors enjoy the peace and quiet

83

December 2012 Queen's University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

of the use and abuse of alcohol; Discourage high-risk alcohol-related behaviours and practices throughDecember 2012 1 Queen's University Alcohol Policy Introduction Queen's University is committed. The university recognizes that the misuse of alcohol can create risks, threaten individual health, compromise

Abolmaesumi, Purang

84

Mary, Queen of Scots and Bothwell's bracelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the famous Casket Letters mentions Mary, Queen of Scots making bracelets for the Earl of Bothwell. Is this an implausible story which casts doubt on the alleged authenticity of the letters, or is it something she could have done? This articlef examines an unusual aspect of 16th-century Sco ttish jewellery. The jewellery of Mary, Queen of Scots (illus

Rosalind K Marshall

85

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University  

E-print Network

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University December 2003 #12;Queen's University Health & Safety Management System 2 1. Introduction Under Provincial Health and Safety legislation, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, (the OH&S Act), places the onus for compliance with the legislation

Ellis, Randy

86

Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

2014-01-01

87

Growth stimulating effect on queen bee larvae of histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Royal jelly (RJ) is a widely used natural food. It is also a major source of nutrition for queen bees and plays a key role in their development. RJ is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. The regulation of gene expression in these two glands may influence the development of queen bees by affecting the content of RJ. This study investigated the epigenetic effects in these two glands in young adult worker bees treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and NBM-HD-1, a novel compound synthesized in this laboratory. Western blot analyses indicated that the levels of acetyl-histone 3 and p21 protein expression in MCF-7 cells increased markedly after treatment with NBM-HD-1. The data proved that NBM-HD-1 was a novel and potent HDACi. Furthermore, a method of affecting epigenetic regulation of the mrjp family gene in the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees was developed by feeding young adult worker bees HDACi. Epigenetic regulation produced several important biological effects. A marked change in the protein composition of the RJ secreted from these treated bees was found. Only the ratio of specific major royal jelly protein 3 (MRJP3) was significantly altered in the treated bees versus the untreated controls. Other MRJP family proteins did not change. This alteration in the ratio of royal jelly proteins resulted in a significant increase in the body size of queen bee larvae. The data seem to suggest that HDACis may play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. They appear to change mrjp3 gene expression and alter the ratio of MRJP3 protein in RJ. This study presents the first evidence that HDACis are capable of regulating the ratio of MRJP3 proteins in RJ, which has the potential to change the body size of queen bees during their development. PMID:22642680

Huang, Chung-Yang; Chi, Li-Ling; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Chen, Wei-Jung; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Yuan, Cheng Mike; Chen, Chia-Nan

2012-06-20

88

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system. PMID:23471444

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

89

Review article Virgin queens in stingless bee (Apidae,  

E-print Network

Review article Virgin queens in stingless bee (Apidae, Meliponinae) colonies: a review VL gynes, as well as workers, take active part in this process. Meliponinae / stingless bees / gyne / queen) in the colony to ensure its perenniality if the dominant queen dies. It is assumed that stingless bee queens

Boyer, Edmond

90

Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

In orthodontics, bone structure, its density and dimensions play an essential role by explaining limitations in magnitude, size and extent of tooth movement. Severe anterior crowding is one of the most frequently encountered dental malocclusions. Its therapy is mostly limited by lack of basal and alveolar bone and it often involves tooth extractions. Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis is a method of natural bone generation and also a treatment option to achieve space regaining in a much-reduced lower jaw with distinctive frontal place deficit and severe anterior crowding, without sacrificing permanent teeth. McCarthy and Guerrero were of the first researchers reporting on this method applied on human lower jaws and they increased clinical interest in this approach. Although this method has been clinically used ever since, many questions concerning effects on bone regeneration speed, bone quality, tooth movement into regenerated area, periodontal health and long-time stability of treatment outcomes have not been sufficiently investigated. This overview should present the current clinical and biological state of knowledge about bone gain and tooth movement through regenerate bone. Furthermore it should encourage interest in further research on this topic. PMID:24390034

Botzenhart, Ute Ulrike; Vgh, Andrs; Jianu, Rodica; Gedrange, Tomasz

2013-12-01

91

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

92

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.  

PubMed

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

2008-12-01

93

QUEEN'S BY THE NUMBERS OUR GRADUATE PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

by offering support, resources and opportunities to take part in social, athletic and community activities and Mail University Report Card Times Higher Education Supplement: (ranks Queen's among the top 100

Graham, Nick

94

Alarm pheromones do not mediate rapid shifts in honey bee guard acceptance threshold.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) guards discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates at the hive entrance. The acceptance threshold of guards is known to change adaptively, for example becoming less permissive when the number of intruder bees from other colonies increases. These adaptive shifts can occur within minutes. What is unknown is the mechanism behind this rapid shift. It was hypothesized that alarm pheromones released by guards may cause the adoption of a less permissive acceptance threshold. Here, we tested this hypothesis on five discriminator hives by using a behavioral assay. We used three amounts each of iso-pentyl acetate (IPA) and 2-heptanone (2H), which are the major components of the pheromones from the sting and the mandibular glands, respectively. Biologically relevant levels of chemicals were delivered to the hive entrance platform via an air pump. We found no effect of either IPA or 2H: there was no change in guard acceptance of either nestmate (on average, 91% accepted) or non-nestmate (on average, 30% accepted) under any of the pheromone treatments compared to the pentane control (98% nestmates accepted and 32% non-nestmates accepted). Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that the presence of IPA or 2H causes a rapid shift of guard acceptance threshold. PMID:21069439

Couvillon, Margaret J; Barton, Sarah N; Cohen, Jennifer A; Fabricius, Onna K; Krcher, Martin H; Cooper, Lee S; Silk, Matthew J; Helanter, Heikki; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2010-12-01

95

The role of pheromones and biostimulation in animal reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now known that pheromonal communication plays an important role in mammalian behaviour and reproductive processes. Chemical communication with pheromones is one means of transmitting such information. In mammals, signalling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual (sight) or tactile stimuli. Pheromones are air-borne chemical substances (signals) released in the

P. I. Rekwot; D. Ogwu; E. O. Oyedipe; V. O. Sekoni

2001-01-01

96

Maxillofacial anatomy: the mandibular symphysis.  

PubMed

Placement of dental implants in the anterior mandible is considered by many clinicians to be a relatively low-risk procedure. However, hemorrhagic episodes following implant placement in the mandibular symphysis are regularly reported and can have serious consequences. The use of high-resolution focused cone beam scanners has given us the ability to visualize the intricate neurovascular network of the intraforaminal region without distortion and in greater detail. Knowledge of the arterial supply and navigated implant placement in the mandibular symphysis can help to avoid these potentially life-threatening emergencies. PMID:20932161

Miller, Robert J; Edwards, Warren C; Boudet, Carlos; Cohen, Jonathon H

2011-12-01

97

Overwhelming hypercalcaemia in mandibular ameloblastoma.  

PubMed

Ameloblastoma is considered to be a benign odontogenic tumour of epithelial in origin that is slow growing but recurrent and invasive in nature. Some of its features have been sources of debate among experts regarding its benign or malignant character. We report a case of a 20-year-old Filipino woman with right mandibular ameloblastoma presenting with overwhelming hypercalcaemia. Work ups for hypercalcaemia eventually revealed tumoral hypercalcaemia, which was initially controlled with intravenous bisphosphanate. The patient eventually underwent tumour excision and mandibular reconstruction, which totally corrected hypercalcaemia. This case will highlight the rare association of hypercalcaemia among patients with ameloblastoma. PMID:25326561

Lo, Tom Edward Ngo; Villafuerte, Cesar Vincent; Acampado, Laura Trajano

2014-01-01

98

Queen's University Welcomes Students with Disabilities Queen's offers 3 orientation options for students with disabilities  

E-print Network

for students with disabilities transitioning to the university. Please read the description of each optionQueen's University Welcomes Students with Disabilities Queen's offers 3 orientation options Opportunities Task Force (LOTF, 1997-2002) recommended that students needed to: Understand their disability

Ellis, Randy

99

Mandibular development in Australopithecus robustus.  

PubMed

Australopithecus robustus has a distinct mandibular anatomy, with a broad and deep corpus and a tall, relatively upright ramus. How this anatomy arose through development is unknown, as gross mandibular size and shape change have not been thoroughly examined quantitatively in this species. Herein, I investigate A. robustus mandibular growth by comparing its ontogenetic series with a sample of recent humans, examining age-related size variation in 28 linear measurements. Resampling is used to compare the amount of proportional size change occurring between tooth eruption stages in the small and fragmentary A. robustus sample, with that of a more complete human skeletal population. Ontogenetic allometry of corpus robusticity is also assessed with least squares regression. Results show that nearly all measurements experience greater average increase in A. robustus than in humans. Most notably, A. robustus corpus breadth undergoes a spurt of growth before eruption of M1 , likely due in part to delayed resorption of the ramus root on the lateral corpus. Between the occlusion of M1 and M2 , nearly all dimensions experience greater proportional size change in A. robustus. Nested resampling analysis affirms that this pattern of growth differences between species is biologically significant, and not a mere byproduct of the fossil sample size. Some species differences are likely a function of postcanine megadontia in A. robustus, although the causes of other differences are less clear. This study demonstrates an important role of the postnatal period for mandibular shape development in this species. PMID:24820665

Cofran, Zachary

2014-07-01

100

An airborne sex pheromone in snakes  

PubMed Central

Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

Shine, R.; Mason, R. T.

2012-01-01

101

An airborne sex pheromone in snakes.  

PubMed

Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

Shine, R; Mason, R T

2012-04-23

102

The number of queens: An important trait in ant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive social and ecological differences between ant colonies that have a single queen and those that have multiple queens are defined. The evolutionary tendencies which lead to polygyny and the adaptive significance of multiple queens are examined. The discussion of the ecological consequences of polygyny and monogyny leads to a deeper understanding of territoriality, spacing and species packing in

Bert Hlldobler; Edward O. Wilson

1977-01-01

103

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Explore Camp Bursary Application  

E-print Network

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Explore Camp Bursary Application Please fill in each: explore.geography@queensu.ca Website: http://www.geog.queensu.ca/Explore/index.asp #12;Queen's Geography/o Queen's Department of Geography 68 University Ave. Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 68 University Avenue Kingston

Ellis, Randy

104

Honeybees Dufour's gland - idiosyncrasy of a new queen signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dufour's gland (DG) secretion of queens in Apis mellifera is normally caste specific. In queenright (QR) workers it is composed of odd n alkanes, while in queens it also possesses long chain esters. However, glandular expression is plastic since queenless (QL) workers produce a queen-like secretion. More- over, QR gland incubated in vitro produced these esters, indicating that glandular activity

Tamar K ATZAV-GOZANSKYa; George S. Wise

2002-01-01

105

Gateway to the Future the campaign for queens college  

E-print Network

for Queens College 1 Viewed from our tree-lined campus, the Manhattan skyline symbolizes to students sons and daughters of the newest Americans. Queens College was known then as "the College of the Future+ countries represented 90+ native languages #12;From the vibrant borough of Queens--the nation's most diverse

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

106

Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

2013-01-01

107

Visualization of Ant Pheromone Based Path Following  

E-print Network

Nest Control screns (lower left, lower center) and a ?death? animation (center). (1991, Maxis Software) MacLennan developed a rudimentary simulation of ant pheromone behavior modeled using the simulation engine NetLogo [MacLennan 2008], as shown... Nest Control screns (lower left, lower center) and a ?death? animation (center). (1991, Maxis Software) MacLennan developed a rudimentary simulation of ant pheromone behavior modeled using the simulation engine NetLogo [MacLennan 2008], as shown...

Sutherland, Benjamin T.

2010-07-14

108

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this lock-and-key tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

109

Sex pheromone source location by garter snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male plains garter snakes,Thamnophis radix, tested in a 240-cm-long arena can detect directional information from a female pheromone trail only when the female is allowed to push against pegs while laying the trail. The female's normal locomotor activity apparently deposits pheromone on the anterolateral surfaces of vertical structures in her environment. The male sensorily assays the sides of these objects

Neil B. Ford; James R. Low

1984-01-01

110

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : I. Identification of male pheromone.  

PubMed

Behavioral observations of the rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica, Pyralidae, Galleriinae) in the laboratory have shown that a male wing-gland pheromone induces attraction of female moths. This pheromone was identified as a blend of (E,E) and (Z,E)-farnesal. Wing-gland extracts or synthetic compounds were shown to be attractive to females by inducing walking. PMID:24302327

Zagatti, P; Kunesch, G; Ramiandrasoa, F; Malosse, C; Hall, D R; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F

1987-07-01

111

Mandibular nerve entrapment in the infratemporal fossa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve (V3) comprises of three main branches. Various anatomic structures may entrap and potentially compress the mandibular nerve branches.\\u000a A usual position of mandibular nerve (MN) compression is the infratemporal fossa (ITF) which is one of the most difficult\\u000a regions of the skull base to access surgically. The anatomical positions of compression are: the

Maria N. PiagkouT; T. Demesticha; G. Piagkos; G. Androutsos; P. Skandalakis

2011-01-01

112

Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Metropolitan Museum accompanies their retrospective exhibition of the work of couturier Alexander McQueen, who committed suicide at age 40 in 2010. McQueen was known for his lavishly staged runway shows, for example his spring 2003 collection, "Irere", featured a recreation of a shipwreck complete with pirates and amazons, and models falling overboard. "It's only a game" in 2005, was a human chess game, with models dressed as chess pieces, such a knight in a horsehairs skirt. On the exhibition's website, visitors can view selected objects including McQueen's extremely low-slung trousers, "bumsters" or the Spine Corset, a silver exoskeleton, worn over a dress. Narration is provided by Andrew Bolton, the British curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Costume Institute, Michelle Olly, who wore one of the dresses, and McQueen himself. There is also a section of online videos available here, where visitors can watch a model in a chiffon dress drop into the ocean, and see the chess pieces move.

113

Queen's University Senate Committee on Academic Procedures  

E-print Network

with the following bodies in addition to one-on-one or small group consultations with faculty, staff, and students of Arts and Science Faculty Board - School of Business Faculty Forum and Faculty Board - School of Theology Faculty Board - Student Senate Caucus - Queen's Career Services and the School of Business Career

Ellis, Randy

114

Finding Children's Literature @ Queen's Education Library  

E-print Network

Finding Children's Literature @ Queen's Education Library Browsing in the Education Library You is shelved Searching for Children's Books in QCAT: By Title Leave out the and a if they begin words. You can for Children's Books in QCAT: By Topic If you want to do a topic search, use the More Search Limits feature

Abolmaesumi, Purang

115

Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses on maximising biodiversity, encouraging

Susan Woodman

2006-01-01

116

Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.

Koeppe, Tina

2007-01-01

117

21 CFR 872.4770 - Temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...that is intended to stabilize mandibular bone and provide for temporary reconstruction...of the mandibular condyle and mandibular bone. This device is not intended for...

2014-04-01

118

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695...3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2010-04-01

120

Department of Anthropology, Queens College, CUNY,  

E-print Network

modification, Gombe, Tanzania, hominid carnivory. Analysis of a bone assemblage made by chimpanzees at Gombe was entirely consumed. Cranial and mandibular fragments had the highest survivorships, followed by the scapulae and long bones. Post-cranial axial elements had the lowest survivorships. A high percentage (80

Plummer, Thomas

121

Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

122

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa pheromone / repellen / compound / Varroa jacobsonl INTRODUCTION Several honey bee hormones and phero- mones trigger for the mite to start egg laying (Hänel, 1983). Honey bee Nasonov pheromone decreas- es

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

124

Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus  

PubMed Central

Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

2014-01-01

125

How is pheromone specificity encoded in proteins?  

PubMed

Pheromone specificity in the Lepidoptera is encoded in protein components of the antennal sensillum lymph and dendritic membrane. In this paper, we highlight recent work on the molecular determinants of pheromone binding affinity of pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) of three genera. First, we describe new cDNA sequences for Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae) and Agrotis segetum (Noctuidae). These data enrich the conclusions derived from our functional studies. Secondly, we indicate how preparation of multimilligram quantities of the recombinant PBP 'Apol-3' (originally from Antheraea polyphemus) has provided a platform (i) to determine the ligand binding sites using photoaffinity labeling, (ii) to conduct structural analysis by CD and NMR, and (iii) to measure binding affinities using a new binding assay. Thirdly, we describe the use of expression-cassette PCR technology to prepare two related PBPs from Antheraea perneyi to test binding affinities of naturally-occurring homologous PBPs. Our results support a model in which ligand specificity for chain length, double bond position, and terminal functionality is partially encoded in the PBPs. We propose that the final decoding is accomplished when the PBP-pheromone complex activates a G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane domain receptor that contains recognition sites for both the presented pheromone and the presenting PBP. PMID:8590031

Prestwich, G D; Du, G; LaForest, S

1995-08-01

126

Solitary osteochondroma of the mandibular symphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteochondroma is a benign neoplasm that usually develops in long bones and very rarely occurs in craniofacial bones. Nearly all reported mandibular osteochondromas have arisen in the condyle and the coronoid process, and occurrence in other locations is extremely rare. We describe a case of osteochondroma arising from the inferior border of the mandibular symphysis.

E Tanaka; S Iida; H Tsuji; M Kogo; M Morita

2004-01-01

127

Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females. PMID:21661306

Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

2011-05-01

128

Effectiveness of Emerged Pheromone Communication in an Ant Foraging Model  

E-print Network

The collective behavior of social insects has been a puzzling problem for scientists for a long time. In particular, it is well known that ants solve difficult problems, for instance selecting the shortest pathway by communicating with each other via pheromone. How is it possible for such simple creatures to coordinate their behaviors and to solve problems as a whole? This paper focuses on the emergence of the pheromone communication system based on an ant foraging model in which neural networks of ant agents evolve according to the result of foraging. The computer experiments show that the ant agents using emerged communication with one type of pheromone are more adaptive than the ant agents not using pheromone communication or the ant agents using human-designed communication with 2 types of pheromone. This paper also discusses the reason for this superiority of the evolved pheromone communication. Key words: ant colony, pheromone communication, swarm intelligence, artificial life. 1

Yoshiyuki Nakamichi; Takaya Arita

2005-01-01

129

Discrimination of pheromone enantiomers by two pheromone binding proteins from the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, uses (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, as a sex pheromone. The (-) enantiomer of the pheromone is a strong behavioral antagonist. Specialized sensory hairs, sensillae, on the antennae of male moths detect the pheromone. Once the pheromone enters a sensillum, the very abundant pheromone binding protein (PBP) transports the odorant to the sensory neuron. We have expressed the two PBPs found in gypsy moth antennae, PBP1 and PBP2, and we have studied the affinity of these recombinant PBPs for the enantiomers of disparlure. To study pheromone binding under equilibrium conditions, we developed and validated a binding assay. We have addressed the two major problems with hydrophobic ligands in aqueous solution: (1) concentration-dependent adsorption of the ligand on vial surfaces and (2) separation of the protein-bound ligand from the material remaining free in solution. We used this assay to demonstrate for the first time that pheromone binding to PBP is reversible and that the two PBPs from L. dispar differ in their enantiomer binding preference. PBP1 has a higher affinity for the (-) enantiomer, while PBP2 has a higher affinity for the (+) enantiomer. The PBP from the wild silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Apol-3) bound the disparlure enantiomers more weakly than either of the L. dispar PBPs, but Apol-3 was also able to discriminate the enantiomers. We have observed extensive aggregation of both L. dispar PBPs and an increase in pheromone binding at high (>2 microM) PBP concentrations. We present a model of disparlure binding to the two PBPs. PMID:10913308

Plettner, E; Lazar, J; Prestwich, E G; Prestwich, G D

2000-08-01

130

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS  

E-print Network

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Master's Thesis Examining and Statistics Co-Supervisor Mathematics and Statistics Examiner from the department Mathematics and Statistics

Linder, Tamás

131

Comparisons of the queen volatile compounds of instrumentally inseminated versus naturally mated honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental insemination is an attractive alternative to natural mating because specific genetic crosses can be made, thus\\u000a producing colonies with desired traits. However, there are conflicting reports on the quality and acceptance of instrumentally\\u000a inseminated (II) queens compared to naturally mated (NM) queens. One factor that affects acceptance and retention of queens\\u000a is the volatile compounds they produce. Our study

Ming Hua Huang; Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman; Blaise LeBlanc

2009-01-01

132

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.  

PubMed

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2005-09-27

133

Antipredator pheromones in amphibians: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific chemosignals (pheromones) have an important role in the antipredator behaviour in amphib- ians and other vertebrates. However, relatively little is known about the occurrence of chemical alarm cues just in amphibians. The site of chemosignals perception is vomeronasal system. The presence of the vomeronasal system in aquatic amphibians indicates that it did not arise as an adaptation to terrestrial

J. RAJCHARD

2006-01-01

134

Original article Are there pheromonal dominance signals  

E-print Network

Original article Are there pheromonal dominance signals in the bumblebee Bombus hypnorum L; In the bumblebee Bombus hypnorum (Apidae) 132 chemical compounds could be identified by GC/MS and coinjection, and in the body size. bumblebee / Bombus hypnorum / dominance / volatile bouquets / chemical analysis INTRODUCTION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Digital Pheromones for Coordination of Unmanned Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the parade examples of agent coordination through a shared environment is the use of chemical markers, or pheromones, for path planning in insect colonies. We have developed a digital analog of this mechanism that is well suited to problems such as the control of unmanned robotic vehicles, and extended it in novel ways to provide a rich set

H. Van Dyke Parunak; Sven A. Brueckner; John A. Sauter

2004-01-01

136

Treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor with a high rate of recurrence in the long term. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with mandibular ameloblastoma in order to evaluate recurrent ameloblastoma management. The study included data from 31 patients over a period of 10 years. Data collected included age, gender, tumor location, histological findings, initial treatment, number of recurrences and year of onset, type of treatment of recurrence, reconstruction and follow-up. Recurrences were detected in nine patients (29%). Tumor recurrences appeared at 32 months on average following the initial surgical procedure. Recurrences were associated mainly to inadequate initial therapeutic approach and were treated by bone resection with a safety margin of at least 1 cm beyond the radiographically visible margins. Immediate reconstruction of bone defects was performed with grafts or free flaps. PMID:24137230

INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; PRATS-GOLCZER, VICTORIA; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, LUIS-MIGUEL; BELMONTE-CARO, RODOLFO; MARTINEZ-DE-FUENTES, RAFAEL; TORRES-CARRANZA, EUSEBIO; GACTO-SANCHEZ, PURIFICACION; GOMEZ-CIA, TOMAS

2013-01-01

137

Pheromone deactivation catalyzed by receptor molecules: a quantitative kinetic model.  

