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1

Suppression of queen rearing in European and Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera L. by synthetic queen mandibular gland pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Queen rearing is suppressed in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by pheromones, particularly the queen's mandibular gland pheromone. In this study we compared this pheromonally-based inhibition between temperate and tropically-evolved honey bees. Colonies of European and Africanized bees were exposed to synthetic queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) for ten days following removal of resident queens, and their queen rearing

J. S. Pettis; M. L. Winston; A. M. Collins

1995-01-01

2

New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are

Alban Maisonnasse; Cédric Alaux; Dominique Beslay; Didier Crauser; Christian Gines; Erika Plettner; Yves Le Conte

2010-01-01

3

Production and transmission of honey bee queen ( Apis mellifera L.) mandibular gland pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social cohesiveness of eusocial insect colonies is maintained primarily through the utilization of pheromones. In this study we quantitatively elucidated the production, secretion, and transmission of 9-keto2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), one of the components of the mandibular gland pheromone of the honey bee queen Apis mellifera; this is the only identified primer pheromone complex in the eusocial insects. Mated queens

Ken Naumann; Mark L. Winston; Keith N. Slessor; Glenn D. Prestwich; Francis X. Webster

1991-01-01

4

cGMP modulates responses to queen mandibular pheromone in worker honey bees  

PubMed Central

Responses to social cues, such as pheromones, can be modified by genotype, physiology, or environmental context. Honey bee queens produce a pheromone (queen mandibular pheromone; QMP) which regulates aspects of worker bee behavior and physiology. Forager bees are less responsive to QMP than young bees engaged in brood care, suggesting that physiological changes associated with behavioral maturation modulate response to this pheromone. Since 3?, 5?-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a major regulator of behavioral maturation in workers, we examined its role in modulating worker responses to QMP. Treatment with a cGMP analog resulted in significant reductions in both behavioral and physiological responses to QMP in young caged workers. Treatment significantly reduced attraction to QMP and inhibited the QMP-mediated increase in vitellogenin RNA levels in the fat bodies of worker bees. Genome-wide analysis of brain gene expression patterns demonstrated that cGMP has a larger effect on expression levels than QMP, and that QMP has specific effects in the presence of cGMP, suggesting that some responses to QMP may be dependent on an individual bees' physiological state. Our data suggest that cGMP-mediated processes play a role in modulating responses to QMP in honey bees at the behavioral, physiological, and molecular levels.

Fussnecker, Brendon L.; McKenzie, Alexander M.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2013-01-01

5

Semiochemicals of the honeybee queen mandibular glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of the five queen mandibular gland semiochemicals that initiate and maintain the retinue behavior of worker honeybees was investigated by quantitative splitless capillary gas chromatography. No detectable pheromone is present at the time of eclosion, but decenoic acid levels build up rapidly during the first week of the queen's life. Two aromatic components attain detectable levels later, with

Keith N. Slessor; Lori-Ann Kaminski; G. G. S. King; Mark L. Winston

1990-01-01

6

Dopamine receptor activation by honey bee queen pheromone.  

PubMed

Queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is produced by honey bee queens and used to regulate the behavior and physiology of their nestmates. QMP has recently been shown to block aversive learning in young worker bees, an effect that can be mimicked by treating bees with one of QMP's key components, homovanillyl alcohol (HVA). Although the mechanisms underlying this blockade remain unclear, HVA has been found to lower brain dopamine levels and to alter intracellular levels of cAMP in brain centers involved in learning and memory. These findings led to the hypothesis that HVA targets dopamine pathways in the brain, which are known to play a critical role in the formation of aversive olfactory memories. Here, we investigate the possibility that HVA interacts directly with dopamine receptors in the bee. We show that HVA selectively activates the D2-like dopamine receptor AmDOP3 but has neither agonist nor antagonist activity on the D1-like receptors AmDOP1 or AmDOP2 nor agonist activity on the octopamine receptor AmOA1. These results suggest a direct molecular mechanism by which queen pheromone can modulate dopamine signaling pathways. They also implicate the dopamine receptor AmDOP3 in HVA-induced blockade of aversive learning in young worker bees. PMID:19523830

Beggs, Kyle T; Mercer, Alison R

2009-06-11

7

Queen bee pheromone binding protein pH-induced domain swapping favors pheromone release.  

PubMed

In honeybee (Apis mellifera) societies, the queen controls the development and the caste status of the members of the hive. Queen bees secrete pheromonal blends comprising 10 or more major and minor components, mainly hydrophobic. The major component, 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), acts on the workers and male bees (drones), eliciting social or sexual responses. 9-ODA is captured in the antennal lymph and transported to the pheromone receptor(s) in the sensory neuron membranes by pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). A key issue is to understand how the pheromone, once tightly bound to its PBP, is released to activate the receptor. We report here on the structure at physiological pH of the main antennal PBP, ASP1, identified in workers and male honeybees, in its apo or complexed form, particularly with the main component of the queen mandibular pheromonal mixture (9-ODA). Contrary to the ASP1 structure at low pH, the ASP1 structure at pH 7.0 is a domain-swapped dimer with one or two ligands per monomer. This dimerization is disrupted by a unique residue mutation since Asp35 Asn and Asp35 Ala mutants remain monomeric at pH 7.0, as does native ASP1 at pH 4.0. Asp35 is conserved in only approximately 30% of medium-chain PBPs and is replaced by other residues, such as Asn, Ala and Ser, among others, thus excluding that they may perform domain swapping. Therefore, these different medium-chain PBPs, as well as PBPs from moths, very likely exhibit different mechanisms of ligand release or receptor recognition. PMID:19481550

Pesenti, Marion E; Spinelli, Silvia; Bezirard, Valérie; Briand, Loïc; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Campanacci, Valérie; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian

2009-05-28

8

Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration

G. M. Loper; W. W. Wolf; O. R. Taylor

1993-01-01

9

Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life.  

PubMed

Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane (3-MeC(31)) is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical. Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC(31) found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it. Production of 3-MeC(31) by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity. Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors. PMID:21331238

Holman, Luke

2010-11-01

10

Reproductive development and ontogeny of queen pheromone production in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Queens of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, produce several releaser and primer pheromones. Using bioassays, the ontogeny of three of these pheromones related to reproductive development was investigated. Virgin queens, in which the process of wing-shedding(dealation) serves as an indicator of the initiation of reproductive development, were studied. First, the production of two queen pheromones,produced in the poison

Edward L. Vargo

1999-01-01

11

Honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis) compete for producing queen-like pheromone signals.  

PubMed Central

Physical fights are the usual means of establishing dominance hierarchies in animal societies. This form of dominance behaviour is most strongly expressed in honeybee queens who engage in fights to the death to establish themselves in the colony. Workers can also compete for reproductive dominance resulting in the establishment of stable hierarchies. They do not engage each other physically, but use pheromones that mimic those produced by queens. The dynamics of pheromone production in paired workers suggests that they engage in a pheromonal contest. Because queen pheromones suppress ovary activation, the contest results in the sterility of the loser.

Moritz, Robin F A; Lattorff, H Michael G; Crewe, Robin M

2004-01-01

12

The inhibitory pheromone of queen fire ants: effects of disinhibition on dealation and oviposition by virgin queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Virgin queen fire ants,Solenopsis invicta Buren, that overwintered in parental nests participated in mating flights in early spring, and some were shown to have been laying eggs in queenright colonies before leaving. Virgin queens reared in spring had immature oocytes in their ovarioles when they left on mating flights.2.When released from pheromonal queen influence by isolation, 98% of both overwintered

David J. C. Fletcher; Murray S. Blum

1983-01-01

13

Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

1981-04-01

14

Mutual pheromonal inhibition among queens in polygyne colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Decrease in individual reproductive output with increasing numbers of reproductives is a general feature of social insect colonies. The previously described negative relationship between the fecundity of individual queens and number of resident queens in polygyne (multiple-queen) colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta appears to result from mutual pheromonal inhibition. In an experimental test for the presence of

Edward L. Vargo

1992-01-01

15

Social parasitism by honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.): evidence for pheromonal resistance to host queen’s signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social parasites exploit their host’s communication system to usurp resources and reproduce. In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, worker reproduction is regulated by pheromones produced by the queen and the brood. Workers usually reproduce when the queen\\u000a is removed and young brood is absent. However, Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, are facultative intraspecific social parasites and can take over reproduction

Vincent Dietemann; Jochen Pflugfelder; Stephan Härtel; Peter Neumann; Robin M. Crewe

2006-01-01

16

Honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) queen feces: Source of a pheromone that repels worker bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

When placed in a small observation arena with workers, most young virgin honeybee queens released fecal (hindgut) material during agonistic interactions with workers and with each other. On release of this material, workers moved to the sides of the arena and groomed themselves. Bioassays of virgin queen fecal material demonstrated that it contains pheromone that repels workers and stimulates grooming

David C. Post; Robert E. Page; Eric H. Erickson

1987-01-01

17

Pheromonal and behavioral queen control over the production of gynes in the Argentine ant Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Both field observations and laboratory experiments have suggested that queens of I. humilis inhibit the production of new queens (gynes). Using small colony fragments, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the means by which this inhibition is achieved. The addition of queen corpses to queenless fragments effectively inhibited the production of gynes, suggesting that a queen inhibitory primer pheromone

Edward L. Vargo; Luc Passera

1991-01-01

18

Queen primer pheromone affects conspecific fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogyne fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, colony workers are territorial and are aggressive toward members of other fire ant colonies. In contrast, polygyne colony workers are not aggressive toward non-nestmates, presumably due to broader exposure to heritable and environmentally derived nestmate recognition cues (broad template). Workers from both monogyne and polygyne fire ant colonies execute newly mated queens after mating flights.

Robert K. Vander Meer; Leeanne E. Alonso

2002-01-01

19

Evidence of pheromonal queen control over the production of male and female sexuals in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses that could explain social regulation of the production of sexuals inSolenopsis invicta were investigated: (1) differences in worker\\/larva ratios; and (2) pheromonal regulation by queens. Small laboratory units (fragments of multiple-queen, i.e. polygyne, colonies) were found to be capable of producing sexuals and to be sensitive in this regard to differences in queen number; the presence of even

Edward L. Vargo; David J. C. Fletcher

1986-01-01

20

Costs and constraints conspire to produce honest signaling: insights from an ant queen pheromone.  

PubMed

Signal costs and evolutionary constraints have both been proposed as ultimate explanations for the ubiquity of honest signaling, but the interface between these two factors is unclear. Here, I propose a pluralistic interpretation, and use game theory to demonstrate that evolutionary constraints determine whether signals evolve to be costly or cheap. Specifically, when the costs or benefits of signaling are strongly influenced by the sender's quality, low-cost signals evolve. The model reaffirms that cheap and costly signals can both be honest, and predicts that expensive signals should have more positive allometric slopes than cheap ones. The new framework is applied to an experimental study of an ant queen pheromone that honestly signals fecundity. Juvenile hormone was found to have opposing, dose-dependent effects on pheromone production and fecundity and was fatal at high doses, indicating that endocrine-mediated trade-offs preclude dishonesty. Several lines of evidence suggest that the realized cost of pheromone production may be nontrivial, and the antagonistic effects of juvenile hormone indicate the presence of significant evolutionary constraints. I conclude that the honesty of queen pheromones and other signals is likely enforced by both the cost of dishonesty and a suite of evolutionary constraints. PMID:22759287

Holman, Luke

2012-04-09

21

Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone  

SciTech Connect

A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

1988-03-01

22

Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.  

PubMed

Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2007-10-03

23

Pathological effects of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae on honey bee queen physiology (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite originally described in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana, has recently been found to be cross-infective and to also parasitize the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Since this discovery, many studies have attempted to characterize the impact of this parasite in A. mellifera honey bees. Nosema species can infect all colony members, workers, drones and queens, but the pathological effects of this microsporidium has been mainly investigated in workers, despite the prime importance of the queen, who monopolizes the reproduction and regulates the cohesion of the society via pheromones. We therefore analyzed the impact of N. ceranae on queen physiology. We found that infection by N. ceranae did not affect the fat body content (an indicator of energy stores) but did alter the vitellogenin titer (an indicator of fertility and longevity), the total antioxidant capacity and the queen mandibular pheromones, which surprisingly were all significantly increased in Nosema-infected queens. Thus, such physiological changes may impact queen health, leading to changes in pheromone production, that could explain Nosema-induced supersedure (queen replacement). PMID:21156180

Alaux, Cédric; Folschweiller, Morgane; McDonnell, Cynthia; Beslay, Dominique; Cousin, Marianne; Dussaubat, Claudia; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

2010-12-13

24

Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

2008-06-01

25

Pheromones  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The apple leaf midge and raspberry cane midge pheromones have been found to be acetoxyheptadecenone and acetoxyundecanone, respectively, and uses for these and related compounds are provided, including monitoring population levels of the midge and control of midge populations by disrupting mating patterns.

2011-12-06

26

THE SOLENOPSIS INVICTA ALARM PHEROMONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As with most social insects, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, utilizes a complex milieu of chemical signals to regulate the activities of the colony. Several of these pheromones, including the trail pheromone and queen recognition pheromones, have been identified. However, the identifi...

27

Differential expression of odorant-binding proteins in the mandibular glands of the honey bee according to caste and age.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) mediate both perception and release of chemical stimuli in insects. The genome of the honey bee contains 21 genes encoding OBPs and 6 encoding CSPs. Using a proteomic approach, we have investigated the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the mandibular glands of adult honey bees in relation to caste and age. OBP13 is mostly expressed in young individuals and in virgin queens, while OBP21 is abundant in older bees and is prevalent in mated queens. OBP14, which had been found in larvae, is produced in hive workers' glands. Quite unexpectedly, the mandibular glands of drones also contain OBPs, mainly OBP18 and OBP21. We have expressed three of the most represented OBPs and studied their binding properties. OBP13 binds with good specificity oleic acid and some structurally related compounds, OBP14 is better tuned to monoterpenoid structures, while OBP21 binds the main components of queen mandibular pheromone as well as farnesol, a compound used as a trail pheromone in the honey bee and other hymenopterans. The high expression of different OBPs in the mandibular glands suggests that such proteins could be involved in solubilization and release of semiochemicals. PMID:21707107

Iovinella, Immacolata; Dani, Francesca Romana; Niccolini, Alberto; Sagona, Simona; Michelucci, Elena; Gazzano, Angelo; Turillazzi, Stefano; Felicioli, Antonio; Pelosi, Paolo

2011-07-11

28

Pheromone-mediated gene expression in the honey bee brain  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) causes changes in gene expression in the brain of the adult worker honey bee, and that these changes can be correlated to the downstream behavioral responses induced by QMP. In support of the first hypothesis, cage experiments revealed that QMP transiently regulated expression of several hundred genes and chronically regulated the expression of 19 genes. Several of these genes were also affected by QMP in experiments with bee colonies in the field, demonstrating robust gene regulation by pheromone. To evaluate the second hypothesis, we focused on one function of QMP: delaying the transition from working in the hive (e.g., brood care, or “nursing”) to foraging. We compared the list of QMP-regulated genes with the lists of genes differentially regulated in nurse and forager brains generated in a separate study. QMP consistently activated “nursing genes” and repressed “foraging genes,” suggesting that QMP may delay behavioral maturation by regulating genes in the brain that produce these behavioral states. We also report here on an ortholog of the Drosophila transcription factor kruppel homolog 1 that was strongly regulated by QMP, especially in the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. These results demonstrate chronic gene regulation by a primer pheromone and illustrate the potential of genomics to trace the actions of a pheromone from perception to action, and thereby provide insights into how pheromones regulate social life.

Grozinger, Christina M.; Sharabash, Noura M.; Whitfield, Charles W.; Robinson, Gene E.

2003-01-01

29

MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRE ANT, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA, ALARM PHEROMONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As with most social insects, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, utilizes complex chemical signals to regulate the activities of the colony. Several of these pheromones, including the trail pheromone and queen recognition pheromones, have been identified. However, the alarm pheromone has ...

30

Queen bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three kinds of bees in a colony: the queen, workers, and drones. The queen bee is the largest bee and her only purpose is to mate with the drone bees and lay eggs. Drones are male bees and their sole job is to mate with the queen. Workers are sterile females, meaning they can't lay eggs. Worker bees collect nectar and food for the queen and her developing larvae and protect the hive. Bees perform dances to tell other bees where and how far away food is located.

Alle Bilder (None;)

2007-05-10

31

Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.  

PubMed

Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test. PMID:22081302

Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

2011-11-12

32

A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid.  

PubMed

By using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a honey bee [Apis mellifera (Am)] odorant receptor (Or) for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA). Honey bees live in large eusocial colonies in which a single queen is responsible for reproduction, several thousand sterile female worker bees complete a myriad of tasks to maintain the colony, and several hundred male drones exist only to mate. The "queen substance" [also termed the queen retinue pheromone (QRP)] is an eight-component pheromone that maintains the queen's dominance in the colony. The main component, 9-ODA, acts as a releaser pheromone by attracting workers to the queen and as a primer pheromone by physiologically inhibiting worker ovary development; it also acts as a sex pheromone, attracting drones during mating flights. However, the extent to which social and sexual chemical messages are shared remains unresolved. By using a custom chemosensory-specific microarray and qPCR, we identified four candidate sex pheromone Ors (AmOr10, -11, -18, and -170) from the honey bee genome based on their biased expression in drone antennae. We assayed the pheromone responsiveness of these receptors by using Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiology. AmOr11 responded specifically to 9-ODA (EC50=280+/-31 nM) and not to any of the other seven QRP components, other social pheromones, or floral odors. We did not observe any responses of the other three Ors to any of the eight QRP pheromone components, suggesting 9-ODA is the only QRP component that also acts as a long-distance sex pheromone. PMID:17761794

Wanner, Kevin W; Nichols, Andrew S; Walden, Kimberly K O; Brockmann, Axel; Luetje, Charles W; Robertson, Hugh M

2007-08-30

33

Pheromone Signalling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

Hart, Adam G.

2011-01-01

34

Queen production and instrumental insemination of Apis florea queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin queens of A. florea were produced in 10 queenless colonies yielding 106 queens with an average of 10.6?±?2.99 queen cells per colony and a success\\u000a rate of 65.23?±?0.14% virgin queens. Spermatozoa were collected directly from the seminal vesicles. Thirty queens were inseminated,\\u000a each with a pool of about 3.12?×?106 spermatozoa derived from 8 drones. Six queens began to lay

Mananya Phiancharoen; Siriwat Wongsiri; H. Randall Hepburn

2011-01-01

35

The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

36

Workers of a Polistes Paper Wasp Detect the Presence of Their Queen by Chemical Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in long-chain hydrocarbon mixtures among reproductive and nonreproductive individuals have been often revealed in social insects. However, very few papers demonstrated that these signatures actually act as contact pheromones used by nonreproductive to recognize the presence of a related queen in the colony. Cuticular and glandular hydrocarbons of Polistes paper wasps have been extensively studied, but, until now, the

Leonardo Dapporto; Antonio Santini; Francesca R. Dani; Stefano Turillazzi

2007-01-01

37

Mandibular angloplasty.  

PubMed

Bulging of the mandibular angle is considered to be unattractive in the Orient since it gives the face a quadrangular and muscular appearance. In spite of its muscular origin, surgery should be aimed toward bony reduction or osteoplasty and supplemental myotomy. An intraoral approach was utilized with an oscillating saw to resect a predetermined segment of bone (mandibular angloplasty). In 2 patients with a prominent bilateral mandibular angle, only the bony angle was resected. The improvement of facial esthetics was subtle, and the acceptance and satisfaction of the patients were very good. A review of the literature is included with comments on the diagnosis and treatment of benign masseteric hypertrophy. PMID:1491548

Kim, H C; Kameyama, T

1992-01-01

38

Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations.  

PubMed

Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger 'selfishly' adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish. PMID:20181562

Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-02-24

39

Queen's New Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the Danish tale Emperor's New Clothes and Lady Gaga's Orbit dress, we designed and implemented a wearable computing costume, Queen's New Clothes, which appears plain to naked eyes but exhibits changing patterns on photos taken at different time and location. The project explores the dual status of fashion in both the physical world and the digital world. It

Li Bian; Lining Yao; Matthew Hirsch

2011-01-01

40

What is a pheromone? Mammalian pheromones reconsidered.  

PubMed

Pheromone communication is a two-component system: signaling pheromones and receiving sensory neurons. Currently, pheromones remain enigmatic bioactive compounds, as only a few have been identified, but classical bioassays have suggested that they are nonvolatile, activate vomeronasal sensory neurons, and regulate innate social behaviors and neuroendocrine release. Recent discoveries of potential pheromones reveal that they may be more structurally and functionally diverse than previously defined. PMID:15924856

Stowers, Lisa; Marton, Tobias F

2005-06-01

41

Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed. PMID:21786084

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2011-07-23

42

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-10

43

[The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].  

PubMed

Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

Eijkman, M A J

2012-05-01

44

11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

45

13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

46

12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

47

"Sculpture of a Benin Queen."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers an art lesson for grades K-3 based on an early 19th century sculpture of the head of a Benin Queen. Presents background on the relevance of Queen Mother's position in Benin culture. Discusses importance of regalia and scarification associated with Benin heads. Includes suggestions for classroom activities. (BR)

Guip, David

1987-01-01

48

Effect of pheromones, hormones, and handling on sucrose response thresholds of honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responsiveness of bees to sucrose is an important indicator of honey bee foraging decisions. Correlated with sucrose responsiveness is forage choice behavior, age of first foraging, and conditioned learning response. Pheromones and hormones are significant components in social insect systems associated with the regulation of colony-level and individual foraging behavior. Bees were treated to different exposure regimes of queen

T. Pankiw; R. E. Page Jr

2003-01-01

49

Sex Pheromone in Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Effect of age, caste and mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females of all ages, castes, and prior mating experiences elicited sexual behavior in males of the social waspPolistes fuscatus (F.). The venoms of workers, queens, uninseminated gynes more than 24 hours old, and inseminated gynes more than 14 days old were effective in stimulating male sexual behavior, and thus contained sex pheromone. The venom of gynes less than 15 hours

D. C. Post; R. L. Jeanne

1985-01-01

50

Synthesis of ?-lactonic pheromones of Xylocopa hirsutissima and Vespa orientalis and an allomone of some ants of genus Camponotus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple preparations ofcis-3,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, VII,6-n-undecyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, XVIIb, and 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone, XVIa, have been achieved. Products VII and XVIIb, respectively, are the major constituent of the pheromonal blend of a carpenter bee (Xylocopa hirsutissima) and the pheromone of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). The lactone XVIa is a suspected defensive allomone in two species of formicine ants of the genusCamponotus. All

R. Bacardit; M. Moreno-Mañas

1983-01-01

51

Queen substance dispersal by messenger workers in honeybee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Worker honeybees contacting a queen can transport the queen's inhibitory signal, queen substance, to other workers unable to contact the queen. Airborne dispersal of queen substance is at most a minor mechanism for queen substance transmission.2.This worker transport of queen substance is an important supplement to queen substance dispersal by direct queen-worker contacts. For although colonies lose their inhibition against

Thomas D. Sceley

1979-01-01

52

How mammals detect pheromones.  

PubMed

One of the most intriguing discoveries in mammalian pheromone research is the report that a short exposure of women to volatile compounds from sweat can significantly alter their menstrual cycle. This work suggests that specific molecules are produced by women at different stages of the menstrual cycle and that this putative 'pheromonal' blend has effects on the timing of the cycle in women that were briefly exposed to it. What human pheromones are and how they work are not known, however a considerable progress has been made in understanding how other mammals are likely to detect pheromones with the discovery of pheromone receptors. Even though it is proved that pheromones affect human responses, it remains unlikely that similar receptors account for these effects. PMID:12834021

Silvotti, L; Montani, G; Tirindelli, R

2003-01-01

53

Pheromones and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical communication is widely used by crustaceans, for example, in sexual interactions, larval release, and planktonic\\u000a settlement. However, we know the identity of very few of the molecules involved. In this chapter, I introduce pheromones and\\u000a contrast them with signature mixtures. Pheromones are molecules that are evolved signals, in defined ratios in the case of\\u000a multiple component pheromones, which are

Tristram D. Wyatt

54

Reflections on the "N" + "k" Queens Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "N" queens problem is a classic puzzle. It asks for an arrangement of "N" mutually non-attacking queens on an "N" x "N" chessboard. We discuss a recent variation called the "N" + "k" queens problem, where pawns are added to the chessboard to allow a greater number of non-attacking queens to be placed on it. We describe some of what is known…

Chatham, Doug

2009-01-01

55

Queen of Punt - History of Dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Cairo museum, on Queen Hatshepsut's tomb in Deir el Bahari,is showed the chief Parihou with his wife Ati, Queen of Punt, (not still geographically established: Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan?) while they offer gifts to the Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut (1516-1481 BC). Naval expedition to the mysterious land of Punt was undertaken in the summer of Hatshepsut's eighth year as

Camillo O. Di Cicco

56

Mating pheromones of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mating pheromones, which induce mating tube formation, were isolated from Rhodosporidium toruloides (rhodotorucine A) and Tremella mesenterica (tremerogen A-10). These mating pheromones are lipophilic oligopeptides having S-alkylated cysteine at the C-terminus but different amino acid sequences. Synthetic analogues of these pheromones revealed the structure-activity relationships. Metabolism of rhodotorucine A was also studied by using labeled pheromones.

Kamiya, Y.; Sakurai, A.

1981-03-01

57

The pheromone emergency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female moths utilize sex pheromones to attract mates across a potentially long geographic distance. The biochemical basis of how moth female sex pheromones are synthesized has been elucidated in a number of species, and a particularly large amount of effort has been expended on the agricultural pes...