PubMed

A quantitative model of pheromone-receptor interaction and pheromone deactivation, the supposed rate-limiting processes underlying the receptor potential kinetics, is worked out for the moth Antheraea polyphemus. In this model, the pheromone interacts with the receptor molecule while bound to the reduced form of the pheromone binding protein. The receptor molecules--besides their receptor function--catalyze the observed shift of the pheromone-binding protein from the reduced to the oxidized form (Ziegelberger, G., Eur. J. Biochem., 232, 706-711, 1995), which deactivates the pheromone bound to pheromone binding protein. With the following parameters, the model fits morphological, radiometric, electrophysiological and biochemical data: a maximum estimate of 1.7 x 10(7) receptor molecules/cell (with 40,000 units/micron 2 of receptor cell membrane), rate constants k1 = 0.2/(s.microM) for the association, k2 = 10/s for the dissociation of the ternary complex of binding protein, pheromone and receptor, and k3 = 10/s for the deactivation via the redox shift. With these parameters, the duration of elementary receptor potentials elicited by single pheromone molecules (approximately 50 ms) reflects the lifetime of the ternary complex, tau = 1/(k2 + k3). The receptor occupancy produced by the model for threshold stimuli fits the sensitivity of the receptor cell to single pheromone molecules. PMID:9759524

Kaissling, K E

1998-08-01

138

Alarm Pheromone Processing in the Ant Brain: An Evolutionary Perspective  

PubMed Central

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

139

Genes Involved in Sex Pheromone Discrimination in Drosophila melanogaster and Their Background-  

E-print Network

Genes Involved in Sex Pheromone Discrimination in Drosophila melanogaster and Their Background. In Drosophila melanogaster, contact pheromones differ between male and female in their content pheromones in the courtship and mate discrimination of Drosophila melanogaster is now well established [1

Boyer, Edmond

140

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2013-07-01

141

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2011-07-01

143

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2012-07-01

144

TheQueens,theDrones and theWorkers  

E-print Network

TheQueens,theDrones and theWorkers Phil's Peace By Phil starks If I sit still long enough and a few hundred drones. The queen is mother to them all, and is respected accordingly. The drones are brothers, and as a boy with three sisters of my own, I can empathize with their plight: Drones

Starks, Philip

145

Sex and the Red Queen Maurine Neiman and Britt Koskella  

E-print Network

.), Lost Sex, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-2770-2_7, C Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 #12;134 MChapter 7 Sex and the Red Queen Maurine Neiman and Britt Koskella The essence of sex in our theory. Even so, the extent to which the Red Queen can and does provide an advantage to sex in nature

Neiman, Maurine

146

Translation Program A partnership of Queens Borough President's Office  

E-print Network

Translation Program A partnership of Queens Borough President's Office and the Asian/American Center at Queens College Translation Request Form All information must be provided for request: Distribution Plan: The Population that the translated document will serve: Needed by (Date): Expected

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

147

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production  

E-print Network

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production Katie E. Wharton,a Fred C and regu- lation of males (drones). We examined whether honeybee queens can influence drone regulation by either allowing or prevent- ing them from laying drone eggs for a period of time and then examining

Huang, Zachary

148

Ontogenetic shift in habitat by early juvenile queen conch,  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic shift in habitat by early juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas:. patterns and potential mechanisms Abstract.-Habitat association, growth. and burrowing behavior were examined for a population of young-of-the-year juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas L., in the southern Exuma Cays, Bahamas. during

149

Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution for water coolers shall not be included in the ban. 4. This policy shall not apply to campus buildings where

Abolmaesumi, Purang

150

Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution This policy comes into effect September 1st , 2012. EXCEPTIONS 1. Vitamin water and other sports drinks

Abolmaesumi, Purang

151

Intraspecific queen parasitism in a highly eusocial bee.  

PubMed

Insect societies are well-known for their advanced cooperation, but their colonies are also vulnerable to reproductive parasitism. Here, we present a novel example of an intraspecific social parasitism in a highly eusocial bee, the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In particular, we provide genetic evidence which shows that, upon loss of the mother queen, many colonies are invaded by unrelated queens that fly in from unrelated hives nearby. The reasons for the occurrence of this surprising form of social parasitism may be linked to the fact that unlike honeybees, Melipona bees produce new queens in great excess of colony needs, and that this exerts much greater selection on queens to seek alternative reproductive options, such as by taking over other nests. Overall, our results are the first to demonstrate that queens in highly eusocial bees can found colonies not only via supersedure or swarming, but also by infiltrating and taking over other unrelated nests. PMID:20961883

Wenseleers, Tom; Alves, Denise A; Francoy, Tiago M; Billen, Johan; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

2011-04-23

152

Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens  

PubMed Central

The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31?%) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84?%) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

2013-01-01

153

Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

Xu Wei [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Leal, Walter S. [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: wsleal@ucdavis.edu

2008-08-08

154

Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.  

PubMed

In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10% of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive. PMID:23666065

Krcher, Martin H; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A; Beveridge, Oliver S; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2013-06-01

155

Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

Krcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2013-06-01

156

Pheromones in the life of insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some\\u000a originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific\\u000a combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety\\u000a of tasks. The paper deals

Ingolf Lamprecht; Erik Schmolz; Burkhard Schricker

2008-01-01

157

Alarm pheromone in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

PubMed

Noxious stimulation of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris elicits secretion of a mucus that is aversive to other members of the species, as well as to the stimulated animal when it is encountered later. This alarm pheromone is not readily soluble in water and retains its aversive properties for at least several months if not disturbed. Its influence may be responsible for some features of the data on instrumental learning in earthworms. PMID:5663305

Ressler, R H; Cialdini, R B; Ghoca, M L; Kleist, S M

1968-08-01

158

Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling?  

PubMed Central

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

2010-01-01

159

The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic  

E-print Network

REVIEW The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic and Abiotic Factors Through Time Michael J. Benton Evolution may be dominated by biotic factors, as in the Red Queen the Red Queen or the Court Jester. The Red Queen model (1) stems from Darwin, who viewed evo- lution

Benton, Michael

160

Queen Execution and Caste Conflict in the Stingless Bee Melipona beecheii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caste conflict theory predicts that worker-destined individuals in insect colonies may try to develop as queens in order to gain greater direct reproduction. In situations where females can determine their own caste fate (self-determination), this is expected to lead to overproduction of queens. Theoretical predictions are supported by patterns of queen production in Melipona stingless bees. In Melipona, queens and

Tom Wenseleers; Adam G. Hart; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Javier J. G. Quezada-Euan

2004-01-01

161

Click here to print Worker bees cheat on queen behind her back  

E-print Network

Click here to print Worker bees cheat on queen behind her back so they can have an easier life of the hive, the queen of all she surveys. But behind her back, the queen bee's control might be slipping. For amid all the buzzing, some worker bees cheat on their queen by reproducing for themselves to prolong

Wenseleers, Tom

162

Long Term Stability and Relapse Following Mandibular Advancement and Mandibular Setback Surgeries: A Cephalometric Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim was to evaluate the long-term hard and soft tissue changes following mandibular advancement and setback surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 subjects each were selected who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy mandibular advancement and mandibular setback groups. Pre-surgical (T1), immediate post-surgical (T2) and long-term post-surgical (T3) cephalograms were compared for hard and soft tissue changes. After cephalometric measurements, the quantity of changes between T1-T2 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2 and T1-T3 was compared with assess the long-term changes and stability. Results: In mandibular advancement the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long term post-surgical is 7%, which accounts for a relapse of 7%. In mandibular setback, the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long-term post-surgical is 29%, which accounts for a relapse of 29%. Conclusion: Mandibular advancement remained stable over the long period when compared to mandibular setback.

Darshan, S Vinay; Ronad, Yusuf Ahammed; Kishore, M S V; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Rajesh, M; Suman, S D

2014-01-01

163

[Morphological alterations of oto-mandibular syndromes].  

PubMed

Otomandibular dysplasia is a congenital malformation defined by a certain degree of temporomandibular or pterygomandibular hypoplasia. The syndrome is characterised by the variability of clinical findings, but the three major features are auricular, mandibular and maxillary hypoplasia. All the laterofacial structures may be affected. The deformity is usually unilateral but bilateral cases exist; a lot of associated malformations have been described. Multiple classification systems have been published. Some of them are very complex, but it is possible to define a simple diagnostic diagram based on ethiopathogenic data. Bilateral involvement affects predominantly the zygoma, and concerns hereditary syndromes. When the mandibular hypoplasia is evident Franceschetti or Goldenhar syndrome is suspected; otherwise Treacher-Collins syndrome is probable. Unilateral cases are not, in general, hereditary and the hypoplasia predominates on the mandible. The difference between hemifacial microsomia or mandibular dysplasia is made by the presence of associated laterofacial deformities. PMID:11770456

Bettega, G; Morand, B; Lebeau, J; Raphal, B

2001-10-01

164

The mandibular response in Class II malocclusions correction.  

PubMed

The "mandibular response" is pursued in treatment of Class II malocclusions by mandibular retrusion. The keys for correction of Class II malocclusion--in addition to a favorable natural growth--are differential diagnosis and a carefully monitored force system to allow a good dental movement and a satisfactory mandibular replacement. PMID:22031992

Cordua, Teresa; Deli, Roberto; Giuliante, Luca; Ursini, Roberto

2011-01-01

165

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells  

E-print Network

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms

Nie, Qing

166

The mode of pheromone evolution: evidence from bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Sex and aggregation pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. The way in which different species' blends have evolved has been the subject of some debate. Theoretical predictions suggest that differences between species have arisen not through the accruing of small changes, but through major shifts in chemical composition. Using data on the aggregation pheromones of 34 species of bark beetle from two genera, Dendroctonus and Ips, we investigated how the distributions of the chemical components of their pheromone blends mirror their phylogenetic relationships. We tested whether there were consistent patterns that could be used to help elucidate the mode of pheromone evolution. Although there were obvious differences in pheromone blends between the two genera, the differences between species within each genus followed a less clear phylogenetic pattern. In both genera, closely related species are just as different as more distantly related species. Within Dendroctonus, particularly, most chemical components were distributed randomly across the phylogeny. Indeed, for some chemicals, closely related species may actually be more different than would be expected from a random distribution of chemical components. This argues strongly against the idea of minor shifts in pheromone evolution. Instead, we suggest that, within certain phylogenetic constraints, pheromone evolution in bark beetles is characterized by large saltational shifts, resulting in sibling species being substantially phenotypically (i.e. pheromonally) different from one another, thus agreeing with theoretical predictions. PMID:15255103

Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

2004-01-01

167

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once locked on to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this mental shortcut may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to evolve, even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant gestalts. Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Krpti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Card, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

168

Queen replacement in African and European honey bee colonies with and without afterswarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

.We examined the dynamics of the queen replacement process in African and European colonies that did and did not produce afterswarms.\\u000a In colonies without afterswarms, the queen replacement process was completed in 2448 hours, the first-emerging virgin queen\\u000a (VQ) typically inherited the natal nest even if multiple queens emerged, workers performed few vibration signals on emerged\\u000a queens, and all signaling

S. S. Schneider; G. DeGrandi-Hoffman

2008-01-01

169

Analysis of the sex pheromones of Symmetrischema tangolias and Scrobipalpuloides absoluta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromones are substances which are used by insects to attract a partner with the intention to mate. Pheromones are essential for the species survival because without them the partner cannot be located. When the chemical structures are known, the sex pheromones could be applied for pest control of that species. Sex pheromones are produced by the insect itself and

F. C. Griepink

1996-01-01

170

Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis in a Sannen goat.  

PubMed

Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a female Sannen goat. The doe presented for difficulty prehending and chewing food. The left mandible was swollen and firm on palpation. Radiographs revealed changes consistent with osteomyelitis of the affected mandible. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from aspirates of swollen mandible. Despite antimicrobial therapy, the goat died. Histopathological findings were consistent with pyogranulomatous disease of the affected mandible. The histopathological findings were similar to those reported for actinomycosis, caused by Actinomyces bovis. Mandibular osteomyelitis is a common condition in cattle and very rare in goat. PMID:12948160

Seifi, H A; Saifzadeh, S; Farshid, A A; Rad, M; Farrokhi, F

2003-05-01

171

Studies of mandibular movements in speech.  

PubMed

A method of transducing mandibular movements in speech using synchro-transmitters is described. Incisal occlusion was shown to have an important part to play in the amount and direction of jaw movement. Mandibular positions were shown to be precise and repeatable, especially for the 's' sound. Insertion of intra-oral appliances of varying dimensions did not have a significant effect on this positional precision. It is anticipated that the precision of vertical dimension determination during full denture construction will not be influenced by the dimensions of the intra-oral appliances. PMID:1059645

Geissler, P R

1975-11-01

172

Terminal Investment: Individual Reproduction of Ant Queens Increases with Age  

PubMed Central

The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1]), but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens. PMID:22509399

Heinze, Jurgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

2012-01-01

173

The Queen Mary Magazine Summer 2002 Tackling the AIDS epidemic  

E-print Network

researcher develops a series of books about AIDS for African children #12;Principal's Welcome 1 Think global, act local Queen Mary's Principal, Professor Adrian Smith, enjoys the view from the east. Many

Chittka, Lars

174

QUEENS COLLEGE Department of Family, Nutrition & Exercise Sciences  

E-print Network

QUEENS COLLEGE Department of Family, Nutrition & Exercise Sciences TEXTILES AND APPAREL SPECIALIZATION The study of textiles and apparel is based on an interdisciplinary approach. Social science, distribution, or retailing of textiles and apparel. Others seek employment with historical societies, pattern

Engel, Robert

175

Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body.  

PubMed

Royalactin, a component of royal jelly, induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Surprisingly, royalactin has a similar effect on growth in fruit flies, highlighting many unexpected features of growth regulation by the insect fat tissue. PMID:21741589

Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

2011-07-12

176

Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens  

PubMed Central

In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm expenditure and infer that our observed averages of sperm number, sperm robustness and sperm use are consistent with sperm depletion being a significant cause of mortality of mature colonies of Atta leaf-cutter ants. PMID:19710057

den Boer, Susanne P. A.; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stephanie; Aron, Serge; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2009-01-01

177

Chaotic Red Queen coevolution in three-species food chains  

PubMed Central

Coevolution between two antagonistic species follows the so-called Red Queen dynamics when reciprocal selection results in an endless series of adaptation by one species and counteradaptation by the other. Red Queen dynamics are genetically driven when selective sweeps involving new beneficial mutations result in perpetual oscillations of the coevolving traits on the slow evolutionary time scale. Mathematical models have shown that a prey and a predator can coevolve along a genetically driven Red Queen cycle. We found that embedding the preypredator interaction into a three-species food chain that includes a coevolving superpredator often turns the genetically driven Red Queen cycle into chaos. A key condition is that the prey evolves fast enough. Red Queen chaos implies that the direction and strength of selection are intrinsically unpredictable beyond a short evolutionary time, with greatest evolutionary unpredictability in the superpredator. We hypothesize that genetically driven Red Queen chaos could explain why many natural populations are poised at the edge of ecological chaos. Over space, genetically driven chaos is expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of local populations, even under homogenizing environmental fluctuations, and thus to promote genetic diversity among ecological communities over long evolutionary time. PMID:20356888

Dercole, Fabio; Ferriere, Regis; Rinaldi, Sergio

2010-01-01

178

Mandibular contouring surgery for purely aesthetic reasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandible's contour determines the shape of the lower part of the face and thus influences the appearance of the face and neck. There are two types of operative procedures that can be used on mandibular contour and they do not require orthodontic treatment: mandible angle reduction and genioplasty. We divided the mandible angle reduction group into Types A, B,

Doo Byung Yang; Chul Gyoo Park

1991-01-01

179

Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity  

PubMed Central

Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity. PMID:22114424

Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

2010-01-01

180

Mandibular teeth in Chalcidoidea: function and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphelinidae and Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) were surveyed for presence of a specialized ventroapical mandibular tooth that is formed through modification of a seta into a stout socketed spine. An almost identical tooth is found in a homologous position in Coccophaginae (Aphelinidae), Eriaphytinae (Aphelinidae), Calesinae (Aphelinidae or incertae sedis), and Habrolepidini (Encyrtidae), but nowhere else within Chalcidoidea. Although the tooth represents

John M. Heraty; Mike E. Schauff

1998-01-01

181

Mandibular advancement devices and seep disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been nearly 90 years since a dentist first fabricated a dental appliance for a patient with snoring. Since then, mandibular advancement devices or MADs have become a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and are used to increase the caliber of the airway during sleep. Their primary use is for the patient who has snoring or mild to

Glenn T. Clark

1998-01-01

182

Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars  

PubMed Central

Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s.

Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

2014-01-01

183

Eddies off the Queen Charlotte Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bright red, green, and turquoise patches to the west of British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska's Alexander Archipelago highlight the presence of biological activity in the ocean. These colors indicate high concentrations of chlorophyll, the primary pigment found in phytoplankton. Notice that there are a number of eddies visible in the Pacific Ocean in this pseudo-color scene. The eddies are formed by strong outflow currents from rivers along North America's west coast that are rich in nutrients from the springtime snowmelt running off the mountains. This nutrient-rich water helps stimulate the phytoplankton blooms within the eddies. (For more details, read Tracking Eddies that Feed the Sea.) To the west of the eddies in the water, another type of eddy-this one in the atmosphere-forms the clouds into the counterclockwise spiral characteristic of a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere. (Click on the image above to see it at full resolution; or click to see the scene in true-color.) The snow-covered mountains of British Columbia are visible in the upper righthand corner of the image. This scene was constructed using SeaWiFS data collected on June 13, 2002. SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

184

Androgen induces production of male effect pheromone in female goats.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that the primer pheromone responsible for the "male effect" was produced in specific skin regions of castrated male goats by androgen treatments. In the present study, we examined whether androgen can also induce production of the male effect pheromone in female goats. Capsules containing dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T) were subcutaneously implanted into six ovariectomized (OVX) goats for 28 days. Small skin samples were collected from the head and rump regions, and the pheromone activity of their ether extracts was examined using a bioassay that monitors the electrophysiological manifestation of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator as multiple-unit activity. Behaviors of OVX goats towards ovary-intact estrous goats were also examined before and at the end of DHT or T treatment. Before androgen treatment, neither the head nor rump skin samples in OVX goats showed pheromone activity. DHT treatment induced pheromone activity in the head skin sample of six OVX goats and in the rump skin sample of two OVX goats. Similar results were obtained by T treatment. In addition, OVX goats treated with T showed masculine-type sexual behaviors such as courtship and mounting behaviors towards the estrous goats. These results demonstrate that androgen is capable of inducing primer pheromone activity in the female and suggest that the synthesis pathway of the male effect pheromone exists in both sexes in the goat. PMID:17460391

Kakuma, Yoshie; Ichimaru, Toru; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Momozawa, Yukihide; Hashizume, Chie; Iwata, Eri; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Ohkura, Satoshi; Okamura, Hiroaki; Mori, Yuji

2007-08-01

185

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25C to 60C), cooled down to 25C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphal; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerd, Xim

2011-12-01

186

The role of multiple pheromones in food recruitment by ants.  

PubMed

In this paper we investigate the foraging activity of an invasive ant species, the big headed ant Pheidole megacephala. We establish that the ants' behavior is consistent with the use of two different pheromone signals, both of which recruit nestmates. Our experiments suggest that during exploration the ants deposit a long-lasting pheromone that elicits a weak recruitment of nestmates, while when exploiting food the ants deposit a shorter lasting pheromone eliciting a much stronger recruitment. We further investigate experimentally the role of these pheromones under both static and dynamic conditions and develop a mathematical model based on the hypothesis that exploration locally enhances exploitation, while exploitation locally suppresses exploration. The model and the experiments indicate that exploratory pheromone allows the colony to more quickly mobilize foragers when food is discovered. Furthermore, the combination of two pheromones allows colonies to track changing foraging conditions more effectively than would a single pheromone. In addition to the already known causes for the ecological success of invasive ant species, our study suggests that their opportunistic strategy of rapid food discovery and ability to react to changes in the environment may have strongly contributed to their dominance over native species. PMID:19617426

Dussutour, A; Nicolis, S C; Shephard, G; Beekman, M; Sumpter, D J T

2009-08-01

187

Analysis of Male Pheromones That Accelerate Female Reproductive Organ Development  

PubMed Central

Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified. PMID:21347429

Flanagan, Kelly A.; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

2011-01-01

188

Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.  

PubMed

Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. PMID:24597605

Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

2014-08-01

189

Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?  

PubMed Central

Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing that olfaction is perfectly functional in birds and birds use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts. Although the existence of pheromones has never been formally demonstrated in this vertebrate class, different groups of birds, such as petrels, auklets and ducks have been shown to produce specific scents that could play a significant role in within-species social interactions. Behavioral experiments have indeed demonstrated that these odors influence the behavior of conspecifics. Additionally, in quail, deprivation of olfactory inputs decreases neuronal activation induced by sexual interactions with a female. It seems therefore well established that birds enjoy a functional sense of smell and a fast growing body of experimental evidence suggests that they use this channel of olfactory communication to control their social life. The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds. PMID:20490809

Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

190

Worker honey bee pheromone regulation of foraging ontogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of sociality has configured communication chemicals, called primer pheromones, which play key roles in regulating the organization of social life. Primer pheromones exert relatively slow effects that fundamentally alter developmental, physiological, and neural systems. Here, I demonstrate how substances extracted from the surface of foraging and young pre-foraging worker bees regulated age at onset of foraging, a developmental process. Hexane-extractable compounds washed from foraging workers increased foraging age compared with controls, whereas extracts of young pre-foraging workers decreased foraging age. This represents the first known direct demonstration of primer pheromone activity derived from adult worker bees.

Pankiw, Tanya

191

Yeast pheromone pathway modeling using Petri nets  

PubMed Central

Background Our environment is composed of biological components of varying magnitude. The relationships between the different biological elements can be represented as a biological network. The process of mating in S. cerevisiae is initiated by secretion of pheromone by one of the cells. Our interest lies in one particular question: how does a cell dynamically adapt the pathway to continue mating under severe environmental changes or under mutation (which might result in the loss of functionality of some proteins known to participate in the pheromone pathway). Our work attempts to answer this question. To achieve this, we first propose a model to simulate the pheromone pathway using Petri nets. Petri nets are directed graphs that can be used for describing and modeling systems characterized as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, non-deterministic, and/or stochastic. We then analyze our Petri net-based model of the pathway to investigate the following: 1) Given the model of the pheromone response pathway, under what conditions does the cell respond positively, i.e., mate? 2) What kinds of perturbations in the cell would result in changing a negative response to a positive one? Method In our model, we classify proteins into two categories: core component proteins (set ?) and additional proteins (set ?). We randomly generate our model's parameters in repeated simulations. To simulate the pathway, we carry out three different experiments. In the experiments, we simply change the concentration of the additional proteins (?) available to the cell. The concentration of proteins in ? is varied consistently from 300 to 400. In Experiment 1, the range of values for ? is set to be 100 to 150. In Experiment 2, it is set to be 151 to 200. In Experiment 3, the set ? is further split into ? and ?, with the idea that proteins in ? are more important than those in ?. The range of values for ? is set to be between 151 to 200 while that of ? is 100 to 150. Decision trees were derived from each of the first two experiments to allow us to more easily analyze the conditions under which the pheromone is expressed. Conclusion The simulation results reveal that a cell can overcome the detrimental effects of the conditions by using more concentration of additional proteins in ?. The first two experiments provide evidence that employing more concentration of proteins might be one of the ways that the cell uses to adapt itself in inhibiting conditions to facilitate mating. The results of the third experiment reveal that in some case the protein set ? is sufficient in regulating the response of the cell. Results of Experiments 4 and 5 reveal that there are certain conditions (parameters) in the model that are more important in determining whether a cell will respond positively or not. PMID:25080237

2014-01-01

192

Disruption of pheromone communication of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using microencapsulated sex pheromones formulated with horticultural oil.  

PubMed

Sprayable, microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations represent a promising tool for achieving mating disruption, yet often lack sustained effectiveness in the field, making repeated applications necessary. This study evaluated the impact of adding Purespray Green horticultural oil as an adjuvant to 3M MEC-LR, an MEC formulation of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, on disruption of mate-finding behavior in Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in small-plot trials in experimental apple orchards. Treatments consisting of MEC-LR in water, MEC-LR in water + 2% (vol:vol) Purespray Green, and a water control were applied to plots of apple using an airblast sprayer at a rate of 100 g of pheromone/ha. Disruption caused by foliar treatments was evaluated over a 7-wk period using mark-release recapture experiments in the field and concurrent bioassays in a flight tunnel. Disruption of orientation to 2-d-old, calling, virgin females was used as a measure of treatment effect in all experiments. Both pheromone alone and pheromone + oil treatments significantly disrupted male mate-finding behavior for a period of > or =21 d in flight tunnel assays and > or =42 d in mark-recapture field trials. The addition of oil did not significantly enhance the disruption activity nor increase the longevity of the MEC pheromone formulation. Our results show the compatibility of spraying MEC pheromone with a horticultural oil, and techniques for applying an oil-pheromone formulation to maximize the control impact of this combination are discussed. PMID:18284744

Wins-Purdy, A H; Judd, G J R; Evenden, M L

2007-10-01

193

Multiple Genes Encoding Pheromones and a Pheromone Receptor Define the B?1 Mating-Type Specificity in Schizophyllum Commune  

PubMed Central

The genes defining multiple B mating types in the wood-rotting mushroom Schizophyllum commune are predicted to encode multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors. These genes are clustered in each of two recombinable and independently functioning loci, B? and B?. A difference in specificity at either locus between a mated pair of individuals initiates an identical series of events in sexual morphogenesis. The B?1 locus was recently found to contain genes predicted to encode three lipopeptide pheromones and a pheromone receptor with a seven-transmembrane domain. These gene products interact in hetero-specific pairs, the pheromone of one B? specificity with the receptor of any one of the other eight B? specificities, and are likely to activate a signaling cascade similar to that known for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that the B?1 locus also contains at least three pheromone genes and one pheromone receptor gene, which function similarly to the genes in the B?1 locus, but only within the series of B? specificities. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the B?1 and B?1 loci suggest that each arose from a common ancestral sequence, allowing us to speculate about the evolution of this unique series of regulatory genes. PMID:9178005

Vaillancourt, L. J.; Raudaskoski, M.; Specht, C. A.; Raper, C. A.