58

Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality.

Vander Meer, Robert K.; Preston, Catherine A.; Hefetz, Abraham

2008-12-01

59

Pheromone Transduction in Moths  

PubMed Central

Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30?Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLC?-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

Stengl, Monika

2010-01-01

60

Queen Dispersal Strategies in the Multiple?Queen Form of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly produced queens in the multiple-queen (poly- gyne) form of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta show dramatic variation in dispersal patterns, and this variation is influenced by genotypic variation at a single locus associated with the genetic marker Gp-9. Heavy, homozygous Gp-9 BB queens exhibit the highest vagility among polygyne queens and are strongly attracted to the open, disturbed-habitat patches

Christopher J. DeHeer; Michael A. D. Goodisman; Kenneth G. Ross

1999-01-01

61

Optimal pheromone distribution for ANCOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the utilization of a new pheromone distribution model for ANCOR. ANCOR is a novel routing algorithm for sensor networks. The main idea behind the algorithm is imitating the real acts of ants for finding new food resources and bringing them to their nests. A new pheromone distribution model for ANCOR, i.e. optimal pheromone distribution model will be

Deniz Demiray; D. Turgay Altilar

2008-01-01

62

Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

1984-01-01

63

Colony founding by queen association and determinants of reduction in queen number in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the nuptial flight, queens ofLasius nigeroccur in very high densities on the ground. Queens in this study avoided areas frequented by workers of established colonies, leading to additional clumping of nest foundations. In the field 18% of colony foundationnests contained more than one queen (pleometrosis). Queens showed neither preference for nor avoidance of pleometrotic founding, indicating that foundress associations

K. SOMMER; B. HÖLLDOBLER

1995-01-01

64

Effect of queen quality on interactions between workers and dueling queens in honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness of a social insect colony depends greatly on the quality (i.e., mating ability, fecundity, and offspring viability) of its queen(s). In honeybees, there is marked variation in the quality of young queens that compete in a series of lethal duels to replace a colony’s previous queen. Workers interact with queens during these duels and could increase their inclusive

David C. Gilley; David R. Tarpy; Benjamin B. Land

2003-01-01

65

The evolution of pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

Small-brained rodents have been the principle focus for pheromonal research and have provided comprehensive insights into the chemosensory mechanisms that underpin pheromonal communication and the hugely important roles that pheromones play in behavioural regulation. However, pheromonal communication does not start or end with the mouse and the rat, and work in amphibians reveals much about the likely evolutionary origins of the chemosensory systems that mediate pheromonal effects. The dual olfactory organs (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), their receptors and their separate projection pathways appear to have ancient evolutionary origins, appearing in the aquatic ancestors of all tetrapods during the Devonian period and so pre-dating the transition to land. While the vomeronasal organ has long been considered an exclusively pheromonal organ, accumulating evidence indicates that it is not the sole channel for the transduction of pheromonal information and that both olfactory systems have been co-opted for the detection of different pheromone signals over the course of evolution. This has also led to great diversity in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor families, with enormous levels of gene diversity and inactivation of genes in different species. Finally, the evolution of trichromacy as well as huge increases in social complexity have minimised the role of pheromones in the lives of primates, leading to the total inactivation of the vomeronasal system in catarrhine primates while the brain increased in size and behaviour became emancipated from hormonal regulation. PMID:18977248

Swaney, William T; Keverne, Eric B

2008-10-11

66

Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?  

PubMed Central

Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice.

Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

2002-01-01

67

Growth stimulating effect on queen bee larvae of histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Royal jelly (RJ) is a widely used natural food. It is also a major source of nutrition for queen bees and plays a key role in their development. RJ is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. The regulation of gene expression in these two glands may influence the development of queen bees by affecting the content of RJ. This study investigated the epigenetic effects in these two glands in young adult worker bees treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and NBM-HD-1, a novel compound synthesized in this laboratory. Western blot analyses indicated that the levels of acetyl-histone 3 and p21 protein expression in MCF-7 cells increased markedly after treatment with NBM-HD-1. The data proved that NBM-HD-1 was a novel and potent HDACi. Furthermore, a method of affecting epigenetic regulation of the mrjp family gene in the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees was developed by feeding young adult worker bees HDACi. Epigenetic regulation produced several important biological effects. A marked change in the protein composition of the RJ secreted from these treated bees was found. Only the ratio of specific major royal jelly protein 3 (MRJP3) was significantly altered in the treated bees versus the untreated controls. Other MRJP family proteins did not change. This alteration in the ratio of royal jelly proteins resulted in a significant increase in the body size of queen bee larvae. The data seem to suggest that HDACis may play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. They appear to change mrjp3 gene expression and alter the ratio of MRJP3 protein in RJ. This study presents the first evidence that HDACis are capable of regulating the ratio of MRJP3 proteins in RJ, which has the potential to change the body size of queen bees during their development. PMID:22642680

Huang, Chung-Yang; Chi, Li-Ling; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Chen, Wei-Jung; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Yuan, Cheng Mike; Chen, Chia-Nan

2012-06-07

68

Effect of pheromones, hormones, and handling on sucrose response thresholds of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

The responsiveness of bees to sucrose is an important indicator of honey bee foraging decisions. Correlated with sucrose responsiveness is forage choice behavior, age of first foraging, and conditioned learning response. Pheromones and hormones are significant components in social insect systems associated with the regulation of colony-level and individual foraging behavior. Bees were treated to different exposure regimes of queen and brood pheromones and their sucrose responsiveness measured. Bees reared with queen or brood pheromone were less responsive than controls. Our results suggest responsiveness to sucrose is a physiologically, neuronally mediated response. Orally administered octopamine significantly reduced sucrose response thresholds. Change in response to octopamine was on a time scale of minutes. The greatest separation between octopamine treated and control bees occurred 30 min after feeding. There was no significant sucrose response difference to doses ranging from 0.2 mug to 20 mug of octopamine. Topically applied methoprene significantly increased sucrose responsiveness. Handling method significantly affected sucrose responsiveness. Bees that were anesthetized by chilling or CO(2) treatment were significantly more responsive than control bees 30 min after handling. Sixty minutes after handling there were no significant treatment differences. We concluded that putative stress effects of handling were blocked by anesthetic. PMID:12879351

Pankiw, T; Page, R E

2003-08-07

69

Individual recognition and learning of queen odors by worker honeybees  

PubMed Central

A honeybee queen is usually attacked if she is placed among the workers of a colony other than her own. This rejection occurs even if environmental sources of odor, such as food, water, and genetic origin of the workers, are kept constant in laboratory conditions. The genetic similarity of queens determines how similar their recognition characteristics are; inbred sister queens were accepted in 35% of exchanges, outbred sister queens in 12%, and nonsister queens in 0%. Carbon dioxide narcosis results in worker honeybees accepting nonnestmate queens. A learning curve is presented, showing the time after narcosis required by workers to learn to recognize a new queen. In contrast, worker transfers result in only a small percentage of the workers being rejected. The reason for the difference between queens and workers may be because of worker and queen recognition cues having different sources.

Breed, Michael D.

1981-01-01

70

Transmigration of Mandibular Canines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present the first case of unusual reverse oblique (110 degrees to midsagittal plane) migration of mandibular right canine crossing the jaw midline and piercing the lower border of the mandible at the level of the opposite canine and also to report two more cases of transmigrated mandibular canine and one case of transmigrating mandibular canine. Mandibular canines are “cornerstone” of dental arch; their importance is manifested by their efficiency in masticatory function, stability of dental arch, and aid in maintaining natural facial expression. Early detection of this anomaly can help preserving these canines by orthodontic intervention or by surgical transplantation. This developmental anomaly is properly diagnosed by radiographic evaluation, which is primarily based on the panoramic radiograph. In patients with overretained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines, an intraoral radiograph should be supplemented with panoramic radiograph. This paper discusses the importance of early diagnosis of canine transmigration in treatment planning and reviews the various possible treatment options.

Umashree, N.; Kumar, Avinash; Nagaraj, Tejavathi

2013-01-01

71

Pheromone Model: Application to Traffic Congestion Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insects such as ants and bees perform complex tasks with pheromone communication despite lack of top-down style control. We have examined applications of this pheromone paradigm towards ITS. In this paper, a car is regarded as an insect that releases (electronic) pheromone that represents density of traffic. We propose a method to predict future traffic through a pheromone mechanism

Osamu Masutani; Hirotoshi Iwasaki; Yoshiaki Fukazawa; Shinichi Honiden

2005-01-01

72

Spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana ) pheromone chemistry and behavioral responses to pheromone components and analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the sex pheromone chemistry and pheromone-mediated behavior of the spruce budworm and related coniferophagous (Choristoneura) budworms. InC. fumiferana, temporal changes in pheromone-gland monounsaturated fatty acids (pheromone precursors) enable the prediction of the primary sex pheromone components. This technique may also be applicable for predicting additional pheromone components. Tetradecanal (14: Ald), previously shown to enhance close-range precopulatory behavior,

Peter J. Silk; L. P. S. Kuenen

1986-01-01

73

[The functional mandibular prognathism].  

PubMed

The functional mandibular prognathism belong to the class III malocclusion according to the terminology of Angle. Its origins are multiple, from the abnormality of eruption of deciduous or definitive incisors to lingual dysfunction (low position of the tongue). In spite of its weak prevalence, it must be prematurely detected and treated (mixed or temporary teeth) to prevent a functional anomaly to become a skeletal anomaly. It is important at this stage to proceed to the unique gesture which allows making the differential diagnosis: it is the De Névrezé procedure; it allows obtaining a more retrusive position of the mandible to minimize the dental relations. In case of true mandibular prognathism, the maneuver does not succeed; there is no modification of the dental reports. An interceptive therapeutic phase allows finding quickly a previous correct guide and to rehabilitate the growth of jaws. PMID:19054656

Le Gall, M; Philip, C; Bandon, D

2008-12-02

74

Balancing acts: drag queens, gender and faith.  

PubMed

While engaged in research on the same-sex marriage debate in mainline denominations, I interviewed 23 LGBT Christians, four of whom were drag queens. While it is not possible to generalize from such a small sample, the drag queens in this study insist on maintaining their identity as Christians despite the hegemonic discourse that renders faith and LGBT identities mutually exclusive. They developed innovative approaches to reconciling their gender and sexual identities with their spirituality. Their innovations are potentially liberating not just for them personally, but for LGBT people generally because they challenge Christianity's rigid dichotomies of gender and sexuality. PMID:15132491

Sullivan-Blum, Constance R

2004-01-01

75

Host queen killing by a slave-maker ant queen: when is a host queen worth attacking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new colony of the slave-making ant Polyergus breviceps is initiated when a newly mated gyne invades a host nest and kills the resident queen. This process seems to result in chemical camouflage of the invading gyne and allows her to usurp the position of colony reproductive. Young, recently mated Formica gynes, however, are not attacked. To determine whether worker

Christine A. Johnson; Howard Topoff; Robert K. Vander Meer; Barry Lavine

2002-01-01

76

Olfactory study: human pheromones.  

PubMed

Recent work suggests that short-chain aliphatic acids in vaginal secretions may play a role of pheromones in primates, including humans. An experiment was conducted with 3 women to determmine the odor composition of vaginal secretions before and after coitus. Prior to coitus they refrained from sexual activities for 48 hours, did not use a vaginal douche for 7 days, did not bathe or shower for 24 hours, and did not use vaginal hygiene preparations for 72 hours. Samples of vaginal secretions were taken at 9:00 A.M., 1:00 P.M., and 5:00 P.M. on the day before coitus. After coitus at 7:00 A.M., samples were again taken from each subject at the same hours as before. A condom was used in 1 coitus to prevent male secretions and seminal fluids from entering vaginal secretions. The GC/sensory assay (odorogram) was used and odor description notes made. The survey indicated that 13 odorous compounds occurred regularly. It was noted that components with acidic odor tended to appear at lower retention rates in postcoital samples. The chemistry of these compounds was not investigated. It is concluded that differences exist in the odors of pre- and postcoital vaginal secretions. The biological relevance of these differences was unresolved. The question of the pheromonic significance of vaginal odors in humans remains undetermined. PMID:1174306

Keith, L; Draunieks, A; Krotoszynski, B K

1975-07-29

77

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.  

PubMed

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

2010-06-15

78

Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.…

Koeppe, Tina

2007-01-01

79

Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Metropolitan Museum accompanies their retrospective exhibition of the work of couturier Alexander McQueen, who committed suicide at age 40 in 2010. McQueen was known for his lavishly staged runway shows, for example his spring 2003 collection, "Irere", featured a recreation of a shipwreck complete with pirates and amazons, and models falling overboard. "It's only a game" in 2005, was a human chess game, with models dressed as chess pieces, such a knight in a horsehairs skirt. On the exhibition's website, visitors can view selected objects including McQueen's extremely low-slung trousers, "bumsters" or the Spine Corset, a silver exoskeleton, worn over a dress. Narration is provided by Andrew Bolton, the British curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Costume Institute, Michelle Olly, who wore one of the dresses, and McQueen himself. There is also a section of online videos available here, where visitors can watch a model in a chiffon dress drop into the ocean, and see the chess pieces move.

80

Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses…

Woodman, Susan

2006-01-01

81

De-Institutionalization: The Queens Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a review of the history of the implementation of de-institutionalization in Queens County, a borough of New York City. A number of issues confronting the mental health profession, the community, the patients, and their families are discussed. It notes that Creedmoor Psychiatric Center, the major provider of services for the…

Plotnick, Hermine D.

82

De-Institutionalization: The Queens Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a review of the history of the implementation of de-institutionalization in Queens County, a borough of New York City. A number of issues confronting the mental health profession, the community, the patients, and their families are discussed. It notes that Creedmoor Psychiatric Center, the major provider of services for the…

Plotnick, Hermine D.

83

The joy of sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140. PMID:24030282

Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

2013-09-13

84

Trail pheromone of Kalotermes flavicollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trail pheromone of the termiteKalotermes flavicollis Fabr. has been isolated with the aid of column, liquid, and gas chromatography. Four of its components have been identified by PMR and chromato-mass spectrometry: nonan-l-ol, decan-l-ol, undecan-l-ol, and dodecan-l-ol, which are present in the natural trail pheromone in a ratio of 1:2:4:4. This has been confirmed by comparison with standard substances by

S. G. Klochkov; A. N. Pushin

1989-01-01

85

Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.  

PubMed

Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

2012-02-01

86

Oviposition pheromones in haematophagous insects.  

PubMed

Pheromones influencing oviposition behavior in females of haematophagous insects have been the interest of recent past by many group of scientists working on oviposition pheromones. Finding and choosing a good site for oviposition is a challenging task for females of haematophagous insects, especially in those insects which does not have the parental care. Their decisions have far-reaching and profound consequences for the life history of the offspring. In such blood feeding insects, the choice of oviposition site is affected by pheromones, which may function either as deterrents or stimulants in short range, while they may also act as repellents or attractants in long range perception. During the location of a suitable oviposition site for egg laying or a potential host for blood feeding, haematophagous insects mainly use olfactory and visual cues. These pheromones are produced by the ovipositing female or by conspecific larvae co-occurring with gravid females. Adult females detect oviposition pheromones by odor receptors on the antennae, as well as by contact chemoreceptors on tarsi, mouthparts and antennae. Different cues exploited by gravid females from a diversified arena include egg, larva, habitat, microbes, infusions and plant produced volatiles influence the oviposition behavior. Traps baited with pheromones, infusions, and insecticides shall be promising tools for monitoring and control of target insect using integrated vector management strategies. PMID:20831963

Seenivasagan, T; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-01-01

87

Volume Changes in the Mushroom Bodies of Adult Honey Bee Queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of the mushroom bodies of the brains of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) was estimated using the method of Cavalieri. Tissue sampled was obtained from queens in five different behavioral and reproductive states: 1-day-old virgin queens, 14-day-old virgin queens, 14-day-old instrumentally inseminated queens, 9- to 13-day old naturally mated queens, and 5-month-old naturally mated queens. There were significant

S. E. Fahrbach; T. Giray; G. E. Robinson

1995-01-01

88

Neurogenic and Neuroendocrine Effects of Goldfish Pheromones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. We examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostagland...

89

Individual Variation in Pheromone Response Correlates with Reproductive Traits and Brain Gene Expression in Worker Honey Bees  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera) as a model to examine differences in socially-regulated behavior among individual workers, and used transcriptional profiling to determine if specific gene expression patterns are associated with these individual differences. In honey bees, the reproductive queen produces a pheromonal signal that regulates many aspects of worker behavior and physiology and maintains colony organization. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that there is substantial natural variation in individual worker attraction to queen pheromone (QMP). Furthermore, worker attraction is negatively correlated with ovariole number—a trait associated with reproductive potential in workers. We identified transcriptional differences in the adult brain associated with individual worker attraction to QMP, and identified hundreds of transcripts that are organized into statistically-correlated gene networks and associated with this response. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrate that there is substantial variation in worker attraction to QMP among individuals, and that this variation is linked with specific differences in physiology and brain gene expression patterns. This variation in individual response thresholds may reveal underlying variation in queen-worker reproductive conflict, and may mediate colony function and productivity by creating variation in individual task performance.

Kocher, Sarah D.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Stone, Eric A.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2010-01-01

90

Peptide pheromones in female Nereis succinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female specimen of the ragworm, Nereis succinea, employs a tetra-peptide, cysteinyl–glutathione (CSSG) as mate recognition and gamete release pheromone during reproduction. In the present study we review the role of peptide-based pheromones in Nereid worms focusing on pheromone production in females. New results demonstrate that the female ragworms produce the pheromone in the course of the oocyte maturation directly correlated

Jörg D. Hardege; Helga Bartels-Hardege; Carsten T. Müller; Manfred Beckmann

2004-01-01

91

The scented brain: pheromonal responses in humans.  

PubMed

Using PET, Savic et al., in this issue of Neuron, found a sexually dimorphic neural response to two putative human pheromones. The specific regions activated combined with the pronounced sex difference depict a pheromonal-type brain response in humans. Here, we preview this finding and suggest that human pheromones exist. PMID:11545709

Sobel, N; Brown, W M

2001-08-30

92

Interactions of insect pheromones and plant semiochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant semiochemicals are known to produce a wide range of behavioral responses in insects. Some insects sequester or acquire host plant compounds and use them as sex pheromones or sex pheromone precursors. Other insects produce or release sex pheromones in response to specific host plant cues, and chemicals from host plants often synergistically enhance the response of an insect to

Gadi V. P. Reddy; Angel Guerrero

2004-01-01

93

Pheromone models in ant colony optimization (ACO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization is a constructive meta-heuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. In this paper, using the difference equations as a tool of research, we propose the mathematical model of the distribution of pheromone at the classic double bridge experiment, explain the mathematical model of the pheromone function in the

E. Foundas

2006-01-01

94

Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini).  

PubMed

Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs). After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood. PMID:16341425

Kleinert, A de M P

2005-12-02

95

Social influence on age and reproduction: reduced lifespan and fecundity in multi-queen ant colonies.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theories of ageing predict that life span increases with decreasing extrinsic mortality, and life span variation among queens in ant species seems to corroborate this prediction: queens, which are the only reproductive in a colony, live much longer than queens in multi-queen colonies. The latter often inhabit ephemeral nest sites and accordingly are assumed to experience a higher mortality risk. Yet, all prior studies compared queens from different single- and multi-queen species. Here, we demonstrate an effect of queen number on longevity and fecundity within a single, socially plastic species, where queens experience the similar level of extrinsic mortality. Queens from single- and two-queen colonies had significantly longer lifespan and higher fecundity than queens living in associations of eight queens. As queens also differ neither in morphology nor the mode of colony foundation, our study shows that the social environment itself strongly affects ageing rate. PMID:21507120

Schrempf, A; Cremer, S; Heinze, J

2011-04-21

96

Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.  

PubMed Central

An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The pheromone also interacted cooperatively with GMP to shorten the aggregation period. The pheromone behaved chemically as a low-molecular-weight lipid. Images

Stephens, K; Hegeman, G D; White, D

1982-01-01

97

Human pheromones and sexual attraction.  

PubMed

Olfactory communication is very common amongst animals, and since the discovery of an accessory olfactory system in humans, possible human olfactory communication has gained considerable scientific interest. The importance of the human sense of smell has by far been underestimated in the past. Humans and other primates have been regarded as primarily 'optical animals' with highly developed powers of vision but a relatively undeveloped sense of smell. In recent years this assumption has undergone major revision. Several studies indicate that humans indeed seem to use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones; recent studies have found that pheromones may play an important role in the behavioural and reproduction biology of humans. In this article we review the present evidence of the effect of human pheromones and discuss the role of olfactory cues in human sexual behaviour. PMID:15653193

Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

2005-02-01

98

Patterns of endothermy in bumblebee queens, drones and workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The thoracic temperatures (TTh) of captiveBombus edwardsii queens and drones from the current year approached ambient temperatures (TA) at night, but warm-up was frequent throughout the day.2.ABombus vosnesenskii queen which had initiated nest building maintained TTh nearly continuously between 37.4 and 38.8 °C at night and in the daytime. On the other hand, the TTh of an overwintered queen which

Bernd Heinrich

1972-01-01

99

Changes in the Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profile of the Slave-Maker Ant Queen, Polyergus breviceps Emery, After Killing a Formica Host Queen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queens of the slave-maker ant, Polyergus breviceps, take over nests of their Formica host species by fatally attacking the resident queen. As workers only begin grooming the P. breviceps queen once she has ceased her attack, we investigated whether a change in parasite queen chemistry may account for the change in worker behavior. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of newly mated P.

Christine A. Johnson; Robert K. Vander Meer; Barry Lavine

2001-01-01

100

Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein binding non-pheromone ligands: implications for pheromone recognition  

PubMed Central

Summary Insect pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) transport sex pheromones through the aqueous layer surrounding G-protein coupled receptors that initiate signaling events leading to mating. This PBP-receptor system strongly discriminates between ligands with subtle structural differences, but it has proved difficult to distinguish the degree of discrimination of the PBP from that of the G-protein coupled receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the PBP of Bombyx mori, the silkworm moth, both with and without its cognate ligand, bombykol [(E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol], have been determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR. In this paper, the structures of the same binding protein with bound iodohexadecane and bell pepper odorant, were determined at 1.9 Å and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures illustrate the remarkable plasticity in the ligand binding site of the PBP but suggest the protein might still act as a filter during pheromone signal processing.

Lautenschlager, Catherine; Leal, Walter S.; Clardy, Jon

2007-01-01

101

Naming the Helper: Maternal Concerns and the Queen’s Incorrect Guesses in the Grimms’ “Rumpelstiltskin”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempting to guess the name of the dwarf who spun straw into gold and now claims her child, the queen in “Rumpelstiltskin” first gives the names of the three Magi, followed by three names connoting disease and deformity. This article argues that these incorrect guesses are psychologically more significant than Rumpelstiltskin’s actual name, insofar as they yield insights into the

Ann Schmiesing

2011-01-01

102

Vomeronasal organ and human pheromones.  

PubMed

For many organisms, pheromonal communication is of particular importance in managing various aspects of reproduction. In tetrapods, the vomeronasal (Jacobson's) organ specializes in detecting pheromones in biological substrates of congeners. This information triggers behavioral changes associated, in the case of certain pheromones, with neuroendocrine correlates. In human embryos, the organ develops and the nerve fibers constitute a substrate for the migration of GnRH-secreting cells from the olfactory placode toward the hypothalamus. After this essential step for subsequent secretion of sex hormones by the anterior hypophysis, the organ regresses and the neural connections disappear. The vomeronasal cavities can still be observed by endoscopy in some adults, but they lack sensory neurons and nerve fibers. The genes which code for vomeronasal receptor proteins and the specific ionic channels involved in the transduction process are mutated and nonfunctional in humans. In addition, no accessory olfactory bulbs, which receive information from the vomeronasal receptor cells, are found. The vomeronasal sensory function is thus nonoperational in humans. Nevertheless, several steroids are considered to be putative human pheromones; some activate the anterior hypothalamus, but the effects observed are not comparable to those in other mammals. The signaling process (by neuronal detection and transmission to the brain or by systemic effect) remains to be clearly elucidated. PMID:21377439

Trotier, D

2011-03-05

103

Reproductive ultrasound of the bitch and queen.  

PubMed

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the reproductive tract is an important component in the evaluation of the bitch and queen. Information is obtained concerning normal events involving the reproductive system (eg, ovulation, pregnancy) as well as pathologic conditions (eg, ovarian cysts, metritis). The appearance of the female reproductive tract normally changes with phases of the cycle; these changes need to be interpreted with knowledge of the ovarian cycle. Serial ultrasonographic evaluation of the diseased reproductive tract can be very helpful in evaluating response to therapy. PMID:19501343

Davidson, Autumn P; Baker, Tomas W

2009-05-01

104

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insect colonies invest in reproduction and growth, but how colonies achieve an adaptive allocation to these life-history characters remains an open question in social insect biology. Attempts to understand how a colony's investment in reproduction is shaped by the queen and the workers have proved complicated because of the potential for queen--worker conflict over the colony's investment in males

Katie E. Wharton; Fred C. Dyer; Zachary Y. Huang

2007-01-01

105

75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...the Van Wyck Expressway, Queens County, NY. A Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS was...47-40 21st Street, Long Island City, NY 11101, Telephone: 718- 482-4526....