1997-01-01

194

Selectivity and neuroendocrine regulation of the precursor uptake by pheromone glands from hemolymph in geometrid female moths, which secrete epoxyalkenyl sex pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolepidopteran female moths in families such as Geometridae produce epoxyalkenyl sex pheromones, which are biosynthesized via epoxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons in their pheromone glands. The precursors, however, are expected to be produced outside of the pheromone glands, probably in oenocytes or in the fat body, and transported to the glands via hemolymph. Based on these facts, the selectivity of the

Wei Wei; Masanobu Yamamoto; Tetsuhiro Asato; Takeshi Fujii; Guan-Qin Pu; Tetsu Ando

2004-01-01

195

Acute behavioral responses to pheromones in C. elegans (adult behaviors: attraction, repulsion).  

PubMed

The pheromone drop test is a simple and robust behavioral assay to quantify acute avoidance of pheromones in C. elegans, and the suppression of avoidance by attractive pheromones. In the pheromone drop test, water-soluble C. elegans pheromones are individually applied to animals that are freely moving on a large plate. Upon encountering a repellent, each C. elegans animal may or may not try to escape by making a long reversal. The fraction of animals that make a long reversal response indicates the repulsiveness of a given pheromone to a specific genotype/strain of C. elegans. Performing the drop test in the presence of bacterial food enhances the avoidance response to pheromones. Attraction to pheromones can be assayed by the suppression of reversals to repulsive pheromones or by the suppression of the basal reversal rate to buffer. PMID:24014370

Jang, Heeun; Bargmann, Cornelia I

2013-01-01

196

Sex pheromone of the citrus flower moth Prays nephelomima: pheromone identification, field trapping trials, and phenology.  

PubMed

Analysis of sex pheromone gland extract of the citrus flower moth, Prays nephelomima (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection, revealed one electrophysiologically active compound. Structural analysis using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and dimethyldisulfide derivatization identified this as the monounsaturated aldehyde (Z)-7-tetradecenal. Field trials in commercial citrus orchards on the North Island of New Zealand showed that (Z)-7-tetradecenal was highly attractive to male P. nephelomima. Phenology data, collected over 19 months in three commercial orchards, from traps baited with the sex pheromone at a lure loading of 300 microg on a red rubber septum, indicated that male moths may be present throughout the year, with numbers peaking in late summer and autumn. PMID:16222798

Gibb, A R; Jamieson, L E; Suckling, D M; Ramankutty, P; Stevens, P S

2005-07-01

197

Venom Alkaloid and Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles Are Associated with Social Organization, Queen Fertility Status, and Queen Genotype in the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta  

PubMed Central

Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype. PMID:22095515

Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G.; Haight, Kevin L.; Keller, Laurent

2013-01-01

198

The value of oviposition timing, queen presence and kinship in a social insect.  

PubMed

Reproductive cooperation confers benefits, but simultaneously creates conflicts among cooperators. Queens in multi-queen colonies of ants share a nest and its resources, but reproductive competition among queens often results in unequal reproduction. Two mutually non-exclusive factors may produce such inequality in reproduction: worker intervention or queen traits. Workers may intervene by favouring some queens over others, owing to either kinship or queen signals. Queens may differ in their intrinsic fecundity at the onset of oviposition or in their timing of the onset of oviposition, leading to their unequal representation in the brood. Here, we test the role of queen kin value (relatedness) to workers, timing of the onset of oviposition and signals of presence by queens in determining the maternity of offspring. We show that queens of the ant Formica fusca gained a significantly higher proportion of sexuals in the brood when ovipositing early, and that the presence of a caged queen resulted in a significant increase in both her share of sexual brood and her overall reproductive share. Moreover, the lower the kin value of the queen, the more the workers invested in their own reproduction by producing males. Our results show that both kinship and breeding phenology influence the outcome of reproductive conflicts, and the balance of direct and indirect fitness benefits in the multi-queen colonies of F. fusca. PMID:23843391

Ozan, Martina; Helanter, Heikki; Sundstrm, Liselotte

2013-09-01

199

The value of oviposition timing, queen presence and kinship in a social insect  

PubMed Central

Reproductive cooperation confers benefits, but simultaneously creates conflicts among cooperators. Queens in multi-queen colonies of ants share a nest and its resources, but reproductive competition among queens often results in unequal reproduction. Two mutually non-exclusive factors may produce such inequality in reproduction: worker intervention or queen traits. Workers may intervene by favouring some queens over others, owing to either kinship or queen signals. Queens may differ in their intrinsic fecundity at the onset of oviposition or in their timing of the onset of oviposition, leading to their unequal representation in the brood. Here, we test the role of queen kin value (relatedness) to workers, timing of the onset of oviposition and signals of presence by queens in determining the maternity of offspring. We show that queens of the ant Formica fusca gained a significantly higher proportion of sexuals in the brood when ovipositing early, and that the presence of a caged queen resulted in a significant increase in both her share of sexual brood and her overall reproductive share. Moreover, the lower the kin value of the queen, the more the workers invested in their own reproduction by producing males. Our results show that both kinship and breeding phenology influence the outcome of reproductive conflicts, and the balance of direct and indirect fitness benefits in the multi-queen colonies of F. fusca. PMID:23843391

Ozan, Martina; Helantera, Heikki; Sundstrom, Liselotte

2013-01-01

200

Directional Bias and Pheromone for Discovery and Coverage on Networks  

SciTech Connect

Natural multi-agent systems often rely on correlated random walks (random walks that are biased toward a current heading) to distribute their agents over a space (e.g., for foraging, search, etc.). Our contribution involves creation of a new movement and pheromone model that applies the concept of heading bias in random walks to a multi-agent, digital-ants system designed for cyber-security monitoring. We examine the relative performance effects of both pheromone and heading bias on speed of discovery of a target and search-area coverage in a two-dimensional network layout. We found that heading bias was unexpectedly helpful in reducing search time and that it was more influential than pheromone for improving coverage. We conclude that while pheromone is very important for rapid discovery, heading bias can also greatly improve both performance metrics.

Fink, Glenn A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

2012-09-11

201

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

202

Chemical Entomology Phylogeny and sexual pheromones of Corsican bumblebees  

E-print Network

Chemical Entomology Phylogeny and sexual pheromones of Corsican bumblebees T. Lecocq1* , A. Coppée1 author Author and Address #12;Chemical Entomology Abstract: Eight taxa of bumblebees live in Corsica

Rasmont, Pierre

203

Pheromone trailing behavior of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.  

PubMed

The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active conspecifics was tested in the laboratory by using a Y maze. Males displayed a trailing response to both female and male pheromone trails over blank controls. As males of this species display ritualized combat behavior, these responses likely represent both direct and indirect mechanisms, respectively, for the location of potential mates in the wild. Males did not, however, discriminate between male and female trails when given a choice on the Y maze. PMID:11817075

Greene, M J; Stark, S L; Mason, R T

2001-11-01

204

Mandibular Plasmacytoma of Jaw - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The plasma cell neoplasm may present as Extramedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) in soft tissues in bone as a Solitary Plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) or as a part of multi focal disseminated disease Multiple Myeloma (MM). The majority of 80% occurs in head and neck region. In our case, a 62-year-old male patient presented with a non tender swelling of short duration. The swelling was noted obliterating the vestibular depth in right lower mandibular region. The radiological features were non specific.

Kaur, Parwinder; Gupta, Rakhi; Gupta, Shally; Singh, Simranjit

2014-01-01

205

Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada k7l 3n6  

E-print Network

Prizes for 2004. Students' contributions and accomplishments ­ from the Solar Car team to the Queen as Queen's strives to create a learning environment which is one of the best in North America. Also

Abolmaesumi, Purang

206

76 FR 10936 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Bust of a Ptolemaic Queen  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bust of a Ptolemaic Queen'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of...determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Bust of a Ptolemaic Queen,'' imported from abroad for...

2011-02-28

207

STUDENT AWARD PAYMENT REQUEST FORM To: Queen's Principal Investigator or Trust /Operations Manager  

E-print Network

it to either Queen's School of Graduate Studies (if recipient is a graduate student), or Queen's Student Awards) The personal information on this form is collected under the authority of the Royal Charter of 1841, as amended

Abolmaesumi, Purang

208

Scientific note A scientific note on the reproduction of two bumblebee queens (Bombus  

E-print Network

Scientific note A scientific note on the reproduction of two bumblebee queens (Bombus hypnorum of them founded a colony and reared sexuals. Bumblebee colonies were started by single queens in a climate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions  

E-print Network

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 Advisor Center Navigation: Login #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

210

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

2010-01-01

211

Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.  

PubMed

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (23 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

2010-01-01

212

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.  

PubMed

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10cm long, located 1.5cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

2011-10-01

213

Red Queen Dynamics with Non-Standard Fitness Interactions  

PubMed Central

Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can involve rapid fluctuations of genotype frequencies that are known as Red Queen dynamics. Under such dynamics, recombination in the hosts may be advantageous because genetic shuffling can quickly produce disproportionately fit offspring (the Red Queen hypothesis). Previous models investigating these dynamics have assumed rather simple models of genetic interactions between hosts and parasites. Here, we assess the robustness of earlier theoretical predictions about the Red Queen with respect to the underlying host-parasite interactions. To this end, we created large numbers of random interaction matrices, analysed the resulting dynamics through simulation, and ascertained whether recombination was favoured or disfavoured. We observed Red Queen dynamics in many of our simulations provided the interaction matrices exhibited sufficient antagonicity. In agreement with previous studies, strong selection on either hosts or parasites favours selection for increased recombination. However, fast changes in the sign of linkage disequilibrium or epistasis were only infrequently observed and do not appear to be a necessary condition for the Red Queen hypothesis to work. Indeed, recombination was often favoured even though the linkage disequilibrium remained of constant sign throughout the simulations. We conclude that Red Queen-type dynamics involving persistent fluctuations in host and parasite genotype frequencies appear to not be an artefact of specific assumptions about host-parasite fitness interactions, but emerge readily with the general interactions studied here. Our results also indicate that although recombination is often favoured, some of the factors previously thought to be important in this process such as linkage disequilibrium fluctuations need to be reassessed when fitness interactions between hosts and parasites are complex. PMID:19680432

Engelstadter, Jan; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

2009-01-01

214

Turbidity-current channels in Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Queen Inlet is unique among Glacier Bay fjords because it alone has a branching channel system incised in the Holocene sediment fill of the fjord floor. Queen Inlet and other known channel-containing fjords are marine-outwash fjords; the tidewater glacial fjords do not have steep delta fronts on which slides are generated and may not have a sufficient reservoir of potentially unstable coarse sediment to generate channel-cutting turbidity currents. Presence or absence of channels, as revealed in the ancient rock record, may be one criterion for interpreting types of fjords. -Authors

Carlson, P.R.; Powell, R.D.; Rearic, D.M.

1989-01-01

215

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

216

Reconstruction of Beagle Hemi-Mandibular Defects with Allogenic Mandibular Scaffolds and Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible) in a large animal model. Methods Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at4 (n?=?4), 12 (n?=?4), 24 (n?=?4) or 48 weeks (n?=?3) postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD) of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes. Results Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth factors. PMID:25153673

Luo, JinChao; Liu, HuaWei; Hu, Min; Yue, Wen

2014-01-01

217

Pheromone interruption of pine engraver, Ips pini, by pheromones of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosne (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pheromones of Dendroc~onzl.~ poriderosae Hopkins on the attraction of Ipspini (Say) to its pheromone, ipsdienol, was investigated in stands of lodgepole pine. The mixture of cis- and trans-verbenol significantly reduced catches of I pin; in traps baited with ipsdienol at three locations in British Columbia. exo-Brevicomi~~ had no effect on catches of 1 pini, irrespective of the

DANIEL R. MILLER; JOHN H. BORDEN

218

July /August 2005 Confounding Queens Formic Acid Safety Combs Build Themselves  

E-print Network

with California queen bees this season. The earliest queens were in the mating nucs at a time when the otherwise mating (low sperm count), disease (Nosema or some of the RNA viruses), or pesticide damage. But, all for royal jelly) being fed to the queen. Brood food is produced by the proper age (nurse) bees. They have

Ferrara, Katherine W.

219

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY BOARD OF TRUSTEES REPORT TO THE SENATE May 22, 2012  

E-print Network

of Queen's and the Nixon Field revitalization. The Queen's Centre · The dedication of Room 147 in Ellis, to be discontinued at the end of 2022. Ellis Hall On the recommendation of the Advancement Committee approved (English), former AVP and Dean of Student Affairs · William L. Young, Chair, Queen's Board of Trustees

Ellis, Randy

220

Queens, not workers, produce the males in the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata quadripunctata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most stingless bee colonies have one singly mated queen, resulting in a potential conflict between workers and queen over male production, because workers are more closely related to the sons of other workers than they are to the queen's sons. Furthermore, workers in the majority of stingless bee species have ovarian development, can produce haploid eggs, and show apparently agonistic

Eva Tth; Joan E Strassmann; Vera L Imperatriz-Fonseca; David C Queller

2003-01-01

221

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions  

E-print Network

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 DegreeWorks 4.09 Student Manual Degree is the same account you used when applying to Queens College. #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

222

Absolute Configuration of Chiral Terpenes in Marking Pheromones of Bumblebees and  

E-print Network

Absolute Configuration of Chiral Terpenes in Marking Pheromones of Bumblebees and Cuckoo Bumblebees marking pheromones of seven species of bumblebees and cuckoo bumblebees were determined, and the cuckoo bumblebee B. (Ashtonipsithyrus) bohemicus. Within species, specimens were collected at different

Rasmont, Pierre

223

Docile sitters and active fighters in paper wasps: a tale of two queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis are sympatric, primitively eusocial paper wasps widely distributed in peninsular India. We compare the two species, especially their queens, in an attempt to begin to understand the role of the power of queens over their workers, in social organisation and evolution. Queens of R. marginata have lower levels of activity, rates of interactions and dominance behaviour, compared with queens of R. cyathiformis. For the same variables, R. marginata queens are either indistinguishable from or have lower values than their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens have higher values than their workers. R. marginata queens never occupy the top rank while R. cyathiformis queens are always at the top of the behavioural dominance hierarchies of their colonies. R. marginata queens thus do not appear to use dominance behaviour to suppress reproduction by their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens appear to do so. These different mechanisms used by the two queens to regulate worker reproduction give them different powers over their workers, because R. marginata queens are completely successful in suppressing reproduction by their nestmates while in R. cyathiformis colonies, other individuals also sometimes lay eggs. There is also some evidence that the different powers of the queens result in different mechanisms of regulation of worker foraging in the two species - decentralised, self-regulation in R. marginata and relatively more centralised regulation by the queen in R. cyathiformis. Thus we show here, perhaps for the first time, that the power of the queens over their workers can have important consequences for social organisation and evolution.

Kardile, Sujata; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

2002-02-01

224

February 2012 Issue 64 The Queen Mary newsletter  

E-print Network

of the first companies to trial Intel's supercomputer. This enabled them to experiment varying parameters Relations and History will be participating. There will also be a graduate employment update from Queen Mary of History has recently presented The Crusades , a three part series tracing the history of the 200 year war

Chittka, Lars

225

Images of the Self: Chastity Figures in the Faerie Queene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since chastity, which as Spenser presents it seems to involve perception in an especially intense way, is one of the most complex virtues delineated in The Faerie Queene, the techniques which Spenser develops to define it are of particular interest. Partly because 'Diana' figures like Belphoebe and Britomart are surrounded by an aura of visual taboo, how they are seen

Marjorie Joyce Garson

1977-01-01

226

Department of Physics Queen Mary, University of London  

E-print Network

examples originating from high energy physics are new medical scanners, and the language of the internet. 2Department of Physics Queen Mary, University of London Mile End Road London E1 4NS United Kingdom into the fundamental nature of matter via particle physics, and into the study of the universe through astronomy

Crowther, Paul

227

Parasite local adaptation: Red Queen versus Suicide King  

E-print Network

Parasite local adaptation: Red Queen versus Suicide King Mark F. Dybdahl and Andrew Storfer School will continue to improve through studies of the genetic basis of infectivity, research on spatial variation driving themselves or their hosts extinct (`Suicide King'). In general, little is known about virulence

Storfer, Andrew

228

Vice-Chancellor's Report | 2010 -2011 Queen's University Belfast  

E-print Network

promising young playwrights, whose first play, And of the Son, represented Queen's at the Irish StudentMullens Architectural Systems, Rose Mary previously held senior executive positions in Ford, Boeing and Rolls as a research pioneer in high pressure engineering and explosive welding. As an engineering educator and leader

Paxton, Anthony T.

229

QUEEN MARY UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Timetabling and Room Booking Policy  

E-print Network

1 QUEEN MARY UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Timetabling and Room Booking Policy Contents Summary and Overview Space 7. Teaching Times 8. Timetabling events 9. Timetabling Priorities 10. Teaching Staff 11. Students 12. Module selection, student allocation to groups and module clash resolution 13. Timetabling

Chittka, Lars

230

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments  

E-print Network

. [19] A. PENFOLD STREET & D. J. STREET: Combinatorics of Experimental Design, Oxford University PressQUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments Reading List Spring 2007 [1] G. E. P. CLARKE & R. E. KEMPSON: Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments, Arnold, London, 1997. [3

Bailey, R. A.

231

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Assistant Counselor Application  

E-print Network

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Assistant Counselor Application Do you like kids? Enjoy being outside? Like geography? Explore Camp is looking for Assistant Counselors for the summer and we 3N6 Phone: 613-533-6000 ext. 77214 Fax: 613-533-6122 Email: explore.geography@queensu.ca Website

Graham, Nick

232

Queen Quality Eric C. Mussen, Extension Apiculturist, UC Davis  

E-print Network

of royal jelly depends entirely upon the availability of copious amounts of pollens or pollen substitutes demonstrated to inhibit production of royal jelly by nurse bees: 1. Infection by Nosma apis (nosema disease nurse bees to provide the royal jelly necessary to allow the queen to develop normally to maturity

Ferrara, Katherine W.

233

Estimation of bumblebee queen dispersal distances using sibship reconstruction method  

E-print Network

Estimation of bumblebee queen dispersal distances using sibship reconstruction method OLIVIER dispersal in two common bumblebee species in an arable landscape. Dispersal was measured by taking DNA of population structuring in common and rare bumblebee species, and suggest that regular gene flow over several

234

Six Immigrant Groups in Queens: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report summarizes data on six new immigrant groups, Colombians, Italians, Greeks, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Israelis, living in the Borough of Queens in New York City. The research format consisted of a comprehensive interview administered to 116 households. Data on occupation, education, income, household composition,

Grant, Geraldine S.

235

Mississippi River AboArd AmericAn Queen  

E-print Network

Mississippi River AboArd AmericAn Queen April 5­14 Memphis, Shiloh National Military Park, HelenaArd AdmirALty dreAm July 6­13 Sitka, Glacier Bay National Park, Icy Strait, Juneau, Tracy Arm Black Sea

Hochberg, Michael

236

Asian/American Center, Queens College, CUNY CAMPUS COMMUNITY  

E-print Network

Announces Asian/American Center, Queens College, CUNY CAMPUS COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: A NEW CHAPTER The Asian/American Center is developing a new Asian American Pacific Islander Community Studies Program between AAPICS and local community based organizations serving the needs of Asian American populations

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

237

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

238

April 2010 Issue 55 The Queen Mary newsletter  

E-print Network

on insights from psychology, philosophy, social history, performance practice and educational theory. Cancer Research UK launches groundbreaking research centre at Barts A new cancer centre, formed through a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Queen Mary, University of London, and Barts & The London NHS Trust

Chittka, Lars

239

REGULAR ARTICLE Queen-worker differences in spermatheca reservoir  

E-print Network

in the reservoir for sperm storage. However, our data have not revealed inter-specific variations separates mating from egg fertilization. Sperm storage potentially increases fecundity as more eggs canREGULAR ARTICLE Queen-worker differences in spermatheca reservoir of phylogenetically basal ants

Danchin, Etienne

240

Vice-Chancellor's Report | 2009 -2010 Queen's University Belfast  

E-print Network

was named one of the top three enterprise educators in the world by the United States Association Challenge in Virginia in the UnitedStates; · AndtheQueen'srowerswhowon theUKUniversityChampionshipsand rowed apart by the ravages of AIDS in a country where half the population live below the international poverty

Paxton, Anthony T.

241

Professor Robert A. Wilson Queen Mary, University of London  

E-print Network

#12;Symmetry Professor Robert A. Wilson Queen Mary, University of London 22nd July 2008 #12 to which they will go to avoid doing any real work. --Matthew Pordage #12;On mathematicians One. --Matthew Pordage You know, we all became mathematicians for the same reason: we were lazy --Max Rosenlicht

Wilson, Robert A.

242

Professor Yuri G. Levin1 Queen's School of Business,  

E-print Network

Professor Yuri G. Levin1 Queen's School of Business, Kingston, Ontario, Canada May 3 Time: 1:00 pm 1 Washington Park #1027 Videoconference at Levin 130 Name-Your-Own-Price sales channels: Can of the implications regarding the nature of the collaboration. ------------------------------------- Yuri Levin

Lin, Xiaodong

243

Queens College, CUNY | 65-30 Kissena Boulevard | Queens, NY 11367-1597 | 718-997-4105 | Fax 718-997-4103 Office of the Dean of the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences  

E-print Network

://www.qc.cuny.edu/mns Division Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/QueensCollegeDMNS DMNS FAIR Division of Mathematics & NaturalQueens College, CUNY | 65-30 Kissena Boulevard | Queens, NY 11367-1597 | 718-997-4105 | Fax 718: http://people.qc.cuny.edu/faculty/Larry.Liebovitch/documents/DMNSFAIR.pdf #12;DMNS FAIR Queens College

Engel, Robert

244

Effect of mandibular setback surgery on the posterior airway size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of dentofacial deformities with jaw osteotomies has an ef- fect on airway anatomy, and therefore, mandibular setback surgery has the potential to diminish airway size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of mandibular setback surgery on the airway size. The material consisted of pre- and postoperative (min- imum 1 year) lateral radiograms of 22

Maija Liukkonen; Jaakko Tiekso; Risto-Pekka Happonen

245

Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Cerambycid Beetle Rosalia funebris  

E-print Network

# Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract We report the identification, synthesis, and field for a species in the tribe Rosaliini. Keywords Aggregation pheromone . Sex pheromone . (Z)-3-decenyl (E)-2-produced sex or aggregation pheromones have been reported for 11 species in three tribes of the cerambycid

Hanks, Lawrence M.

246

Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

E-print Network

1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

247

Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2014-01-01

248

Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication

Takuma Takanashi; Ryo Nakano; Annemarie Surlykke; Haruki Tatsuta; Jun Tabata; Yukio Ishikawa; Niels Skals

2010-01-01

249

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used

Christopher I. Keeling; Gary J. Blomquist; Claus Tittiger

2004-01-01

250

Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2014-01-01

251

Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect  

PubMed Central

In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queenworker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a switch point in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queenworker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

Holland, Jacob G.; Guidat, Florian S.; Bourke, Andrew F. G.

2013-01-01

252

Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity Kimberly A. Hughes, and Gene E. Robinson  

E-print Network

Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity Kimberly A. Hughes reprints, see: Notes: #12;Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity of fertility, but queen honey bees do not show this tradeoff. Queens are both long-lived and fertile, whereas

Hughes, Kim

253

Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queens egg-marking signal.

Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

2004-12-01

254

Does the queen win it all? Queen-worker conflict over male production in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insects provide a useful model for studying the evolutionary balance between cooperation and conflict linked to genetic structure. We investigated the outcome of this conflict in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, whose annual colony life cycle is characterized by overt competition over male production. We established artificial colonies composed of a queen and unrelated workers by daily exchange of callow workers between colony pairs of distinct genetic make-up. Using microsatellite analysis, this procedure allowed an exact calculation of the proportion of worker-derived males. The development and social behavior of these artificial colonies were similar to those of normal colonies. Despite a high worker reproduction attempt (63.8% of workers had developed ovaries and 38.4% were egg-layers), we found that on average 95% of the males produced during the competition phase (CPh) were queen-derived. However, in four colonies, queen death resulted in a considerable amount of worker-derived male production. The different putative ultimate causes of this efficient control by the queen are discussed, and we suggest a possible scenario of an evolutionary arms race that may occur between these two female castes.

Alaux, Cdric; Savarit, Fabrice; Jaisson, Pierre; Hefetz, Abraham

255

Mandibular plasmacytoma of jaw - a case report.  

PubMed

The plasma cell neoplasm may present as Extramedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) in soft tissues in bone as a Solitary Plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) or as a part of multi focal disseminated disease Multiple Myeloma (MM). The majority of 80% occurs in head and neck region. In our case, a 62-year-old male patient presented with a non tender swelling of short duration. The swelling was noted obliterating the vestibular depth in right lower mandibular region. The radiological features were non specific. PMID:25302275

Kamal, Meet; Kaur, Parwinder; Gupta, Rakhi; Gupta, Shally; Singh, Simranjit

2014-08-01

256

Mandibular kinematics after orthognathic surgical treatment a pilot study.  

PubMed

We recorded three-dimensional mandibular movements, while the mouth was being opened and closed, using an optoelectronic motion analyser in 14 patients (5 skeletal Class II, 9 skeletal Class III) who were being assessed 7-49 months after orthognathic operations, and in 44 healthy subjects. All 14 patients had satisfactory healing on clinical examination, and function had been restored. Mandibular movement was divided into its rotational and translational components. On maximum mouth opening, the patients had significantly less total displacement of the mandibular interincisor point (p=0.05), and more mandibular movement that was explained by pure condylar rotation (p=0.006), than control subjects. There was no significant relation between maximum mouth opening and percentage rotation. While mandibular motion was well restored clinically by orthognathic surgery, the kinematics of the joint were modified. Larger studies and longitudinal investigations are necessary to appreciate the clinical relevance of the variations in condylar rotational and translational components. PMID:18938000

Sforza, Chiarella; Ugolini, Alessandro; Rocchetta, Davide; Galante, Domenico; Mapelli, Andrea; Giann, Aldo Bruno

2010-03-01

257

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities.  

PubMed

A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

Canger, E M; Celenk, P

2012-03-01

258

Octopamine modulates the sensitivity of silkmoth pheromone receptor neurons.  

PubMed

Effects of octopamine and its antagonist epinastine on electrophysiological responses of receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus specialised to the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal were investigated. Injections of octopamine and epinastine into the moths had no effect on the transepithelial potential of the antennal-branch preparation nor on the spontaneous nerve impulse frequency in either type of receptor neuron. However, in the presence of continuous low-intensity pheromone stimulation, octopamine significantly increased the nerve impulse frequency in the acetate receptor neuron, but not in the aldehyde receptor neuron. Octopamine and epinastine had no significant effect on the receptor potential amplitudes elicited in both receptor neuron types by pheromone stimulation. However, the peak nerve impulse frequency in the response of both receptor neuron types to pheromone was significantly affected: decreased by epinastine and increased by octopamine over a broad range of pheromone concentrations. In control experiments, injection of physiological saline did not significantly alter the peak nerve impulse frequency. The effect of octopamine was established within 1 h after injection and persisted for about 4 h. The possibility of a direct action of octopamine on the nerve impulse generation by the receptor neurons is discussed. PMID:10757246

Pophof, B

2000-03-01

259

Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity  

PubMed Central

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Frster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 125565, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; Gonzalez, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

2012-01-01

260

Sex pheromone of tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis.  

PubMed

Five candidate pheromone components were identified by analyzing pheromone gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD), and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS) : (E)-11-hexadecenol(E11-16 : OH), (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16 : OH), (E)-11-hexadecenal, (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, and (Z)-3,(Z)-6,(Z)-9-tricosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy). In electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, synthetic E11-16 : OH elicited stronger antennal responses at low doses than other candidate pheromone components. Field tests demonstrated that synthetic E11-16 : OH as a trap bait was effective in attracting males, whereas addition of Z11-16 : OH inhibited the males' response. Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy strongly enhanced attractiveness of E11-16 : OH, but was not attractive by itself. A pheromone blend with synergistic behavioral activity of an alcohol (E11-16 : OH) and hydrocarbon (Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy) component is most unusual in the Lepidoptera. The synthetic two-component pheromone is approximately 60 times more attractive than the female-produced blend and might facilitate the control of this pest. PMID:11710613

Cabrera, A; Eiras, A E; Gries, G; Gries, R; Urdaneta, N; Mirs, B; Badji, C; Jaffe, K

2001-10-01

261

The Structure, Stability and Pheromone Binding of the Male Mouse Protein Sex Pheromone Darcin  

PubMed Central

Mouse urine contains highly polymorphic major urinary proteins that have multiple functions in scent communication through their abilities to bind, transport and release hydrophobic volatile pheromones. The mouse genome encodes for about 20 of these proteins and are classified, based on amino acid sequence similarity and tissue expression patterns, as either central or peripheral major urinary proteins. Darcin is a male specific peripheral major urinary protein and is distinctive in its role in inherent female attraction. A comparison of the structure and biophysical properties of darcin with MUP11, which belongs to the central class, highlights similarity in the overall structure between the two proteins. The thermodynamic stability, however, differs between the two proteins, with darcin being much more stable. Furthermore, the affinity of a small pheromone mimetic is higher for darcin, although darcin is more discriminatory, being unable to bind bulkier ligands. These attributes are due to the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of darcin being smaller, caused by the presence of larger amino acid side chains. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of the binding cavity, together with its extreme stability, are consistent with darcin being able to exert its function after release into the environment. PMID:25279835

Phelan, Marie M.; McLean, Lynn; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Lian, Lu-Yun

2014-01-01

262

Transmigration of mandibular canine - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

Gruszka, Katarzyna; Rozylo, T. Katarzyna; Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Maslowska, Klaudia

2014-01-01

263

Identification of the sex pheromone of Sesamia cretica Lederer.  

PubMed

By using solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, a sex pheromone blend for the stem borer, Sesamia cretica Lederer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), was identified as consisting of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol (80%), (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-yl acetate (10%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (10%). The first two components had previously been discovered as attractants for S. cretica in field tests, but had not been identified in the female's sex pheromone gland. A field-trapping trial showed that the three-component blend gave the highest catches of male S. cretica. This blend, in a sticky trap, was used to monitor a population of S. cretica in Iran, allowing the seasonal flight activity of this insect to be compared with that of a sympatric population of S. nonagrioides. The role of pheromones in the reproductive isolation of these species is discussed. PMID:18092188

Avand-Faghih, Arman; Frrot, Brigitte

2008-01-01

264

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog.  

PubMed

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-[3H]hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant. PMID:2831215

Vogt, R G; Prestwich, G D; Riddiford, L M

1988-03-15

265

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog  

SciTech Connect

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

1988-03-15

266

SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM  

SciTech Connect

The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

Lowell Deckert

2000-08-25

267

Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.  

PubMed

Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

1994-02-01

268

Solid state organic (pheromone-beeswax) far infrared maser.  

PubMed

A low energy solid state organic maser was constructed from beeswax doped with 100 microg of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hbner), pheromone (sex scent). Maserlike wavelengths were emitted in the 17-microm region. The wavelength fits the 1-2-wavelengths criterion for open dielectric waveguides of the same range as the type 1 (30-57-microm) cabbage looper sensilla trichodea. The wavelength shifted from 16.81 microm to 17.39 microm over a half-hour time period. The log periodic shift of wavelengths is temperature dependent and not concentration dependent, since the concentration of pheromone is fixed within the beeswax. PMID:20168753

Callahan, P S

1977-06-01

269

Free amino acids in the haemolymph of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

In queen honey bees the free amino acid content in the haemolymph clearly depends on the physiological function and social environment of the individual. While in drones and workers the content of free amino acids increases after emergence until it reaches a peak in 5-day-old animals and decreases afterwards, the amino acid content in queens reaches its highest level (>60 nmol/ microl haemolymph) with the onset of egg laying (10 d of age). This level is about 2.5 times more than the highest level found in workers. Queens maintain this high level also when they are older (>30 d) and continue to lay eggs in average colonies. As in drones and workers, in queens the predominant amino acid is proline, which accounts for more than 50% of the total content of free amino acids in egg-laying individuals. When 10-day-old queens are prevented from mating and do not lay eggs, their amino acid content is significantly lower compared to laying queens of the same age. Also the social environment influences the contents of free amino acids in queens. When virgin queens were kept for 6 days with 20 worker bees and sufficient honey and pollen in an incubator, they had significantly lower concentrations of amino acids than virgin queens living for the same period with about 8000 workers in a colony. Most probably, the high amino acid concentration in the haemolymph is the basis for the high protein synthesis activity of laying queens. PMID:12624754

Hrassnigg, N; Leonhard, B; Crailsheim, K

2003-01-01

270

Cuticular hydrocarbons as queen adoption cues in the invasive Argentine ant.  

PubMed

In social insects, individuals typically recognize and behave aggressively towards alien conspecifics, thereby maintaining colony integrity. This is presumably achieved via a nestmate recognition system in which cuticular compounds, usually cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), of genetic and/or environmental origin serve as recognition cues. Most invasive populations of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), display minimal nestmate-non-nestmate discrimination, resulting in low levels of intraspecific aggression allowing free movement of workers and queens among nests. However, invasive L. humile in the southeastern United States show relatively high levels of intraspecific aggression, and selectively adopt non-nestmate queens. Using behavioral assays and gas chromatography, we found an association between non-nestmate queen adoption and similarity of the CHC profiles of adopted and host colony queens. Also, nestmate and non-nestmate queen CHC profiles became more similar after adoption by queenless colonies. Furthermore, queens treated with non-nestmate queen CHC had distinct CHC profiles and were generally attacked by nestmate workers. We suggest that in L. humile, CHC are used as queen recognition cues, and that queen recognition errors are more likely to occur when the CHC profiles of non-nestmate and host colony queens are similar. Our findings provide further evidence for the complex and dynamic nature of L. humile nestmate discrimination, which may in part underlie the success of introduced populations of this invasive ant. PMID:18375849

Vsquez, Gissella M; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

2008-04-01

271

One of the great leaders of the Department of Civil Engineering at Queen's passed away on November . Dave Turcke had a profound impact on Queen's  

E-print Network

One of the great leaders of the Department of Civil Engineering at Queen's passed away on November the Department of Civil Engineering into one of the most successful in the country, and his open and friendly's greatest legacy at Queen's, though, was his ten year term as Head of the Department of Civil Engineering

Abolmaesumi, Purang

272

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-12-01

273

Selective and pH-dependent binding of a moth pheromone to a pheromone-binding protein.  

PubMed

Fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) data suggest that the major pheromone-binding protein (PBP) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus, ApolPBP1, undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change similar to that previously observed for the PBP from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorPBP. All three constituents of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac, E6,Z11-16Ald, and E4,Z9-14Ac, bound to ApolPBP1 with apparent high affinity at high pH, but reduced binding at low pH when tested individually in a "cold binding assay." In competitive assays, however, ApolPBP1 showed considerable preference for the major constituent of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac. These data suggest that specificity of PBPs contributes at least in part to the remarkable selectivity of moth's olfactory system. PMID:16132337

Leal, Walter S; Chen, Angela M; Erickson, Melissa L

2005-10-01

274

Dynamic Red Queen explains patterns in fatal insurgent attacks  

E-print Network

The Red Queen's notion "It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place" has been applied within evolutionary biology, politics and economics. We find that a generalized version in which an adaptive Red Queen (e.g. insurgency) sporadically edges ahead of a Blue King (e.g. military), explains the progress curves for fatal insurgent attacks against the coalition military within individual provinces in Afghanistan and Iraq. Remarkably regular mathematical relations emerge which suggest a prediction formula for the timing of the n'th future fatal day, and provide a common framework for understanding how insurgents fight in different regions. Our findings are consistent with a Darwinian selection hypothesis which favors a weak species which can adapt rapidly, and establish an unexpected conceptual connection to the physics of quasi-random walks.

Johnson, Neil; Botner, Joel; Fontaine, Kyle; Laxague, Nathan; Nuetzel, Philip; Turnley, Jessica; Tivnan, Brian

2011-01-01

275

Risk of red queen dynamics in pneumococcal vaccine strategy.  

PubMed

Pathogens increasingly evade current vaccines, and new strategies to control them are needed. There is mounting evidence that replacement of vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with non-vaccine serotypes has taken place following widespread use of limited-serotype conjugate vaccines. New strategies to control vaccine evasion are needed and understanding evolutionary theory is important for the development of such approaches. Hosts are under selection pressure to evolve resistance against pathogens whereas pathogens are under selection pressure to evolve counter-resistance against the resistance mechanism of their host. Evolutionary changes in both host and pathogen lead to a continuous turnover of host and pathogen genotypes; this is known as Red Queen dynamics. We argue that integrating evolutionary thinking into pneumococcal vaccine design will lead to the avoidance of Red Queen dynamics and improved interventions against pneumococci. PMID:21763141

Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C; Webb, Jeremy S; Kraaijeveld, Alex R

2011-08-01

276

Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.  

PubMed

Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination. PMID:25104758

Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

2014-10-01

277

Lethal sibling rivalry for nest inheritance among virgin ant queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fights among conspecific animals are normally restricted to ritualized interactions. They may escalate to serious injury and\\u000a death when the contested resource has a very high value and the chances of finding alternative resources later in life are\\u000a low. This appears to be the case in young queens of the ant Cardiocondyla latifrons, a species that builds its nests in

Jrgen Heinze; Matthias Weber

2011-01-01

278

Porosity of human mandibular condylar bone  

PubMed Central

Quantification of porosity and degree of mineralization of bone facilitates a better understanding of the possible effects of adaptive bone remodelling and the possible consequences for its mechanical properties. The present study set out first to give a three-dimensional description of the cortical canalicular network in the human mandibular condyle, in order to obtain more information about the principal directions of stresses and strains during loading. Our second aim was to determine whether the amount of remodelling was larger in the trabecular bone than in cortical bone of the condyle and to establish whether the variation in the amount of remodelling was related to the surface area of the cortical canals and trabeculae. We hypothesized that there were differences in porosity and orientation of cortical canals between various cortical regions. In addition, as greater cortical and trabecular porosities are likely to coincide with a greater surface area of cortical canals and trabeculae available for osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, we hypothesized that this surface area would be inversely proportional to the degree of mineralization of cortical and trabecular bone, respectively. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify porosity and mineralization in cortical and trabecular bone of ten human mandibular condyles. The cortical canals in the subchondral cortex of the condyle were orientated in the mediolateral direction, and in the anterior and posterior cortex in the superoinferior direction. Cortical porosity (average 3.5%) did not differ significantly between the cortical regions. It correlated significantly with the diameter and number of cortical canals, but not with cortical degree of mineralization. In trabecular bone (average porosity 79.3%) there was a significant negative correlation between surface area of the trabeculae and degree of mineralization; such a correlation was not found between the surface area of the cortical canals and the degree of mineralization of cortical bone. No relationship between trabecular and cortical porosity, nor between trabecular degree of mineralization and cortical degree of mineralization was found, suggesting that adaptive remodelling is independent and different between trabecular and cortical bone. We conclude (1) that the principal directions of stresses and strains are presumably directed mediolaterally in the subchondral cortex and superoinferiorly in the anterior and posterior cortex, (2) that the amount of remodelling is larger in the trabecular than in the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle; in trabecular bone variation in the amount of remodelling is related to the available surface area of the trabeculae. PMID:17331174

Renders, G A P; Mulder, L; van Ruijven, L J; van Eijden, T M G J

2007-01-01

279

Implant placement above a bifurcated mandibular canal: a case report.  

PubMed

Accurate radiographic assessment of available bone dimension superior to the mandibular canal is essential to the favorable placement of dental implants. Panoramic and periapical radiography are the standard of care. They typically offer a clinically adequate interpretation of the canal topography. However, in about 1% of patients, the mandibular canal may bifurcate. This may or may not be seen on panoramic or periapical films. A case report is presented that uses complex motion tomography as an aid to proper implant placement above a bifurcated mandibular canal. PMID:12271563

Dario, Lawrence J

2002-01-01

280

A Three-rooted Mandibular Second Premolar: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Presence of extra roots and canals should be considered before initiation of root canal treatment for the success of endodontic treatment. A mandibular second premolar with three separate roots is very rare and its prevalence has been reported to be around 0.1%. This case report explains non-surgical endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three separate roots and three separate mesiobuccal, midbuccal, and lingual canal orifices. Close attention to anatomic variations, thorough radiographic examinations, thorough evaluation of the pulp chamber floor, and use of magnifying and optical devices have been recommended for the success of endodontic treatment of mandibular second premolars with complicated root canal system anatomy.

Fathi, Zahra; Rahimi, Saeed; Tavakoli, Reza; Amini, Mahsa

2014-01-01

281

On sex, mate selection and the red queen.  

PubMed

The widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction despite the two-fold disadvantage of producing males, is still an unsolved mystery in evolutionary biology. One explanatory theory, called the "Red Queen" hypothesis, states that sex is an adaptation to escape from parasites. A more recent hypothesis, the mate selection hypothesis, assumes that non-random mating, possible only with sex, accelerates the evolution of beneficial traits. This paper tests these two hypotheses, using an agent-based or "micro-analytic" evolutionary algorithm where host-parasite interaction is simulated adhering to biological reality. While previous simpler models testing the "Red Queen" hypothesis considered mainly haploid hosts, stable population density, random mating and simplified expression of fitness, our more realistic model allows diploidy, mate selection, live history constraints and variable population densities. Results suggest that the Red Queen hypothesis is not valid for more realistic evolutionary scenarios and that each of the two hypotheses tested seem to explain partially but not exhaustively the adaptive value of sex. Based on the results we suggest that sexual populations in nature should avoid both, maximizing outbreeding or maximizing inbreeding and should acquire mate selection strategies which favour optimal ranges of genetic mixing in accordance with environmental challenges. PMID:10419756

Ochoa, G; Jaff, K

1999-07-01

282

The sneaky, stingless bee queen gets the colony. How does she do it? Wired Science blogger Mary Bates reports on these daring insects.  

E-print Network

The sneaky, stingless bee queen gets the colony. How does she do it? Wired Science blogger Mary-sneaky-queen-gets-th... 1 of 4 17/01/2014 14:12 #12;Stingless bees of the genus Melipona are different. Queens are seemingly. What's a queen bee to do? After hatching, a new queen leaves her colony to take off on her nuptial

Wenseleers, Tom

283

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : II. Identification and role of female pheromone.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations of mating behavior in the rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae; Galleriinae) showed that male moths are attracted at short range to live, virgin female moths and to female abdominal-tip extract. Volatiles collected from virgin female moths contained one component eliciting an electroantennographic (EAG) response from the male moth, and the chemical, spectroscopic, and Chromatographic data on this component were consistent with that of synthetic 6,10,14-tri-methyl-2-pentadecanol. This compound caused an EAG response from the male moth and attracted male moths in the bioassay. The pheromone is thought to play a role in courtship, and the synthetic material was shown to cause the male moths to search for a mate and attempt copulation. PMID:24302328

Hall, D R; Cork, A; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F; Zagatti, P

1987-07-01

284

Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle  

PubMed Central

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-01-01

285

Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth.

Kaban, L.B.; Cisneros, G.J.; Heyman, S.; Treves, S.

1982-01-01

286

Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

2005-07-01

287

Reclaiming the crown: queen to worker conflict over reproduction in Aphaenogaster cockerelli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many social taxa, reproductively dominant individuals sometimes use aggression to secure and maintain reproductive status. In the social insects, queen aggression towards subordinate individuals or workers has been documented and is predicted to occur only in species with a small colony size and a low level of queen-worker dimorphism. We report queen aggression towards reproductive workers in the ant species Aphaenogaster cockerelli, a species with a relatively large colony size and a high level of reproductive dimorphism. Through analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, we show that queens are aggressive only to reproductively active workers. Non-reproductive workers treated with a hydrocarbon typical for reproductives are attacked by workers but not by queens, which suggests different ways of recognition. We provide possible explanations of why queen aggression is observed in this species.

Smith, Adrian A.; Hlldobler, Bert; Liebig, Jrgen

2011-03-01

288

Deep Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Queen Charlotte Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep 2-D seismic reflection survey was shot by the Geological Survey of Canada in Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound in 1988 using a 45 m shot point interval, 15 m group interval and a maximum offset of 3685 m. Subsequent analysis of these data has focused on the shallower section, and helped constrain, together with earlier industry data, the general evolution of the sedimentary section. North-trending sub-basins are found to the south in Queen Charlotte Sound, but relatively closely-spaced NW-trending sub-basins predominate further north in Hecate Strait. Previous interpretation has demonstrated transtensional tectonics during most of the Miocene with evidence for transpression and inversion of some normal faults in Hecate Strait during the Pliocene. Although a range of origins including hot spot rifting have been suggested for the Queen Charlotte basin, currently favoured explanations focus on the effects of, and changes in, large-scale plate motions in this region. To determine if the deeper sections of the 1988 seismic survey can further constrain models of basin evolution, these seismic data have been reprocessed to 14 s. A thick sequence of subhorizontal reflectors, which extend from 4.5-8.5 s, is identified beneath northern Hecate Strait where rocks of the Alexander terrane are identified at the surface. Further south, discrete 0.5-1.0 s thick reflection packages, some of which may be intrusive in origin, are identified in the mid and lower crust of the Wrangellia terrane. Other reflections occur as deep as 10-11 s beneath the central axis of the basin in Hecate Strait, which could locate them beneath the Moho inferred from wide-angle surveys. Deep seismic imaging is more limited beneath southern Hecate Strait and northern Queen Charlotte Sound, perhaps due to the effects of coherent noise, but reflections can be identified at 6-8 s beneath southern Queen Charlotte Sound. Marine surveys are often degraded by water layer multiples and coherent scattered energy. These problems can be mitigated using swath 3-D marine recording, and if the lateral velocity variation can be determined in the upper few km, a significant improvement in the quality of marine seismic images appears possible.

Calvert, A. J.

2009-05-01

289

DIGITAL PHEROMONES FOR AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION OF SWARMING UAV'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern UAV's reduce the threat to human operators, but do not decrease the manpower requirements. Each aircraft requires a flight crew of one to three, so deploying large numbers of UAV's requires committing and coordinating many human warfighters. Insects perform impressive feats of coordination without direct inter-agent coordination, by sensing and depositing pheromones (chemical scent markers) in the environment (14).

H. Van Dyke Parunak; LCDR Michael Purcell; Robert O'Connell

2002-01-01

290

Parallel evolution of domesticated Caenorhabditis species targets pheromone receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories1, indicating that discrete environmental shifts can select for reproducible genetic changes2-4. Conspecific individuals are an important feature of an animal's environment, and a potential source of selective pressures. We show here that adaptation of two Caenorhabditis species to growth at high density, a feature common to domestic environments, occurs by reproducible genetic changes to pheromone receptor genes. Chemical communication through pheromones that accumulate during high-density growth causes young nematode larvae to enter the long-lived but non-reproductive dauer stage. Two strains of Caenorhabditis elegans grown at high density have independently acquired multigenic resistance to pheromone-induced dauer formation. In each strain, resistance to the pheromone ascaroside C3 results from a deletion that disrupts the adjacent chemoreceptor genes serpentine receptor class g (srg)-36 and -37. Through misexpression experiments, we show that these genes encode redundant G protein-coupled receptors for ascaroside C3. Multigenic resistance to dauer formation has also arisen in high-density cultures of a different nematode species, Caenorhabditis briggsae, resulting in part from deletion of an srg gene paralogous to srg-36 and srg-37. These results demonstrate rapid remodeling of the chemoreceptor repertoire as an adaptation to specific environments, and indicate that parallel changes to a common genetic substrate can affect life history traits across species. PMID:21849976

McGrath, Patrick T.; Xu, Yifan; Ailion, Michael; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

2011-01-01

291

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

) with little or no modification [1]. Traditional operations research techniques such as branch and bound have to a wide range of problems with little or no modification. However, the system we propose may be used the nest to food sources. In ACO, pheromone is typically associated with the solution components used

Montgomery, James

292

Definitive evidence for cuticular pheromones in a cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orthoptera include many species established as important model systems in the study of animal behaviour, particularly in relation to communication and mating systems. Although most interest has focused on auditory communication, increasing circumstantial evidence suggests that there may be a widespread additional communication channel in the form of cuticular contact pheromones. Using the field cricket,Gryllus bimaculatuswe conducted a behavioural

TOM TREGENZA; NINA WEDELL

1997-01-01

293

Site of sex pheromone production in three species of Trichoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests with chemical extracts of various body sections of adult caddisflies indicate that the female fifth abdominal sternite in the sericostomatids Gumaga nigricula (McL.) and Gumaga griseola (McL.) and the limnephilid Dicosmoecus gihipes (Hagen) contains a substance that attracts conspecific males. This sex pheromone is most likely produced by the paired exocrine glands located on the fifth sternite. Chemical

Vincent H. Resh; John R. Wood

1985-01-01

294

Efficient sex pheromone trapping: catching the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius.  