2010-09-07

106

Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity  

PubMed Central

In most animals, longevity is achieved at the expense of fertility, but queen honey bees do not show this tradeoff. Queens are both long-lived and fertile, whereas workers, derived from the same genome, are both relatively short-lived and normally sterile. It has been suggested, on the basis of results from workers, that vitellogenin (Vg), best known as a yolk protein synthesized in the abdominal fat body, acts as an antioxidant to promote longevity in queen bees. We explored this hypothesis, as well as related roles of insulin–IGF-1 signaling and juvenile hormone. Vg was expressed in thorax and head fat body cells in an age-dependent manner, with old queens showing much higher expression than workers. In contrast, Vg expression in worker head was much lower. Queens also were more resistant to oxidative stress than workers. These results support the hypothesis that caste-specific differences in Vg expression are involved in queen longevity. Consistent with predictions from Drosophila, old queens had lower head expression of insulin-like peptide and its putative receptors than did old workers. Juvenile hormone affected the expression of Vg and insulin–IGF-1 signaling genes in opposite directions. These results suggest that conserved and species-specific mechanisms interact to regulate queen bee longevity without sacrificing fecundity.

Corona, Miguel; Velarde, Rodrigo A.; Remolina, Silvia; Moran-Lauter, Adrienne; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Kimberly A.; Robinson, Gene E.

2007-01-01

107

THE RED QUEEN EFFECT: COMPETITIVE ACTIONS AND FIRM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the Red Queen effect as a contest of competitive moves or actions among rivalrous firms. The results from a multi-industry study of over 4,700 actions confirms the existence of Red Queen competition, whereby a firm's actions increase perfor- mance but also increase the number and speed of rivals' actions, which, in turn, negatively affect the initial firm's performance.

PAMELA J. DERFUS; PATRICK G. MAGGITTI; CURTIS M. GRIMM; KEN G. SMITH

2008-01-01

108

European corn borer: Pheromonal catabolism and behavioral response to sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds

J. A. Klun; M. Schwarz; E. G. Uebel

1991-01-01

109

Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens  

PubMed Central

The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31?%) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84?%) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues.

Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

2013-01-01

110

Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved\\u000a after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant\\u000a walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone.

D. M. Suckling; R. W. Peck; L. M. Manning; L. D. Stringer; J. Cappadonna; A. M. El-Sayed

2008-01-01

111

Oviposition deterring pheromone in Anastrepha fraterculus flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) females were found to deposit a water-soluble, durable, oviposition-deterring pheromone during ovipositor dragging on fruit after egg-laying. We present evidence that the occurrence of pheromone deposition after egg-laying, the amount deposited, and departure from the fruit without additional egg-laying after pheromone deposition are flexible traits inA. fraterculus, varying in expression according to fruit size and other factors.

Ronald J. Prokopy; Aldo Malavasi; Joao S. Morgante

1982-01-01

112

Abberantly placed impacted mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

Pre-eruptive migration of a tooth across the midline is termed as transmigration. It is believed that transmigration is rare and unique to the mandibular permanent canines, and even more rarely reported for others. Transmigration is a phenomenon of yet unknown etiology. It follows the direction of its long axis, with the crown leading the migration. The tendency of a canine to cross the barrier of mandibular midline suture is a more important consideration than the distance of migration after crossing the midline. Here we present one new case of aberrantly positioned right mandibular canine which has undergone migration and was accidently found on radiological examination before orthodontic treatment. Once diagnosed an aberrantly positioned impacted canine requires surgical removal.

Bahl, Rashi; Singla, Jeetinder; Gupta, Mohita; Malhotra, Ankit

2013-01-01

113

A new technique for mandibular osteotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) is a surgical technique largely employed for mandibular mobilizations in orthognatic procedures. However, the traditional design of buccal osteotomy, located at the junction of mandibular ramus and body, may prevent more extensive sliding between the bone segments, particularly on the advance, laterality and verticality of the mandibular body. The author proposes a new technical and conceptual

Edela Puricelli

2007-01-01

114

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.  

PubMed

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

2008-11-26

115

Locating queen ant nests in the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Studies using Oecophylla smaragdina colonies to control cashew insect pests showed that the introduction of a partial ant colony was more permanent with a reproductive queen than without a queen. Thus, a technique to locate queens was needed. The nests of twelve established O. smaragdina colonies were examined. Each comprised many nests, but only one contained queens, and it

R. K. Peng; K. Christian; K. Gibb

1998-01-01

116

Reproductive Conflicts in Cooperative Associations of Fire Ant Queens (Solenopsis invicta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ants, unrelated queens frequently associate to initiate a colony cooperatively. The joint reproductive effort of the cofoundresses increases growth and survival of the incipient colony. However, such associations are unstable. Soon after emergence of the first workers, queen-queen and queen-worker fights lead to the death or expulsion of all but one cofoundress. Because no sexual offspring are produced in

Giorgina Bernasconi; Laurent Keller

1996-01-01

117

The influence of worker behavior and paternity on the development and emergence of honey bee queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The interactions of worker honey bees with queens cells could influence the outcome of the queen re- placement process, and could potentially contribute to the spread of the African honey bee in the New World if workers exhibit racial preferences during queen rearing. We examined worker-queen cell interactions in hybrid colonies that con- tained African and European patrilines. Worker

S. S. Schneider; G. DeGrandi-Hoffman

2002-01-01

118

Mandibular osteotomies in orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed

Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is the most commonly used osteotomy of the mandible in orthognathic surgery. The authors describe their experience in evaluating the orthognathic patient with a mandibular deformity. The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy surgical technique used by the authors is reviewed along with postoperative management. PMID:17667689

Orloff, George; Hale, L T C Robert

2007-07-01

119

Histological Estimates of Ovariole Number in Honey Bee Queens, Apis mellifera, Reveal Lack of Correlation with other Queen Quality Measures  

PubMed Central

Published estimates of the number of ovarioles found in the ovaries of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens range from 100 to 180 per ovary. Within the context of a large-scale study designed to assay the overall quality of queens obtained from various commercial sources, a simple histology-based method for accurate determination of ovariole number was developed and then applied to a sample of 75 queens. Although all 10 commercial sources evaluated provided queens with ovariole numbers within the expected range, ovariole number was found to vary significantly across sources. Overall, and within most of the individual samples, there was no correlation of ovariole number with other morphological attributes such as thoracic width, wing length, or wet weight. Queens from two of the sources, however, displayed a significant negative relationship between wet weight and ovariole number. This study provides baseline data on ovariole number in commercial honey bee queens in the United States at a time when honey bee populations are declining; the method described can be used in studies relating ovariole number in queens to egg production and behavior.

Jackson, Jeffrey T.; Tarpy, David R.; Fahrbach, Susan E.

2011-01-01

120

TRPC channels in pheromone sensing.  

PubMed

Pheromone recognition relies on an amplification cascade that is triggered by pheromone binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The first step in translation of GPCR activation by pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and main olfactory epithelium (MOE) into a cellular response is the activation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) family member, TRPC2 [Zufall, F., Ukhanov, K., Lucas, P., Liman, E. R., and Leinders-Zufall, T. (2005). Neurobiology of TRPC2: From gene to behavior. Pflugers Arch.451, 61-71; Yildirim, E., and Birnbaumer, L. (2007). TRPC2: Molecular biology and functional importance. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 53-75]. The members of the canonical (TRPC) family of TRP channels mediate membrane permeability, specifically, Ca(2+) influx into the cytoplasm in response to activation of GPCR and tyrosine kinase receptors by hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors [Nilius, B. (2007). TRP channels in disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1772, 805-812; Venkatachalam, K., and Montell, C. (2007). TRP channels. Annu. Rev. Biochem.76, 387-417]. Mechanisms of their activation have been the focus of intense interest during the last decade. The data obtained from studies of TRPC2 have resulted in a better understanding of ion channel physiology and led to novel paradigms in modern cell biology [Lucas, P., Ukhanov, K., Leinders-Zufall, T., and Zufall, F. (2003). A diacylglycerol-gated cation channel in vomeronasal neuron dendrites is impaired in TRPC2 mutant mice: Mechanism of pheromone transduction. Neuron40, 551-561; Stowers, L., Holy, T. E., Meister, M., Dulac, C., and Koentges, G. (2002). Loss of sex discrimination and male-male aggression in mice deficient for TRP2. Science295, 1493-1500; Leypold, B. G., Yu, C. R., Leinders-Zufall, T., Kim, M. M., Zufall, F., and Axel, R. (2002). Altered sexual and social behaviors in trp2 mutant mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA99, 6376-6381]. Although TRPC2 activation by pheromones presents one of the most straightforward examples of physiological function of TRPC channels, the molecular aspects of its activation are not well understood (Yildirim, E., and Birnbaumer, L. (2007). TRPC2: Molecular biology and functional importance. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 53-75). It is natural to expect that better understanding of TRPC2 activation mechanisms will lead to breakthroughs in understanding ion channel activation mechanisms, as well as applied behavioral pharmacology. The present review is focused on the current knowledge of TRPC2 physiology with a specific focus on TRPC activation mechanisms. PMID:20831947

Kiselyov, Kirill; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L

2010-01-01

121

Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating

Astrid T Groot; Melanie Marr; Gerhard Schöfl; Sybille Lorenz; Ales Svatos; David G Heckel

2008-01-01

122

Pheromonal Influences on Sociosexual Behavior in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether synthesized human male pheromones increase the sociosexual behavior of men. Thirty-eight heterosexual men, ages 26-42, completed a 2-week baseline period and 6-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial testing a pheromone \\

Winnifred B. Cutler; Erika Friedmann; Norma L. Mccoy

1998-01-01

123

Tuning Synthetic Pheromones With Evolutionary Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents guided by synthetic pheromones can imitate the dynamics of insects. These systems are well suited to problems such as the control of unmanned robotic vehicles. We have developed a model for controlling robotic vehicles in combat missions using synthetic pheromones. In the course of our experimentation, we have identified the need for proper tuning of the algorithms to get

John Sauter; H. Van Dyke Parunak; Sven Brueckner; Robert Matthews

2001-01-01

124

The behavioral significance of pheromones in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces the concept of pheromones, external chemical secretions having conspecific communication functions, and discusses its significance for vertebrate behavior. The physiological regulatory functions and communication functions of pheromones are distinguished. Physiological regulatroy functions discussed are related to estrous synchrony in females and include the S. Lee-L. M. Boot, W. Whitten, and H. M. Bruce effects. Communication functions discussed include sex

Kathryn K. Gleason; James H. Reynierse

1969-01-01

125

Pheromones trigger filamentous growth in Ustilago maydis.  

PubMed Central

Cell recognition and mating in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis have been proposed to involve specific pheromones and pheromone receptors. The respective structural genes are located in the a mating type locus that exists in the alleles a1 and a2. We demonstrate that binding of pheromone to the receptor can induce a morphological switch from yeast-like to filamentous growth in certain strains. Using this as biological assay we were able to purify both the a1 and a2 pheromone. The structure of the secreted pheromones was determined to be 13 amino acids for a1 and nine amino acids for a2. Both pheromones are post-translationally modified by farnesylation and carboxyl methyl esterification of the C-terminal cysteine. An unmodified a1 peptide exhibits dramatically reduced activity. The pheromone alone is able to induce characteristic conjugation tubes in cells of opposite mating type and confers mating competence; even cells of the same mating type undergo fusion. We discuss the role of pheromones in initiating filamentous growth and pathogenic development. Images

Spellig, T; Bolker, M; Lottspeich, F; Frank, R W; Kahmann, R

1994-01-01

126

Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy detects queen honey bee insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdomens of honey bee queens and semen from drone bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated\\u000a honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their absorption spectra with 100% accuracy. Spectra of semen\\u000a showed that classifications of queens were likely influenced by the presence or absence of semen in the queen spermathecae.\\u000a However, physiological or

Thomas C. Webster; Floyd E. Dowell; Elizabeth B. Maghirang; Etta M. Thacker

2009-01-01

127

Queen replacement in orphaned colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.When field colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren were orphaned by removing the functioning queen, re-collection 8–10 weeks later showed that 61% had replacement queens that were physogastric and attractive to workers. The weight of the original colony queens increases with the colony mound volume. The weight of replacement queens is inversely related to the number of such queens in the

Walter R. Tschinkel; Dennis F. Howard

1978-01-01

128

The dissolution of cooperative groups: mechanisms of queen mortality in incipient fire ant colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several species of ants, queens often form temporary cooperative associations during colony foundation. These associations\\u000a end soon after the eclosion of the first workers with the death or expulsion of all but one of the queens. This study examined\\u000a competition between foundress queens of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Although attacks by the workers contributed to queen mortality, queens

Michael T. Balas; Eldridge S. Adams

1996-01-01

129

Reduction of the response to sex pheromone in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) following successive pheromonal exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prior pheromonal experience upon the pheromone- mediated upwind flight response was examined in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta(Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Adult male G. molestawere subjected to a parallel series of staggered and repeated pheromonal exposures in a sustained-flight wind tunnel. Levels of response to pheromone in male G. molestasignificantly decreased in a (a) rectilinear function with

Aurelio J. Figueredo; Thomas C. Baker

1992-01-01

130

Terminal Investment: Individual Reproduction of Ant Queens Increases with Age  

PubMed Central

The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1]), but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens.

Heinze, Jurgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

2012-01-01

131

Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens  

PubMed Central

In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm expenditure and infer that our observed averages of sperm number, sperm robustness and sperm use are consistent with sperm depletion being a significant cause of mortality of mature colonies of Atta leaf-cutter ants.

den Boer, Susanne P. A.; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stephanie; Aron, Serge; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2009-01-01

132

Queen Control of Sex Ratio in Fire Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haplodiploid sex-determination system of ants gives rise to conflict between queens and workers over colony sex ratios, and the female-biased allocation ratios seen in many species suggest that workers often prevail in this conflict. We exchanged queens between male- and female-specialist colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. These exchanges quickly reversed the sex-ratio biases of adopting colonies. The

L. Passera; S. Aron; E. L. Vargo; L. Keller

2001-01-01

133

Viruses Associated with Ovarian Degeneration in Apis mellifera L. Queens  

PubMed Central

Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1) sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1) than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively). Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology.

Gauthier, Laurent; Ravallec, Marc; Tournaire, Magali; Cousserans, Francois; Bergoin, Max; Dainat, Benjamin; de Miranda, Joachim R.

2011-01-01

134

Oligogyny by unrelated queens in the carpenter ant, Camponotus ligniperdus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite analysis were used to determine the number of queens and their mating frequencies\\u000a in colonies of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ligniperdus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Only 1 of 61 analyzed queens was found to be double-mated and the population-wide effective mating\\u000a frequency was therefore 1.02. In the studied population, 8 of 21 mature field colonies (38%) contained

Jürgen Gadau; Pia J. Gertsch; Jürgen Heinze; Pekka Pamilo; Bert Hölldobler

1998-01-01

135

Relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in mandibular prognathism  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We tried to find out the relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in deformities of the mandible specially prognathism, which is primarily limited to anterior part only. Patients and Methods: Ten patients with skeletal deformity along with malocclusion, which was limited to anterior body of mandible were selected. Selected patients had proper molar interdigitation (even if class 3) and in general had anterior crossbite (except one). All patients had crossed their growth spurts and had no hormonal influence on facial deformity. Specific protocol, including cephelometric analysis cephalometry for orthognathic surgery, prediction tracing and model surgeries were devised. Pre and post-surgical orthodontics and body ostectomy were performed in all patients along with 18-month post-op follow-up. Results: There was significant reduction in prognathism and horizontal dysplasia in all ten patients. Anterior crossbite as well as axis of incisiors over mandibular plane was corrected in all patients due to decrease in length of mandibular body. All patients showed decreased facial height and better lip competence with intact posterior occlusion and no (negligible or transient) sensory loss. Conclusions: Our study could confirm that people whose deformity is limited to the anterior part of mandible with reasonable occlusion posteriorly can get satisfactory cosmetic and functional results through body ostectomy alone rather than going for surgical procedure in the ramal area, which is liable to cause sensory and occlusal disturbances.

Bansal, Pankaj; Singh, Virender; Anand, S. C.; Bansal, Sumidha

2013-01-01

136

Social context predicts recognition systems in ant queens.  

PubMed

Recognition of group-members is a key feature of sociality. Ants use chemical communication to discriminate nestmates from intruders, enhancing kin cooperation and preventing parasitism. The recognition code is embedded in their cuticular chemical profile, which typically varies between colonies. We predicted that ants might be capable of accurate recognition in unusual situations when few individuals interact repeatedly, as new colonies started by two to three queens. Individual recognition would be favoured by selection when queens establish dominance hierarchies, because repeated fights for dominance are costly; but it would not evolve in absence of hierarchies. We previously showed that Pachycondyla co-founding queens, which form dominance hierarchies, have accurate individual recognition based on chemical cues. Here, we used the ant Lasius niger to test the null hypothesis that individual recognition does not occur when co-founding queens do not establish dominance hierarchies. Indeed, L. niger queens show a similar level of aggression towards both co-foundresses and intruders, indicating that they are unable of individual recognition, contrary to Pachycondyla. Additionally, the variation in chemical profiles of Lasius and Pachycondyla queens is comparable, thus informational constraints are unlikely to apply. We conclude that selection pressure from the social context is of crucial significance for the sophistication of recognition systems. PMID:19170823

Dreier, S; D'Ettorre, P

2008-12-18

137

Potential and realized reproduction by different worker castes in queen-less and queen-right colonies of Pogonomyrmex badius  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Workers of the Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius), the only North American Pogonomyrmex with a polymorphic worker caste, produce males when colonies are orphaned. In this study,we assessed the reproductive potential\\u000a of workers of each caste group, minors and majors, in the presence and absence of the queen, and tested whether males produced\\u000a in natural queen-right colonies are derived from

C. R. Smith; C. Schoenick; K. E. Anderson; J. Gadau; A. V. Suarez

2007-01-01

138

Medical students’ attitudes to abortion: a comparison between Queen’s University Belfast and the University of Oslo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Abortion policy varies significantly between Northern Ireland and Norway. This is the first study to compare medical students’ attitudes towards abortion in two different countries.Objective:To assess medical students’ attitudes to abortion at the University of Oslo (UiO) and Queen’s University Belfast (QUB).Design:An anonymous questionnaire completed by 59 medical students at UiO and 86 medical students at QUB.Participants:Students who had completed

R Steele

2009-01-01

139

Pearls of Mandibular Trauma Management  

PubMed Central

Mandibular trauma is a common problem seen by plastic surgeons. When fractures occur, they have the ability to affect the patient's occlusion significantly, cause infection, and lead to considerable pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. Physicians determining how to manage these injuries should take into consideration the nature of the injury, background information regarding the patient's health, and the patient's comorbidities. Whereas general principles guide the management of the majority of injuries, special consideration must be paid to the edentulous patient, complex and comminuted fractures, and pediatric patients. These topics are discussed in this article, with a special emphasis on pearls of mandibular trauma management.

Koshy, John C.; Feldman, Evan M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Bullocks, Jamal M.

2010-01-01

140

Mandibular nerve entrapment in the infratemporal fossa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve (V3) comprises of three main branches. Various anatomic structures may entrap and potentially compress the mandibular nerve branches.\\u000a A usual position of mandibular nerve (MN) compression is the infratemporal fossa (ITF) which is one of the most difficult\\u000a regions of the skull base to access surgically. The anatomical positions of compression are: the

Maria N. PiagkouT; T. Demesticha; G. Piagkos; G. Androutsos; P. Skandalakis

2011-01-01

141

Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.  

PubMed

Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure. PMID:21836378

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2011-08-12

142

Seasonal variation in the titers and biosynthesis of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate in honey bees.  

PubMed

Honey bees allocate tasks along reproductive and non-reproductive lines: the queen mates and lays eggs, whereas the workers nurse the brood and forage for food. Among workers, tasks are distributed according to age: young workers nurse and old workers fly out and forage. This task distribution in the colony is further regulated by an increase in juvenile hormone III as workers age and by pheromones. One such compound is ethyl oleate (EO), a primer pheromone that delays the onset of foraging in young workers. EO is produced by foragers when they are exposed to ethanol (from fermented nectar) while gathering food. EO is perceived by younger bees via olfaction. We describe here the seasonal variation of EO production and the effects of Methoprene, a juvenile hormone analog. We found that honey bee workers biosynthesize more EO during the growing season than during the fall and winter months, reaching peak levels at late spring or summer. When caged workers were fed with syrup+d(6)-ethanol, labeled EO accumulated in the honey crop and large amounts exuded to the exoskeleton. Exuded levels were high for several hours after exposure to ethanol. Treatment with Methoprene increased the production of EO in worker bees, by speeding up its movement from biosynthetic sites to the exoskeleton, where EO evaporates. Crop fluid from bees collected monthly during the growing season showed a modest seasonal variation of in vitro EO biosynthetic activity that correlated with the dry and sunny periods during which bees could forage. PMID:22634045

Castillo, Carlos; Maisonnasse, Alban; Conte, Yves Le; Plettner, Erika

2012-05-23

143

Laura Mooneyham White - Domestic Queen, Queenly Domestic: Queenly Contradictions in Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass - Children's Literature Association Quarterly 32:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1865 Lewis Carroll began to draft Through the Looking Glass; in this work Alice's desire to become a queen must be read against the contemporary discourse regarding queenship in 1865, a year in which public dissatisfaction with Victoria's mourning over Albert's death was at its height and in which Ruskin published \\

Laura Mooneyham White

2007-01-01

144

Venom Alkaloid and Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles Are Associated with Social Organization, Queen Fertility Status, and Queen Genotype in the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta  

PubMed Central

Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers’ attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype.

Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G.; Haight, Kevin L.; Keller, Laurent

2013-01-01

145

Venom alkaloid and cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are associated with social organization, queen fertility status, and queen genotype in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers' attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype. PMID:22095515

Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G; Haight, Kevin L; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jürgen

2011-11-18

146

Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromones and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromones intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the

Emmanuel Boissard; Pierre Degond; Sébastien Motsch

2011-01-01

147

[The osteoplastic replacement of mandibular defects].  

PubMed

Remote (from 1 to 18 years) results of mandibular defect repair were followed up in 64 patients, to whom auto- and allografts and implants of glass ceramics were implanted. A relatively low incidence of complications in patients with glass ceramic implants demonstrates its advantages over other materials for plastic repair of mandibular defects. PMID:8658577

Makhkamov, E U; Abdullaev, Sh IU

1996-01-01

148

Sex Pheromones in the Ixodidae (Ixodoidea:Ixodidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both behaviour and diverse chemicals regulate sexual communication in the Ixodidae. Assembly pheromones, but not sex pheromones, are known to induce clustering of unfed adults in Ixodes ricinus L. (Graf 1975), I. holocyclus, Aponomma concolor (Treverrow e...

G. M. Khalil D. E. Sonenshine R. M. Silverstein P. J. Homsher K. A. Carson

1984-01-01

149

Neural Network Models and N-Queen Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brief history of neural network parallel computing and four mathematical neural network models including a McCulloch-Pitts\\u000a neuron, a sigmoid neuron, a hysteresis McCulloch-Pitts neuron, and a maximum neuron are introduced. “What is an N-queen problem?”\\u000a and a neural network model of the N-queen problem are first presented to show how to use the neural network (sequential\\/parallel)\\u000a model for solving general

Yoshiyasu Takefuji

150

Mandibular coronoid fractures: treatment options.  

PubMed

Fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon and can easily be missed. The purpose of this study was to classify the fracture patterns and explore the treatment options. This retrospective study included 39 patients with fractures of the mandibular coronoid process. Treatment protocols were developed based on the time of fracture, degree of mouth opening, location of the coronoid fracture, types of fracture, and other concomitant fractures. All patients were followed up for 12-60 months. Sixteen patients underwent conservative management and four of these patients developed progressive trismus, which improved significantly after removal of the coronoid process. Twenty-three patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) via the modified retromandibular approach. Follow-up data showed significant improvement in maximum mouth opening and symptoms (diet and pain) compared to their preoperative status. In summary, conservative management is first recommended for fractures of the coronoid process with minimal displacement or restriction of mouth opening. For patients with significant fracture displacement and limited mouth opening, or with concomitant fractures of the zygoma, zygomatic arch, or mandibular ramus, ORIF via the modified retromandibular approach through the anterior border of the parotid gland is an alternative treatment method. PMID:23602277

Shen, L; Li, J; Li, P; Long, J; Tian, W; Tang, W

2013-04-16

151

Queen Replacement in African and European Honey Bee Colonies with and without Afterswarms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the dynamics of the queen replacement process in African and European colonies that did and did not produce afterswarms. If colonies did not produce afterswarms, the queen replacement process was completed in 24-48 hours, the first-emerging virgin queen (VQ) typically inherited the nata...