PubMed

The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is the most serious pest of sweetpotato around the world, damaging sweetpotatoes in the field and in storage, as well as being a quarantine pest. Because the larval period is spent within vines or tubers, and the adults are nocturnal, chemical control frequently is not effective. In addition, there are few natural enemies, and pheromone-based trapping does not appear to reduce the damage level. In the present study, we evaluated a number of parameters that affect pheromone-based trap catch, including trap design, trap size, trap color, and height at which the traps are placed. Pherocon unitraps caught higher numbers than ground, funnel water, or delta traps. Medium-sized traps (13??17.5 cm) were more effective than larger or smaller traps. In a color-choice test, C. formicarius preferred red over gray, brown, blue, white, yellow, black, or red traps; light red was more attractive than other shades of red. Maximum catches were obtained when the traps were set 50 cm above the crop canopy. Light-red unitraps with pheromone lures caught more adults than identical traps without lures, suggesting that C. formicarius is influenced by both visual and olfactory cues. Pheromone-baited light-red unitraps, 13??17.5 cm, installed 50 cm above the crop canopy, were the most effective at catching C. formicarius adults, and they appear to have the greatest potential for use in trap-and-kill strategies and eradication programs. PMID:22782300

Reddy, G V P; Gadi, Nirupa; Taianao, Anthony J

2012-07-01

295

Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We

Madeleine Beekman; Caroline G. Martin; Benjamin P. Oldroyd

2004-01-01

296

Auctoritas as sanctitas: Balthild's depiction as queen-saint in the Vita Balthildis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the representation of Queen Balthild of Neustrian Francia in her seventh-century Vita as a new kind of saintly figure, a queen-saint rather than as a traditional saint-queen. Balthild made herself unpopular among certain factions of the Frankish nobility during her son's minority by interfering in Church matters. In particular, she compelled bishops to grant episcopal exemptions to

Sarah Tatum

2009-01-01

297

Comprehensive restoration and mandibular incisor esthetic exposure: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Complete mouth rehabilitation allows the dentist to solve multiple problems by controlling the restoration of many teeth. Guidelines and objective criteria for each area to be treated are essential when planning an extensive case. Esthetics, phonetics, and anterior guidance are affected by the height and inclination of the mandibular incisors. Placement of the mandibular incisal plane is important, as the mandibular anterior teeth may be more visible than the maxillary anterior teeth during speaking or when at rest. Provisional restorations can be adjusted and recorded so that the final restorations are predictably successful. This case illustrates the use of a trial incisal edge and digital videography of the provisional restoration to facilitate correct placement of the mandibular incisal plane. PMID:24192736

Solow, Roger A

2013-01-01

298

Mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: an endodontic dilemma.  

PubMed

It is known that the mandibular first molar can display significant anatomical variations namely the number of root canals, the number of roots and morphology. Mandibular molars may sometimes have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris). If encountered, an awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its canal morphology can contribute to the successful outcome of root canal treatment. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris, which is a rare entity and poses as an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome. PMID:24910685

Sarangi, Priyanka; Uppin, Veerendra M

2014-01-01

299

Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths  

PubMed Central

The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

2012-01-01

300

Spatial representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre in the ant brain.  

PubMed

Pheromones play major roles in intraspecific communication in many animals. Elaborated communication systems in eusocial insects provide excellent materials to study neural mechanisms for social pheromone processing. We previously reported that alarm pheromone information is processed in a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. However, representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre is unknown in any animal. Olfactory information in the antennal lobe is transmitted to secondary olfactory centres, including the lateral horn, by projection neurons (PNs). In this study, we compared distributions of terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive and -insensitive PNs in the lateral horn of ants. Distributions of their dendrites largely overlapped, but there was a region where boutons of pheromone-sensitive PNs, but not those of pheromone-insensitive PNs, were significantly denser than in the rest of the lateral horn. Moreover, most of a major type of pheromone-sensitive efferent neurons from the lateral horn extended dendritic branches in this region, suggesting specialization of this region for alarm pheromone processing. This study is the first study to demonstrate the presence of specialized areas for the processing of a non-sexual, social pheromone in the secondary olfactory centre in any animal. PMID:20375054

Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Mizunami, Makoto

2010-08-22

301

Spatial representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre in the ant brain  

PubMed Central

Pheromones play major roles in intraspecific communication in many animals. Elaborated communication systems in eusocial insects provide excellent materials to study neural mechanisms for social pheromone processing. We previously reported that alarm pheromone information is processed in a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. However, representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre is unknown in any animal. Olfactory information in the antennal lobe is transmitted to secondary olfactory centres, including the lateral horn, by projection neurons (PNs). In this study, we compared distributions of terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive and -insensitive PNs in the lateral horn of ants. Distributions of their dendrites largely overlapped, but there was a region where boutons of pheromone-sensitive PNs, but not those of pheromone-insensitive PNs, were significantly denser than in the rest of the lateral horn. Moreover, most of a major type of pheromone-sensitive efferent neurons from the lateral horn extended dendritic branches in this region, suggesting specialization of this region for alarm pheromone processing. This study is the first study to demonstrate the presence of specialized areas for the processing of a non-sexual, social pheromone in the secondary olfactory centre in any animal. PMID:20375054

Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Mizunami, Makoto

2010-01-01

302

Genetic components to caste allocation in a multiple-queen ant species.  

PubMed

Reproductive division of labor and the coexistence of distinct castes are hallmarks of insect societies. In social insect species with multiple queens per colony, the fitness of nestmate queens directly depends on the process of caste allocation (i.e., the relative investment in queen, sterile worker and male production). The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic components to the process of caste allocation in a multiple-queen ant species. We conducted controlled crosses in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and established single-queen colonies to identify maternal and paternal family effects on the relative production of new queens, workers, and males. There were significant effects of parental genetic backgrounds on various aspects of caste allocation: the paternal lineage affected the proportion of queens and workers produced whereas the proportions of queens and males, and females and males were influenced by the interaction between parental lineages. In addition to revealing nonadditive genetic effects on female caste determination in a multiple-queen ant species, this study reveals strong genetic compatibility effects between parental genomes on caste allocation components. PMID:21967431

Libbrecht, Romain; Schwander, Tanja; Keller, Laurent

2011-10-01

303

Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge  

PubMed Central

Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by conventional endodontic treatment.

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-01-01

304

Tongue and Lateral Upper Airway Movement with Mandibular Advancement  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Design: Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Setting: Not-for-profit research institute. Participants: 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m2). Interventions: Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Measurements and Results: Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 1.8 mm (mean standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% 13% and 31% 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Conclusions: Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404. PMID:23450677

Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

2013-01-01

305

Isolation and Characterization of Murine Mandibular Condylar Cartilage Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Objectives The mandibular condylar cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue containing cells at various stages of chondrocyte maturation organized into 4 zones: superficial, polymorphic, flattened, and hypertrophic. The goal of this study was to use transgenic mice containing chondrocyte maturation markers fused to fluorescent protein transgenes to isolate and characterize homogenous cell populations of the mandibular condylar cartilage. Methods Fluorescent reporter expression in the mandibular condylar cartilage of transgenic mice containing the 3.6-kb fragment of the rat collagen type 1 promoter fused to a topaz-fluorescent protein (Col3.6-tpz), collagen type 2 promoter fused to a cyan-fluorescent protein (Col2-cyan), and/or collagen type 10 promoter fused to cherry-fluorescent protein (Col10-cherry) was examined. Mandibular condylar cartilage cells were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and either used for gene expression analysis or plated in cell cultures and exposed to adipogenic, osteogenic, or chondrogenic conditions. To determine cell fate, transgenic mice containing the Col3.6-cre recombinase were bred with cre reporter mice. Results Localization and analysis of gene expression revealed that Col3.6-tpz-positive cells corresponded to the polymorphic/flattened zones and Col2-cyan-positive cells corresponded to the flattened/hypertrophic zones of the mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage FACS-sorted Col3.6-tpz-positive cells have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. Cell fate mapping revealed that Col3.6 cells are precursors of some of the hypertrophic chondrocytes in the mandibular condylar cartilage. Conclusion Col3.6-tpz cells represent an earlier stage of the mandibular condylar cartilage maturation pathway. PMID:21646777

Chen, J.; Utreja, A.; Kalajzic, Z.; Sobue, T.; Rowe, D.; Wadhwa, S.

2012-01-01

306

Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the average amount of DMD released daily by single feeding males of T. castaneum was 878 72 ng (SE). Analysis of different body parts identified the abdominal epidermis as the major source of aggregation pheromone; the thorax was a minor source, while no DMD was detectable in the head. No internal organs or obvious male-specific glands were associated with pheromone deposition. Complete separation of all four stereoisomers of DMD was achieved following oxidation to the corresponding acid, derivatization with (1 R, 2 R)- and (1 S, 2 S)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)cyclohexanol to diastereomeric esters, and their separation on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at -54C. Analysis of the hexane eluate from Porapak-Q-collected volatiles from feeding males revealed the presence of all four isomers (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S)/(4 S,8 R)/(4 S,8 S) at a ratio of approximately 4:4:1:1. A walking orientation bioassay in a wind tunnel with various blends of the four synthetic isomers further indicated that the attractive potency of the reconstituted natural blend of 4:4:1:1 was equivalent to that of the natural pheromone and greater than that of the 1:1 blend of (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S) used in commercial lures.

Lu, Yujie; Beeman, Richard W.; Campbell, James F.; Park, Yoonseong; Aikins, Michael J.; Mori, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Phillips, Thomas W.

2011-09-01

307

Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal  

PubMed Central

Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured. Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.773.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.090.69mm. Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions. PMID:24910651

Afkhami, Farzaneh; Haraji, Afshin; Boostani, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

308

The role of mandibular condylar cartilage in articular cartilage repair.  

PubMed Central

The articular hyaline cartilage of synovial joints has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. In contrast, the mandibular condylar cartilage of the temporomandibular joint possesses as intrinsic potential for regeneration. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that cultured allografts of mandibular condylar cartilage could be used to promote biological repair of injured orthotopic joint surfaces. Using a primate animal model, cultures of mandibular condylar cartilage cells were grafted into surgically created defects in a recipient hyaline cartilage joint surface. Articular wound healing was assessed macroscopically and histologically over a postoperative period of 52 weeks. Mandibular condylar cartilage cells scheduled for allogenous transplantation were initially characterised in vitro. Expansion of primary colonies in organ culture provided the allogenic cellular material for in vivo grafting. Grafting of osteochondral articular wounds with 5-week cultures of mandibular cartilage cells led to wound regeneration with complete reconstitution of articular surface continuity by 52 weeks. There was novel synthesis of cartilage collagens and sulphated glycosaminoglycans within the repair tissue and no evidence of immunological rejection. Healing of grafted defects was thought to occur by a combination of donor cell proliferation and ingress of host mesenchymal cells. In contrast, grafted control wounds underwent largely fibrous repair with incomplete articular regeneration. In conclusion, transplanted allografts of cultured mandibular condylar cartilage appeared to have the ability, in this primate model, to promote cartilaginous repair and regeneration of orthotopic articular wounds. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9038492

Girdler, N. M.

1997-01-01

309

The solution NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP provides new insight into pheromone recognition by pheromone-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here, we report the NMR structure of a PBP from the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. This is the first structure of a PBP with specific acetate-binding function in vivo. The protein consists of nine alpha-helices: alpha1a (residues 2-5), alpha1b (8-12), alpha1c (16-23), alpha2 (27-34), alpha3a (46-52), alpha3b (54-59), alpha4 (70-79), alpha5 (84-100) and alpha6 (107-125), held together by three disulfide bridges: 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117. A large hydrophobic cavity is located inside the protein, lined with side-chains from all nine helices. The acetate-binding site is located at the narrow end of the cavity formed by the helices alpha3b and alpha4. The pheromone can enter this cavity through an opening between the helix alpha1a, the C-terminal end of the helix alpha6, and the loop between alpha2 and alpha3a. We suggest that Trp37 may play an important role in the initial interaction with the ligand. Our analysis also shows that Asn53 plays the key role in recognition of acetate pheromones specifically, while Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Phe76, and Phe118 are responsible for non-specific binding, and Leu8 and Ser9 may play a role in ligand chain length recognition. PMID:15003458

Mohanty, Smita; Zubkov, Sergey; Gronenborn, Angela M

2004-03-19

310

Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla contains three different types of PBPs. In this study, recombinant PBPs in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor cells via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. The responses of receptor cells were shown to depend on both the pheromone component and the PBP. Pheromone components artificially bound to particular PBPs elicited nerve impulses in receptor cell types which they do not activate under natural conditions. This is the first electrophysiological study to suggest that the PBPs contribute to the activation of receptor molecules.

Pophof, Blanka

2002-10-01

311

Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells.  

PubMed

Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla contains three different types of PBPs. In this study, recombinant PBPs in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor cells via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. The responses of receptor cells were shown to depend on both the pheromone component and the PBP. Pheromone components artificially bound to particular PBPs elicited nerve impulses in receptor cell types which they do not activate under natural conditions. This is the first electrophysiological study to suggest that the PBPs contribute to the activation of receptor molecules. PMID:12451455

Pophof, Blanka

2002-11-01

312

Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Two proteins of the IP3 transduction pathway were identified by Western blots in homogenates of isolated pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. A 110 kDa protein was recognized by an antiserum raised against the Drosophila phospholipase C beta (PLC beta p121) and a 80kDa protein was labelled by an antiserum against a synthetic peptide of a conserved region of protein kinase C (PKC). Incubation of homogenized sensory hairs with the main sex pheromone component, (E,Z) 6-11 hexadecadienyl acetate, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of PKC compared to controls without pheromone. In contrast, incubation with pheromone did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKC by the membrane permeable dioctanoylglycerol led to excitation of the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. These data support the current concept that pheromone perception of moths is mediated by the IP3 transduction pathway. PMID:10852242

Maida, R; Redkozubov, A; Ziegelberger, G

2000-06-01

313

Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%. PMID:11124211

Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

2001-01-01

314

Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini.  

PubMed

Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production. PMID:17093975

Ginzel, Matthew D; Bearfield, Jeremy C; Keeling, Christopher I; McCormack, Colin C; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

2007-01-01

315

Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production.

Ginzel, Matthew D.; Bearfield, Jeremy C.; Keeling, Christopher I.; McCormack, Colin C.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

2007-01-01

316

Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.  

PubMed

Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem. PMID:22115807

Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

2012-02-01

317

iBioSeminar: Sex and Smell: Molecular Biology of Pheromone Perception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pheromones have evolved to signal the sex and the dominance status of animals and to promote social and mating rituals. In this lecture, I discuss the how pheromone sensing operates in mammals. I will discuss the molecular biology of the chemosensory receptors that are involved the first steps of pheromone sensing. At a higher level of complexity, I will discuss a distinct olfactory structure called the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and how it contributes to sex-specific behavioral responses.

Catherine Dulac (Harvard University/Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-12-01

318

Behavioural sequence in the attraction of the bark beetle Ips typographus to pheromone sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of the two synergistic pheromone compon- ents, (4s)-cis-verbenol (cV) and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-01 (MB), and the role of ipsdienol in the attraction of Ips typographus (L.) (Scolytidae) to pheromone sources were studied in the field. Absolute and relative beetle catches were compared between several traps placed at and nearby a central pheromone source: a pipe trap containing the source, a

FREDRIK SCHLYTER; JAN LFQVIST; JOHN A. BYERS

1987-01-01

319

Synergistic effect of a pheromone and a kairomone on host selection and colonisation by Ips avulsus  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE report for the first time a synergistic effect on the pheromone response of a bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) by the pheromone of a sympatric species. Ips avulsus Eichh. and I. grandicollis Eichh. are two sympatric Ips species often found colonising the same host tree in the southern USA. Male I. avulsus produce the pheromone ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene-4-ol)1,2 and both

Roy Hedden; J. P. VITE; KENJI MORI

1976-01-01

320

Allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene causes divergence in moth sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Pheromone-based behaviours are crucial in animals from insects to mammals, and reproductive isolation is often based on pheromone differences. However, the genetic mechanisms by which pheromone signals change during the evolution of new species are largely unknown. In the sexual communication system of moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera), females emit a species-specific pheromone blend that attracts males over long distances. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, consists of two sex pheromone races, Z and E, that use different ratios of the cis and trans isomers of acetate pheromone components. This subtle difference leads to strong reproductive isolation in the field between the two races, which could represent a first step in speciation. Female sex pheromone production and male behavioural response are under the control of different major genes, but the identity of these genes is unknown. Here we show that allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene essential for pheromone biosynthesis accounts for the phenotypic variation in female pheromone production, leading to race-specific signals. Both the cis and trans isomers of the pheromone precursors are produced by both races, but the precursors are differentially reduced to yield opposite ratios in the final pheromone blend as a result of the substrate specificity of the enzymes encoded by the Z and E alleles. This is the first functional characterization of a gene contributing to intraspecific behavioural reproductive isolation in moths, highlighting the importance of evolutionary diversification in a lepidopteran-specific family of reductases. Accumulation of substitutions in the coding region of a single biosynthetic enzyme can produce pheromone differences resulting in reproductive isolation, with speciation as a potential end result. PMID:20592730

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Groot, Astrid T; Linard, Marjorie A; Antony, Binu; Borgwardt, Christin; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenstrm, Erik; Heckel, David G; Lfstedt, Christer

2010-07-22

321

Female Sex Pheromone in the Skin and Circulation of a Garter Snake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serums and extracts of tissues from the female garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) each act as a pheromone and elicit male courtship behavior when applied to the back of another male. Since pheromonal activity is present in yolk and liver tissue of untreated females and can be induced with estrogen treatment in the serums and livers of males, the pheromone may be associated with the circulating yolk lipoprotein, vitellogenin.

Garstka, William R.; Crews, David

1981-11-01

322

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-proteinbombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moths antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

323

Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the western corn rootworm (WCR),Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. The synthesized compound, racemic 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate, was equal in attraction to the natural pheromone when tested in the field as a trap bait against three taxa ofDiabrotica known to respond to pheromone extracts from female WCR. Five taxa (D. virgifera

P. L. Guss; J. H. Tumlinson; P. E. Sonnet; A. T. Proveaux

1982-01-01

324

Response of Mythimna unipuncta Males to Components of the Sesamia nonagrioides Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sympatric lepidopteran species feed on maize plants, and the different components of their species-specific female\\u000a sex pheromones may play a role in attracting conspecifics and\\/or deter heterospecific males. In this study, we analyzed the\\u000a content of Mythimna unipuncta pheromone glands and tested the response of males to components of their own pheromone blend and that of Sesamia nonagrioides in

Matilde Eizaguirre; Carmen Lpez; Albert Sans; Dolors Bosch; Ramon Albajes

2009-01-01

325

Midgut tissue of male pine engraver , Ips pini , synthesizes monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over three decades the site and pathways of bark beetle aggregation pheromone production have remained elusive. Studies on pheromone production in Ips spp. bark beetles have recently shown de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components via the mevalonate pathway. The gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in this pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), showed high transcript levels in the anterior midgut

Gregory M. Hall; Claus Tittiger; Gracie L. Andrews; Grant S. Mastick; Marilyn Kuenzli; Xin Luo; Steven J. Seybold; Gary J. Blomquist

2002-01-01

326

Facies, depositional environments, and reservoir properties of the Shattuck sandstone, Mesa Queen Field and surrounding areas, southeastern New Mexico  

E-print Network

The Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Guadalupian age Queen Formation was deposited in back-reef environments on a carbonate platform of the Northwest Shelf (Permian Basin, New Mexico, USA) during a lowstand of sea level. At Mesa Queen Field...

Haight, Jared

2004-09-30

327

Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report  

PubMed Central

Background Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications. Case presentation An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated. Conclusion The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation. PMID:16336661

Oredugba, Folakemi A

2005-01-01

328

Mandibular osteosarcoma in a nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

A four-year-old neutered male nutria (Myocastor coypus) was presented for a one-day history of lethargy and anorexia. A right-sided facial swelling and loose right mandibular fourth molar that exuded caseous exudate from the root were noted; however, the animal continued to decline despite removal of the affected tooth and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Radiographs showed a lytic proliferative bony lesion on the right mandible that appeared to expand in size over the course of a week. Due to its declining clinical condition and poor response to therapy, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy revealed an invasive bony neoplasm of the right mandible, histologically consistent with an osteosarcoma, that was invading the mandible and dental arcade, likely contributing to tooth root infection and osteomyelitis. Endocardiosis of the tricuspid valve was incidentally found as well with early cardiac remodeling of the right ventricle. This is the first report of an osteosarcoma and endocardiosis in a nutria. PMID:25314853

Johnson, James G; Kim, Kenneth; Serio, Jacqueline; Paulsen, Daniel; Rademacher, Nathalie; Pirie, Gordon

2014-09-01

329

Correlation between symphyseal morphology and mandibular growth  

PubMed Central

Background: This study sought to assess symphyseal morphology in adolescents with different mandibular growth patterns (MGPs) in order to see if a relation exists. Materials and Methods: In this study the symphyseal parameters (height, depth, and ratio) of normal subjects were compared with four groups with malocclusion (cl III vertical, cl II vertical, cl III horizontal, and cl II horizontal). These groups (15 samples each) were matched (for sex and cervical maturation stage [CVMS]) based on their cephalograms and patient charts. Growth patterns were differentiated by seven vertical parameters and the Wylie analysis. After confirmation of normality of the groups and similarity of their variances the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of data assessed by adjusted chi-square (P < 0.001). The comparison of cases with the normal group was performed by the Dunnett method. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used for evaluation of intraobserver reliability. Results: We found the symphyseal ratio to have a significant correlation with the MGP (P < 0.001). The symphyseal ratio (Height/Depth) was small in a mandible with vertical growth pattern Cl II or Cl III. Conversely, a horizontal growth pattern of a Cl II or Cl III mandible was associated with a larger ratio of the symphysis in comparison with the normal group. The symphyseal ratio was also found to be greater in females. Conclusion: The symphyseal ratio was found to be strongly associated with the MGP. PMID:25097649

Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Nouri, Mahtab; Mirbeigi, Sanam; Baghban, Alireza Akbar Zadeh

2014-01-01

330

Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures.

Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

2014-01-01

331

Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.  

PubMed

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

2012-12-01

332

Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens: Evaluating Susceptibility and Infection Routes  

PubMed Central

Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107 in the majority of these queens after nine days. Symptomatic worker bees may transmit sufficient active CBPV particles to the queen through trophallaxis, to cause an overt infection. PMID:24618857

Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Buchler, Ralph; Kryger, Per

2014-01-01

333

Colony sex ratios vary with queen number but not relatedness asymmetry in the ant Formica exsecta  

E-print Network

Colony sex ratios vary with queen number but not relatedness asymmetry in the ant Formica exsecta, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Split-sex-ratio theory assumes that con£ict over whether to produce polygynous (multiple-queen) colo- nies of the ant Formica exsecta to study the associations between sex

Alvarez, Nadir

334

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Explore Workshops and Summer Camp (Geography Department,  

E-print Network

Queen's Geography Workshops and Summer Camp Explore Workshops and Summer Camp (Geography Department-profit, student-run initiative and is designed to excite children and youth about geography and provide employment of geography amongst today's youth in a non- threatening and stimulating environment. To provide Queen

Ellis, Randy

335

Extreme reproductive specialization within ant colonies: some queens produce males whereas others produce workers  

E-print Network

Extreme reproductive specialization within ant colonies: some queens produce males whereas others is the partitioning of reproduction among breeders. We stud- ied how reproduction is partitioned among nestmate queens increase their reproductive success by laying more eggs or by increasing the proportion of eggs

Alvarez, Nadir

336

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions  

E-print Network

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 CUNYfirst Faculty Center Navigation;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

337

Host range expansion of honey bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the bumble bee, Bombus huntii  

E-print Network

Host range expansion of honey bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the bumble bee, Bombus huntii Wenjun evidence that Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), one of the most prevalent honey bee viruses, can cause transmission. The fact that bumble bees and honey bees are able to share nectar and pollen resources

338

Potential increase in mating frequency of queens in feral colonies of Bombus terrestris introduced into Japan.  

PubMed

With the exception of several species, bumblebees are monandrous. We examined mating frequency in feral colonies of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris in Japan. Using microsatellite markers, genotyping of sperm DNA stored in the spermatheca of nine queens detected multiple insemination paternities in one queen; the others were singly mated. The average effective paternity frequency estimated from the genotypes of queens and workers was 1.23; that estimated from the workers' genotype alone was 2.12. These values were greater than those of laboratory-reared colonies in the native ranges of B. terrestris. The genotypes of one or two workers did not match those of their queens or showed paternities different from those of their nestmates; this may have arisen from either queen takeover or drifting of workers. These alien workers were responsible for the heterogeneous genotype distribution within each B. terrestris colony, resulting in higher estimates of paternity frequency than of insemination frequency. The high mating frequency of introduced B. terrestris may have occurred by artificial selection through mass breeding for commercialization. Moreover, polyandrous queens may be selectively advantageous, because reproduction by such queens is less likely to be disturbed by interspecific mating than that by monandrous queens. PMID:22976124

Inoue, Maki N; Saito, Fuki; Tsuchida, Koji; Goka, Koichi

2012-10-01

339

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions  

E-print Network

Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 How To Navigate the Finance Section the payment history) · Pending Financial Aid #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

340

OCT Training Group Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training Group  

E-print Network

OCT Training Group Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training Group 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 How to Claim your CUNYfirst Account Step 1 ­ Go to www a different answer. · Click the OK button. Questions #12; OCT Training Group Queens College ~ Office

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

341

Athena SWAN Bronze Award renewal submission Queen Mary University of London 2010  

E-print Network

Athena SWAN Bronze Award renewal submission Queen Mary University of London 2010 Contact for application: Bertille Calinaud b.calinaud@qmul.ac.uk 020 7882 5585 Date of previous award: 2007 Athena SWAN Bronze Award renewal submission Queen Mary University of London 1 of 48 05.2010 #12;Athena SWAN Bronze

Chittka, Lars

342

Abstract We used polymorphic microsatellite markers to study patterns of queen and worker reproduction in  

E-print Network

of the minimum number of male mates of queens followed a Poisson distribution. This result suggested that mating occurred at random within Australian V. germanica populations. In addition, the distribution that the probability of a queen remating was not affected by previous copulations. We also discovered that mates

Yi, Soojin

343

Maerl grounds provide both refuge and high growth potential for juvenile queen scallops ( Aequipecten opercularis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human damage to biogenic substrata such as maerl has been receiving increasing attention recently. Maerl forms highly biodiverse and heterogeneous habitats composed of loose-lying coralline red algae, which fulfil nursery area prerequisites for queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and other invertebrates. The benefits obtained by queen scallops utilising maerl were poorly understood, so we used both laboratory predation and field tethering

Nicholas A. Kamenos; P. Geoffrey Moore; Jason M. Hall-Spencer

2004-01-01

344

CASTE AND REPRODUCTION IN ANTS: NOT ALL MATE^ EGG-LAYERS ARE "QUEENS9'*  

E-print Network

CASTE AND REPRODUCTION IN ANTS: NOT ALL MATE^ EGG-LAYERS ARE "QUEENS9'* School of Biological, various bees (Bombus, Apis, Meliponini) and vespine wasps. Queen and worker castes differ phenotypically activities respectively. Reproductive role partitioning in highly-eusocial species is specified by caste

Danchin, Etienne

345

Department of Mathematics & Statistics-Queen`s University 1 The Diagnostic Tests  

E-print Network

prabably need to go back to high school or community college and sharpen your grade 12 skills; if you canDepartment of Mathematics & Statistics- Queen`s University 1 The Diagnostic Tests Students who have taken OAC Calculus normally take MATH 121 or MATH 126. If you think you may want to do a Mathematics

Abolmaesumi, Purang

346

ORIGIN OF COURTSHIP AND SEX PHEROMONES OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH AND A DISCUSSION  

E-print Network

OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN THE EVOLUTION OF LEPIDOPTERAN MALE SCENTS , Department of Entomology University of California #12;PhytochemicalEcology Key Words: Sex pheromone, phytochemicals,courtship, hairpencils, Lepidoptera

347

Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

1990-11-15

348

Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail pheromones and use them to find food.  

PubMed

Foragers of several species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Meliponini) deposit pheromone marks in the vegetation to guide nestmates to new food sources. These pheromones are produced in the labial glands and are nest and species specific. Thus, an important question is how recruited foragers recognize their nestmates' pheromone in the field. We tested whether nave workers learn a specific trail pheromone composition while being recruited by nestmates inside the hive in the species Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We installed artificial scent trails branching off from trails deposited by recruiting foragers and registered whether newly recruited bees follow these trails. The artificial trails were baited with trail pheromones of workers collected from foreign S. pectoralis colonies. When the same foreign trail pheromone was presented inside the experimental hives while recruitment took place a significant higher number of bees followed the artificial trails than in experiments without intranidal presentation. Our results demonstrate that recruits of S. pectoralis can learn the composition of specific trail pheromone bouquets inside the nest and subsequently follow this pheromone in the field. We, therefore, suggest that trail pheromone recognition in S. pectoralis is based on a flexible learning process rather than being a genetically fixed behaviour. PMID:21052681

Reichle, Christian; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

2011-03-01

349

Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones. PMID:23131844

Pikielny, Claudio W

2012-01-01

350

The geographic mosaic of sex and the Red Queen.  

PubMed

The maintenance of sexual reproduction in natural populations is a pressing question for evolutionary biologists. Under the "Red Queen" hypothesis, coevolving parasites reduce the reproductive advantage of asexual reproduction by adapting to infect clonal genotypes after they become locally common. In addition, the "geographic mosaic" theory of coevolution proposes that structured populations of interacting species can produce selection mosaics manifested as coevolutionary "hot spots" and "cold spots". Here, we tested whether a steep, habitat-specific cline in the frequency of sexual reproduction in a freshwater snail could be explained by the existence of hot spots and cold spots for coevolving parasites. We found that the shallow-water margins of lakes, where sexual reproduction is most common, are coevolutionary hot spots, and that deeper habitats are cold spots. These results are consistent with the geographic mosaic theory, in that the intensity of selection resulting from biological interactions can vary sharply in space. The results also support the Red Queen hypothesis, in that sex is associated with coevolutionary hot spots for virulent parasites. PMID:19631541

King, Kayla C; Delph, Lynda F; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2009-09-15

351

Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, Jos M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, Jos L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldn; Chittka, Lars

2005-08-01

352

Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones  

PubMed Central

Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. PMID:23139877

Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Estel J; Perfecto, Ivette

2012-01-01

353

In Plebeia remota only a few gynes (young virgin queens) are usually reared per year. However, in two labora-  

E-print Network

- nomenon of exceptional high gyne production are discussed. Keywords: Plebeia remota, stingless bees, queen). It is unknown whether in stingless bees the queen has a similar influence (Imperatriz-Fonseca & Zucchi, 1995). In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees rear queens even under queenright condi- tions. After emergence

São Paulo, Universidade de

354

The evolution of polyandry by queens in social Hymenoptera: the significance of the timing of removal of diploid males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiple mating by queens in social Hymenoptera with single locus sex determination may be an adaptation to reduce the effect of genetic load caused by the production of diploid males, if there is a concave relationship between queen fitness and the proportion of diploid male offspring in the colony. In this situation queens should be selected to reduce the

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1990-01-01

355

Queen of the Sun Transcript Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's  

E-print Network

Bug Bytes Queen of the Sun Transcript **Music Up Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from beekeepers of the world. Why? We recently screened a documentary called Queen of the Sun. The film explores in the face of almost certain impending disaster. We were prepared for this, as we thought Queen of the Sun

Behmer, Spencer T.

356

Social enviroment influences aphid production of alarm pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most aphid species, the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f) is released as an alarm pheromone in response to predation and is also emitted continuously at low levels. Some aphid predators use E?f as a foraging cue, suggesting that the benefits to aphids of signaling via E?f must be weighed against the cost of increasing apparency to natural enemies. To determine

Franois J. Verheggen; Eric Haubruge; Consuelo M. De Moraes; Mark C. Mescher

2009-01-01

357

Spawning pheromone in crown-of-thorns starfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

LARGE aggregations of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci L have destroyed a high proportion of the coral on certain Indo-Pacific reefs. We report that gamete release by one A. planci induces other ripe starfish to spawn; similar behaviour has been observed in certain other echinoderms1,2. During natural spawning a pheromone is released from the gonad, which synchronises spawning in neighbouring

D. H. Beach; N. J. Hanscomb; R. F. G. Ormond

1975-01-01

358

Ecological Validity in the Study of Human Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several constituents of human axillary secretions have been proposed as candidate human pheromones, but their influence on\\u000a human behaviour remains controversial. Here we briefly review the literature on the behavioural effects of candidate compounds,\\u000a noting that inconsistencies in findings could be due in part to the variation in experimental context and potential lack of\\u000a ecological validity. We also report results

Tamsin K. Saxton; Anthony C. Little; S. Craig Roberts

359

Molecular cloning of an insect pheromone-binding protein.  

PubMed

Clones coding for the pheromone binding protein precursor have been selected from a cDNA library derived from antennae of the male moth, Antheraea polyphemus. The deduced protein sequence consists of a signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues and a mature binding protein of 142 amino acid residues. RNA blot hybridization indicated that the mRNA is selectively expressed in the antennae of the male moth. PMID:2806547

Raming, K; Krieger, J; Breer, H

1989-10-01

360

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

361

Hormonal and pheromonal control of spawning behavior in the goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species that employ sexual reproduction must synchronize gamete maturity with behavior within and between genders. Teleost\\u000a fishes solve this challenge by using reproductive hormones both as endogenous signals to synchronize sexual behavior with\\u000a gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to synchronize spawning interactions between fish. This dual role\\u000a of hormonal products is best understood in the goldfish, an external

Makito Kobayashi; Peter W. Sorensen; Norm E. Stacey

2002-01-01

362

Pheromones: Convergence and contrasts in insects and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individuals in animal societies interact via a complex web of semiochemical signals. Eusocial species of social insects\\u000a and social mammals are characterized by reproductive division of labour. In some species, group members fight to establish\\u000a which animals will reproduce. Other species use pheromones that act as signals rather than as coercion. The mechanisms used\\u000a in social insects and in

Tristram D. Wyatt

363

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

364

Mandibular asymmetry treated with a modified activator appliance.  

PubMed

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation and medical history is a very rare condition. This clinical report describes treatment with a functional appliance in a young patient with aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation, which is a very rare condition. The patient, a 6(1/2)-year-old girl, was referred for treatment of mandibular asymmetry. There was no relevant family history. The patient showed early mixed dentition with a II molar relationship on the right and II on the left side, 5 mm of overbite and 5 mm of overjet, and a lower midline discrepancy of 3 mm. According to the Pruzansky-Kaban classification of mandibular deformity, the patient was a type IIA; according to Vento and his classification, the mandible of the patient was M2B. The patient was given a Haupl-Andresen activator, which had been modified to reposition the right mandible downward and forward. The functional appliance therapy lasted for approximately 4 years. The affected side showed remarkable condylar growth compared with the normal side. Seven years later, the correction of the mandibular asymmetry was stable and no relapse had occurred. PMID:17667690

Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

2007-07-01

365

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

366

Social regulation of maternal traits in nest-founding bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) queens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY During the nest-founding phase of the bumble bee colony cycle, queens undergo striking changes in maternal care behavior. Early in the founding phase, prior to the emergence of workers in the nest, queens are reproductive and also provision and feed their offspring. However, later in the founding phase, queens reduce their feeding of larvae and become specialized on reproduction. This transition is synchronized with the emergence of workers in the colony, who assume the task of feeding their siblings. Using a social manipulation experiment with the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we tested the hypothesis that workers regulate the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in nest-founding bumble bee queens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that early-stage nest-founding queens with workers prematurely added to their nests reduce their brood-feeding behavior and increase egg laying, and likewise, late-stage nest-founding queens increase their brood-feeding behavior and decrease egg-laying when workers are removed from their nests. Further, brood-feeding and egg-laying behaviors were negatively correlated. We used Agilent microarrays designed from B. terrestris brain expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) to explore a second hypothesis, that workers alter brain gene expression in nest-founding queens. We found evidence that brain gene expression in nest-founding queens is altered by the presence of workers, with the effect being much stronger in late-stage founding queens. This study provides new insights into how the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in queen bumble bees is regulated during the nest initiation phase of the colony cycle. PMID:23966589

Woodard, S. Hollis; Bloch, Guy; Band, Mark R.; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

367

Do Aphid Colonies Amplify their Emission of Alarm Pheromone?  

PubMed Central

When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan

2008-01-01

368

The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in queenless worker honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In honeybees, workers under queenless condition compete for reproduction and establish reproductive dominance hierarchy. Ovary activation is generally accompanied by the expression of queen-like pheromones. Biogenic amines (BAs), in particular dopamine, are believed to be involved in this process by regulating ovarian development. However, the role of BAs in establishing reproductive dominance or their effect on queen-like pheromone production was not investigated. Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. One bee in a pair was treated with either OA or TA while the other was fed sugar solution. TA was found to enhance ovary development and the production of esters in the Dufour's gland and 9HDA (queen component) in the mandibular glands, thus facilitating worker reproductive dominance. OA, on the other hand, did not enhance ovarian development or ester production, but increased the production of 10HDA (worker major component) in the mandibular glands of their sugar-paired mates. OA is known to induce foraging behavior by workers, while increased production of 10HDA characterizes nursing workers. Therefore, we suggest that TA induces reproductive division of labor, while OA treatment results in caste differentiation of workers to foragers and nurses.

Salomon, Mor; Malka, Osnat; Meer, Robert K. Vander; Hefetz, Abraham

2012-02-01

369

Synthesis of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, the male sex pheromone and trail-following pheromone of two species of the termite Zootermopsis.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal is the male sex pheromone and the trail-following pheromone of the Termopsidae Zootermopsis nevadensis and Zootermopsis angusticollis. In this article, we describe the syntheses of the mixture of the four stereoisomers of 4,6-dimethyldodecanal using a synthetic pathway where the key step is a Wittig reaction between methyl 4-methyl-5-oxo-pentanoate and 1-methylheptyl-triphenylphosphonium iodide, and of ()-syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal starting from 3,5-dimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one. Direct GC-MS comparison of these synthetic samples with the natural pheromone allowed its unambiguous identification. PMID:21391118

Ghostin, J; Bordereau, C; Braekman, J C

2011-03-01

370

Mandibular Fracture and Necrotizing Sialometaplasia in a Rabbit  

PubMed Central

A 7-mo-old female New Zealand white rabbit presented with hemorrhage of the gingiva surrounding a loose lower right incisor. Antemortem conventional radiographs revealed only a small bone fragment adjacent to the left mandible's body. In light of a provisional diagnosis of mandibular fracture, the rabbit was euthanized. Postmortem radiographs of the disarticulated mandible demonstrated mandibular symphyseal fracture and comminuted fracture of the ramus and body of the left mandible. According to histopathology, the left submandibular salivary gland had necrotizing sialometaplasia, a nonneoplastic condition of the salivary glands that is caused by ischemic infarction. Although rabbits have been used as animal models of mandibular fracture and necrotizing sialometaplasia, no nonexperimental case of such conditions had been reported previously. PMID:23561940

Villano, Jason S; Cooper, Timothy K

2013-01-01

371

Mandibular talon cusp: A rare presentation with the literature review  

PubMed Central

A talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. It consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morpho-differentiation has been attributed to its formation. It has esthetic and functional concerns. Reports of a mandibular talon cusp are rare in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported, of which only 2 cases in mandibular left central incisors. We report the second instance of a talon cusp in the lingual aspect of the mandibular left central incisor and the first such report in a patient of Libyan origin. A talon cusp is an odontogenic anomaly, which can cause occlusal interferences, displacement of the affected tooth and speech difficulties. Early diagnosis of a talon cusp helps in selecting the appropriate treatment procedure and to avoid future complications. PMID:22346243

Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Gajula, Prathima

2011-01-01

372

Treatment of a mandibular cyst before implant placement: case report.  

PubMed

The aim of this case study is to present a clinical approach to treatment of a mandibular intrabony cyst employing guided bone regeneration principles and protection of the mandibular nerve prior to implant placement. A treatment approach employing a combination of grafting materials and membranes was used to treat the cyst and protect the mandibular nerve prior to implant placement. Micro CT, as well as histology and histomorphometrics, was used to evaluate treatment outcomes. Histological inspection showed bone regeneration at the grafting site. Histomorphometric analysis of the biopsy core rendered a total bone percent area of 58.87% and 41.13% soft tissue. Out of the total bone percent area, 90.45% was revealed as vital bone and 9.55% was graft remnant. The grafted area is supporting an implant-supported prosthesis in full function. PMID:25219064

Yacker, Miles; Ricci, John; Matei, Ioana Chesnoiu; Hu, Bin; Mamidwar, Sachin

2014-01-01

373

Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations  

PubMed Central

Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:24693298

Ilguy, Mehmet; Kursoglu, Pinar; Ilguy, Dilhan

2014-01-01

374

Isolated bilateral macrodontia of mandibular second premolars: A case report  

PubMed Central

Isolated bilateral macrodontia of mandibular second premolars is an extremely rare dental anomaly with only 5 cases reported to date. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 12-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of mandibular posterior teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolars and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, molariform crowns, and tapering, single roots. Following surgical removal of the impacted premolars, orthodontic therapy was initiated to correct the malocclusion. Along with the features and treatment of this rare anomaly, this case report also illustrates the benefits, in terms of treatment planning and surgical technique, of supplementing conventional radiography with cone-beam computed tomography to localize the macrodont premolars and accurately establish their relationship with the neighboring roots and anatomic structures. PMID:22904663

Canoglu, Ebru; Canoglu, Harun; Aktas, Alper; Cehreli, Zafer C.

2012-01-01

375

Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign  

PubMed Central

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H.

2014-01-01

376

Anatomosurgical study of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve for submandibular surgical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate the distance from the mandibular marginal branch of the facial nerve to the inferior margin of the mandible in order to determine the best and safest location to approach the posterior mandibular region. Forty-five hemi-faces of 27 Brazilian adult cadavers were dissected and the distance between the mandibular marginal branch and the

Marcus Woltmann; Ricardo de Faveri; Emerson Alexandre Sgrott

2006-01-01

377

Conditioned Alarm Behavior in Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas ) Resulting from Association of Chemical Alarm Pheromone with a Nonbiological Visual Stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone released from an injured conspecific. This is an adaptive response since alarm pheromone is generally released only in the context of a predation event. Alarm reactions may also occur in response to chemical and visual stimuli that minnows learn to associate with release of alarm pheromone. Here,

Warren K. Yunker; Dan E. Wein; Brian D. Wisenden

1999-01-01

378

Specialization of midgut cells for synthesis of male isoprenoid pheromone components in two scolytid beetles, Dendroctonus jeffreyi and Ips pini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endodermal or midgut cells have only recently been recognized as the site of pheromone synthesis in bark beetles. Midgut cells are not only specialized for digestion, but they have also been recruited to form isoprenoid compounds that function as pheromone components in Ips pini and Dendroctonus jeffreyi. Male bark beetle midgut cells are competent to produce isoprenoid pheromones after feeding

J. B. Nardi; A. Gilg Young; E. Ujhelyi; C. Tittiger; M. J. Lehane; G. J. Blomquist

2002-01-01

379

Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac was less effective and 6E,11Z-16:Al showed only a small effect. In contrast, in subtype PBP2 pronounced structural changes were only induced by the 6E,11Z-16:Al, and the subtype PBP3 did not show any considerable changes in response to the pheromonal compounds. The UV-spectroscopic data suggest that histidine residues are likely to be involved in the ligand-induced structural changes of the proteins, and this notion was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. These results demonstrate that appropriate ligands induce structural changes in PBPs and provide evidence for ligand specificity of these proteins. PMID:12488967

Mohl, Claudia; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jrgen

2002-10-01

380

Direct assessment of queen quality and lack of worker suppression in a paper wasp  

PubMed Central

Assessing a conspecific's potential is often crucial to increase one's fitness, e.g. in female choice, contests with rivals or reproductive conflicts in animal societies. In the latter, helpers benefit from accurately assessing the fertility of the breeder as an indication of inclusive fitness. There is evidence that this can be achieved using chemical correlates of reproductive activity. Here, we show that queen quality can be assessed by directly monitoring her reproductive output. In the paper wasp Polistes dominulus, we mimicked a decrease in queen fertility by regularly removing brood. This triggered ovarian development and egg-laying by many workers, which strongly suggests that brood abundance is a reliable cue of queen quality. Brood abundance can be monitored when workers perform regular brood care in small size societies where each brood element is kept in a separate cell. Our results also show that although the queen was not manipulated, and thus remained healthy and fully fertile, she did not control worker egg-laying. Nevertheless, when workers laid eggs, the queen secured a near reproductive monopoly by selectively destroying these eggs, a mechanism known as queen policing. By contrast, workers destroyed comparatively few queen-laid eggs, but did destroy each other's eggs. PMID:16006333

Liebig, Jurgen; Monnin, Thibaud; Turillazzi, Stefano

2005-01-01

381

Pheromone attraction in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines race 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

MaleHeterodera glycines responded to female nematodes during in vitro bioassay. The male's response was dosage-dependent and significant with a pheromone source of more than five females. Male responsiveness was influenced by the pheromone diffusion and response times. Males were most responsive at three days after emergence from the host plant, while females were also most attractive at the same age.

John F. Rende; Paul M. Tefft; Leon W. Bone

1982-01-01

382

Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related  

E-print Network

of new sex pheromone blends between closely related species. Female sex pheromone production and male moth species Greg P. Learya,b , Jean E. Allena , Peggy L. Bungera , Jena B. Luginbillb , Charles E and Functional Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana

Nachman, Michael

383

(Z)-9-NONACOSENE--MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE CONTACT SEX PHEROMONE OF THE BEETLE  

E-print Network

(Z)-9-NONACOSENE--MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE CONTACT SEX PHEROMONE OF THE BEETLE Megacyllene caryae that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chro- matography-mass spectrometry Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 435 Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 2, February 2006

Hanks, Lawrence M.

384

Inhibitors of sensillar esterase block reversibly the responses of moth pheromone receptor cells.  

PubMed

The pheromone of Antherae polyphemus is slowly (within min) degraded by a sensillum lymph specific esterase. The effects of two volatile alkyl-thio-trifluoro-methyl-ketones with alkyl chain length of six (HTFP) and ten carbons (DTFP), which selectively inhibit the activity of the sensillar esterase, were tested. Single sensillum recordings from sensilla trichodea were performed on isolated antennae either held in a continuous stream of clean air, or exposed to an airstream containing one of the esterase inhibitors. Afterwards the antennae were stimulated with the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Both esterase inhibitors caused a reduction of electrophysiological responses to each of the two pheromone compounds. The DTFP was slightly more effective than HTFP. An almost complete block of the receptor potential amplitude and nerve impulse response was achieved within seconds of exposure to the inhibitors. Responses of both pheromone receptor cells were reduced to the same extent. The half-times of rise and decline of the receptor potential remained unaffected in most cells. The responses to pheromone partially recovered to approximately 50-70% within several min in clean air. An inhibition of the sensillar esterase cannot explain the observed effects. The inhibitors could either react directly with the receptor molecules, thereby inhibiting the action of the pheromone, or bind to the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and prevent the formation of the pheromone-PBP complex stimulating the receptor. PMID:10049224

Pophof, B

1998-11-30

385

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...Tolerances 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...established for residues of the plant volatiles cyclic decadiene...combination when applied to cotton in hollow synthetic...

2012-07-01

386

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...Tolerances 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...established for residues of the plant volatiles cyclic decadiene...combination when applied to cotton in hollow synthetic...

2013-07-01

387

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...Tolerances 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...established for residues of the plant volatiles cyclic decadiene...combination when applied to cotton in hollow synthetic...

2011-07-01

388

Abstract Predators and parasitoids are known to exploit both plant volatiles and herbivore pheromones to locate  

E-print Network

by bark beetles. The predominant bark beetles in conifer forests of central Wisconsin are Ips pini and Ips grandicollis. The aggregation pheromone of Wisconsin I. pini contains ipsdienol, which occurs as (+) and (-) enantiomers, and lanierone, and the pheromone of I. grandicollis contains ipsenol. The major hosts

Erbilgin, Nadir

389

Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.  