152

Energy investment and respiration in queens and males of Lasius niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry weight increase of queens and males of the ant Lasius niger after eclosion from pupa was estimated from sequential field samples of eight colonies. Queens increased from ca. 4 mg at eclosion to 15.5 mg at the time of nuptial flight, whereas males remained approximately constant at 0.9 mg (Fig. 1). Queen mesosoma and gaster increased in weight simultaneously

J. J. Boomsma; J. A. Isaaks

1985-01-01

153

Differential gene expression between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants and other social insects forming large societies are generally characterized by marked reproductive division of labour. Queens largely monopolize reproduction whereas workers have little reproductive potential. In addition, some social insect species show tremendous lifespan differences between the queen and worker caste. Remarkably, queens and workers are usually genotypically identical, meaning that any phenotypic differences between the two castes

JOHANNES GRÄFF; STEPHANIE JEMIELITY; JOEL D. PARKER; KAREN M. PARKER; LAURENT KELLER

2007-01-01

154

Queen condition and alate density affect pleometrosis in the ant Lasius pallitarsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ant queens often cooperate in starting colonies (pleometrosis), but not all foundresses are likely to achieve equal reproductive success. Therefore, joining decisions may be influenced by queens' perceptions of a partner's likelihood to be of mutualistic benefit or to be a successful competitor in eventually controlling reproduction. Large queen size (as measured by weight) was assumed to be a

P. Nonacs

1992-01-01

155

Differential reproduction in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution to maternity of workers and female sexuals over time by queens in six multiple-queen laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta was directly assessed by use of enzyme genetic markers. Queens contributed more equally to the worker pool than to the pool of sexuals in virtually all samples (Fig. 1), and individuals producing a substantial proportion of the workers often

K. G. Ross

1988-01-01

156

Colony activity integration in primitively eusocial wasps: the role of the queen ( Polistes fuscatus , Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The queen's role in colony activity integration in small post-emergence colonies of Polistes fuscatus was investigated in the field. We continuously recorded the behaviors of all wasps in (1) undisturbed colonies, (2) colonies from which the queen had been removed, (3) colonies from which a single worker had been removed, (4) colonies with a cooled, relatively inactive queen, and (5)

Hudson K. Reeve; George J. Gamboa

1983-01-01

157

Queen transport during ant colony emigration: a group-level adaptive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colonies emigrate frequently from one nest site to another. Emigrations, however, are dangerous, particularly for colonies with a single queen. The queen is a ''vital organ'' of the colony, and emigrations expose her to grave peril. The optimal strategy for a monogynous ant colony, therefore, should be that the queen moves during the middle of the emigration so that

Nigel R. Franks; Ana B. Sendova-Franks

2000-01-01

158

Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah . Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker- worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks

Raphael Boulay; Tamar Katzav-Gozansky; Robert K. Vander Meer; Abraham Hefetz

2003-01-01

159

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management\\u000a in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in\\u000a 400 m2 field plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was

David Maxwell Suckling; Robert W. Peck; Lloyd D. Stringer; Kirsten Snook; Paul C. Banko

2010-01-01

160

Are Pheromones Detected Through the Main Olfactory Epithelium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major sensory organ for the detection of pheromones by animals is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Although pheromones control\\u000a the behaviors of various species, the effect of pheromones on human behavior has been controversial because the VNO is not\\u000a functional in adults. However, recent genetic, biochemical, and electrophysiological data suggest that some pheromone-based\\u000a behaviors, including male sexual behavior in mice,

Zhenshan Wang; Aaron Nudelman; Daniel R. Storm

2007-01-01

161

Pervasive pheromone-based interaction with RFID tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest in pheromone-based interaction to enforce adaptive and context-aware coordination, the number of deployed systems exploiting digital pheromones to coordinate the activities of application agents is very limited. In this paper, we present a real-world, low-cost and general- purpose, implementation of pheromone-based interaction. This is realized by making use of RFID tags to store digital pheromones, and

Marco Mamei; Franco Zambonelli

2007-01-01

162

Pheromone Trailing Behavior of the Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active

Michael J. Greene; Shantel L. Stark; Robert T. Mason

2001-01-01

163

The rhinophores sense pheromones regulating multiple behaviors in Aplysia fasciata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromones released during mating and egg laying in Aplysia facilitate various aspects of behavior. We now show that the chemosensory rhinophores sense these pheromones. Ablating the rhinophores causes a significant decrease in the time spent mating. In addition, the lesion blocks the increases of feeding in response to pheromones released by egg cordons and by mating conspecifics. Respiratory pumping is

Miriam Levy; Sara Blumberg; Abraham J Susswein

1997-01-01

164

PROGRESS AND OBSTACLES TO DEVELOPING LYGUS BUG PHEROMONES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various research groups have searched for Lygus bug pheromones for more almost 3 decades, but to date, the pheromones have defied all attempts to identify them. From trials using caged live females as lures, it is clear that females attract males with an airborne pheromone, but it has not even been possible to consistently produce female extracts that attract males.

Jocelyn G. Millar; Hsiao-Yung Ho; Neal Hudson

165

Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.  

PubMed

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

2012-11-30

166

FEROMONI P?ELA HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same spe- cies. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee

Maja DRA

167

Mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis--simplified.  

PubMed

The limb lengthening technique of distraction osteogenesis (DO) used in orthopedic surgery is a well established procedure. DO has been adapted to the facial skeleton to change the anterior-posterior position of the jaws. Historically, the mandibular arch transverse dimension has been considered immutable. Mandibular arch expansion is done with a variety of methods including Schwarz plates, lingual arches, functional appliances and arch wires; these methods produce limited dimensional change with questionable long-term stability. Adapting the Ilizarov treatment protocol to the mandibular symphysis can produce a regenerate bone thereby adding dimension to the innate basal bone. This can then be used to produce a potentially greater effect than the conventional modes of mandibular expansion. The modified mandibular symphyseal distraction device used by the authors is a tooth borne device fabricated with a Schwartz screw and self cured acrylic resin coverage over all the erupted mandibular teeth. The appliance used by the authors has been found to be very economical, easy to fabricate and clinically efficient. The surgical approach used, requiring surgery under local anesthesia in the outpatient department obviates need of hospital admission and the cost and time factors associated with in-patient therapy Mandibular Symphyseal Distraction Osteogenesis (MSDO) with this innovative low cost approach may be compared in a multi centric study with other established methods of MSDO. PMID:23941027

Chopra, S S; Sahoo, Nanda Kishore; Jayan, Balakrishna

2013-01-01

168

Characterization of ?-factor pheromone and pheromone receptor genes of Ashbya gossypii.  

PubMed

The genome of Ashbya gossypii contains homologs of most of the genes that are part of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone-signal transduction cascade. However, we currently lack understanding of a potential sexual cycle for this pre-whole genome duplication hemiascomycete. The sequenced strain bears three identical copies encoding MATa. We show that the syntenic A. gossypii homolog of MF?1 (AFL062w) does not encode a mature ?-factor peptide, but identified another gene, AAR163c, which encodes a candidate ?-specific mating pheromone and is thus reannotated as AgMF?2. The expression of the AgSTE2?-factor receptor in an Scste2 S. cerevisiae MATa strain resulted in dosage-dependent growth arrest upon exposure to A. gossypii?-factor, which indicated that the pheromone response was effectively coupled to the S. cerevisiae signal transduction cascade. Comparison of ?-pheromones and ?-pheromone receptors showed greater conservation between Eremothecium cymbalariae and S. cerevisiae than between A. gossypii and E. cymbalariae. We constructed A. gossypii strains deleted for the STE2 and STE3 pheromone receptors. These strains showed no phenotypic abnormalities and an ste2, ste3 double mutant is still able to sporulate. The deletion of STE12 as the downstream target of pheromone signalling, however, led to a hypersporulation phenotype. PMID:21489136

Wendland, Jürgen; Dünkler, Alexander; Walther, Andrea

2011-05-06

169

Mandibular first molar with three distal canals  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of middle distal canal in distal root of mandibular first molar is rare. This case report describes root canal treatment of two rooted mandibular first molar with five root canals (three in distal and two in mesial root), and Sert and Bayirli Type XVIII canal configuration in distal root.

Jain, Shweta

2011-01-01

170

Nurturer or Queen Bee? Models of Women's Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes an informal chat of about 30 students, faculty, staff, and administrators, mostly African-American women, with a couple of White and Latina sisters thrown in. One woman asked why African-American women were so mean to each other. The author retreated into a conversation about two models of women's leadership--Queen Bee or…

Malveaux, Julianne

2005-01-01

171

Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early

G. CASTELLA; P. CHRISTE; M. CHAPUISAT

2008-01-01

172

On Sex, Mate Selection and the Red Queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction despite the two-fold disadvantage of producing males, is still an unsolved mystery in evolutionary biology. One explanatory theory, called the “Red Queen” hypothesis, states that sex is an adaptation to escape from parasites. A more recent hypothesis, the mate selection hypothesis, assumes that non-random mating, possible only with sex, accelerates the evolution of beneficial

Gabriela Ochoa; Klaus Jaffé

1999-01-01

173

Deep seismic reflection survey of Queen Charlotte basin  

SciTech Connect

One thousand kilometers of 14 sec marine seismic reflection data collected in the Queen Charlotte basin region in 1988 provide excellent images of Tertiary sedimentary basin fill as well as deep crustal structure. The Tertiary section is highly variable in thickness, with up to 6,500 m of strata occurring in the deepest depocenters in a complex array of subbasins and half-grabens. Widespread extensional deformation including normal faulting during basin development was followed later by compressional deformation in the northern half of the basin. Sediments have been compressed into open folds and flower structures; some normal faults have been reactivated as reverse faults. Seismic interpretations of structural features suggest that Tertiary extension and compression have developed in response to strike-slip tectonics. Crust under Hecate Strait is more reflective than under Queen Charlotte Sound; geological interpretation of these discontinuous and structurally variable crustal reflections requires further analysis. In some areas of the basin (e.g., near the Sockeye wells, Hecate Strait) coherent reflections occur directly beneath the Tertiary section and may be images of Mesozoic strata. Deep reflections damaged at times of 7.0 to 10.0 sec on many profiles, provide for the seismic differentiation between reflective lower crust and nonreflective upper mantle. Estimated crustal thicknesses of 18-21 km beneath Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound indicate significant coastal thinning beneath the Queen Charlotte basin.

Rohr, K.; Dietrich, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-05-01

174

Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2006-03-01

175

The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

Andrews, James R.

2000-01-01

176

Images of the Self: Chastity Figures in the Faerie Queene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since chastity, which as Spenser presents it seems to involve perception in an especially intense way, is one of the most complex virtues delineated in The Faerie Queene, the techniques which Spenser develops to define it are of particular interest. Partly because 'Diana' figures like Belphoebe and Britomart are surrounded by an aura of visual taboo, how they are seen

Marjorie Joyce Garson

1977-01-01

177

The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

Thomas, George Anthony

2009-01-01

178

ANT SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE N-QUEEN PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computation paradigm - known as Ant System. It is a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. This paper presents a model of the Ant System (AS) that can efficiently be applied to solve the classical n- Queen problem. The main characteristics of the model

Rahman Khan; Nasif Mahmud

2004-01-01

179

The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

Thomas, George Anthony

2009-01-01

180

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

181

Dancing King of Queens: Sitcom, Geschlecht und Betrachter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In einer Folge der amerikanischen Sitcom King of Queens wird die männliche Hauptfigur Doug in einen ‚weiblichen' Betrachter verwandelt. (Abb.1) Es ist eine von drei Folgen, die den Streik bei dem fiktiven Paketzustelldienst IPS thematisiert. Doug bleibt zuhause, fühlt sich zunehmend machtlos, wird depressiv und offensichtlich auch impotent, so dass sich seine Frau Carrie Sorgen macht und ihn sogar darauf

Herbert Schwaab

2009-01-01

182

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-02-14

183

Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors.  

PubMed

Olfaction is a critical sensory modality that allows living things to acquire chemical information from the external world. The olfactory system processes two major classes of stimuli: (a) general odorants, small molecules derived from food or the environment that signal the presence of food, fire, or predators, and (b) pheromones, molecules released from individuals of the same species that convey social or sexual cues. Chemosensory receptors are broadly classified, by the ligands that activate them, into odorant or pheromone receptors. Peripheral sensory neurons expressing either odorant or pheromone receptors send signals to separate odor- and pheromone-processing centers in the brain to elicit distinct behavioral and neuroendocrinological outputs. General odorants activate receptors in a combinatorial fashion, whereas pheromones activate narrowly tuned receptors that activate sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems. PMID:19575682

Touhara, Kazushige; Vosshall, Leslie B

2009-01-01

184

Classical conditioning of proboscis extension in harnessed Africanized honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

Experiments are reported on learning in virgin Africanized honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.). Queens restrained in a "Pavlovian harness" received a pairing of hexanal odor with a 1.8-M feeding of sucrose solution. Compared to explicitly unpaired controls, acquisition was rapid in reaching about 90%. Acquisition was also rapid in queens receiving an unconditioned stimulus of "bee candy" or an unconditioned stimulus administered by worker bees. During extinction the conditioned response declines. The steepest decline was observed in queens receiving an unconditioned stimulus of bee candy. These findings extend previous work on learning of Afrianized honey bee workers to a population of queen bees. PMID:15362396

Aquino, Italo S; Abramson, Charles I; Soares, Ademilson E E; Fernandes, Andrea Cardoso; Benbassat, Danny

2004-06-01

185

Detection of multiple viruses in queens of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

Individual honey bee Apis mellifera L. queens were examined for the presence of six honey bee viruses including acute bee paralysis virus, chronic bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, Kashmir bee virus, and sacbrood virus. All viruses, except ABPV, were detected in the samples. Among queens examined for virus infections, 93% had multiple virus infections. The detection of viruses in queens raises the possibility of a vertical transmission pathway wherein infected queens can pass virus through their eggs to their offspring. PMID:16214161

Chen, Yanping; Pettis, Jeffery S; Feldlaufer, Mark F

2005-10-07

186

Treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor with a high rate of recurrence in the long term. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with mandibular ameloblastoma in order to evaluate recurrent ameloblastoma management. The study included data from 31 patients over a period of 10 years. Data collected included age, gender, tumor location, histological findings, initial treatment, number of recurrences and year of onset, type of treatment of recurrence, reconstruction and follow-up. Recurrences were detected in nine patients (29%). Tumor recurrences appeared at 32 months on average following the initial surgical procedure. Recurrences were associated mainly to inadequate initial therapeutic approach and were treated by bone resection with a safety margin of at least 1 cm beyond the radiographically visible margins. Immediate reconstruction of bone defects was performed with grafts or free flaps.

INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; PRATS-GOLCZER, VICTORIA; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, LUIS-MIGUEL; BELMONTE-CARO, RODOLFO; MARTINEZ-DE-FUENTES, RAFAEL; TORRES-CARRANZA, EUSEBIO; GACTO-SANCHEZ, PURIFICACION; GOMEZ-CIA, TOMAS

2013-01-01

187

Are pheromones detected through the main olfactory epithelium?  

PubMed

A major sensory organ for the detection of pheromones by animals is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Although pheromones control the behaviors of various species, the effect of pheromones on human behavior has been controversial because the VNO is not functional in adults. However, recent genetic, biochemical, and electrophysiological data suggest that some pheromone-based behaviors, including male sexual behavior in mice, are mediated through the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and are coupled to the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) and a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channel. These recent discoveries suggest the provocative hypothesis that human pheromones may signal through the MOE. PMID:17917120

Wang, Zhenshan; Nudelman, Aaron; Storm, Daniel R

2007-06-01

188

Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect.  

PubMed

In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen-worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a 'switch point' in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen-worker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

Holland, Jacob G; Guidat, Florian S; Bourke, Andrew F G

2013-05-01

189

78 FR 56171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the USVI (Queen Conch...

2013-09-12

190

Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens.  

PubMed

Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queen-right honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen's egg-marking signal. PMID:15502902

Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

2004-10-21

191

Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen’s egg-marking signal.

Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

2004-12-01

192

Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition.  

PubMed

We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromone particles and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromone particles intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction frequency is increased can be evidenced. We propose both kinetic and fluid descriptions of this model and analyze the capabilities of the fluid model to develop trail patterns. We observe that the development of patterns by fluid models require extra trail amplification mechanisms that are not needed at the Individual-Based Model level. PMID:22526837

Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sebastien

2012-04-20

193

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats.  

PubMed

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2008. We previously reported that an alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats is perceived by the vomeronasal organ and evokes stress-induced hyperthermia and defensive and risk assessment behavior. In addition, we recently reported that the alarm pheromone enhances the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). However, in contrast to our knowledge about such biological aspects of the pheromone, information concerning the physical character of the alarm pheromone is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the volatility of the alarm pheromone using enhancement of the ASR as an index of the pheromone effect. The alarm pheromone enhanced the ASR when it was presented at a distance of 10 mm but not at 200 mm. In addition, the pheromone effect was observed even after the pheromone was trapped in the adsorbent (Tenax) and then extracted using purified water. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is both volatile and water soluble. PMID:19135073

Inagaki, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2008-12-24

194

Classification and treatment of prominent mandibular angle.  

PubMed

In Oriental culture, the contour of the mandibular angle is important for feminine facial shape because a woman who has a wide and square face is thought to have had an unhappy life. A prominent mandibular angle, which does not coincide with the natural look, produces a characteristic quadrangle, coarse, and muscular appearance. So Oriental women who have a prominent mandibular angle want to have an ovoid, reduced, and slender face by aesthetic mandibular angle resection. Many satisfactory corrections of a prominent mandibular angle by various operative techniques have been reported. But reasonable morphologic classification and treatment were not reported. So we classified prominent mandibular angles into four groups by morphology and operated on the patients according to their classification with different modalities: no square shape but only a reduced gonial angle in the profile view-class I, mild form; severe mandibular angle protrusion with lateral protrusion-class II, moderate form; a definite square-shaped angle (class II) with masseteric hypertrophy-class III, severe form; and combined prominent mandibular angle and chin deformity-class IV, complex form. We use angle ostectomy through the intraoral route alone or with an additional external stab incision for class I. An external stab incision to set up the reciprocating saw is sometimes helpful in class I cases because there is no lateral protrusion of the angle. For class II cases, we use conventional intraoral angle ostectomy only or angle splitting ostectomy with contouring. For class III cases, we use angle splitting ostectomy and contouring with partial masseteric myectomy. In class IV, we use angle ostectomy and additional genioplasty. During 7 years, we have performed 46 cases of mandibular angle resection. Of the mandibular angle resection cases, 19 were class I, 15 were class II, 9 were class III, and 3 were class IV. A total of 42 patients were satisfied with the postoperative results. For reasonable and satisfactory final results, classification according to the mandibular angle shape and suitable treatment according to the classification are essential. PMID:11692255

Kim, S K; Han, J J; Kim, J T

195

Spatial and temporal variation in pheromone composition of ant foraging trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many social insects use pheromones to communicate and coordinate their activities. Investigation of intraspecific differences in pheromone use is a new area of social insect research. For example, interindividual variation in alarm pheromone content has been found in physical castes of polymorphic ants. Many ant species use multiple trail pheromones. Here we present novel research into trail pheromone variations between

Duncan E. Jackson; Steven J. Martin; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Mike Holcombe

2007-01-01

196

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship.

Yun-Tai Qi; W. E. Burkholder

1982-01-01

197

Canal complexity of a mandibular first molar  

PubMed Central

The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, of which three were located in the mesial root. A third canal was found between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals. The morphological pattern of separate apical terminations of three mesial root canals with separate orifices, as manifested in this case, is a rare one.

Poorni, S; Kumar, RA; Indira, R

2009-01-01

198

Isolated osteochondroma near the mandibular angle.  

PubMed

A benign tumour of osseous and cartilaginous origins, osteochondroma generally develops in osseous tissue and is frequently found near the end of long bones. It is relatively rare in the oral and maxillofacial region but is common in the mandibular condyle and coronoid process in the pediculate form. This is a report on a rare case of osteochondroma in soft tissue near the mandibular angle without pedicle to the bone. PMID:17052896

Sakai, H; Minemura, T; Ito, N; Miyazawa, H; Kurashina, K

2006-10-18

199

Classification and Treatment of Prominent Mandibular Angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In Oriental culture, the contour of the mandibular angle is important for feminine facial shape because a woman who has a\\u000a wide and square face is thought to have had an unhappy life. A prominent mandibular angle, which does not coincide with the\\u000a natural look, produces a characteristic quadrangle, coarse, and muscular appearance. So Oriental women who have a

Seok Kwun Kim; Jae Jung Han; Jeong Tae Kim

2001-01-01

200

Mandibular symphysis of large-bodied hominoids.  

PubMed

The hominoid mandibular symphysis has received a great deal of attention from anatomists, human biologists, and paleontologists. Much of this research has focused on functional interpretations of symphyseal shape variation. Here, we examine the two-dimensional cross-sectional shape of the adult mandibular symphysis for 45 humans, 42 chimpanzees, 37 gorillas, and 51 orangutans using eigenshape analysis, an outline-based morphometric approach. Our results demonstrate that a large proportion of the variation described by the first eigenshape correlates with proposed functional adaptations to counteract stresses at the mandibular midline during mastication. Subsequent eigenshapes describe subtle aspects of shape variation in the mandibular symphysis. The morphology associated with these eigenshapes does not conform with functional predictions, nor does it show a relationship with sexual dimorphism. However, eigenshapes provide for considerable taxonomic discrimination between the four taxa studied and may consequently prove useful in the analysis of fossil material. Comparison with elliptical Fourier analysis of the mandibular symphysis identifies eigenshape analysis as providing superior taxonomic discrimination. The results presented here demonstrate that the cross-sectional shape of the mandibular symphysis results from a complex interplay of functional and nonfunctional influences and for the first time identifies and quantifies the specific aspects of variation attributable to these factors. PMID:16715835

Sherwood, Richard J; Hlusko, Leslea J; Duren, Dana L; Emch, Victoria C; Walker, Alan

2005-12-01

201

SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM  

SciTech Connect

The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

Lowell Deckert

2000-08-25

202

Maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts ® total joint prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate soft tissue response to maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation, with TMJ reconstruction and mandibular advancement using TMJ Concepts® total joint prostheses, and maxillary osteotomies in 44 females. All patients were operated at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas TX, USA, by one surgeon (Wolford). Eighteen patients had genioplasties with either porous block hydroxyapatite or hard

K. E. D. Coleta; L. M. Wolford; J. R. Gonçalves; A. dos Santos Pinto; D. S. Cassano; D. A. G. Gonçalves

2009-01-01

203

Measuring risk in a children’s unit: developing a local strategy for health, safety and risk management at Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the Queen’s Medical Centre approach to assessing and addressing risk in terms of Health and Safety within a busy children’s unit. This article focuses on compartmentalising a large clinical area on two floors of a busy teaching hospital which become manageable sized subunits; each has a health, safety and risk management link person who attends the regular

Sharon Stower

1998-01-01

204

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2009-07-01

205

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2009-07-01

206

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2013-07-01

207

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2010-07-01

208

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2010-07-01

209

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2010-07-01

210

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2013-07-01

212

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2009-07-01

213

Leptin and queen ovary: new insights about ovulation.  

PubMed

Leptin has been proven to be crucial in the ovulatory process. Aims of this study are to assess the expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) in the ovaries of queens at estrus and to evaluate the capability of leptin in modulating ovarian contractility in vitro. Right ovaries underwent immunoblot analysis. Left ovaries were mounted in an organ bath under physiological condition and exposed to murine leptin (10(-6) M). Immunoblot analysis showed that the queen ovary expresses leptin receptor at estrus. Leptin at the dose of 10(-6) M significantly reduced the contractile activity of the ovary. The presence of ovarian Ob-R and leptin inhibitory effects on ovarian contractility suggest leptin implication in the modulation of ovarian activity, as well as in ovulatory disorders. PMID:23261151

Trisolini, C; Albrizio, M; Roscino, M T; Pantaleo, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

2012-12-20

214

Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones  

PubMed Central

This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

2011-01-01

215

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone  

PubMed Central

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 ?M) in the sensillar lymph is ?20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths.

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.

2005-01-01

216

PINK BOLLWORM PHEROMONE DISPENSER HARVEST LOSSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Initially 300 hundred pink bollworm pheromone dispenser 'ropes' (resembling twist ties) were attached to cotton plants. A harvester went through the plants at normal speed. Afterwards, 290 ties remained on the cotton plants. Seven ties were found on the ground, two were found in the harvested cot...

217

Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)|

Marx, Jean L.

1973-01-01

218

The human skin: fragrances and pheromones.  

PubMed

Non-human mammalian pheromones are commonly used as perfumery ingredients. The actual purpose for using these compounds is as a fixative or carrier for the odor effects of the other ingredients as well as a contributor, in part, to the over-all scent of the perfume. Although such materials are used for their fixative and odor qualities rather than their pheromonal effects, perfumes are generally marketed as having the ability to enhance sexual attractiveness. While providing a scent may elicit a positive pleasant response, this should not be confused with a pheromone response. The attractive effect of perfumes is principally related to the effect of the pleasant scent. A more logical approach would be to use human pheromones which, for humans, are both more natural and more effective as true sensual attractants. It seems likely that implementation of this approach will constitute an important paradigm in the perfume industry as perfumery moves from the realm of art to that of science. PMID:1892796

Berliner, D L; Jennings-White, C; Lavker, R M

1991-10-01

219

Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones.  

PubMed

Pheromones are airborne chemical signals that are released by an individual into the environment and which affect the physiology or behaviour of other members of the same species. The idea that humans produce pheromones has excited the imagination of scientists and the public, leading to widespread claims for their existence, which, however, has remained unproven. Here we investigate whether humans produce compounds that regulate a specific neuroendocrine mechanism in other people without being consciously detected as odours (thereby fulfilling the classic definition of a pheromone). We found that odourless compounds from the armpits of women in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycles accelerated the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone of recipient women and shortened their menstrual cycles. Axillary (underarm) compounds from the same donors which were collected later in the menstrual cycle (at ovulation) had the opposite effect: they delayed the luteinizing-hormone surge of the recipients and lengthened their menstrual cycles. By showing in a fully controlled experiment that the timing of ovulation can be manipulated, this study provides definitive evidence of human pheromones. PMID:9515961

Stern, K; McClintock, M K

1998-03-12

220

Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male–female, as compared to male–male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male–male signalling.

Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Bjorn G

2005-01-01

221

Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-06-08

222

Coevolution and the Red Queen effect shape virtual plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Red Queen hypothesis a population of individuals may be improving some trait even though fitness remains\\u000a constant. We have tested this hypothesis using a population of virtual plants. The plants have to compete with each other\\u000a for virtual sunlight. Plants are modeled using Lindenmayer systems and rendered with OpenGL. Reproductive success of a plant\\u000a depends on the

Marc Ebner

2006-01-01

223

Asexual queen succession in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes virginicus.  

PubMed

Termite colonies are founded by a pair of primary reproductives. In many species, including subterranean termites (family Rhinotermitidae), the primary king and queen can be succeeded by neotenic reproductives that are produced from workers or nymphs within the colony. It is generally believed that these neotenics inbreed within the colony, sometimes for many generations. Here, we show that primary queens of the North American subterranean termite, Reticulitermes virginicus, are replaced by numerous parthenogenetically produced female neotenics. We collected functional female neotenics from five colonies of R. virginicus in North Carolina and Texas, USA. Genetic analysis at eight microsatellite loci showed that 91-100% of the neotenics present within a colony were homozygous at all loci, indicating that they were produced through automictic parthenogenesis with terminal fusion. In contrast, workers, soldiers and alates were almost exclusively sexually produced by mating between the female neotenics and a single king. This is the second termite species shown to undergo asexual queen succession, a system first described in the Japanese species, Reticulitermes speratus. Thus, the conditional use of sexual and asexual reproduction to produce members of different castes may be widespread within Reticulitermes and possibly other subterranean termites. PMID:21831899

Vargo, Edward L; Labadie, Paul E; Matsuura, Kenji

2011-08-10

224

Asexual queen succession in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes virginicus  

PubMed Central

Termite colonies are founded by a pair of primary reproductives. In many species, including subterranean termites (family Rhinotermitidae), the primary king and queen can be succeeded by neotenic reproductives that are produced from workers or nymphs within the colony. It is generally believed that these neotenics inbreed within the colony, sometimes for many generations. Here, we show that primary queens of the North American subterranean termite, Reticulitermes virginicus, are replaced by numerous parthenogenetically produced female neotenics. We collected functional female neotenics from five colonies of R. virginicus in North Carolina and Texas, USA. Genetic analysis at eight microsatellite loci showed that 91–100% of the neotenics present within a colony were homozygous at all loci, indicating that they were produced through automictic parthenogenesis with terminal fusion. In contrast, workers, soldiers and alates were almost exclusively sexually produced by mating between the female neotenics and a single king. This is the second termite species shown to undergo asexual queen succession, a system first described in the Japanese species, Reticulitermes speratus. Thus, the conditional use of sexual and asexual reproduction to produce members of different castes may be widespread within Reticulitermes and possibly other subterranean termites.

Vargo, Edward L.; Labadie, Paul E.; Matsuura, Kenji

2012-01-01

225

Reclaiming the crown: queen to worker conflict over reproduction in Aphaenogaster cockerelli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many social taxa, reproductively dominant individuals sometimes use aggression to secure and maintain reproductive status. In the social insects, queen aggression towards subordinate individuals or workers has been documented and is predicted to occur only in species with a small colony size and a low level of queen-worker dimorphism. We report queen aggression towards reproductive workers in the ant species Aphaenogaster cockerelli, a species with a relatively large colony size and a high level of reproductive dimorphism. Through analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, we show that queens are aggressive only to reproductively active workers. Non-reproductive workers treated with a hydrocarbon typical for reproductives are attacked by workers but not by queens, which suggests different ways of recognition. We provide possible explanations of why queen aggression is observed in this species.

Smith, Adrian A.; Hölldobler, Bert; Liebig, Jürgen

2011-03-01

226

Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

2005-07-01

227

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis...

2013-04-01

228

Queen number in a supercolony of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have analysed the distribution of queens under stones at the core and at the periphery of a supercolony of Lasius neglectus that occupies 14 ha at Seva (NE Spain). Queens were not found alone, but rather within worker groups. Density at the center (mean ± s.d.: 1.38 ± 2.87 queens\\/stone; n = 100 stones; range 0–14) was not

X. Espadaler; S. Rey; V. Bernal

2004-01-01

229

Queen–worker caste ratio depends on colony size in the pharaoh ant ( Monomorium pharaonis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of an ant colony depends on the simultaneous presence of reproducing queens and non-reproducing workers in a ratio\\u000a that will maximize colony growth and reproduction. Despite its presumably crucial role, queen–worker caste ratios (the ratio\\u000a of adult queens to workers) and the factors affecting this variable remain scarcely studied. Maintaining polygynous pharaoh\\u000a ant (Monomorium pharaonis) colonies in the

A. M. Schmidt; T. A. Linksvayer; J. J. Boomsma; J. S. Pedersen

2011-01-01

230

The physical, insemination, and reproductive quality of honey bee queens ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the reproductive potential (“quality”) of queens bees can provide valuable insights into factors that influence\\u000a colony phenotype. We assayed queens from various commercial sources for various measures of potential queen quality, including\\u000a their physical characters (such as their degree of parasitism), insemination number (stored sperm counts), and effective paternity\\u000a frequency (number of drone fathers among their offspring). We found

Deborah A. Delaney; Jennifer J. Keller; Joel R. Caren; David R. Tarpy

2011-01-01

231

Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a synthesized putative female pheromone was conducted with regularly menstruating, university women (N=36, mean age=27.8). The pheromone formula was derived from earlier work investigating the underarm secretions of fertile, sexually active, heterosexual women. A vial of either synthesized pheromone or placebo was selected blindly and added to a subject's perfume. Subjects recorded seven sociosexual behaviors

Norma L. McCoy; Lisa Pitino

2002-01-01

232

Sex Pheromone of the Scarab Beetle Phyllophaga ( Phytalus) georgiana (Horn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone of Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana was characterized as valine methyl ester, tentatively the l-enantiomer. This is the first sex pheromone identified from the Phyllophaga subgenus Phytalus. The pheromone was extracted from female glands, the active component isolated by coupled gas chromatography–electroantennogram\\u000a detection analysis, characterized by mass spectrometry, and shown to be active in field tests. The seasonal flight

Paul S. Robbins; Satoshi Nojima; Sridhar Polavarapu; Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer; Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Robert J. Holdcraft; Nancy H. Consolie; Daniel C. Peck; Wendell L. Roelofs

2009-01-01

233

Relationships between phenotype, mating behavior, and fitness of queens in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has focused on why females of many species mate with several males. For social hymenopteran insects, efforts have primarily concentrated on determining whether multiple mating increases colony performance due to the increased genetic diversity. Most of these studies are correlative because it is difficult or impossible to experimentally mate queens in most species. Thus, the positive associations found between multiple paternity and colony fitness in some cases may not be due to direct effects of genetic diversity but could, in theory, arise from high-quality queens having more mates. Here we show that in the ant Lasius niger variation in the number of matings covaries with queen phenotype. Young queens that were heavier at the time of the mating flight were significantly more likely to mate with several males. As a result, heavier queens stored more sperm. The initial weight of queens was significantly associated with the probability of surviving mating flights during the two years of the study, with queens of intermediate weight having the highest across-year survival. Queen initial weight was also significantly and positively associated with the quantity of brood at the time of the first worker eclosion as well as colony productivity at the time of hibernation. By contrast, there was little evidence for a positive effect of the number of matings on colony performance when the effect of mate number and queen initial weight were considered simultaneously. PMID:15212386

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Keller, Laurent

2004-05-01

234

Original sagittal split osteotomy revisited for mandibular distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A malformed mandible and an abnormally positioned mandibular foramen make it difficult to plan an ideal osteotomy line for mandibular distraction. In addition, there have been reports of such complications as nonunion, damage and stretch injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and tooth germ damage when conventional osteotomy or corticotomy are used for mandibular distraction. The authors utilized the

Jin-Young Choi; Kyung-Gyun Hwang; Seung-Hak Baek; Jong-Ho Lee; Tae-Woo Kim; Myung-Jin Kim; Young-II Chang

2001-01-01

235

Male-produced aggregation pheromone of Carpophilus obsoletus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males ofCarpophilus obsoletus Erichson produce an aggregation pheromone to which both sexes respond. The pheromone was identified by GC-MS as (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene (1), which is also a minor constituent of the pheromone blends ofC. hemipterus (L.),C. freemani Dobson, andC. lugubris Murray. The pheromone was synergized in wind-tunnel bioassays by propyl acetate, a “host-type” coattractant. In a dose-response study, 50 pg of1,

Richard J. Petroski; Robert J. Bartelt; Richard S. Vetter

1994-01-01

236

The trail pheromone of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis.  

PubMed

Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own. PMID:21529253

Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; Al-Abdullah, Mosa Abdullah; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed Saleh

2011-01-01

237

ASYMMETRY IN SEXUAL PHEROMONES IS NOT REQUIRED FOR ASCOMYCETE MATING  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. Most Ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called ? in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the Basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in Ascomycetes. Results We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous Ascomycete and a Basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or ?-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or ?-mating type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. Conclusions We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones.

Goncalves-Sa, Joana; Murray, Andrew

2011-01-01

238

Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

Xu Wei [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Leal, Walter S. [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: wsleal@ucdavis.edu

2008-08-08

239

Nickel-titanium mandibular bonded lingual 3-3 retainer: For permanent retention and solving relapse of mandibular anterior crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative technique that involves a nickel-titanium mandibular bonded lingual 3-3 retainer was used to treat relapse of mandibular anterior crowding. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate clinical procedures and to study the effects of a new mandibular bonded lingual 3-3 retainer on the mandibular dental arch. In 18 patients, changes in the irregularity index and in arch

Eric J. W. Liou; Louise I. J. Chen; C. Shing Huang

2001-01-01

240

Unilateral trifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

PubMed

Trifid mandibular condyle is an exceptionally rare entity, diagnosed accidentally on radiographic examination. Its etiology is controversial. Dental professionals should have knowledge of this anatomic abnormality and of the problems caused by it in normal function, as well as appropriate treatment modalities. In the literature, only three such cases have been reported. The current case report (the fourth reported) is of a unilateral trifid condyle reported in a 37-year-old woman seeking treatment for a missing tooth. A panoramic radiograph accidentally revealed a discrete modification of the right mandibular condyle. Computed tomography (CT) with 3-D construction was done to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21370772

Warhekar, Ashish M; Wanjari, Panjab V; Phulambrikar, Tushar

2011-01-01

241

Multiple Mandibular Exostoses: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Multiple maxillary and mandibular exostoses are common localized overgrowths of the bone. They are non-neoplastic and are thought to be reactive or developmental in origin. These exostoses need to be accurately distinguished from the other more diagnostically significant lesions, notably from the exosteal osteomas. The aetiology of exostosis has been investigated by different authors, but no consensus has been reached so far. We are reporting a rare case of an otherwise healthy 38 year old female with multiple exostoses in the mandibular anterior region, which correlated both clinically and radiographically.

Bansal, Mansi; Rastogi, Sanjay; Sharma, Anamika

2013-01-01

242

The mandibular gland secretions of the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens sexdens and Atta opaciceps exhibit intercaste and intercolony variations.  

PubMed

The mandibular gland secretions of worker castes from wild colonies of the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens sexdens and Atta opaciceps were analyzed quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretions comprised a complex mixture of volatile, mainly oxygenated compounds, and their profiles exhibited considerable qualitative and quantitative variations among species and castes. The known alarm pheromone 4-methyl-3-heptanone was common to both species. The elevated relative proportions of this ketone found in the secretions of gardeners and generalists suggest that such castes are primarily responsible for the production and release of the alarm pheromone. Quantitative variations (but no qualitative differences) in the profiles of secretions of soldiers from different colonies of A. sexdens sexdens were detected, supporting the view that intraspecific colony recognition is mediated through mandibular gland secretions. Subsequent laboratory assays showed that, among the compounds identified by GC-MS, 4-methyl-3-heptanone elicited a strong alarm response in workers of A. sexdens sexdens and A. opaciceps. PMID:16683202

Francelino, M R; Mendonça, A L; Do Nascimento, R R; Sant'ana, A E G

2006-04-25

243

Is androstadienone a putative human pheromone?  

PubMed

On the basis of different evidences, androstadienone, a steroid compound produced in the armpit, has been proposed as a human pheromone, although its physiological levels appear too low to induce a response under experimental conditions. For this reason, the majority of researchers in this area puts into question the "legitimacy" of androstadienone, and prefers to consider the axillary extracts in its entirety, like a sort of "medicinal tea", the components of which still remain to be identified, but that taken together may induce a response, or function as a carrier of other active substances. Another option is that androstadienone acts with varying degrees of potency and, at lower concentrations, according to the context and to specific behavioral situations. The aim of this paper is to review all relevant data regarding androstadienone, in order to ascertain whether it may be considered a physiological pheromone and, as such, a possible target of future modulators of some human behaviors. PMID:21291365

Marazziti, D; Torri, P; Baroni, S; Catena Dell'Osso, M; Consoli, G; Boncinelli, V

2011-01-01

244

Plasticity in queen number and social structure in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).  

PubMed

In many polygynous social insect societies, ecological factors such as habitat saturation promote high queen numbers by increasing the cost of solitary breeding. If polygyny is associated with constrained environments, queen number in colonies of invasive social insects should increase as saturation of their new habitat increases. Here I describe the variation in queen number, nestmate relatedness, and nest size along a gradient of time since colonization in an invading population of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in Haleakala, Hawaii. Nest densities in this population increase with distance from the leading edge of the invasion, reaching a stable density plateau approximately 80 m from the edge (> 2 years after colonization). Although the number of queens per nest in Haleakala is generally lower than previously reported for Argentine ants, there is significant variation in queen number across this population. Both the observed and effective queen numbers increase across the density gradient, and nests in the center of the population contain queen numbers three to nine times higher than those on the edge of the invasion. The number of workers per nest is correlated with queen number, and nests in the center are six times larger than nests at the edge. Microsatellite analysis of relatedness among nestmates reveals that all nests in the Haleakala population are characterized by low relatedness and have evidence of multiple reproducing queens. Relatedness values are significantly lower in nests in the center of the population, indicating that the number of reproducing queens is greater in areas of high nest density. The variation in queen number and nestmate relatedness in this study is consistent with expectations based on changes in ecological constraints during the invasion of a new habitat, suggesting that the social structure of Argentine ant populations is strongly influenced by ecological factors. Flexibility in social structure may facilitate persistence in variable environments and may also confer significant advantages to a species when introduced into new areas. PMID:12449488

Ingram, Krista K

2002-10-01

245

A Review of Research in Fish Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review provides selected examples of several types of chemical signals and cues important for the social behavior of\\u000a fish. Alarm substances evoke antipredator behaviors, typified by increased shoaling, refuging, freezing, dashing, area avoidance,\\u000a and reduced foraging. Migratory pheromones are employed by some fish species that migrate long distances to locate home streams\\u000a or spawning grounds. Many fishes employ sex

Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson; Mar Huertas; Weiming Li

246

Pheromones in the life of insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some\\u000a originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific\\u000a combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety\\u000a of tasks. The paper deals

Ingolf Lamprecht; Erik Schmolz; Burkhard Schricker

2008-01-01

247

Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.  

PubMed

Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models. PMID:22399397

Ma, Minghong

2012-01-01

248

The secret of truffles: A steroidal pheromone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The steroid 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol has a pronounced musk-like scent. It is a major constituent of the pheromone of the boar. It occurs also in axillary sweat of men but is devoid of androgenic activity. The presence of this steroid has been demonstrated in truffles (Tuber melanosporum) both by radioimmunoassay and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in quantities of 40–60 ng\\/g fresh

R. Claus; H. O. Hoppen; H. Karg

1981-01-01

249

Maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts ® total joint prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and stability of the oropharyngeal airway and head posture following TMJ reconstruction and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts custom-made total joint prostheses and maxillary osteotomies with counter-clockwise rotation of the maxillo-mandibular complex. All patients were operated at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas TX, USA, by one surgeon (Wolford). The

K. E. D. Coleta; L. M. Wolford; J. R. Gonçalves; A. dos Santos Pinto; D. S. Cassano; D. A. G. Gonçalves

2009-01-01

250

Gertrude Stein, opium queen: notes on a mistaken embrace.  

PubMed

Gertrude Stein was not only a fairly open lesbian but also Jewish, expatriate, and androgynous-all attributes that often retarded mass-market success. Why then was she so popular? The article offers original research highlighting how Stein was constructed as a kind of "opium queen" in the popular American press, and the ways that this decadent, bohemian celebrity persona allowed her to operate as "broadly queer" rather than "specifically gay" in the American cultural imaginary-a negotiation that accounts for the mass-market success rather than censure of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas despite the unparalleled visibility of its lesbian erotics. PMID:23316838

Solomon, Jeff

2013-01-01

251

The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen.  

PubMed

The National Museums of Scotland Mummy Project has provided important new information about a burial excavated in Egypt. This has resulted in the facial reconstruction of a woman who was probably a queen at Thebes ca. 1570-1520 BCE. There are strong suggestions from the grave goods and her diet that this woman may have been ethnically Nubian rather than Egyptian. However, it is not yet possible to establish her ethnic identity for sure, so a definitive reconstruction of her appearance in life remains elusive. PMID:12554294

Manley, Bill; Eremin, Katherine; Shortland, Andrew; Wilkinson, Caroline

2002-12-01

252

Longitudinal trends in speech tempo: the case of Queen Beatrix.  

PubMed

Older talkers speak slower than young ones, but speech tempo has increased in the last decades. Have present-day older talkers slowed down with age or have they sped up with their community? This study investigates longitudinal patterns in articulation rate in formal speeches presented annually by Queen Beatrix between her ages 42 and 74. Her tempo decreased first and then increased in the last decade. Within a speech, acceleration and shortening increased longitudinally. These results suggest that this talker's preferred tempo has not decreased but increased longitudinally, presumably in accommodation to an increasing tempo in the Dutch language community. PMID:23742439

Quené, Hugo

2013-06-01

253

Pheromone Components and Diel Periodicity of Pheromonal Communication in Lymantria fumida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of pheromone glands from female Lymantria fumida were analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and by coupled GC–mass spectrometry (MS). The two compounds that elicited responses from male L. fumida antennae were identified as cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (disparlure) and 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene (2me-Z7–18Hy). Field experiments in northern Japan demonstrated that synthetic (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] and 2me-Z7–18Hy are synergistic sex pheromone components of L.

Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; David Holden

1999-01-01

254

Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity  

PubMed Central

Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

2010-01-01

255

Incomplete transposition of a mandibular premolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented which demonstrates the incomplete transposition of a posterior tooth. In this case, the path of eruption of an abnormally angulated developing mandibular second premolar was diverted distally following the extraction of the adjacent first permanent molar. J. he transposition of teeth is a rare occurrence which has been defined as the interchange of tooth position.1 Most

Mark D. Siegal; Howard L. Needleman

256

Mandibular advancement devices and seep disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been nearly 90 years since a dentist first fabricated a dental appliance for a patient with snoring. Since then, mandibular advancement devices or MADs have become a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and are used to increase the caliber of the airway during sleep. Their primary use is for the patient who has snoring or mild to

Glenn T. Clark

1998-01-01

257

Mandibular contouring surgery for purely aesthetic reasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandible's contour determines the shape of the lower part of the face and thus influences the appearance of the face and neck. There are two types of operative procedures that can be used on mandibular contour and they do not require orthodontic treatment: mandible angle reduction and genioplasty. We divided the mandible angle reduction group into Types A, B,

Doo Byung Yang; Chul Gyoo Park

1991-01-01

258

[Facial nerve paralysis and mandibular fracture].  

PubMed

The authors describe three cases of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in patients with a mandibular fracture. In two cases, in which the onset of palsy was uncertain, the facial nerve injury was contralateral to the fractured side. Topodiagnostic tests showed neural damage at the third intrapetrosal portion and at the genicular ganglion. In one of the two patients tomography revealed a fracture line through the anterio-superior wall of the external auditory canal homolateral to the facial palsy. In the third subject palsy set in immediately after the trauma and was ipsilateral to the mandibular fracture; the facial lesion was localized at the genicular ganglion. In the first two cases, functional recovery was spontaneous (40 and 0 days after the trauma respectively). In the third subject, the nerve was decompressed surgically with a complete functional recovery two months later. The functional and clinical findings of these three cases show that a contralateral facial palsy secondary to a mandibular fracture resolves spontaneously while the traumatic displacement of the mandibular condyle may determine a temporal bone fracture sometimes followed by a lesion in the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve. An event such as the latter may delay functional recovery and thus warrant surgery such as in cases of Bell's palsy. PMID:1298156

Salonna, I; Fanizzi, P; Quaranta, A

259

Distraction osteogenesis in a severe mandibular deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplasia. In this case report, distraction with a multidirectional extraoral device was performed to gradually lengthen the corpus and ramus of a patient who had a severe hypoplastic mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient underwent bilateral extraoral ramus and corpus distraction osteogenesis. After seven days of latency

Kerim Ortakoglu; Seniz Karacay; Metin Sencimen; Erol Akin; Aykut H Ozyigit; Osman Bengi

2007-01-01

260

Unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation.  

PubMed

Regional odontodysplasia is a rare developmental anomaly with an unknown cause. This disorder involves both the ectodermal and mesodermal dental layers. The affected teeth generally cannot be rehabilitated for functional use; therefore, the treatment of choice is extraction with prosthetic replacement. A unique case of unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation is reported. PMID:2356083

Raez, A G

1990-06-01

261

Bilateral Mandibular Supernumerary Canines: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth.

Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

262

An assessment of early mandibular growth.  

PubMed

Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch and associated muscle attachment sites. These findings might be valuable in the estimation of age in unidentified individuals and to monitor prenatal growth of the mandible for the early diagnosis of conditions associated with stunted mandibular growth. PMID:22154436

Hutchinson, E F; L'Abbé, E N; Oettlé, A C

2011-12-07

263

Are queen Bombus terrestris giant workers or are workers dwarf queens? Solving the 'chicken and egg' problem in a bumblebee species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the social bee, Bombus terrestris, the two castes differ in size and physiology, but not in any other morphological and anatomical aspects. The size differences between the castes are the result of longer instar duration in prospective queen larvae. It appears that queen larvae are programmed to have a higher molting weight at the end of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars. Calculation of the growth ratio, the ratio between the logarithm of molting weight at two successive instars, revealed that queen larvae have a linear growth ratio over the entire larval development as predicted by Dyar's rule. In the worker larvae, in contrast, linearity of the growth ratio breaks after the second instar, resulting in larval molting at lower weights than expected by Dyar's rule. We therefore suggest that workers' development is abnormally shortened, either by parental manipulation or by adopting a different growth plan in response to the queen's signal.

Cnaani, Jonathan; Hefetz, Abraham

2001-01-01

264

Contrasting population genetic structure for workers and queens in the putatively unicolonial ant Formica exsecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of inclusive fitness provides a powerful explanation for reproductive altruism in social insects, whereby workers gain inclusive fitness benefit by rearing the brood of related queens. Some ant species, however, have unicolonial population structures where multiple nests, each containing numerous queens, are interconnected and individuals move freely between nests. In such cases, nestmate relatedness values may often be

ROLF KÜMMERLI; LAURENT KELLER

2007-01-01

265

Signifying the tragic mulatto: A semiotic analysis of Alex Haley's queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing a semiotic framework, this article explores the signification process of the lead character in Alex Haley's Queen. This popular miniseries is significant because a bi?ethnic person is the focal point of its storyline. However, instead of transcending the traditional stereotypes associated with bi?ethnicity, the program does little more than portray Queen as a “tragic mulatto.”; Specifically, three signifiers are

Mark P. Orbe; Karen E. Strother

1996-01-01

266

Promiscuous honey bee queens increase colony productivity by suppressing worker selfishness.  

PubMed

Queen monogamy is ancestral among bees, ants, and wasps (Order Hymenoptera), and the close relatedness that it generates within colonies is considered key for the evolution of eusociality in these lineages. Paradoxically, queens of several eusocial species are extremely promiscuous, a derived behavior that decreases relatedness among workers and fitness gained from rearing siblings but benefits queens by enhancing colony productivity and inducing workers to rear queens' sons instead of less related worker-derived males. Selection for promiscuity would be especially strong if productivity in a singly inseminated queen's colony declined because selfish workers invested in personal reproduction at the expense of performing tasks that contribute to colony productivity. We show in honey bees that workers' ovaries are more developed when queens are singly rather than multiply inseminated and that increasing ovary activation is coupled with reductions in task performance by workers and colony-wide rates of foraging and waggle-dance recruitment. Increased investment in reproductive physiology by selfish workers might result from greater incentive for them to favor worker-derived males or because low mating frequency signals a queen's diminished quality or future fecundity. Either possibility fosters selection for queen promiscuity, revealing a novel benefit of it for eusocial insects. PMID:23022065

Mattila, Heather R; Reeve, H Kern; Smith, Michael L

2012-09-27

267

A queen-bee evolution based on genetic algorithm for economic power dispatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic power dispatch problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained complex optimization problem. Conventional optimization methods that make use of derivatives and gradients, in general, are not able to locate or identify the global optimum. In this paper, a novel evolution method termed queen-bee evolution is employed for solving the optimization problem of economic power dispatch. The queen-bee evolution

L. D. Qin; Q. Y. Jiang; Z. Y. Zou; Y. J. Cao

2004-01-01

268

UNUSUAL QUEEN CELL CONSTRUCTION AND DESTRUCTION IN APIS MELLIFERA FROM FAR-EASTERN RUSSIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the behavior of queen cell production in queen-right colonies of Russian honey bees. We observed the simultaneous production and destruction of numerous cells within single colonies. An unusual observation was the behavior of sealed cells being opened and emptied from the end depecting ...

269

Queen control over reproductive decisions--no sexual deception in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Queen-worker conflicts in social insect societies have received much attention in the past decade. In many species workers modify the colony sex ratio to their own advantage or produce their own male offspring. In some other species, however, queens seem to be able to prevent workers from making selfish reproductive decisions. So far, little effort has been made to find out how queens may keep control over sex ratio and male parentage. In this study we use a Lasius niger population under apparent queen control to show that sexual deception cannot explain queen dominance in this population. The sexual deception hypothesis postulates that queens should prevent workers from discriminating against males by disguising male brood as females. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, we found that workers are able to distinguish male and female larvae early in their development: in early spring workers generally placed only either female or male larvae in the uppermost chambers of the nest, although both types of larvae must have been present. At this time males were only at 11% of their final dry weight, a developmental stage at which (according to two models) workers would still have benefited from replacing queen-produced males by females or worker-produced males. This study thus demonstrates that sexual deception cannot account for the apparent queen control over colony sex ratio and male parentage in L. niger. PMID:12755886

Jemielity, Stephanie; Keller, Laurent

2003-06-01

270

Queen control over reproductive decisions - no sexual deception in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen-worker conflicts in social insect societies have received much attention in the past decade. In many species workers modify the colony sex ratio to their own advantage or pro- duce their own male offspring. In some other species, however, queens seem to be able to prevent workers from making selfish reproductive decisions. So far, little effort has been made to

Stephanie Jemielity; Laurent Keller

2003-01-01

271

Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of

Yu Fang; Feifei Song; Lan Zhang; Dereje Woltedji Aleku; Bin Han; Mao Feng; Jianke Li

272

Seasonal swimming behaviour in the queen scallop ( Aequipecten opercularis) and its effect on dredge fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified dredges were used on Aequipecten opercularis (queen scallop) fishing grounds off the Isle of Man in the north Irish Sea to determine seasonal variability in swimming behaviour in queen scallops and its effect on dredge fisheries. Scallops, which evaded dredge capture by swimming up into the water column, were captured by a specially designed net deployed above the dredge

S. R. Jenkins; W. Lart; B. J. Vause; A. R. Brand

2003-01-01

273

Maerl grounds provide both refuge and high growth potential for juvenile queen scallops ( Aequipecten opercularis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human damage to biogenic substrata such as maerl has been receiving increasing attention recently. Maerl forms highly biodiverse and heterogeneous habitats composed of loose-lying coralline red algae, which fulfil nursery area prerequisites for queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and other invertebrates. The benefits obtained by queen scallops utilising maerl were poorly understood, so we used both laboratory predation and field tethering

Nicholas A. Kamenos; P. Geoffrey Moore; Jason M. Hall-Spencer

2004-01-01

274

AN EVALUATION OF COMMERCIALLY-PRODUCED QUEENS THAT HAVE THE SMR TRAIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study demonstrated that commercially-produced queen bees, Apis mellifera L, could provide a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor when free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: ...

275

Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.  

PubMed

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

2012-12-01

276

Queens defense by workers in the highly polygynous ant Crematogaster pygmaea (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae).  

PubMed

Some aspects of the biology of Crematogaster pygmaea, a highly polydomous and polygynous ant, are more commonly found in monogynous species. One such characteristic is the high attractiveness of its queens. In this study, this attractiveness was assessed under varying experimental conditions to investigate the factors responsible for its expression and variation, and to identify the nature of queen attractiveness. It was shown (1) that C. pygmaea queens are highly attractive to the workers that cluster on and around them (retinue), (2) that the attractiveness of C. pygmaea queens is context-dependent, i.e., it increases with increasing degree of potential danger to the queen, (3) that the attractiveness signal of C. pygmaea queens is chemically based, and (4) that this signal is persistent and apparently not colony-specific. The proposed hypothesis is that the C. pygmaea queens constantly release an attractiveness signal that is "read" by the workers, in a dependent way linked to the context, and that the main function of this attractiveness is to protect queens. This protection would have a high adaptive value in the context of the social structure and the reproductive strategies in C. pygmaea. PMID:23026145

Martins Segundo, Glauco Bezerra; de Biseau, Jean-Christophe; Quinet, Yves

2012-09-28

277

Modification of Streptococcus faecalis Sex Pheromones after Acquisition of Plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recipient strains of Streptococcus faecalis excrete multiple, peptide sex pheromones that induce mating responses in donors harboring certain conjugative plasmids. Acquisition of plasmid DNA leads to a ``shutting off'' of pheromone excretion, and such cells become responsive to exogenous pheromone. Data are presented showing that donors excrete low levels of a modified, inactive form of the pheromone. This substance, when

Yasuyoshi Ike; Ronald A. Craig; Bryan A. White; Yoshihiko Yagi; Don B. Clewell

1983-01-01

278

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

279

Localization and Morphology of Sex Pheromone Glands in Scarab Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone glands of female Anomala albopilosa albopilosa have been localized by extracting various parts of the body and analyzing the extracts by GC-MS and by histological and morphological studies. Female-specific epithelial cells line the inner surfaces of anal plates and two apical sternites; these cells are connected through many pores to the cuticle surface. The sex pheromones of

Shigeo Tada; Walter Soares Leal

1997-01-01

280

Sex pheromone of the plant bug, Phytocoris calli knight.  

PubMed

Female Phytocoris calli Knight produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA), and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of the pheromone, since deletion of either ester from the blend resulted in a total suppression of conspecific male trap catches. However, the binary blend of HA and E2OA was only slightly attractive to males, and was significantly less active than the four-component blend. The two ternary blends, HA/OA/E2OA and HA/E2HA/E2OA, were each as attractive as the full four-component blend. Evidence from previous research on the pheromones of Phytocoris species suggests that the apparent chemical redundancy in the pheromone of P. calli may actually be involved in maintaining reproductive isolation from other sympatric species. The patterns observed for pheromones of the five Phytocoris species whose pheromones have been directly (P. californicus, P. relativus, P. difficilis, and P. calli) or indirectly (P. breviusculus) studied are discussed vis-à-vis the pheromone intractable species of Lygus and Lygocoris plant bugs. PMID:18465171

Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

2008-05-09

281

Pheromonal communication involved in courtship behavior in Diptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromones are known for many dipteran species and play an important role in courtship behavior, together with visual, tactile, acoustic and other factors. Pheromones for a number of dipterans have been recently identified. This survey covers a number of species in all the families that have been studied. The review discusses diverse courtship behaviors in Diptera, with a special

Claude Wicker-Thomas

2007-01-01

282

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth.  

PubMed

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once "locked on" to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this "mental shortcut" may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to "evolve," even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant "gestalts." Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T; Dekker, Teun

2013-04-15

283

HORMONAL MODULATION OF PHEROMONE-MEDIATED BEHAVIOR IN A CRUSTACEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereotypedcourtshipdisplay is normally triggeredin the male blue crab, GaUl nectes sapidus, by a pheromone released from pubertal females. Following bilateral eyestalk ligation, ablation, or optic tract transection, males do not respond to the pheromone, suggesting that neural pathways in the eyestalk ganglia are important for processingor transmittingpheromone stimulus information. Interestingly,males begin to exhibit spontaneous display behavior within a few

RICHARD A. GLEESON; MICHAEL A. ADAMS; AMOS B. SMITH

284

Pheromones cause disease: the exocrinology of anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aetiology of anorexia nervosa is exocrinological. This notion is supported by physical evidence in animal models with directly comparable symptomatology. Anorexia nervosa (AN) syndrome would be a puberty delay caused by reception and autoreception of conspecific pheromone emissions: a pheromone-induced puberty delay (PIPD). As such, it would be amenable to medical treatment drawing from forty years of research in

B Nicholson

2000-01-01

285

Ciliate Mating Types and Their Specific Protein Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The determination of a number of pheromone structures from species of Euplotes provided direct evidence that these cell type- specific signals are represented by families of homologous proteins, consistently with their genetic control through series of single-locus multiple alleles. Due to their structural homology, unequivocally manifested by the organization of similar three-dimensional t opologies, pheromones can thus compete with

Pierangelo LUPORINI; Claudio ALIMENTI; Claudio ORTENZI; Adriana VALLESI

2005-01-01

286

Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report that the abdomen and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and for the first time describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD...

287

Electrophilic derivatives antagonise pheromone attraction in Cydia pomonella.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Pheromone antagonists are good disruptants of the pheromone communication in insects and, as such, have been used in mating disruption experiments. In this study, new non-fluorinated electrophilic keto derivatives structurally related to the pheromone of Cydia pomonella (codlemone) have been synthesised and tested as putative pheromone antagonists. RESULTS: Codlemone (1) was prepared in excellent stereoselectivity in a new, iterative approach involving two Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions. Methyl ketone (2), keto ester (3) and diketone (4) were obtained from codlemone in straightforward approaches in good overall yields and excellent stereochemical purity (?98% E,E). In electrophysiology, only compound 2 displayed inhibition of the antennal response to the pheromone after presaturation of the antennal receptors. Compounds 2 to 4 did not inhibit the pheromone-degrading enzyme responsible for codlemone metabolism, but mixtures of ketone 2 and diketone 4 with codlemone elicited erratic flights on males in a wind tunnel. In the field, blends of either compound (2 or 4) with the pheromone caught significantly fewer males than codlemone alone. CONCLUSION: Codlemone and the potential antagonists 2 to 4 have been synthesised in good yields and excellent stereoselectivity. These chemicals behave as pheromone antagonists of the codling moth both in the laboratory and in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23554261

Sans, Albert; Gago, Rafael; Mingot, Ares; García, Wanda; Bosch, Dolors; Coll, Josep; Rosell, Gloria; Bosch, M Pilar; Riba, Magí; Guerrero, Angel

2013-01-29

288

Female pheromonal chorusing in an arctiid moth, Utetheisa ornatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual case of communal sexual display in the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix that we designate ''female pheromonal chorusing.'' As in most moths, female U. ornatrix release a long-distance sexual advertisement pheromone during a nightly activity period. We arranged U. ornatrix females in 2 types of signaling conditions: grouped and solitary. When the females were grouped with neighboring

Hangkyo Lim; Michael D. Greenfield

2006-01-01

289

Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: Pheromone reward and odour experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are ‘innately’ attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close

Fernando Martínez-García; Joana Martínez-Ricós; Carmen Agustín-Pavón; Jose Martínez-Hernández; Amparo Novejarque; Enrique Lanuza

2009-01-01

290

Predicting Atmospheric Concentration of Pheromone in Treated Apple Orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lagrangian model was developed to predict the vertical distribution of pheromone in apple orchards treated with synthetic pheromone released from polyethylene tubing dispensers. Measurements of tree dimensions' dispenser heights, air temperature, and wind speed were used as inputs to the model. Data to test the model output were obtained by air sampling and capillary gas chromatography to determine atmospheric

D. M. Suckling; S. R. Green; A. R. Gibb; G. Karg

1999-01-01

291

Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

292

Identification of bacterial species in the hemolymph of queen Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Evidence that symbiotic microorganisms can impact the development and fitness of insects has been shown in many species. Hemolymph-associated symbiotic bacteria have been identified in larvae of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant; however, their association with adult red imported fire ants and the mode by which these organisms are transmitted from queens to offspring are not well known. In this study, Bacillus spp. bacteria were routinely recovered in the hemolymph of queen S. invicta. Genetic analysis of the 16S gene confirmed the most common bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp.; several Staphylococcus species were also collected. Ovaries from reproductive and nonreproductive queens, freshly laid eggs, first-instar larvae, and hemolymph were collected from queens and analyzed for the presence of specific Bacillus spp. bacteria. It was indicated that these bacteria may be transmitted vertically from queen to progeny. PMID:19825289

Tufts, Danielle M; Bextine, Blake

2009-10-01

293

Physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).  

PubMed

Several physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were elucidated. At least one component of the pheromone can be extracted from aqueous solutions with diethyl ether. However, the pheromone has a higher solubility in water, as most of the pheromone activity remained in the water fraction. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that the pheromone or at least one of its components is positively charged, whereas another pheromone component may be negatively charged. Fractional distillation of pheromone extracts showed that it is, indeed, composed of at least two components. These components may interact additively rather than synergistically. PMID:9846605

Aumann, J; Dietsche, E; Rutencrantz, S; Ladehoff, H

1998-11-01

294

New medical record system in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong.  

PubMed

During the 1980's, the medical record problems had been identified and it was not until 1991 that Queen Elizabeth Hospital was chosen to be the pilot hospital for the development of a new medical record management system for the Hospital Authority hospitals. The new medical records system was implemented in Queen Elizabeth Hospital in December, 1993. Six month after implementation, a pre-implementation and post-implementation review of the medical record services were conducted to compare the results of the new and old system. The results showed that there were significant improvements in the record retrieval and record integrity in the new system. New medical record services such as the delivery of readmission records to the ward, filing of medical records forms in pre-defined order and filing of loose sheets in the relevant hospital notes are able to facilitate the efficient, effective and complete access to patient information. The support and cooperation of the hospital staff are crucial to the success of the new system. Continuous review and improvement of the new system is essential in order to obtain the best results. PMID:10142473

Szeto, K W

1994-12-01

295

Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels  

PubMed Central

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops.

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

296

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-07-18

297

Alternative reproductive tactics in the queen-size-dimorphic ant Leptothorax rugatulus (Emery) and their consequences for genetic population structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a comprehensive investigation of the queen size dimorphism in the North American ant Leptothorax rugatulus. Employing allozymes and microsatellites as genetic markers, we found no evidence that the gene pools of large (macrogynes) and small (microgynes) queens are distinct. Queens in polygynous colonies are related to each other, supporting the hypothesis that colonies with more

O. Rüppell; J. Heinze; B. Hölldobler

2001-01-01

298

WHY DO SOME SOCIAL INSECT QUEENS MATE WITH SEVERAL MALES? TESTING THE SEX-RATIO MANIPULATION HYPOTHESIS IN LASIUS NIGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers,

Else J. Fjerdingstad; Pia J. Gertsch; Laurent Keller

2002-01-01

299

Patriline composition of worker populationsin honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) colonies headedby queens inseminated with semen from Africanand European drones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybee queens with either European or African maternity were mated to African and European drones to determine rates of sperm utilization. The first month after the queens were inseminated, they produced equal proportions of workers with African and European paternity. However, for the next 3-4 months, more than 70% of the workers produced by queens of either matriline had African

Gloria DeGrandi-hoffman; David R. Tarpy; Stanley S. Schneider

2003-01-01

300

The evolution of polyandry by queens in social Hymenoptera: the significance of the timing of removal of diploid males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiple mating by queens in social Hymenoptera with single locus sex determination may be an adaptation to reduce the effect of genetic load caused by the production of diploid males, if there is a concave relationship between queen fitness and the proportion of diploid male offspring in the colony. In this situation queens should be selected to reduce the

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1990-01-01

301

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

302

A Pheromone-Guided Mobile Robot that Behaves like a Silkworm Moth with Living Antennae as Pheromone Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pheromone-oriented behavior of moths will be demonstrated by synthesis with biosensors and a small mobile robot that is controlled by recurrent neural networks. Since antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive as compared to conventional arti ficial gas sensors, they can be used as living gas sensors that detect pheromone molecules. A simple recurrent artificial

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama

1998-01-01

303

Host marking pheromone of Rhagoletis cerasi: Foraging behavior in response to synthetic pheromonal isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the foraging behavior ofRhagoletis cerasi females in trees treated with synthetic cherry fruit fly host marking pheromone (HMP) under seminatural conditions (potted trees enclosed in a screen cage). Results show that synthetic HMP (particularly the 8RS-@#@ 15R isomer configuration (racemic mixture)) was highly effective in eliciting behavioral responses similar to those reported in studies using natural HMP. Flies

Martin Aluja; Ernst F. Boller

1992-01-01

304

Facts, fallacies, fears, and frustrations with human pheromones.  

PubMed

Among primates in general, pheromones are of variable importance to social communication. Data on humans have generated the greatest controversy regarding the existence of pheromonal communication. In this review, the likelihood of pheromonal communication in humans is assessed with a discussion of chemical compounds produced by the axilla that may function as pheromones; the likelihood that the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a putative pheromone receptor organ in many other mammals, is functional in humans; and the possible ways pheromones operate in humans. In the human axilla, the interactions between the cutaneous microflora and axillary secretions render this region analogous to scent glands found in other primates. Both the chemistry of axillary secretions and their effects on conspecifics in humans appear to be analogous to other mammalian pheromone systems. Whichever chemical compounds serve a pheromonal function in humans, another unknown is the receptor. Although the VNO has been implicated in the reception of pheromones in many vertebrates, it is not the only pathway through which such information has access to the central nervous system; there is ample evidence to support the view that the olfactory epithelium can respond to pheromones. Furthermore, if a chemical activates receptors within the VNO, this does not necessarily mean that the compound is a pheromone. An important caveat for humans is that critical components typically found within the functioning VNO of other, nonprimate, mammals are lacking, suggesting that the human VNO does not function in the way that has been described for other mammals. In a broader perspective, pheromones can be classified as primers, signalers, modulators, and releasers. There is good evidence to support the presence of the former three in humans. Examples include affects on the menstrual cycle (primer effects); olfactory recognition of newborn by its mother (signaler); individuals may exude different odors based on mood (suggestive of modulator effects). However, there is no good evidence for releaser effects in adult humans. It is emphasized that no bioassay-guided study has led to the isolation of true human pheromones, a step that will elucidate specific functions to human chemical signals. PMID:15470677

Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

2004-11-01

305

Mandibular first premolar with four canals.  

PubMed

A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of four distinct root canals and four apical foramina is described. This occurrence in mandibular first premolar has rarely been reported in the endodontic literature. Endodontic treatment that considers the anatomic variation of root canal morphology is important to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal. This offers valuable adjuncts for the successful negotiation of calcified main canals, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. PMID:23382063

Du, Yi; Lee, Angeline H C; Zhang, Chengfei

2013-02-01

306

The interaction of drag queens and gay men in public and private spaces.  

PubMed

This study examines the issue of internal segregation within the gay community, focusing on the ways by which the drag queen subculture is distanced from larger mainstream gay society. Through the use of institutional ethnography, symbolic interactionism, and a naturalist approach to sociology, the researchers sought to understand the subjective experience of the drag queen, in particular how drag queens perceive their interactions with mainstream gay society. Data for this study were collected through a series of observations conducted in a variety of spatial contexts and interviews with 18 drag queens. Findings indicate that spatial distance between the drag queens and the mainstream gay men is dependent on both the social context and the level of professionalization of the drag queen. Although drag queens' perceptions of their status in the gay community are also dependent on the latter, discussions of relationship difficulties and the quest for a long-term romantic partner illustrate that discrimination within the gay community is both widespread and complex. PMID:17594970

Berkowitz, Dana; Belgrave, Linda; Halberstein, Robert A

2007-01-01

307

Direct assessment of queen quality and lack of worker suppression in a paper wasp  

PubMed Central

Assessing a conspecific's potential is often crucial to increase one's fitness, e.g. in female choice, contests with rivals or reproductive conflicts in animal societies. In the latter, helpers benefit from accurately assessing the fertility of the breeder as an indication of inclusive fitness. There is evidence that this can be achieved using chemical correlates of reproductive activity. Here, we show that queen quality can be assessed by directly monitoring her reproductive output. In the paper wasp Polistes dominulus, we mimicked a decrease in queen fertility by regularly removing brood. This triggered ovarian development and egg-laying by many workers, which strongly suggests that brood abundance is a reliable cue of queen quality. Brood abundance can be monitored when workers perform regular brood care in small size societies where each brood element is kept in a separate cell. Our results also show that although the queen was not manipulated, and thus remained healthy and fully fertile, she did not control worker egg-laying. Nevertheless, when workers laid eggs, the queen secured a near reproductive monopoly by selectively destroying these eggs, a mechanism known as ‘queen policing’. By contrast, workers destroyed comparatively few queen-laid eggs, but did destroy each other's eggs.

Liebig, Jurgen; Monnin, Thibaud; Turillazzi, Stefano

2005-01-01

308

Extended longevity of queen honey bees compared to workers is associated with peroxidation-resistant membranes.  

PubMed

In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), depending on what they are fed, female eggs become either workers or queens. Although queens and workers share a common genome, the maximum lifespan of queens is an order-of-magnitude longer than workers. The mechanistic basis of this longevity difference is unknown. In order to test if differences in membrane composition could be involved we have compared the fatty acid composition of phospholipids of queen and worker honey bees. The cell membranes of both young and old honey bee queens are highly monounsaturated with very low content of polyunsaturates. Newly emerged workers have a similar membrane fatty acid composition to queens but within the first week of hive life, they increase the polyunsaturate content and decrease the monounsaturate content of their membranes, probably as a result of pollen consumption. This means their membranes likely become more susceptible to lipid peroxidation in this first week of hive life. The results support the suggestion that membrane composition might be an important factor in the determination of maximum lifespan. Assuming the same slope of the relationship between membrane peroxidation index and maximum lifespan as previously observed for mammal and bird species, we propose that the 3-fold difference in peroxidation index of phospholipids of queens and workers is large enough to account for the order-of-magnitude difference in their longevity. PMID:17446027

Haddad, Laura Saade; Kelbert, Louie; Hulbert, A J

2007-03-03

309

Cuticular lipid profiles of fertile and non-fertile Cardiocondyla ant queens.  

PubMed

Both mating and reproduction strongly affect the physiology of insect females. In the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, a comparison among virgin queens, mated queens, and queens mated with sterilized males ("sham-mated") allows to separate the different effects of mating and egg laying. Here, we investigate whether and how different mating status is reflected in the cuticular lipid profiles of queens, i.e., the blend of chemicals that is thought to signal a queen's fertility. Surprisingly, discriminant analyses failed to reliably distinguish among virgin, mated, and sham-mated queens. A generalized linear model on individual substances showed only very subtle differences. While mating appeared to be positively associated with the proportions of 3-MeC(25,) 11-/13-MeC(27), 5-MeC(27), 3-MeC(27), and 12-/14-MeC(28) and negatively with C(27:1), fecundity was negatively associated with C(29:1), C(31:1), and a sterol derivative. We discuss these results in the light of the special life history of C. obscurior, with completely sterile workers and low egg laying rates in queens. PMID:22750550

Will, Stefanie; Delabie, Jacques H C; Heinze, Jürgen; Ruther, Joachim; Oettler, Jan

2012-06-28

310

Analysis of Male Pheromones That Accelerate Female Reproductive Organ Development  

PubMed Central

Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

Flanagan, Kelly A.; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

2011-01-01

311

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures. PMID:22038287

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-10-27

312

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

313

Proximal segment displacement in mandibular distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has been advocated for treatment of the mandibular deformity in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). During the active phase, the force of distraction pushes the distal segment of the mandible down, creating a distraction gap. Because of the abnormal temporomandibular joint anatomy in HFM patients, the proximal segment may not seat in the glenoid fossa and thus may be displaced with distraction. The purpose of this study was to determine the vector(s) of proximal segment movement during mandibular distraction using a semiburied device. Two investigators traced the immediate pre-and postdistraction panoramic radiographs of 12 HFM patients (mean age at operation = 8.4 years, mean distraction = 28 mm) who had mandibular distraction with a semiburied device. Radiographic analysis, based on a vertical maxillary reference line, measured change in condylar position with angular and linear measurements. Inter-rater reliability for the tracing and analysis was shown with a correlation coefficient between 0.89 and 0.99 for all measures. Based on the angular and linear measurements, 10 of the 12 patients had superior movement of the proximal segment with distraction. Sagittal movement of the proximal segment could not be judged adequately. This study was based on measurements made on panoramic radiographs. Direct measurements could not be made; thus, it was not possible to estimate proximal segment movement in millimeters or as a percentage of total movement. Further studies to document proximal segment movement using computed tomography scans may provide more quantitative data. PMID:12000889

Padwa, Bonnie L; Zaragoza, Sandra M; Sonis, Andrew L

2002-03-01

314

Robert G. McQueen (1924-1994)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert “Bob” McQueen, who applied the methods of shock wave compression to study the behavior of Earth materials at high pressure and temperature, died October 18, 1994, after a brief illness. He had been an AGU Fellow since 1988.Bob grew up in Des Moines, Iowa, and graduated from high school in 1942. He briefly attended Stanford until he was called into service in 1943. He resumed study at Denver University in 1946 and completed a masters degree in mathematics in 1949. He was hired as a weapons designer by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1949 during the defense research expansion triggered during the emerging cold war. Bob's interest in the Earth's interior developed in the 1950s when he began to study equations of state of metals and silicates using shock waves.

Brown, J. Michael; Shankland, Thomas J.

315

How the Red Queen drives terrestrial mammals to extinction.  

PubMed

Most species disappear by the processes of background extinction, yet those processes are poorly understood. We analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 19 Cenozoic terrestrial mammalian clades with rich fossil records that are now fully extinct or in diversity decline. We find their diversity loss was not just a consequence of "gamblers ruin" but resulted from the evolutionary loss to the Red Queen, a failure to keep pace with a deteriorating environment. Diversity loss is driven equally by both depressed origination rates and elevated extinction rates. Although we find diversity-dependent origination and extinction rates, the diversity of each clade only transiently equaled the implied equilibrium diversity. Thus, the processes that drove diversity loss in terrestrial mammal clades were fundamentally nonequilibrial and overwhelmed diversity-dependent processes. PMID:23788731

Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles R

2013-06-20

316

South Pole Queen Maud Land Traverses, 1964-68 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between early December, 1964, and late January, 1968, the three-part "South Pole Queen Maud Land Traverse" (SPQMLT), supported by the U.S. Antarctic Research Program (USARP), explored the previously unexamined interior of Queen Maud Land, making measurements of surface height and slope, surface mass balance, bore-hole temperatures, ice thickness, seismic wave velocities in and below the ice, gravity, and magnetics. The traverse followed a zigzag, space-filling route between Pole Station, the abandoned Pole of Relative Inaccessibility station, and Plateau Station on the east and roughly the Greenwich Meridian on the west. The traverse equipment featured two large Model 843 Tucker Sno-Cats, designed and built especially for work on the high East Antarctic plateau. Unfortunately, for programmatic reasons a planned 4th season to drive the Sno-Cats back to Pole Station could not be supported, so they were permanently abandoned at the end of the third traverse, at 78° 42.2'S, 6° 52'W. The SPQMLT was remarkable not only for working in a previously unexplored area, but also for the introduction of several new techniques to Antarctic traverse studies, two of which, radar sounding and determination of accumulation rates using a dated radioactive fallout horizon, were major advances that will be discussed by other authors in this session. In this presentation I will discuss the seismic, gravity, and magnetic observations and what they suggest about the character of the underlying terrain. Because of the pronounced differences in route pattern between the SPQMLT and the recent Troll-Pole-Troll traverses the data will be strongly complementary. From SPQMLT only the positions and surface heights are not up to modern standards of accuracy, but the former are adequate for regional studies and the latter have all been superseded by satellite radar and laser altimetry anyway.

Bentley, C. R.

2009-12-01

317

Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex.  

PubMed

Most organisms reproduce through outcrossing, even though it comes with substantial costs. The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that selection from coevolving pathogens facilitates the persistence of outcrossing despite these costs. We used experimental coevolution to test the Red Queen hypothesis and found that coevolution with a bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) resulted in significantly more outcrossing in mixed mating experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, we found that coevolution with the pathogen rapidly drove obligately selfing populations to extinction, whereas outcrossing populations persisted through reciprocal coevolution. Thus, consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis, coevolving pathogens can select for biparental sex. PMID:21737739

Morran, Levi T; Schmidt, Olivia G; Gelarden, Ian A; Parrish, Raymond C; Lively, Curtis M

2011-07-01

318

Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana (horn).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana was characterized as valine methyl ester, tentatively the L-enantiomer. This is the first sex pheromone identified from the Phyllophaga subgenus Phytalus. The pheromone was extracted from female glands, the active component isolated by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analysis, characterized by mass spectrometry, and shown to be active in field tests. The seasonal flight pattern was determined for P. georgiana as well as for three other species, P. anxia (both northern and southern genitalic forms), P. gracilis, and P. postrema. The latter three species were captured in traps baited with L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19247715

Robbins, Paul S; Nojima, Satoshi; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert J; Consolie, Nancy H; Peck, Daniel C; Roelofs, Wendell L

2009-02-27

319

Biosynthesis and site of production of sex pheromone components of the cerambycid beetle, Hedypathes betulinus.  

PubMed

We determined the site of pheromone production tissues and a partial route for the biosynthesis of the sex pheromone in Hedypathes betulinus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), Brazil's main green maté pest. Pheromone was found predominantly in the prothorax of males, suggesting that this is the region of production of pheromones in this insect. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small pores that may be associated with pheromone release in males; these pores also were observed in females. A deuterium-labeled putative precursor (geranyl acetone-D5) of the sex pheromone of H. betulinus was synthesized. When applied to the prothorax of males, label from the precursor was incorporated into the pheromone components, confirming that pheromone production occurs in the prothorax and that the pheromone components are biosynthesized from geranyl acetone. PMID:23397457

Zarbin, Paulo H G; Fonseca, Marcy G; Szczerbowski, Daiane; Oliveira, Alfredo R M

2013-02-09

320

Effects of pheromone plume structure and visual stimuli on the pheromone-modulated upwind flight of male gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar ) in a Forest (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromone-modulated upwind flight ofLymantria dispar males responding to different pheromone plume structures and visual stimuli designed to mimic trees was video recorded in a forest. Males flying upwind along pheromone plumes of similar structure generated tracks that were similar in appearance and quantitatively similar in almost all parameters measured, regardless of the experimentally manipulated visual stimuli associated with the

M. A. Willis; C. T. David; J. Murlis; R. T. Cardé

1994-01-01

321

Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?  

PubMed Central

Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing that olfaction is perfectly functional in birds and birds use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts. Although the existence of pheromones has never been formally demonstrated in this vertebrate class, different groups of birds, such as petrels, auklets and ducks have been shown to produce specific scents that could play a significant role in within-species social interactions. Behavioral experiments have indeed demonstrated that these odors influence the behavior of conspecifics. Additionally, in quail, deprivation of olfactory inputs decreases neuronal activation induced by sexual interactions with a female. It seems therefore well established that birds enjoy a functional sense of smell and a fast growing body of experimental evidence suggests that they use this channel of olfactory communication to control their social life. The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds.

Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

322

Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

2009-06-01

323

Unisex Pheromone Detectors and Pheromone-binding Proteins in Scarab Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfaction was studied in two species of scarab beetle, Anomala octiescostata and Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), which are temporarily isolated and use the same sex pheromone compounds, (R)-buibuilactone and (R)-japonilure. Single sensillum recordings in A. octiescostata revealed highly sensitive olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) (threshold <1 pg) that were tuned to the detection of the green leaf volatile compound (Z)-3-hexenyl

Alexander Alexeevich Nikonov; Guihong Peng; Galina Tsurupa; Walter Soares Leal

2002-01-01

324

Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths  

PubMed Central

Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones.

Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

2011-01-01

325

On the Margins of the Mainstream: Queen, the Rock Press, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis aims to account for the marginalization of the British rock band Queen by the press and in scholarly writing, despite their enormous popular appeal and commercial success. Why have they not been critically acclaimed as part of \\

Jennifer Anne de Boer

1999-01-01

326

Epidemiology of a Daphnia-Multiparasite System and Its Implications for the Red Queen  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis can explain the maintenance of host and parasite diversity. However, the Red Queen requires genetic specificity for infection risk (i.e., that infection depends on the exact combination of host and parasite genotypes) and strongly virulent effects of infection on host fitness. A European crustacean (Daphnia magna) – bacterium (Pasteuria ramosa) system typifies such specificity and high virulence. We studied the North American host Daphnia dentifera and its natural parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and also found strong genetic specificity for infection success and high virulence. These results suggest that Pasteuria could promote Red Queen dynamics with D. dentifera populations as well. However, the Red Queen might be undermined in this system by selection from a more common yeast parasite (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Resistance to the yeast did not correlate with resistance to Pasteuria among host genotypes, suggesting that selection by Metschnikowia should proceed relatively independently of selection by Pasteuria.

Auld, Stuart K. J. R.; Hall, Spencer R.; Duffy, Meghan A.

2012-01-01

327

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

328

Ant queens adjust egg fertilization to benefit from both sexual and asexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

An enduring problem in evolutionary biology is the near ubiquity of sexual reproduction despite the inherent cost of transmitting only half the parent's genes to progeny. Queens of some ant species circumvent this cost by using selectively both sexual reproduction and parthenogenesis: workers arise from fertilized eggs, while new queens are produced by parthenogenesis. We show that queens of the ant Cataglyphis cursor maximize the transmission rate of their genes by regulating the proportion of fertilized and parthenogenetic eggs laid over time. Parthenogenetic offspring are produced in early spring, when workers raise the brood into sexuals. After the mating period, queens lay mostly fertilized eggs that will be reared as the non-reproductive caste.

Aron, S.; Timmermans, I.; Pearcy, M.

2011-01-01

329

Insect pheromones--an overview of biosynthesis and endocrine regulation.  

PubMed

This overview describes, compares, and attempts to unify major themes related to the biosynthetic pathways and endocrine regulation of insect pheromone production. Rather than developing and dedicating an entirely unique set of enzymes for pheromone biosynthesis, insects appear to have evolved to add one or a few tissue-specific auxiliary or modified enzymes that transform the products of "normal" metabolism to pheromone compounds of high stereochemical and quantitative specificity. This general understanding is derived from research on model species from one exopterygote insect order (Blattodea) and three endopterygote insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera). For instance, the ketone hydrocarbon contact sex pheromone of the female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, derives its origins from fatty acid biosynthesis, arising from elongation of a methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoA moiety followed by decarboxylation, hydroxylation, and oxidation. Coleopteran sex and aggregation pheromones also arise from modifications of fatty acid biosynthesis or other biosynthetic pathways, such as the isoprenoid pathway (e.g. Cucujidae, Curculionidae, and Scolytidae), or from simple transformations of amino acids or other highly elaborated host precursors (e.g. Scarabaeidae and Scolytidae). Like the sex pheromone of B. germanica, female-produced dipteran (e.g. Drosophilidae and Muscidae) sex pheromone components originate from elongation of fatty acyl-CoA moieties followed by loss of the carbonyl carbon and the formation of the corresponding hydrocarbon. Female-produced lepidopteran sex pheromones are also derived from fatty acids, but many moths utilize a species-specific combination of desaturation and chain-shortening reactions followed by reductive modification of the carbonyl carbon. Carbon skeletons derived from amino acids can also be used as chain initiating units and elongated to lepidopteran pheromones by this pathway (e.g. Arctiidae and Noctuidae). Insects utilize at least three hormonal messengers to regulate pheromone biosynthesis. Blattodean and coleopteran pheromone production is induced by juvenile hormone III (JH III). In the female common house fly, Musca domestica, and possibly other species of Diptera, it appears that during hydrocarbon sex pheromone biosynthesis, ovarian-produced ecdysteroids regulate synthesis by affecting the activities of one or more fatty acyl-CoA elongation enzyme(s) (elongases). Lepidopteran sex pheromone biosynthesis is often mediated by a 33 or 34 amino acid pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) through alteration of enzyme activities at one or more steps prior to or during fatty acid synthesis or during modification of the carbonyl group. Although a molecular level understanding of the regulation of insect pheromone biosynthesis is in its infancy, in the male California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), JH III acts at the transcriptional level by increasing the abundance of mRNA for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in de novo isoprenoid aggregation pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:10406089

Tillman, J A; Seybold, S J; Jurenka, R A; Blomquist, G J

1999-06-01

330

Pheromone Compositions and Methods for Attracting 'Euschistus' sp. Insects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemical attractant pheromone for Euschistus species as well as methods for concentrating and destroying these pests is provided. In one alternative embodiment the attractant could be used to monitor area levels of these pests. In another embodiment the...

J. R. Aldrich M. P. Hoffman J. P. Kochansky W. R. Lusby L. T. Wilson

1990-01-01

331

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)|

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

332

Finite grade pheromone ant colony optimization for image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the decision process of ant colony optimization (ACO) with the multistage decision process of image segmentation based on active contour model (ACM), an algorithm called finite grade ACO (FACO) for image segmentation is proposed. This algorithm classifies pheromone into finite grades and updating of the pheromone is achieved by changing the grades and the updated quantity of pheromone is independent from the objective function. The algorithm that provides a new approach to obtain precise contour is proved to converge to the global optimal solutions linearly by means of finite Markov chains. The segmentation experiments with ultrasound heart image show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Comparing the results for segmentation of left ventricle images shows that the ACO for image segmentation is more effective than the GA approach and the new pheromone updating strategy appears good time performance in optimization process.

Yuanjing, F.; Li, Y.; Liangjun, K.

2008-06-01

333

Maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts ® total joint prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental stability in patients who had temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction and mandibular counterclockwise advancement using TMJ Concepts total joint prostheses (TMJ Concepts Inc. Ventura, CA) with maxillary osteotomies being performed at the same operation. All patients were operated at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas TX, USA, by one surgeon (Wolford).

K. E. Dela Coleta; L. M. Wolford; J. R. Gonçalves; A. dos Santos Pinto; L. P. Pinto; D. S. Cassano

2009-01-01

334

Production and fate of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical studies demonstrate that three steroids postulated to function as the sea lamprey migratory pheromone are released\\u000a in sufficient quantities, and possess adequate stability and binding characteristics, to function as a multi-component pheromone\\u000a in natural river waters. Mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of the holding water of recently fed larval lamprey demonstrated\\u000a that each of these compounds is released at rates

J. M. Fine; P. W. Sorensen

2010-01-01

335

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

336

Sex pheromones and aggressive behavior in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed to examine the relationships among the sexual cycle of the female, sex pheromones, and the\\u000a agonistic behavior of male rats. Data suggest that the presence of an inaccessible sexually receptive female provokes increased\\u000a intermale fighting. The present research investigated the possibility that a sex pheromone from the female mediates the change\\u000a in male hostilities. In Experiment

George T. Taylor

1980-01-01

337

Green leaf volatiles as inhibitors of bark beetle aggregation pheromones  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for preventing or limiting the attack and infestation of trees by pine bark beetles, by inhibiting the response of the beetles to their aggregation pheromones. The composition comprises a green leaf volatile selected from six carbon alcohols, aldehydes, their derivatives such as acetates, and mixtures thereof. The green leaf volatile may be employed alone or in combination with an additional, known inhibitor of the pheromone response of the beetle.

1995-11-21

338

Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the\\u000a red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone\\u000a 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed\\u000a that the average amount

Yujie Lu; Richard W. Beeman; James F. Campbell; Michael J. Aikins; Kenji Mori; Kazuaki Akasaka; Shigeyuki Tamogami; Thomas W. Phillips

2011-01-01

339

Isolation and Identification of Termite Trail-following Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

INSECT pheromones that control chemically the behaviour of highly specialized social insect species have been well documented1. One of these pheromones, termite trail-following substance, is secreted by the sternal glands of various species of termite workers apparently to mark the source of suitable wood for other workers of the same species2,3. When the secretion is streaked across the surface of

F. Matsumura; H. C. Coppel; Akira Tai

1968-01-01

340

Small queens and big-headed workers in a monomorphic ponerine ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of caste is a central issue in the biology of social insects. Comparative studies on their morphology so far suggest\\u000a the following three patterns: (1) a positive correlation between queen–worker size dimorphism and the divergence in reproductive\\u000a ability between castes, (2) a negative correlation among workers between morphological diversity and reproductive ability,\\u000a and (3) a positive correlation between queen–worker

Tomonori Kikuchi; Satoshi Miyazaki; Hitoshi Ohnishi; Junichi Takahashi; Yumiko Nakajima; Kazuki Tsuji

2008-01-01

341

Scent of a queen—cuticular hydrocarbons specific for female reproductives in lower termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social insects, it is assumed that signals of the queen inform nestmates about her reproductive status. Thus, workers forego\\u000a their own reproduction if the queen signals high fertility. In hemimetabolous termites, little is known about reproductive\\u000a inhibition, but evidence exists for a royal-pair control. Workers of lower termites exhibit a high developmental flexibility\\u000a and are potentially able to become

Tobias Weil; Katharina Hoffmann; Johannes Kroiss; Erhard Strohm; Judith Korb

2009-01-01

342

Environmental and genetic influences on queen and worker body size in the social wasp Vespula maculifrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many social insects exhibit morphologically distinct worker and queen castes that perform different functions. These functional\\u000a differences may generate unique selection regimes operating on body size. For example, queens may be under directional selection\\u000a for large body size, whereas directional selection on worker body size may be limited. Such contrasting selection pressures\\u000a may differentially affect levels of genetic variation associated

J. L. Kovacs; E. A. Hoffman; S. M. Marriner; J. A. Rekau; M. A. D. Goodisman

2010-01-01

343

Influence of virgin queens on kin recognition in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Camponotus spp. workers reared in queenless groups recognize non-nestmate kin, apparently by shared heritable chemical cues or “discriminators”, while workers reared in the presence of mated queens acquire labels which superoede such recognition. Whether queen-derived labels are themselves discriminators has not been examined previously. Groups of sister or unrelated workers ofC. floridanus were adopted to sister or unrelated virgin

N. F. Carlin; B. Hölldobler

1988-01-01

344

Sensory nerve impairment following mandibular third molar surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This prospective study reports the rate and factors influencing sensory impairment of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves after the removal of impacted mandibular third molars under local anesthesia. Patients and Methods: There were 741 patients with 741 mandibular third molars removed under local anesthesia during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1997. Standardized data collection included the patient's

Anwar B Bataineh

2001-01-01

345

Stability of transverse expansion in the mandibular arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a retrospective, longitudinal cephalometric and cast study of 29 white patients at pretreatment, posttreatment, and an average of 6 years 3 months postretention. The goal was to assess changes with treatment and retention with the expanding mandibular lingual arch appliance in conjunction with fixed edgewise treatment. Seven mandibular cast measurements were assessed, including arch crowding, arch perimeter, arch

Jeffrey A Housley; Ram S Nanda; G. Fräns Currier; Dale E McCune

2003-01-01

346

A biomechanical evaluation of mandibular condyle fracture plating techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of various rigid internal fixation techniques for mandibular condylar process fractures. Materials and Methods: Synthetic mandible replicas (Synbone, Landquart, Switzerland) were used to evaluate a control, and four monocortical mandibular condyle plating techniques. Each group was subjected to linear loading in lateral to medial, medial to lateral and

Richard H. Haug; Gilman P. Peterson; Michele Goltz

2002-01-01

347

Mandibular overdentures supported by two or four endosseous implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this 5-year prospective comparative study was to evaluate treatment outcome (survival rate, condition of hard and soft peri-implant tissues, patient satisfaction, prosthetic and surgical aftercare) of mandibular overdentures supported by two or four implants. Material and methods: Sixty edentulous patients with a mandibular height between 12 and 18mm participated. Thirty patients were treated with an overdenture

Anita Visser; Gerry M. Raghoebar; Henny J. A. Meijer; Rutger H. K. Batenburg; Arjan Vissink

348

Progressive condylar resorption after mandibular advancement.  

PubMed

Progressive condylar resorption is an irreversible complication and a factor in the development of late skeletal relapse after orthognathic surgery. We have evaluated cephalometric characteristics, signs and symptoms in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and surgical factors in six patients (one man and five women) who developed it after orthognathic surgery. The findings in preoperative cephalograms indicated that the patients had clockwise rotation of the mandible and retrognathism because of a small SNB angle, a wide mandibular plane angle, and a "minus" value for inclination of the ramus. There were erosions or deformities of the condyles, or both, on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) taken before treatment. The mean (SD) anterior movement of the mandible at operation was 12.1 (3.9)mm and the mean relapse was -6.4 (2.5)mm. The mean change in posterior facial height was 4.5 (2.1)mm at operation and the mean relapse was -5.3 (1.8)mm. Two patients had click, or pain, or both, preoperatively. The click disappeared in one patient postoperatively, but one of the patients who had been symptom-free developed crepitus postoperatively. In the classified resorption pattern, posterior-superior bone loss was seen in three cases, anterior-superior bone loss in two, and superior bone loss in one. Progressive condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery is multifactorial, and some of the risk factors are inter-related. Patients with clockwise rotation of the mandible and retrognathism in preoperative cephalograms; erosion, or deformity of the condyle, or both, on preoperative CT; and wide mandibular advancement and counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular proximal segment at operation, seemed to be at risk. The mandible should therefore be advanced only when the condyles are stable on radiographs, and careful attention should be paid to postoperative mechanical loading on the TMJ in high-risk patients. PMID:21440343

Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Izumi, Naoya; Kojima, Taku; Sakagami, Naoko; Saito, Isao; Saito, Chikara

2011-03-26

349

Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.  

PubMed

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

2010-01-01

350

A novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in ascomycetous fungi.  

PubMed

Recently, sexual development in the heterothallic ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) has been achieved and thus initiated attempts to elucidate regulation and determinants of this process. While the ?-type pheromone of this fungus fits the consensus known from other fungi, the assumed a-type peptide pheromone precursor shows remarkably unusual characteristics: it comprises three copies of the motif (LI)GC(TS)VM thus constituting a CAAX domain at the C-terminus and two Kex2-protease sites. This structure shares characteristics of both a- and ?-type peptide pheromone precursors. Presence of hybrid-type peptide pheromone precursor 1 (hpp1) is essential for male fertility, thus indicating its functionality as a peptide pheromone precursor, while its phosphorylation site is not relevant for this process. However, sexual development in a female fertile background is not perturbed in the absence of hpp1, which rules out a higher order function in this process. Open reading frames encoding proteins with similar characteristics to HPP1 were also found in Fusarium spp., of which Fusarium solani still retains a putative a-factor-like protein, but so far in no other fungal genome available. We therefore propose the novel class of h-type (hybrid) peptide pheromone precursors with H. jecorina HPP1 as the first member of this class. PMID:20735770

Schmoll, Monika; Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Dorrer, Marcel; Kubicek, Christian P

2010-09-01

351

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.  

PubMed

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

2011-10-01

352

A novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in ascomycetous fungi  

PubMed Central

Recently, sexual development in the heterothallic ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) has been achieved and thus initiated attempts to elucidate regulation and determinants of this process. While the ?-type pheromone of this fungus fits the consensus known from other fungi, the assumed a-type peptide pheromone precursor shows remarkably unusual characteristics: it comprises three copies of the motif (LI)GC(TS)VM thus constituting a CAAX domain at the C-terminus and two Kex2-protease sites. This structure shares characteristics of both a- and ?-type peptide pheromone precursors. Presence of hybrid-type peptide pheromone precursor 1 (hpp1) is essential for male fertility, thus indicating its functionality as a peptide pheromone precursor, while its phosphorylation site is not relevant for this process. However, sexual development in a female fertile background is not perturbed in the absence of hpp1, which rules out a higher order function in this process. Open reading frames encoding proteins with similar characteristics to HPP1 were also found in Fusarium spp., of which Fusarium solani still retains a putative a-factor-like protein, but so far in no other fungal genome available. We therefore propose the novel class of h-type (hybrid) peptide pheromone precursors with H. jecorina HPP1 as the first member of this class.

Schmoll, Monika; Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Dorrer, Marcel; Kubicek, Christian P

2010-01-01

353

Facultative use of thelytokous parthenogenesis for queen production in the polyandrous ant Cataglyphis cursor.  

PubMed

The evolutionary paradox of sex remains one of the major debates in evolutionary biology. The study of species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction can elucidate factors important in the evolution of sex. One such species is the ant Cataglyphis cursor, where the queen maximizes the transmission of her genes by producing new queens (gynes) asexually while simultaneously maintaining a genetically diverse workforce via the sexual production of workers. We show that the queen can also produce gynes sexually and may do so to offset the costs of asexual reproduction. We genotyped 235 gynes from 18 colonies and found that half were sexually produced. A few colonies contained both sexually and asexually produced gynes. Although workers in this species can also use thelytoky, we found no evidence of worker production of gynes based on genotypes of 471 workers from the six colonies producing sexual gynes. Gynes are thus mainly, and potentially exclusively, produced by the queen. Simulations of gynes inbreeding level following one to ten generations of automictic thelytoky suggest that the queen switches between or combines thelytoky and sex, which may reduce the costs of inbreeding. This is supported by the relatively small size of inbred gynes in one colony, although we found no relationship between the level of inbreeding and immune parameters. Such facultative use of sex and thelytoky by individual queens contrasts with other known forms of parthenogenesis in ants, which are typically characterized by distinct lineages specializing in one strategy or the other. PMID:23639217

Doums, C; Cronin, A L; Ruel, C; Fédérici, P; Haussy, C; Tirard, C; Monnin, T

2013-05-03

354

Differential gene expression between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Ants and other social insects forming large societies are generally characterized by marked reproductive division of labour. Queens largely monopolize reproduction whereas workers have little reproductive potential. In addition, some social insect species show tremendous lifespan differences between the queen and worker caste. Remarkably, queens and workers are usually genotypically identical, meaning that any phenotypic differences between the two castes arise from caste-specific gene expression. Using a combination of differential display, microarrays and reverse Northern blots, we found 16 genes that were differentially expressed between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger, a species with highly pronounced reproductive division of labour and a several-fold lifespan difference between queens and workers. RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) and gene walking were used to further characterize these genes. On the basis of the molecular function of their nearest homologues, three genes appear to be involved in reproductive division of labour. Another three genes, which were exclusively overexpressed in queens, are possibly involved in the maintenance and repair of the soma, a candidate mechanism for lifespan determination. In-depth functional analyses of these genes are now needed to reveal their exact role. PMID:17257122

Gräff, Johannes; Jemielity, Stephanie; Parker, Joel D; Parker, Karen M; Keller, Laurent

2007-02-01

355

Queen discrimination ability of ant workers (Camponotus japonicus) coincides with brain maturation.  

PubMed

Discrimination behavior is a fundamental feature of social insects, and the discrimination ability allows the individual to be integrated into the colony. To address the brain functions associated with this task, which underlies intraspecific communication, I examined the ability to discriminate queens in young workers of the ant Camponotus japonicus together with a histological analysis of their brains. Workers raised in a foster colony were tested with respect to their ability to discriminate the foster queen from an unfamiliar queen. During the first 3 days after eclosing, some young workers made erroneous decisions whereas after 3-4 days the decisions were always correct. To assess brain maturation, mitotic activity in the brains of workers was individually analyzed using BrdU injection immediately after the behavioral test. Neurogenesis appeared to be complete at eclosion, but in 3 of 8 young workers that showed incorrect behavioral decisions, mitotic activity was observed in the antennal lobe. In contrast, no mitotic activity was observed in the brains of young workers who correctly discriminated their foster queens from alien queens. These results suggest that in newly emerged ant workers the ability to discriminate queens coincides with the completion of cell proliferation in the brain. PMID:12907860

Hara, Kenji

2003-01-01

356

Pheromone-induced priming of a defensive response in Western flower thrips.  

PubMed

The Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis produces conspicuous anal droplets that function as a direct defense against various predators. These droplets also function in pheromonal communication in that they contain a mixture of decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate, which acts as an alarm. Exposure of thrips to synthetic pheromone is known to promote takeoff or refuge seeking, but the effect of the natural pheromone has not yet been studied. Here, we not only studied the response to natural pheromone, but also tested the new hypothesis that the alarm pheromone primes a defensive response in thrips. This test was carried out by measuring the reaction time to a simulated predator attack after exposure to synthetic or natural alarm pheromone (against a control with no pheromone at all). The reaction was quantified in terms of the time it takes a thrips larva to produce a droplet after attack. We found that thrips larvae produce droplets of alarm pheromone faster when cues associated with danger are present. There were no significant differences in reaction times of responses to synthetic pheromone, natural pheromone, or odors from a patch with a predator attacking a thrips larva. This implies that the synthetic pheromone mimics the natural pheromone, and that other cues emanating from the predator play a minor role. We conclude that the alarm pheromone increases the vigilance of the thrips, and this may promote its survival. PMID:16710769

de Bruijn, Paulien J A; de Brujin, Paulien J A; Egas, Martijn; Janssen, Arne; Sabelis, Maurice W

2006-05-20

357

Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results  

PubMed Central

Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate). Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO). All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%). Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old) the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old) a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the endpoint was obtained: symptoms and signs of airway obstruction were resolved, PAS and maxillomandibular relationship improved, and tracheotomy, when present, removed. During the follow-up, no injury to the inferior alveolar nerve was noted and scarring was significant in only the two cases treated with external devices. Conclusion Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis is a good solution in solving respiratory distress when other procedures are failed in paediatric patients with severe micrognatia.

2012-01-01

358

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities.  

PubMed

A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

Canger, E M; Celenk, P

2011-11-24

359

Caenorhabditis elegans Pheromones Regulate Multiple Complex Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances A family of small molecules called ascarosides act as pheromones to control multiple behaviors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. At picomolar concentrations, a synergistic mixture of at least three ascarosides produced by hermaphrodites causes male-specific attraction. At higher concentrations, the same ascarosides, perhaps in a different mixture, induce the developmentally arrested stage known as dauer. The production of ascarosides is strongly dependent on environmental conditions, although relatively little is known about the major variables and mechanisms of their regulation. Thus, male mating and dauer formation are linked through a common set of small molecules whose expression is sensitive to a given microenvironment, suggesting a model by which ascarosides regulate the overall life cycle of C. elegans.

Edison, Arthur S.

2009-01-01

360

Chemical communication: chirality in elephant pheromones.  

PubMed

Musth in male elephants is an annual period of heightened sexual activity and aggression that is linked to physical, sexual and social maturation. It is mediated by the release of chemical signals such as the pheromone frontalin, which exists in two chiral forms (molecular mirror images, or enantiomers). Here we show that enantiomers of frontalin are released by Asian elephants in a specific ratio that depends on the animal's age and stage of musth, and that different responses are elicited in male and female conspecifics when the ratio alters. This precise control of communication by molecular chirality offers insight into societal interactions in elephants, and may be useful in implementing new conservation protocols. PMID:16371998

Greenwood, David R; Comeskey, Dan; Hunt, Martin B; Rasmussen, L Elizabeth L

2005-12-22

361

Chiral discrimination of the Japanese beetle sex pheromone and a behavioral antagonist by a pheromone-degrading enzyme.  

PubMed

The sophistication of the insect olfactory system is elegantly demonstrated by the reception of sex pheromone by the Japanese beetle. In this insect, two olfactory receptor neurons housed in antennal sensilla placodea are highly sensitive. One neuron specifically detects the sex pheromone produced by conspecific females (R,Z)-5-(-)-(1-decenyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one [(R)-japonilure]. The other neuron is tuned to (S)-japonilure, a sex pheromone from a closely related species and a behavioral antagonist for the Japanese beetle. These chemical signals are enzymatically terminated by antennal esterases that open the lactone rings to form physiologically inactive hydroxyacids. We have isolated a pheromone-degrading enzyme, PjapPDE, from >100,000 antennae of the Japanese beetle. PjapPDE was demonstrated to be expressed only in the antennal tissues housing the pheromone-detecting sensilla placodea. Baculovirus expression generated recombinant PjapPDE with likely the same posttranslational modifications as the native enzyme. Kinetic studies with pure native and recombinant PjapPDE showed a clear substrate preference, with an estimated half-life in vivo for the sex pheromone and a behavioral antagonist of approximately 30 and approximately 90 ms, respectively. PMID:18579770

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2008-06-25

362

The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. Images

Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

1995-01-01

363

Conditional Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase in the Nervous System Impairs Pheromone Information Processing and Pheromone-Evoked Behaviors  

PubMed Central

ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice.

Zou, Junhui; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

2013-01-01

364

Conditional Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase in the Nervous System Impairs Pheromone Information Processing and Pheromone-Evoked Behaviors.  

PubMed

ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice. PMID:24130808

Zou, Junhui; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

2013-10-09

365

The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.  

PubMed

Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. PMID:7489716

Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

1995-11-01

366

Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

Hsieh, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

2013-08-01

367

Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen mating frequency was studied in the European hornet, Vespa crabro, by analyzing four DNA microsatellite loci in 20 workers from each of 14 nests. Queens were found to be predominantly singly\\u000a mated (9\\/14), although double (4\\/14) and triple mating (1\\/14) also occurred. For most multiply mated queens, paternity was\\u000a significantly biased with the majority male fathering on average 80%

Kevin R. Foster; Perttu Seppä; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Peter A. Thorén

1999-01-01

368

Lack of detectable nepotism in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies of the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta present a paradox for kin selection theory. Egg-laying queens within these societies are, on average, unrelated to one another,\\u000a and the numbers of queens per colony are high, so that workers appear to raise new sexuals that are no more closely related\\u000a to them than are random individuals in the

Christopher J. DeHeer; Kenneth G. Ross

1997-01-01

369

Alarm pheromone increases defensive and risk assessment behaviors in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that this alarm pheromone could be trapped in water. Based on

Yasushi Kiyokawa; Michito Shimozuru; Takefumi Kikusui; Yukari Takeuchi; Yuji Mori

2006-01-01

370

Straight forward to the queen: pursuing honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera L.) adjust their body axis to the direction of the queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a natural drone congregation area freeflying drones were attracted by a fast-moving queen dummy and the pursuits of drones were stereoscopically recorded (Fig. 1). The reconstruction of 192 flight paths from successfully approaching drones in chronological three dimensional sequences (Fig. 4) lead to the following results: 1. The alignment of the drone's longitudinal body axis coincides fairly well with

M. Gries; N. Koeniger

1996-01-01

371

Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.  

PubMed

We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics. PMID:12803913

Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

2003-05-01

372

Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics.

Boulay, Raphael; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

2003-01-01

373

Cross-Attraction of Carpophilus humeralis to Pheromone Components of Other Carpophilus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineapple beetle, Carpophilus humeralis, is known from field tests to be more attracted to baits containing the pheromone blends of other Carpophilus species and food odors than to food odors alone, but a pheromone is not yet known for C. humeralis. Wind-tunnel bioassays were used to determine specifically which of the Carpophilus pheromone components were the most attractive for

Bruce W. Zilkowski; Robert J. Bartelt

1999-01-01

374

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used

Christopher I. Keeling; Gary J. Blomquist; Claus Tittiger

2004-01-01

375

Monomorium ant's trail pheromones: Glandular source, optimal concentration, longevity and specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ants use pheromone trails to organize collective foraging. Trail pheromones are produced from different glandular sources and they may be specific to a single species or shared by a number of species. I investigated the source of trail pheromones in three Monomorium ant species: Monomorium niloticum (Emery), M. najrane (Collingwood & Agosti) and M. mayri (Forel). I also examined

Ashraf Mohamed Ali Mashaly

2010-01-01

376

Identification of aggregation substances of Enterococcus faecalis cells after induction by sex pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone system of Enterococcus faecalis is responsible for the clumping response of a plasmid carrying donor strain with a corresponding plasmid free recipient strain due to the production of sex pheromones by the recipient strain. The clumping response is mediated by a surface material (called aggregation substance) which is synthesized upon addition of sex pheromones to the cultures.

Dominique Galli; Reinhard Wirth; Gerhard Wanner

1989-01-01

377

Relative abundance and flight phenology of two pheromone types of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Two synthetic sex pheromones have been developed and are currently used to detect the flight of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, the most damaging pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. One pheromone (referred to as standard) is attractive to moths in the southern United States, but not in Mexico. The other pheromone (referred to as Mexican) is attractive to moths in the southern United States and in Mexico. These two pheromones have been implemented by producers as an important tool in monitoring the activity of this pest and have allowed for more efficient pesticide use. In the future, these pheromones could be used as a means of population reduction through pheromone based control methods. Trapping data taken over a 3-yr period were used to determine if phenological differences exist between pheromone types of pecan nut casebearer. The relative abundance of each pheromone type at several locations in the United States also was evaluated. Results of this study indicate that no phenological differences exist between the two pheromone types studied in the United States and that significantly more males are attracted to field-deployed pheromone traps baited with the standard pheromone than to traps baited with the Mexican pheromone. PMID:22251690

Hartfield, E A; Harris, M K; Medina, R F

2011-08-01

378

Issues affecting the use of pheromones and other semiochemicals in orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromones represent one of the major components of ecologically based orchard pest management. This paper reviews recent progress and highlights outstanding issues. The greatest use of pheromones has been as lures for moth to traps, although identification of attractants for other insect groups is permitting diversification. Sex pheromone traps have been widely used for decision support, usually with thresholds for

D. M Suckling

2000-01-01

379

Aphid semiochemicals — A review, and recent advances on the sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alarm pheromones are known for many species of aphids, and methods of using the synthetic pheromone to improve control of aphids by contact insecticides and biological agents have been devised. Highly active analogs have been prepared and plant-derived synergists identified. Laboratory studies on compounds obtained by chemical modification of the alarm pheromone and antifeedants derived from non-host plants have

G. W. Dawson; D. C. Griffiths; L. A. Merritt; A. Mudd; J. A. Pickett; L. J. Wadhams; C. M. Woodcock

1990-01-01

380

Biology of pheromone release by male caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the Caribbean fruit fly,Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), typically form leks and attract females by releasing a multicomponent volatile pheromone. Previous reports have identified two nine-carbon alcohols, three lactones, a sesquiterpene, and a monoterpene in the volatiles. The present report is a study of the physiology of male pheromone release and of ecological and social interactions that influence pheromone release

James L. Nation

1990-01-01

381

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2013-07-01

383

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2009-07-01

384

A Synthesized Pheromone Induces Upstream Movement in Female Sea Lamprey and Summons Them into Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female insect pheromone blends induce robust tracking responses in males and direct them into traps. In vertebrates, pheromones that induce strong and precise tracking responses in natural habitats have rarely been described. Here, we show in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a vertebrate invader of the Laurential Great Lakes, that a synthesized component of the male mating pheromone, 7?, 12?,

Nicholas S. Johnson; Sang-Seon Yun; Henry T. Thompson; Cory O. Brant; Weiming Li; Jerrold Meinwald

2009-01-01

385

Backward distraction osteogenesis in a patient with severe mandibular micrognathia.  

PubMed

Maxillary skeletal prognathism can involve severe mandibular micrognathia with marked mandibular retrognathism or hypoplasia. For patients with such a condition, a conventional treatment is mandibular advancement by sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). This procedure has problems such as insufficient advancement, instability of jaw position, and postoperative relapse. Thus, in recent years, mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been used in some patients. Mandibular distraction has many advantages, but an ideal occlusion is difficult to achieve using this procedure. That is, 3-dimensional control cannot be attained using an internal device that is unidirectional. This report describes a case of severe mandibular micrognathia in a 14-year-old girl treated using backward distraction osteogenesis. This procedure was first reported by Ishii et al (Jpn J Jaw Deform 2004; 14:49) and involves a combination of SSRO and ramus distraction osteogenesis. In the present study, intermaxillary fixation in centric occlusion was performed after osteotomy, and proximal bone segments were distracted in a posterosuperior direction. This procedure is a superior surgical technique that avoids the drawbacks of SSRO and conventional mandibular distraction. However, it applies a large load to the temporomandibular joints and requires thorough management. Thus, careful evaluation needs to be made of the indication for backward distraction osteogenesis. PMID:24036745

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Morishita, Tadashi; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-09-01

386

Original sagittal split osteotomy revisited for mandibular distraction.  

PubMed

Introduction: A malformed mandible and an abnormally positioned mandibular foramen make it difficult to plan an ideal osteotomy line for mandibular distraction. In addition, there have been reports of such complications as nonunion, damage and stretch injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and tooth germ damage when conventional osteotomy or corticotomy are used for mandibular distraction. The authors utilized the original sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Patients and Methods: Five patients (three unilateral hemifacial microsomia, one bilateral hemifacial microsomia, and one mandibular retrusion) were included in this study of distraction osteogenesis using the sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Extraoral distraction devices were applied to the first four patients. An intraoral device with mono-cortical screw fixation was used for the fifth patient. Result: In all five cases, the results of the distraction were satisfactory. Complications (as listed) of conventional osteotomy when used for distraction were avoided. Satisfactory results were achieved and these were also well maintained postoperatively (mean follow up: 36 months). Conclusion: The authors believe that sagittal osteotomy for mandibular distraction osteogenesis makes it possible, to avoid injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during operation and stretching injury during distraction and to prevent tooth germ injury. It is also possible to diversify the osteotomy line for various force vectors to enlarge the bony contact surface area. Therefore, we suggest that sagittal split ramus osteotomy should be used as a preferred modification of osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Copyright 2001 European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:11403554

Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Myung-Jin; Chang, Young-II

2001-06-01

387

Iliac crest flap for mandibular reconstruction after advanced stage mandibular ameloblastoma resection.  

PubMed

Ablative surgeries for neoplastic processes of the oral cavity, traumas, infections/inflammations, osteoradionecrosis, and congenital deformities are the most common causes of large mandibular defects. Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive tumor that, if not treated, can gain an enormous size and cause severe facial disfigurement and functional impairment. Although the smaller lesions of ameloblastoma in the mandible are treated by conservative approaches such as marsupialization, enucleation, and curettage combined with liquid nitrogen spray cryosurgery, larger lesions require radical surgical ablation procedures resulting in large tissue defects. A large mandibular defect has deleterious effects on a person's life, with a significant loss in the quality of life unless it is reconstructed successfully. The aim of present case series report is to show the results of the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with advanced stage ameloblastoma, including tumor resection, simultaneous reconstruction with iliac crest flap, followed by placement of endosseous dental implants, and finally the prosthodontic rehabilitation. PMID:21629065

Sönmez, Erhan; Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim; Sönmez, Nalan Sule; Safak, Tunc

2012-11-01

388

Aggregation pheromone of Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and responses to Carpophilus pheromones in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone ofCarpophilus dimidiatus (F.) is (3E, 5E, 7E, 9E)-6,8-diethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7,9-dodecatetraene. It attracts beetles of both sexes in the field and is synergized by odors from fermenting bread dough; mean trap catches for the tetraene alone, tetraene plus dough, dough alone, and control were 24.5, 48.3, 0.02, and 0.00, respectively. In the laboratory, individual males

Robert J. Bartelt; David K. Weaver; Richard T. Arbogast

1995-01-01

389

Endodontic management of four rooted mandibular first premolar  

PubMed Central

Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The literature is replete with reports of extra canals in mandibular first premolars, but reports about the incidence of extra roots in these teeth are quite rare. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of a four-rooted mandibular first premolar with diagnostic, interoperative and postoperative radiographic records along with a substantial data on the incidence of extra roots in these teeth. The standard method of radiographic appraisal was maintained as the criteria for determining the presence of extra roots.

Vaghela, Dakshita Joy; Sinha, Ashish Amit

2013-01-01

390

Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Notch: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

Osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor that sometimes arises from the craniomaxillofacial region, such as the sinus, temporal or jaw bones. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be peripheral, central or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Peripheral osteoma of the mandible is relatively uncommon, and peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch is extremely rare, although many cases arise from the mandibular body, angle, condyle, or coronoid process. We report here an unusual peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch in a 78-year-old nonsyndromic female.

Iwai, Toshinori; Izumi, Toshiharu; Baba, Junichi; Maegawa, Jiro; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

2013-01-01

391

[Isolated mandibular metastases. Therapeutic strategy. Apropos of 7 cases].  

PubMed

Among the mandibular tumours, the secondary malignant tumours are uncommon. We relate 7 cases observed between 1977 and 1995. Two cases have revealed the original cancer (rectum, prostate). The five other cases were discovered during the evolution of the original cancer (colon, lung, kidney, thyroid, breast). These 7 mandibular metastases were isolated. The treatment included a mandibular resection in 6 cases. In one of these cases, the reconstruction was performed with a free vascularized fibular transplant with success. Among the seven cases, two patients are alive, at the present time, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. This justifies a curative treatment. PMID:9616904

Germain, M A; Marandas, P; Leridant, A M; Julieron, M; Schlumberger, M; Mamelle, G; Domenge, C

1997-01-01

392

A simple method to locate mandibular foramen: preliminary radiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The position of mandibular foramen is variable at the medial aspect of mandibular ramus. Nevertheless its location is useful\\u000a for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in orthognatic surgery, especially in vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO) procedure. The\\u000a aim of our study is to analyse the position of mandibular foramen in order to provide simple and reliable surgical landmarks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A

Olivier Trost; Vivien Salignon; Nicolas Cheynel; Gabriel Malka; Pierre Trouilloud

2010-01-01

393

Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity.  

PubMed

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins, using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila odorant-binding protein that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in Escherichia?coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ?100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ?200?nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ?90?nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the Laughlin, Ha, Jones and Smith model of pheromone reception are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S; Lokhande, N; González, D; Cassill, A; Renthal, R

2012-11-01

394

Sex pheromone of the smaller clearwing moth Synanthedon tenuis (Butler).  

PubMed

The smaller clearwing moth, Synanthedon tenuis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a major pest of persimmon in northeast Asia. A previous study reported attraction of S. tenuis males to Z3,Z13-18:OAc, but this compound had no effect on male catch in the persimmon orchards in Korea. In this study, we analyzed pheromone gland extracts of S. tenuis females and identified Z3,Z13-18:OH as the main component. In field trapping trial, Z3,Z13-18:OH alone was attractive to S. tenuis males and competitive with live virgin females. These results indicate that the pheromone of this species consists of a single component, Z3,Z13-18:OH. However, Z3,Z13-18:OAc, a previously reported attractant, was not detected in the gland extracts of females. Furthermore, the addition of Z3,Z13-18:OAc to the main pheromone component strongly inhibited attraction for males, suggesting that the diene acetate is not a pheromone component. This is the first report of an octadecadienol as female-produced sex pheromone from the genus Synanthedon. PMID:22976589

Yang, Chang Yeol; Lee, Heung Su; Park, Chung Gyoo

2012-09-14

395

Mycosis fungoides: disease evolution of the "lion queen" revisited.  

PubMed

Mycosis fungoides (MF), which represents the most common subtype of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is an epidermotropic lymphoma included as an indolent form in the recent WHO/EORTC classification. From a clinical point of view, the classic disease progression usually is slow and takes over years or even decades, and characterized by the evolution from patches to more infiltrated plaques and eventually to tumours or erythroderma. However, the analysis of the MF disease course has been greatly impaired by the rarity of the disease, thus data about the time course of disease progression and pattern of relapse during time are not well known. In this review, a summary of published data on MF large patients cohorts will be presented, together with the results obtained by a retrospective analysis of clinical features and follow-up data of 1,422 MF patients diagnosed and followed-up from 1975 to 2010 in 27 Italian Centres (Italian Study Group for Cutaneous Lymphoma). From a clinical perspective, the amount of data support the relevance of a stage-tailored, differentiated follow-up strategy, in as much as the TNMB staging appears not only to be associated with different progression rates, but also shows as a new finding a relationship with different patterns of disease progression. From a biological point of view, there is the need to understand the molecular basis of the different clinical pathways of disease progression, to be able to potentially identify at an earlier phase of disease evolution, the patients who are more likely to develop erythroderma or tumour-stage progression. In conclusion, if MF is indeed a true "lion queen", as dermatologists we need to be expert and wise tamers to keep it under control. PMID:23149698

Quaglino, P; Pimpinelli, N; Berti, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Lombardo, G A; Rupoli, S; Alaibac, M; Arcaini, L; Bagnato, S; Baldo, A; Bottoni, U; Carbone, A; Cestari R Clerico, R; De Renzo, A; Fava, P; Fierro, M T; Filotico, R; Fimiani, M; Frontani M Girgenti, V; Goteri, G; Leali, C; Mamusa, A M; Mariotti, G; Mastrandrea, V; Pellegrini, C; Pennese, E; Pileri, A; Savoia, P; Stelitano, C; Titli, S; Virgili, A; Zichichi, L; Zinzani, P L; Bernengo, M G

2012-12-01

396

Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.  

PubMed

The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees. PMID:19529971

Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

2009-06-16

397

Neural pathways for the processing of alarm pheromone in the ant brain.  

PubMed

Social insects like ants exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. In the ant Camponotus obscuripes, we have reported that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe (primary olfactory center). Alarm pheromone signals are then transmitted, mainly via uniglomerular projection neurons (uni-PNs), to the protocerebrum (PR), where sensory signals are integrated to form motor commands for behavioral responses. In this study, we physiologically and morphologically characterized 63 alarm pheromone-sensitive PR neurons in ants by using intracellular recording and staining techniques. Most of the pheromone-sensitive PR neurons had dendrites in the mushroom body (MB), the lateral horn, or the medial PR. Some neurons with dendrites in these areas responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and may participate in the control of specific behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons responded also to non-pheromonal odors, in contrast to uni-PNs, most of which responded specifically to alarm pheromones. Responses to non-pheromonal odors were most prominent in efferent neurons of the MB lobe, suggesting that they may participate in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal information. We found a class of PR neurons that receives input in all of these pheromone-processing areas and terminates in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of pheromone-sensitized aggressive behavior, which is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. PMID:17912739

Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

2007-12-01

398

Differential gene expression between developing queens and workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Many insects show polyphenisms, or alternative morphologies, which are based on differential gene expression rather than genetic polymorphism. Queens and workers are alternative forms of the adult female honey bee and represent one of the best known examples of insect polyphenism. Hormonal regulation of caste determination in honey bees has been studied in detail, but little is known about the proximate molecular mechanisms underlying this process, or any other such polyphenism. We report the success of a molecular-genetic approach for studying queen- and worker-specific gene expression in the development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Numerous genes appear to be differentially expressed between the two castes. Seven differentially expressed loci described here belong to at least five distinctly different evolutionary and functional groups. Two are particularly promising as potential regulators of caste differentiation. One is homologous to a widespread class of proteins that bind lipids and other hydrophobic ligands, including retinoic acid. The second locus shows sequence similarity to a DNA-binding domain in the Ets family of transcription factors. The remaining loci appear to be involved with downstream changes inherent to queen- or worker-specific developmental pathways. Caste determination in honey bees is typically thought of as primarily queen determination; our results make it clear that the process involves specific activation of genes in workers as well as in queens.

Evans, Jay D.; Wheeler, Diana E.

1999-01-01

399

Characteristics of the spermathecal contents of old and young honeybee queens.  

PubMed

Sperm are often stored, for a long time after mating, in females of various animal species. In case of the queen honeybee (Apis mellifera), sperm remain fertile for several years in the spermatheca. Little information is available regarding the effect of long-term storage of sperm on its fertility. To evaluate this, enzymes and/or sperm have been analysed from the spermatheca of 75 queens of various ages (0 year Y0, n=14; one year Y1, n=14; two years Y2, n=7; virgin queen VQ, n=40) and semen samples have been taken from 46 drones. The sperm from the spermatheca of older queens move more slowly (F=11.45, P < 0.0001) and show different movement patterns (Chi2=90.0, P < 0.0001) from those of the other groups. The spermatheca content of differently aged mated queens differ significantly with respect to the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (F=3.37, P < 0.05), citrate synthase (F=6.24, P < 0.005) and arginine kinase (F=9.44, P < 0.0006). Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (F=0.10, P=0.91) does not differ significantly. The results suggest considerable changes in the energy metabolic profile of the spermatheca tissue, of the sperm or of both during sperm storage. PMID:19027748

Al-Lawati, H; Kamp, G; Bienefeld, K

2008-12-30

400

Microgynous Queens in the Paleartic Ant, Manica rubida: Dispersal Morphs or Social Parasites?  

PubMed Central

In many ant species, queen size is dimorphic, with small microgynes and large macrogynes, which differ, for example, in size, insemination rate, ovary development, and dispersal tactics. These polymorphic queens often correspond with alternative reproductive strategies. The Palearctic ant, Manica rubida (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), lives mostly in mountainous regions in either monogynous colonies, containing one macrogynous queen or polygynous colonies, containing a few large macrogynous queens. In 1998, a colony of M. rubida was discovered containing macrogynes and many small alate microgynes that did not engage in a nuptial flight but, instead, stayed in the home nest the following winter. These microgynes were studied more closely by investigating their size, behavior, and spermatheca in relation to M. rubida macrogynes and workers. Mitochondrial DNA of macrogynes, microgynes and workers from four nests was sequenced to detect possible genetic differences between them. The microgynes were significantly smaller than the macrogynes, and the head width of the gynes was completely bimodal. The microgynes behaved like workers of the macrogynes in every experiment tested. Furthermore, the microgynes had a normal spermatheca and could be fecundated, but rarely (only one in several years). Finally, all the individuals were genetically identical, except three workers that differed by only one codon position. Because these microgynes have features of both queens and workers, their functional significance in the colony is not yet clear.

Lenoir, Alain; Devers, Severine; Marchand, Philippe; Bressac, Christophe; Savolainen, Riitta

2010-01-01

401

Reconstruction of mandibular defects