PubMed

Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

2002-06-01

390

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions...established for residues of the plant volatiles cyclic...

2010-07-01

391

Decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, a competitive inhibitor of moth pheromone receptors.  

PubMed

An earlier study (Pophof 1998) showed that the esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone inhibited the responses of two receptor neurons of the moth Antheraea tuned to straight-chain pheromone components, an acetate and an aldehyde, respectively. Here we report that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone also inhibited the responses of two pheromone receptor neurons of Bombyx mori to bombykol and bombykal. In contrast, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone activated receptor neurons of the moth Imbrasia cyrtherea tuned to the pheromone component (Z)-5-decenyl 3-methyl-butanoate. However, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone did not affect the responses of two receptor neurons of B. mori females specialized to the plant volatiles benzoic acid and linalool, respectively. These results indicate that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, besides inhibiting the sensillar esterase, interferes with proteins involved specifically in the excitation of pheromone receptor neurons. In binding studies with radiolabelled decyl-thio-trifuoroproparopnone, the inhibitor was bound by the pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus. However, the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone causing response inhibition was 300 times lower than the amount of pheromone-binding protein present in the sensilla. Since the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone adsorbed corresponded to about the maximum number of receptor molecules calculated per sensillum, we expect that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, probably in complex with pheromone-binding protein, competitively inhibits the pheromone receptor molecules. PMID:10757247

Pophof, B; Gebauer, T; Ziegelberger, G

2000-03-01

392

Pheromone communication in the reproductive behavior of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies indicate the presence of a pheromone in the urine of pre? and post?pubertal molt females of Callinectes sapidus which releases courtship behavior in mature males. Ablation experiments suggest that males detect the chemical signal primarily via chemoreceptors on the outer flagella of the antennules (first antennae). Relative to other sensory information, the pheromone of pubertal females is of

Richard A. Gleeson

1980-01-01

393

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Intrepid and SpinTor for leafrollers. All sprays were applied by the grower pheromones in most sites, border sprays for some plum curculio and apple maggot treatments, omitting pink budUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

Agnello, Arthur M.

394

Behavioural plasticity in support of a benefit for aggregation pheromone use in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored behavioural plasticity in the use of aggregation pheromone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Based on previous field observations, we formulated two hypotheses on a benefit of using aggregation pheromone for aggregated oviposition. One hypothesis concerns a benefit to the females themselves, where reduced harassment by males can enhance oviposition rate; the other concerns a

Bregje Wertheim; Marcel Dicke; Louise E. M. Vet

2002-01-01

395

A scientific note on trail pheromone communication in a stingless bee, Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini)  

E-print Network

A scientific note on trail pheromone communication in a stingless bee, Scaptotrigona pectoralis Received 23 July 2010 ­ Revised 17 February 2011 ­ Accepted 21 February 2011 stingless bee / recruitment communication / trail pheromone / labial glands / nest specificity Foragers of eusocial stingless bees use

396

Solution Bias in Ant Colony Optimisation: Lessons for Selecting Pheromone Models  

E-print Network

Solution Bias in Ant Colony Optimisation: Lessons for Selecting Pheromone Models James Montgomery solutions are built probabilisti- cally influenced by the parameters of a pheromone model--an analogue of biases in the solution construction process, the existence and nature of which depend

Montgomery, James

397

Spatial and temporal variation in pheromone composition of ant foraging trails  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal variation in pheromone composition of ant foraging trails Duncan E. Jackson is important as well as interaction effects, we need to know how variation is controlled at an individual level of social insect research. For example, interindividual variation in alarm pheromone content has been found

Holcombe, Mike

398

Release of sex pheromone and its precursors in the pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hym., Diprionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The first identification of a sex pheromone of a pine sawfly (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) dates back almost thirty years. Since then, female-produced pheromones of over twenty diprionid species have been investigated by solvent extraction followed by separation and identification. However, no study has shown what the females actually release. Collection of airborne compounds using absorbtion on charcoal filter as well

Olle Anderbrant; Fredrik strand; Gunnar Bergstrm; Ann-Britt Wassgren; Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg; Claude Geri; Erik Hedenstrm; Hans-Erik Hgberg; Annette Herz; Werner Heitland

2005-01-01

399

THE INFLUENCE OF THE NASONOV PHEROMONE ON THE RECOGNITION OF HOUSE BEES AND FORAGERS  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF THE NASONOV PHEROMONE ON THE RECOGNITION OF HOUSE BEES AND FORAGERS BY VARROA) SUMMARY Simultaneous choice tests proved that Varroa jacobsoni is able to distinguish house bees and foragers by means of the age-dependent Nasonov pheromone production of the bees. The secretion of one or 10

Boyer, Edmond

400

Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2004-12-01

401

Sex-Pairing Pheromone in the Asian Termite Pest Species Odontotermes formosanus  

E-print Network

trail-following pheromones since many compounds used as sex-pairing pheromones also are used as trail-sen's Mausoleum, Nanjing, China C. Liu IU-CHEM Co. Ltd, Shanghai, China D. Sillam-Dussès Laboratoire ?cologie & ?volution CNRS UMR 7625, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France J Chem

Danchin, Etienne

402

A Large Pheromone and Receptor Gene Complex Determines Multiple B Mating Type Specificities in Coprinus cinereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone signaling plays an essential role in the mating and sexual development of mushroom fungi. Multiallelic genes encoding the peptide pheromones and their cognate 7-transmembrane helix (7-TM) receptors are sequestered in the B mating type locus. Here we describe the isolation of the B6 mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus. DNA sequencing and transformation analysis identified nine genes encoding three

Suzanne F. O'Shea; Pushpalata T. Chaure; John R. Halsall; Natalie S. Olesnicky; Andreas Leibbrandt; Ian F. Connerton; Lorna A. Casselton

403

[On eruption of mandibular third molar after extraction of mandibular first or second molar].  

PubMed

In the orthodontic practice, the first or second molars are extracted by reason of a necessity based on the treatment planning. In these cases, it is desirable that the third molar would be taken part in the masticatory function. This study was made to investigate the natural movement of the erupting third molars after the extraction of the first or second molar on the serial lateral cephalometric radiographs and orthopantomographs. Subjects were divided into three groups. The first is the group which the mandibular second molars were extracted. The second is the group which the first molars were extracted bringing about the successful eruption of the third molars. The third is the group which the first molars were extracted with resultant in the failure of the third molar eruption. In all cases, the orthodontic forces were not applied to the third molars. The results were as follows: 1. In the first group, all third molars were successfully erupted and a lot of the spaces after the extraction of second molars were utilized for the eruption of third molars. 2. In the second group, all third molars were successfully erupted and a lot of the spaces after the extraction of first molars were utilized for the mesial movement of the second molars. 3. In the third group, there were various patterns of the impaction of the third molars. It was suggested that the eruption of the third molar was related to the space distal to the second molar but it was not related to the anterio-posterior length of the mandibular body significantly. PMID:2133887

Yamabe, K; Kouguchi, M; Watanabe, Y; Yamauchi, K

1990-08-01

404

Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.  

PubMed

Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

2012-04-20

405

Complete uterine prolapse without uterine mucosal eversion in a queen.  

PubMed

A five-year-old female cat weighing 3 kg was presented by the owner after noticing a large pink, bilobed mass protruding through the vulva during labour. The cat was in good condition, with appropriate lactation, and the newborn kittens were nursing normally. The uterus was not reverted or invaginated at examination, and there was rupture of the mesovarium, mesometrium and uterine-vaginal connection around the cervix. Manual reduction of the prolapsed uterus was not possible because of torn ligaments. A coeliotomy was performed to remove the ovaries, and the apex of the uterine horns was passed by the vaginal route. The remaining part of the mesometrium was disconnected, and the prolapsed uterus was removed. The queen and kittens were discharged from the hospital on the second day after surgery. An unusual feature of this case is that the prolapse was complete, without eversion of any part of the uterus through a vaginal tear. PMID:24697408

Bigliardi, E; Di Ianni, F; Parmigiani, E; Cantoni, A M; Bresciani, C

2014-04-01

406

How the Red Queen drives terrestrial mammals to extinction.  

PubMed

Most species disappear by the processes of background extinction, yet those processes are poorly understood. We analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 19 Cenozoic terrestrial mammalian clades with rich fossil records that are now fully extinct or in diversity decline. We find their diversity loss was not just a consequence of "gamblers ruin" but resulted from the evolutionary loss to the Red Queen, a failure to keep pace with a deteriorating environment. Diversity loss is driven equally by both depressed origination rates and elevated extinction rates. Although we find diversity-dependent origination and extinction rates, the diversity of each clade only transiently equaled the implied equilibrium diversity. Thus, the processes that drove diversity loss in terrestrial mammal clades were fundamentally nonequilibrial and overwhelmed diversity-dependent processes. PMID:23788731

Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles R

2013-07-19

407

Intracellular signal transduction of pBAN action in the common cutworm, spodoptera litura: Effects of pharmacological agents on sex pheromone production in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) regulates sex pheromone production in the pheromone glands of many species of female moths. In order to probe the biochemical steps as well as underlying mechanisms regulated by PBAN, we have tested the effects of pharmacological agents on sex pheromone production of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, using an in vitro assay. Among the pharmacological

Shogo Matsumoto; Rika Ozawa; Kyoichi Uchiumi; Masaaki Kurihara; Takashi Mitsui

1995-01-01

408

Identification of a sex pheromone from male yellow mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

The sex pheromone released by the adult female Tenebrio molitor, 4-methyl-1-nonanol, is well known. In addition, there is evidence that adult males release a pheromone that attracts females. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify male-released pheromone(s). Emissions from virgin adult males and females were collected on filter paper and extracted with pentane. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One male-specific compound was detected and identified as (Z)-3-dodecenyl acetate (Z3-12:Ac). In arena bioassays, E3-12:Ac was attractive to females only, at 1 and 10 microg doses. E3-12:Ac was also attractive to females at a 10-microg dose. The presence of both male and female pheromones, each attracting the opposite sex, may contribute to maintaining a high-density population of both sexes. PMID:16273437

Bryning, Gareth P; Chambers, John; Wakefield, Maureen E

2005-11-01

409

The multiple role of the pheromone-binding protein in olfactory transduction.  

PubMed

Before airborne odorant molecules can stimulate the olfactory receptor cells of animals that live on land, they have to pass through an aqueous solution that contains high concentrations of soluble odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). In insect sensilla the role of these OBPs for signal transduction is becoming multifaceted. Sensillum lymph perfusion experiments in the moth Antheraea polyphemus implied a solubilizer and carrier function of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and led to the conclusion that it is the pheromone-PBP complex which activates the postulated receptors. Recent results have shown the presence of two redox states of the PBP and a shift in pheromone binding from the reduced to the oxidized form, depending on the presence of sensory hair material. Thus, PBP oxidation might occur simultaneously with receptor cell activation and might lead to deactivation of the pheromone-PBP complex terminating the pheromone stimulation. PMID:8894303

Ziegelberger, G

1996-01-01

410

Two regulatory mechanisms of monoterpenoid pheromone production in Ips spp. of bark beetles.  

PubMed

Bark beetles use aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These monoterpenoid chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production is induced when an adult beetle feeds on phloem of a host tree. In Ips pini, juvenile hormone (JH) III influences key regulatory enzymes along the mevalonate pathway that leads to pheromone production. In fact, topically applied JH III is sufficient to stimulate pheromone production in unfed males. In this study, we explore the influence of feeding and JH III treatment on pheromone production in male Ips confusus, the pinyon Ips. We also characterize the influence of feeding and JH III treatment on transcript levels and activity of three key enzymes involved in pheromone biosynthesis: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG) synthase (HMGS), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). We also extend the current understanding of the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in I. pini, by measuring the influence of feeding and JHIII treatment on enzymatic activity of HMGS and GPPS. Feeding on host phloem alone strongly induces pheromone production in male I. confusus, while JH III treatment has no effect. However, feeding and JH III both significantly up-regulate mRNA levels of key mevalonate pathway genes. Feeding up-regulates these genes to a maximum at 32 h, whereas with JH III-treatment, they are up-regulated at 4, 8, and 16 h, but return near to non-treatment levels at 32 h. Feeding, but not JH III treatment, also increases the activity of all three enzymes in I. confusus, while both feeding or treatment with JH III increase HMGS and GPPS activity in I. pini. Our data suggest that pheromone production in Ips is not uniformly controlled by JH III and feeding may stimulate the release of some other regulatory factor, perhaps a brain hormone, required for pheromone production. PMID:19554371

Bearfield, Jeremy C; Henry, Anastasia G; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J; Ginzel, Matthew D

2009-06-01

411

[Local hypothermia in the immediate posttraumatic period in mandibular fractures].  

PubMed

In patients with mandibular fractures the early posttraumatic complications were prevented using local hypothermia with ALG-2M device and special applicators which ensured an uniform cooling of tissues adjacent to fractured zone. Moderate local hypothermia of +28 to +32 degrees centigrade caused the pain-relieving and antiswelling effects, as electrophysiological investigations proved. PMID:2815123

Malevich, O E; Komok, A S

1989-01-01

412

Influence of mastication and edentulism on mandibular bone density.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that external loading due to daily activities, including mastication, speech and involuntary open-close cycles of the jaw contributes to the internal architecture of the mandible. A bone remodelling algorithm that regulates the bone density as a function of stress and loading cycles is incorporated into finite element analysis. A three-dimensional computational model is constructed on the basis of computerised tomography (CT) images of a human mandible. Masticatory muscle activation involved during clenching is modelled by static analysis using linear optimisation. Other loading conditions are approximated by imposing mandibular flexure. The simulations predict that mandibular bone density distribution results in a tubular structure similar to what is observed in the CT images. Such bone architecture is known to provide the bone optimum strength to resist bending and torsion during mastication while reducing the bone mass. The remodelling algorithm is used to simulate the influence of edentulism on mandibular bone loss. It is shown that depending on the location and number of missing teeth, up to one-third of the mandibular bone mass can be lost due to lack of adequate mechanical stimulation. PMID:23682930

Chou, Hsuan-Yu; Satpute, Devesh; Mft, Ali; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Mft, Sinan

2015-02-01

413

Epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour of the mandibular gingiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour (EOGCT) is considered as a solid `neoplastic' variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst and is an uncommon lesion for which various names have been proposed over the years. We describe here an extraosseous case occurring on the edentulous mandibular gingiva in the right bicuspid area of a 70-year-old woman. The lesion was a painless

T Lombardi; R Kffer; R Di Felice; J Samson

1999-01-01

414

A permanent mandibular second molar with seven root canal systems.  

PubMed

This case report illustrates the nonsurgical endodontic management of a seven-canaled mandibular second molar. The root canal configuration presented as four mesial and three distal canals. Identification of the canal system was made with the aid of magnification, ultrasonics, and multiple angulated radiographs. Postoperative examination at 18 months showed a clinically asymptomatic tooth with resolution of the periapical pathology. PMID:24634902

Kottoor, Jojo; Paul, Kuriachan Kottanathu; Mathew, Joy; George, Saira; Mathew, Jain; Roy, Arun

2014-05-01

415

Revised Maxillofacial Anatomy: The Mandibular Symphysis in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placement of dental implants in the anterior mandible is considered by many clinicians to be a relatively low risk procedure. However, hemorrhagic episodes following implant placement in the mandibular symphysis are regularly reported and can have serious consequences. The use of high resolution focused cone beam scanners has given us the ability to visualize the intricate neurovascular network of the

Robert J. Miller; Warren C. Edwards; Carlos Boudet; Jonathan H. Cohen

416

Repeated mandibular lengthening in Treacher Collins syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with mandibular hypoplasia associated with Treacher Collins syndrome was treated by bilateral distraction osteogenesis. Since less than optimal length was provided by the first distraction, a second corticotomy was performed in the newly formed bone 6 months after the first distraction. Thus, bone gained by distraction osteogenesis was subjected to distraction once again. New bone formation occurred after

Oya Kocabalkan; Grsel Leblebicio?lu; Ycel Erk; Ayhan Enacar

1995-01-01

417

Ultrastructure of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands.  

PubMed

The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria. PMID:21671995

Krause, W J

2011-10-01

418

The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 12months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

2013-01-01

419

An agent-based model to investigate the roles of attractive and repellent pheromones in ant decision making during foraging.  

PubMed

Pharaoh's ants organise their foraging system using three types of trail pheromone. All previous foraging models based on specific ant foraging systems have assumed that only a single attractive pheromone is used. Here we present an agent-based model based on trail choice at a trail bifurcation within the foraging trail network of a Pharaoh's ant colony which includes both attractive (positive) and repellent (negative) trail pheromones. Experiments have previously shown that Pharaoh's ants use both types of pheromone. We investigate how the repellent pheromone affects trail choice and foraging success in our simulated foraging system. We find that both the repellent and attractive pheromones have a role in trail choice, and that the repellent pheromone prevents random fluctuations which could otherwise lead to a positive feedback loop causing the colony to concentrate its foraging on the unrewarding trail. An emergent feature of the model is a high level of variability in the level of repellent pheromone on the unrewarding branch. This is caused by the repellent pheromone exerting negative feedback on its own deposition. We also investigate the dynamic situation where the location of the food is changed after foraging trails are established. We find that the repellent pheromone has a key role in enabling the colony to refocus the foraging effort to the new location. Our results show that having a repellent pheromone is adaptive, as it increases the robustness and flexibility of the colony's overall foraging response. PMID:18778716

Robinson, Elva J H; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Holcombe, M

2008-11-21

420

Cloning and characterization of a region of Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pPD1 encoding pheromone inhibitor (ipd), pheromone sensitivity (traC), and pheromone shutdown (traB) genes.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocin plasmid pPD1 in Enterococcus faecalis encodes a mating response to recipient-produced sex pheromone cPD1. Once a recipient acquires pPD1, transconjugants apparently shut off cPD1 activity in broth culture and no longer behave as recipients for pPD1. This event is performed by synthesis of the pheromone inhibitor iPD1 and also by repression of cPD1 production, the so-called "pheromone shutdown." A 5.4-kb EcoRV-HincII segment of pPD1, which expressed iPD1 in Escherichia coli, was sequenced and found to be organized as traC-traB-traA-ipd; each open reading frame is analogous to that found in other pheromone plasmids, pAD1 and pCF10, and thus is designated in accordance with the nomenclature in pAD1. The ipd gene encodes a peptide consisting of 21 amino acids, in which the C-terminal eight residues correspond to iPD1. The putative TraC product has a strong similarity to oligopeptide-binding proteins found in other bacterial species, as do pheromone-binding proteins of pCF10 and pAD1. A strain carrying traC-disrupted pPD1 required a concentration of cPD1 fourfold higher than that needed by the wild-type strain for induction of sexual aggregation. These results suggest that the TraC product contributes to pheromone sensitivity as a pheromone-binding protein. A strain transformed with traB-disrupted pPD1 produced a high level of cPD1 similar to that produced by plasmid-free recipients and underwent self-induction. Thus, the TraB product contributes to cPD1 shutdown. PMID:7559344

Nakayama, J; Yoshida, K; Kobayashi, H; Isogai, A; Clewell, D B; Suzuki, A

1995-01-01

421

Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation.  

PubMed

Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions. PMID:24346351

Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jrgen

2014-01-01

422

Queens of the Dancehall and Rudegyals: Rasta Women and Reggae-Dancehall in Brazil  

E-print Network

As a queen of a music scene, a woman is respected for herthese women with male artists. Dancehall music expresseswomen in the Blues, and Cheryl Keyes, who describes four major female artist personality archetypes in Rap music.

McFarlane, Marisa

2008-01-01

423

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

424

Comparative analysis between direct Conventional Mandibular nerve block and Vazirani-Akinosi closed mouth Mandibular nerve block technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Over the years different techniques have been developed for achieving mandibular nerve anaesthesia. The main aim of our study was to carry out comparison and clinical efficacy of mandibular nerve anaesthesia by Direct Conventional technique with that of Vazirani-Akinosi mandibular nerve block technique.Materials and Methods: 50 adult patients requiring surgical extraction of premolars, mandibular first, second and third molars were selected randomly to receive Direct Conventional technique and Vazirani- Akinosi technique for nerve block alternatively.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed regarding complete lip anaesthesia at 5 minutes and 10 minutes, nerves anaesthetized with single injection, effectiveness of anaesthesia, supplementary injections and complications in both the techniques. However, onset of lip anaesthesia was found to be faster in Vazirani-Akinosi technique, patients experienced less pain during the Vazirani-Akinosi technique as compared to the Direct Conventional technique. Post injection complication complications were less in the VaziraniAkinosi Technique.Conclusions: Except for faster onset of lip anaesthesia, less pain during injection and fewer post injection complications in Vazirani-Akinosi technique all other parameters were of same efficacy as Direct Conventional technique. This has strong clinical applications as in cases with limited mouth opening, apprehensive patients Vazirani-Akinosi technique is the indicated technique of choice.

Mishra, Sobhan; Tripathy, Ramanupam; Sabhlok, Samrat; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Patnaik, Satyabrata

2012-11-01

425

Strength in numbers: large and permanent colonies have higher queen oviposition rates in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Mayr).  

PubMed

Polydomy associated with unicoloniality is a common trait of invasive species. In the invasive Argentine ant, colonies are seasonally polydomous. Most follow a seasonal fission-fussion pattern: they disperse in the spring and summer and aggregate in the fall and winter. However, a small proportion of colonies do not migrate; instead, they inhabit permanent nesting sites. These colonies are large and highly polydomous. The aim of this study was to (1) search for differences in the fecundity of queens between mother colonies (large and permanent) and satellite colonies (small and temporal), (2) determine if queens in mother and satellite colonies have different diets to clarify if colony size influences social organization and queen feeding, and (3) examine if colony location relative to the invasion front results in differences in the queen's diet. Our results indicate that queens from mother nests are more fertile than queens from satellite nests and that colony location does not affect queen oviposition rate. Ovarian dissections suggest that differences in ovarian morphology are not responsible for the higher queen oviposition rate in mother vs. satellite nests, since there were no differences in the number and length of ovarioles in queens from the two types of colonies. In contrast, the higher ?(15)N values of queens from mother nests imply that greater carnivorous source intake accounts for the higher oviposition rates. PMID:24462573

Abril, Slvia; Gmez, Crisanto

2014-03-01

426

Rapid determination of sperm number in ant queens by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.In social Hymenoptera, queens receive a given amount of sperm during a single or multiple inseminations once and for all.\\u000a The amount of sperm stored at mating determines the maximum number of fertilized eggs queens can produce for the rest of their\\u000a reproductive life. We propose flow cytometry (FCM) as a method to estimate the concentration of sperm cells, as

L. Cournault; S. Aron

2008-01-01

427

Colony fusion in Argentine ants is guided by worker and queen cuticular hydrocarbon profile similarity.  

PubMed

Introduced populations of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, have experienced moderate to severe losses of genetic diversity, which may have affected nestmate recognition to various degrees. We hypothesized that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) serve as nestmate recognition cues, and facilitate colony fusion of unrelated L. humile colonies that share similar CHC profiles. In this study, we paired six southeastern U.S. L. humile colonies in a 6-month laboratory fusion assay, and determined if worker and queen CHC profile similarity between colonies was associated with colony fusion and intercolony genetic similarity. We also compared worker and queen CHC profiles between fused colony pairs and unpaired controls to determine if worker and queen chemical profiles changed after fusion. We found that colony fusion correlated with the CHC similarity of workers and queens, with the frequency of fusion increasing with greater CHC profile similarity between colonies. Worker and queen CHC profile similarity between colonies also was associated with genetic similarity between colonies. Queen CHC profiles in fused colonies appeared to be a mix of the two colony phenotypes. In contrast, when only one of the paired colonies survived, the CHC profile of the surviving queens did not diverge from that of the colony of origin. Similarly, workers in non-fused colonies maintained their colony-specific CHC, whereas in fused colonies the worker CHC profiles were intermediate between those of the two colonies. These results suggest a role for CHC in regulating interactions among mutually aggressive L. humile colonies, and demonstrate that colony fusion correlates with both genetic and CHC similarities. Further, changes in worker and queen chemical profiles in fused colonies suggest that CHC plasticity may sustain the cohesion of unrelated L. humile colonies that had fused. PMID:19609617

Vsquez, Gissella M; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

2009-08-01

428

Promiscuous honeybee queens generate colonies with a critical minority of waggle-dancing foragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees present a paradox that is unusual among the social Hymenoptera: extremely promiscuous queens generate colonies of\\u000a nonreproducing workers who cooperate to rear reproductives with whom they share limited kinship. Extreme polyandry, which\\u000a lowers relatedness but creates within-colony genetic diversity, produces substantial fitness benefits for honeybee queens\\u000a and their colonies because of increased disease resistance and workforce productivity. However, the

Heather R. Mattila; Thomas D. Seeley

2010-01-01

429

Helping Students to Write Well-Developed and Detailed Paragraphs and Essays Using "QUEEN FRANCIS."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to get middle school through college students to write detailed paragraphs with the QUEEN FRANCIS method--an acronym that stands for "Qu"otes, "E"xamples, "E"xperts, "N"ames, "F"acts, "R"easons, "A"necdotes, "N"umbers, "C"oncrete words, "I"magery, and "S"ources. Provides a reproduction of the QUEEN FRANCIS handout and tips for use in

Backman, Brian

1996-01-01

430

The lithology, environment of deposition, and diagenesis of the Queen Formation at McFarland, McFarland North, and Magutex Queen Fields, Andrews County, Texas  

E-print Network

Fozmation) (Newell et al. , 1953; Hayes, 1964) . On this basis, they were separately elevated to formational status by Dickey (1940), who proposed the arbitrary boundary at the base of the first thick conspicuous sandstone in the Grayburg-Queen sequence... sandstones, which average 17. 3 and 22. 5 ft (5. 3 and 6. 9 m) in thickness, respectively, in the study area. 12 DRILLING HISTORY The first discovery well in the Queen Formation sandstones in the study area was drilled in Section 8 of Block A-19 by B. L...

Holley, Carolayne Elizabeth

2012-06-07

431

Facultative use of thelytokous parthenogenesis for queen production in the polyandrous ant Cataglyphis cursor.  

PubMed

The evolutionary paradox of sex remains one of the major debates in evolutionary biology. The study of species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction can elucidate factors important in the evolution of sex. One such species is the ant Cataglyphis cursor, where the queen maximizes the transmission of her genes by producing new queens (gynes) asexually while simultaneously maintaining a genetically diverse workforce via the sexual production of workers. We show that the queen can also produce gynes sexually and may do so to offset the costs of asexual reproduction. We genotyped 235 gynes from 18 colonies and found that half were sexually produced. A few colonies contained both sexually and asexually produced gynes. Although workers in this species can also use thelytoky, we found no evidence of worker production of gynes based on genotypes of 471 workers from the six colonies producing sexual gynes. Gynes are thus mainly, and potentially exclusively, produced by the queen. Simulations of gynes inbreeding level following one to ten generations of automictic thelytoky suggest that the queen switches between or combines thelytoky and sex, which may reduce the costs of inbreeding. This is supported by the relatively small size of inbred gynes in one colony, although we found no relationship between the level of inbreeding and immune parameters. Such facultative use of sex and thelytoky by individual queens contrasts with other known forms of parthenogenesis in ants, which are typically characterized by distinct lineages specializing in one strategy or the other. PMID:23639217

Doums, C; Cronin, A L; Ruel, C; Fdrici, P; Haussy, C; Tirard, C; Monnin, T

2013-07-01

432

Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens  

PubMed Central

The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Goncalves; Serrao, Jose Eduardo

2010-01-01

433

Gender-bias primes elicit queen-bee responses among senior policewomen.  

PubMed

Queen bees are senior women in male-dominated organizations who have achieved success by emphasizing how they differ from other women. Although the behavior of queen bees tends to be seen as contributing to gender disparities in career outcomes, we argue that queen-bee behavior is actually a result of the gender bias and social identity threat that produce gender disparities in career outcomes. In the experiment reported here, we asked separate groups of senior policewomen to recall the presence or absence of gender bias during their careers, and we measured queen-bee responses (i.e., masculine self-descriptions, in-group distancing, and denying of discrimination). Such gender-bias priming increased queen-bee responses among policewomen with low gender identification, but policewomen with high gender identification responded with increased motivation to improve opportunities for other women. These results suggest that gender-biased work environments shape women's behavior by stimulating women with low gender identification to dissociate with other women and to display queen-bee responses as a way to achieve individual mobility. PMID:21873568

Derks, Belle; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi; de Groot, Kim

2011-10-01

434

The sensory neurone membrane protein SNMP1 contributes to the sensitivity of a pheromone detection system.  

PubMed

Male moths detect female-released sex pheromones with extraordinary sensitivity. The remarkable sensory ability is based on a cooperative interplay of pheromone binding proteins in the lymph of hair-like sensilla trichodea and pheromone receptors in the dendrites of sensory neurones. Here we examined whether in Heliothis virescens the so-called 'sensory neurone membrane protein 1' (SNMP1) may contribute to responsiveness to the pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization we demonstrated that SNMP1 is in fact present in cells expressing the Z11-16:Ald receptor HR13 and the dendrites of sensory neurones. To assess a possible function of SNMP1 we monitored the responsiveness of cell lines that expressed HR13 alone or the combination SNMP1/HR13 to stimulation with Z11-16:Ald by calcium imaging. It was found that SNMP1/HR13 cells were 1000-fold more sensitive to pheromone stimulation compared with HR13 cells. In contrast, cells that expressed HR13 and the non-neuronal SNMP2-type showed no change in pheromone sensitivity. Overall, our reconstitution experiments demonstrate that the presence of SNMP1 significantly increases the HR13-based responsiveness of cells to Z11-16:Ald, suggesting that SNMP1 also contributes to the response of the antennal neurones and thus to the remarkable sensitivity of the pheromone detection system. PMID:25047816

Pregitzer, P; Greschista, M; Breer, H; Krieger, J

2014-12-01

435

An ABC Transporter Is Required for Secretion of Peptide Sex Pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enterococci are leading causes of hospital-acquired infection in the United States and continue to develop resistances to new antibiotics. Many Enterococcus faecalis isolates harbor pheromone-responsive plasmids that mediate horizontal transfer of even large blocks of chromosomal genes, resulting in hospital-adapted strains over a quarter of whose genomes consist of mobile elements. Pheromones to which the donor cells respond derive from lipoprotein signal peptides. Using a novel bacterial killing assay dependent on the presence of sex pheromones, we screened a transposon mutant library for functions that relate to the production and/or activity of the effector pheromone. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized, but well-conserved, ABC transporter that contributes to pheromone production. Using three distinct pheromone-dependent mating systems, we show that mutants defective in expressing this transporter display a 5- to 6-order-of-magnitude reduction in conjugation efficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter mutant displays an altered biofilm architecture, with a significant reduction in biofilm biomass compared to that of its isogenic parent, suggesting that pheromone activity also influences biofilm development. The conservation of this peptide transporter across the Firmicutes suggests that it may also play an important role in cell-cell communication in other species within this important phylum. PMID:25249282

Varahan, Sriram; Harms, Nathan; Gilmore, Michael S.; Tomich, John M.

2014-01-01

436

The trail pheromone of a stingless bee, Trigona corvina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), varies between populations.  

PubMed

Stingless bees, like honeybees, live in highly organized, perennial colonies. Their eusocial way of life, which includes division of labor, implies that only a fraction of the workers leave the nest to forage for food. To ensure a sufficient food supply for all colony members, stingless bees have evolved different mechanisms to recruit workers to foraging or even to communicate the location of particular food sites. In some species, foragers deposit pheromone marks between food sources and their nest, which are used by recruited workers to locate the food. To date, pheromone compounds have only been described for 3 species. We have identified the trail pheromone of a further species by means of chemical and electrophysiological analyses and with bioassays testing natural gland extracts and synthetic compounds. The pheromone is a blend of wax type and terpene esters. The relative proportions of the single components showed significant differences in the pheromones of foragers form 3 different colonies. This is the first report on a trail pheromone comprised of esters of 2 different biogenetic origins proving variability of the system. Pheromone specificity may serve to avoid confusions between the trails deposited by foragers of different nests and, thus, to decrease competition at food sources. PMID:20534775

Jarau, Stefan; Dambacher, Jochen; Twele, Robert; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

2010-09-01

437

Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 )?=?3.431??10(-7?) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50 ?=?1.087??10(-6?) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 ?=?1.522??10(-6?) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths. PMID:25039606

Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

2014-10-01

438

Ancient Trans-specific Polymorphism at Pheromone Receptor Genes in Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

In the majority of sexual organisms, reproduction occurs almost exclusively through the combination of distinct and alternate forms, called sexes or mating types. In some fungi, there can be dozens to hundreds of alternate alleles that determine compatible mating types. Such extensive polymorphism is expected to be maintained by balancing selection, and in extreme cases may give rise to trans-specific polymorphism. Here, we analyzed sequences of two pheromone receptors in the Microbotryum fungal species complex (Basidiomycota), which has only two alternate mating types. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the pheromone receptors are two allelic sequences acting to determine the alternate A1 and A2 mating types required for mating in Microbotryum. Phylogenetic trees of pheromone receptors in the Microbotryum species complex indicated a trans-specific polymorphism: the Microbotryum sequences from a given mating type were all more similar to the pheromone receptors of distantly related classes of fungi than to the alternate pheromone receptor in the Microbotryum species. A phylogenetic tree built using other known pheromone receptors from basidiomycetes showed that trans-specific polymorphism is widespread. The pheromone receptor alleles from Microbotryum appeared as the oldest, being at least 370 million years old. This represents the oldest known trans-specific polymorphism known in any organism so far, which may be due to the existence of sex chromosomes, obligate sexuality, mitochondrial inheritance linked to the mating type, and a highly selfing mating system in Microbotryum. PMID:19001292

Devier, Benjamin; Aguileta, Gabriela; Hood, Michael E.; Giraud, Tatiana

2009-01-01

439

Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens  

PubMed Central

In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jurgen

2012-01-01

440

A Putative Human Pheromone, Androstadienone, Increases Cooperation between Men  

PubMed Central

Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour. The purpose of this study was to look for possible behavioural effects in male subjects by combining two previously distinct branches of research: human pheromone research and behavioural game theory of experimental economics. Forty male subjects participated in a mixed-model, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The participants were exposed to either androstadienone or a control stimulus, and participated in ultimatum and dictator games, decision making tasks commonly used to measure cooperation and generosity quantitatively. Furthermore, we measured participants' salivary cortisol and testosterone levels during the experiment. Salivary testosterone levels were found to positively correlate with cooperative behaviour. After controlling for the effects of participants' baseline testosterone levels, androstadienone was found to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males. PMID:23717389

Huoviala, Paavo; Rantala, Markus J.

2013-01-01

441

Male-produced aggregation pheromone blend in Platypus koryoensis.  

PubMed

The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis , is a vector of Korean oak wilt disease, which causes massive mortality of oak trees (mainly Quercus mongolica ) in Korea. So that a semiochemical-based control method could be developed, its aggregation pheromone was investigated. Whole body extract and body part extracts of male and female P. koryoensis were analysized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All samples of male extracts contained nerol, neral, geraniol, and geranial. Those compounds were detected from female whole body extract as minor constituents and not detected from any female body part extracts. In addition to those compounds, citronellol was detected from the extract of boring dust produced by an unmated male. However, none of the five compounds were detected from the extract of boring dust produced by mated males and females or in artificial sawdust obtained from a beetle-infected Q. mongolica log. Male and female antennae of P. koryoensis responded to all five compounds in an electroantennography test. The blend of five components was tested in the field and attractive for male and female P. koryoensis. This result suggested that the blend of citronellol, nerol, neral, geraniol, and geranial served as an aggregation pheromone to P. koryoensis. PMID:19170509

Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kwon, Young-Dae; Park, Il-Kwon

2009-02-25

442

Bacterial expression and photoaffinity labeling of a pheromone binding protein.  

PubMed

The first high-level production of a binding-active odorant binding protein is described. The expression cassette polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a DNA fragment encoding the pheromone binding protein (PBP) of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a vector containing this construct generated clones which, when induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, produced the 14-kDa PBP in both the soluble fraction and in inclusion bodies. Purification of the soluble recombinant PBP by preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration gave > 95% homogeneous protein, which was immunoreactive with an anti-PBP antiserum and exhibited specific, pheromone-displaceable covalent modification by the photoaffinity label [3H]6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate. Recombinant PBP was indistinguishable from the insect-derived PBP, as determined by both native and denaturing gel electrophoresis, immunoreactivity, and photoaffinity labeling properties. Moreover, the insoluble inclusion body protein could be solubilized, refolded, and purified by the same procedures to give a recombinant PBP indistinguishable from the soluble PBP. Proton NMR spectra of the soluble and refolded protein provide further evidence that they possess the same folded structure. PMID:8453379

Prestwich, G D

1993-03-01

443

Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  

PubMed Central

Background Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. Methods In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. Results From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. Conclusion This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L. longipalpis pheromone gland as well as the flanking tissues. Using a comparative approach, a set of molecules potentially present in the mevalonate pathway emerge as interesting subjects for further study regarding their association to pheromone biosynthesis. The sequences presented here may be used as a reference set for future research on pheromone production or other characteristics of pheromone communication in this insect. Moreover, some matches for transcripts of unknown function may provide fertile ground of an in-depth study of pheromone-gland specific molecules. PMID:23497448

2013-01-01

444

Stylopsal: the first identified female-produced sex pheromone of strepsiptera.  

PubMed

A female-produced sex pheromone of Stylops muelleri was identified as an unusually branched saturated aldehyde (9R)-3,5-syn-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal. We named it stylopsal. Its structure was established by using mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and organic synthesis of candidate compounds. The synthetic standard of (9R)-3,5-syn-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal gave identical chromatographic and mass spectrometric data as the natural pheromone and also was active in electroantennographic and behavioral assays. The female fat body lipids contained the corresponding fatty acid, indicating a possible link between lipid metabolism and the pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:23143664

Cva?ka, Josef; Jiro, Pavel; Kalinov, Blanka; Straka, Jakub; Cern, Kate?ina; ebesta, Petr; Tom?ala, Ale; Va?kov, So?a; Jahn, Ullrich; obotnk, Jan

2012-12-01

445

Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5?-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests. PMID:24301883

Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

1987-03-01

446

Genomic analysis of the interactions between social environment and social communication systems in honey bees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Social context is often a primary regulator of social behavior, but genes that affect or are affected by social context have rarely been investigated. In social insects, caste specific pheromones are key modulators of social behavior, e.g., in honey bees the queen mandibular gland (MG) pheromone mediates reproductive dominance, its absence prompting ovary activation and queen pheromone production in workers. Here, we investigate the effect of social environment on genome-wide expression patterns in the MG, to determine how social context modulates expression of genes that, in turn alter social environment. We used microarrays to examine the MGs of virgin and mated queens, and queenright (QR) and queenless (QL) workers with or without activated ovaries. Approximately 2554 transcripts were significantly differentially expressed among these groups, with caste and social context being the main regulators of gene expression patterns, while physiological state (ovary activation) only minimally affecting gene expression. Thus, social context strongly regulates expression of genes, which, in turn, shape social environment. Among these, 25 genes that are putatively involved in caste selective production of the fatty-acid derived MG pheromone were differentially expressed in queens and workers. These genes whose functions correspond with enzymatic or transport processes emphasize the occurrence of disparate pheromone biosynthetic pathways for queens and workers, adding another dimension regarding the regulation of these important pheromones. Gene ontology analysis also revealed genes of different functional categories whose expression was impacted by caste or by the social environment, suggesting that the MG has broader functions than pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:24486775

Malka, Osnat; Nio, Elina L; Grozinger, Christina M; Hefetz, Abraham

2014-04-01

447

Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes  

PubMed Central

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as on progeny from subsequent F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses. The data show that the production of the female pheromone blend primarily is controlled by a single autosomal factor, that pheromone-responding olfactory cells are controlled by another autosomal factor, and that behavioral response to pheromone is controlled by a sex-linked gene. F1 males were found to possess olfactory receptor cells that give spike amplitudes to the two pheromone isomers that are intermediate to those of the high and low amplitude cells of the parent populations. Fifty-five percent of the F1 males tested responded fully to pheromone sources ranging from the hybrid (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E/Z) molar blend of 65:35 to the E/Z molar blend of 3:97 for the Z morph parents, but very few responded to the E/Z molar blend of 99:1 for the E morph parents. Data on the inheritance patterns support speculation that the Z morph is the ancestral and that the E morph is the derived European corn borer population. PMID:16593886

Roelofs, Wendell; Glover, Thomas; Tang, Xian-Han; Sreng, Isabelle; Robbins, Paul; Eckenrode, Charles; Lofstedt, Christer; Hansson, Bill S.; Bengtsson, Bengt O.

1987-01-01

448

Sex Pheromone Evolution Is Associated with Differential Regulation of the Same Desaturase Gene in Two Genera of Leafroller Moths  

PubMed Central

Chemical signals are prevalent in sexual communication systems. Mate recognition has been extensively studied within the Lepidoptera, where the production and recognition of species-specific sex pheromone signals are typically the defining character. While the specific blend of compounds that makes up the sex pheromones of many species has been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the evolution of pheromone-based mate recognition systems remain largely unknown. We have focused on two sets of sibling species within the leafroller moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotortrix that have rapidly evolved the use of distinct sex pheromone blends. The compounds within these blends differ almost exclusively in the relative position of double bonds that are introduced by desaturase enzymes. Of the six desaturase orthologs isolated from all four species, functional analyses in yeast and gene expression in pheromone glands implicate three in pheromone biosynthesis, two ?9-desaturases, and a ?10-desaturase, while the remaining three desaturases include a ?6-desaturase, a terminal desaturase, and a non-functional desaturase. Comparative quantitative real-time PCR reveals that the ?10-desaturase is differentially expressed in the pheromone glands of the two sets of sibling species, consistent with differences in the pheromone blend in both species pairs. In the pheromone glands of species that utilize (Z)-8-tetradecenyl acetate as sex pheromone component (Ctenopseustis obliquana and Planotortrix octo), the expression levels of the ?10-desaturase are significantly higher than in the pheromone glands of their respective sibling species (C. herana and P. excessana). Our results demonstrate that interspecific sex pheromone differences are associated with differential regulation of the same desaturase gene in two genera of moths. We suggest that differential gene regulation among members of a multigene family may be an important mechanism of molecular innovation in sex pheromone evolution and speciation. PMID:22291612

Albre, Jerome; Lienard, Marjorie A.; Sirey, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Silvia; Tooman, Leah K.; Carraher, Colm; Greenwood, David R.; Lofstedt, Christer; Newcomb, Richard D.

2012-01-01

449

Gene genealogies reveal differentiation at sex pheromone olfactory receptor loci in pheromone strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

PubMed

Males of the E and Z strains of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are attracted to different blends of the same pheromone components. The difference in male behavioral response is controlled by the sex-linked locus Resp. The two types of males have identical neuroanatomy but their physiological specificity is reversed, suggesting that variation at the periphery results in behavioral change. Differences in the olfactory receptors (ORs) could explain the strain-specific antennal response and blend preference. Gene genealogies can provide insights into the processes involved in speciation and allow delineation of genome regions that contribute to reproductive barriers. We used intronic DNA sequences from five OR-encoding genes to investigate whether they exhibit fixed differences between strains and therefore might contribute to reproductive isolation. Although two genealogies revealed shared polymorphism, molecular polymorphism at three genes revealed nearly fixed differences between strains. These three OR genes map to the sex chromosome, but our data indicate that the distance between Resp and the ORs is >20 cM, making it unlikely that variation in pheromone-sensitive OR genes is directly responsible for the difference in behavioral response. However, differences in male antennal response may have their origin in the selection of strain-specific alleles. PMID:21644950

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wanner, Kevin W; Lfstedt, Christer; Harrison, Richard G

2011-06-01

450

Pheromone discrimination by a pH-tuned polymorphism of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein  

PubMed Central

The Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP) is known to adopt two different conformations. These are BmorPBPA, where a regular helix formed by the C-terminal dodecapeptide segment, ?7, occupies the ligand-binding cavity, and BmorPBPB, where the binding site is free to accept ligands. NMR spectra of delipidated BmorPBP solutions at the physiological pH of the bulk sensillum lymph near pH 6.5 show only BmorPBPA, and in mixtures, the two species are in slow exchange on the chemical shift frequency scale. This equilibrium has been monitored at variable pH and ligand concentrations, demonstrating that it is an intrinsic property of BmorPBP that is strongly affected by pH variation and ligand binding. This polymorphism tunes BmorPBP for optimal selective pheromone transport: Competition between ?7 and lipophilic ligands for its binding cavity enables selective uptake of bombykol at the pore endings in the sensillum wall, whereas compounds with lower binding affinity can only be bound in the bulk sensillum lymph. After transport across the bulk sensillum lymph into the lower pH area near the dendritic membrane surface, bombykol is ejected near the receptor, whereas compounds with lower binding affinity are ejected before reaching the olfactory receptor, rendering them susceptible to degradation by enzymes present in the sensillum lymph. PMID:24158483

Damberger, Fred F.; Michel, Erich; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.; Wuthrich, Kurt

2013-01-01

451

Mating in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: The Role of the Pheromone Signal Transduction Pathway in the Chemotropic Response to Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The mating process in yeast has two distinct aspects. One is the induction and activation of proteins required for cell fusion in response to a pheromone signal; the other is chemotropism, i.e., detection of a pheromone gradient and construction of a fusion site available to the signaling cell. To determine whether components of the signal transduction pathway necessary for transcriptional activation also play a role in chemotropism, we examined strains with null mutations in components of the signal transduction pathway for diploid formation, prezygote formation and the chemotropic process of mating partner discrimination when transcription was induced downstream of the mutation. Cells mutant for components of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (ste5, ste20, ste11, ste7 or fus3 kss1) formed diploids at a frequency 1% that of the wild-type control, but formed prezygotes as efficiently as the wild-type control and showed good mating partner discrimination, suggesting that the MAP kinase cascade is not essential for chemotropism. In contrast, cells mutant for the receptor (ste2) or the ? or ? subunit (ste4 and ste18) of the G protein were extremely defective in both diploid and prezygote formation and discriminated poorly between signaling and nonsignaling mating partners, implying that these components are important for chemotropism. PMID:9286665

Schrick, K.; Garvik, B.; Hartwell, L. H.

1997-01-01

452

Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen mating frequency was studied in the European hornet, Vespa crabro, by analyzing four DNA microsatellite loci in 20 workers from each of 14 nests. Queens were found to be predominantly singly\\u000a mated (9\\/14), although double (4\\/14) and triple mating (1\\/14) also occurred. For most multiply mated queens, paternity was\\u000a significantly biased with the majority male fathering on average 80%

Kevin R. Foster; Perttu Sepp; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Peter A. Thorn

1999-01-01

453

Differential infestation of honey bee, Apis mellifera ,worker and queen brood by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the distribution of Varroa destructor on worker and queen brood in colonies of A. mellifera. With both worker and queen hosts present, the mite prevalence value for worker hosts was 75.0 4.0% (lsmean SE), compared to 5.1 4.0% for queen hosts (P < 0.0001). We also examined the re- sponse of mites to cuticular extracts

Nicholas W. Calderone; Sisi Lin; Lodewyk P. S. Kuenen

2002-01-01

454

Lack of detectable nepotism in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies of the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta present a paradox for kin selection theory. Egg-laying queens within these societies are, on average, unrelated to one another,\\u000a and the numbers of queens per colony are high, so that workers appear to raise new sexuals that are no more closely related\\u000a to them than are random individuals in the

Christopher J. DeHeer; Kenneth G. Ross

1997-01-01

455

Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis. PMID:25098573

Gapar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kova?i?, Ivan

2014-09-01

456

Alveolar ridge changes in patients congenitally missing mandibular second premolars.  

PubMed

This study investigated changes in ridge width over time in patients who were congenitally missing mandibular second premolars. Data were obtained from stone casts and radiographs of 35 edentulous sites on 22 patients representing three time periods: (1) before extraction of the primary mandibular second molar, (2) completion of orthodontic treatment, and (3) long-term evaluation. The findings indicate that ridge width decreases 25% within 3 years after primary molar extraction. The rate of decrease diminishes to 4% over the next 3 years. The change in ridge width had a weak association with the age of the patient at the time of the extraction but a small predictive value. No correlation was found between changes in ridge width and height and the time since the extraction or the age of the patient at the time of extraction. PMID:8126668

Ostler, M S; Kokich, V G

1994-02-01

457

Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored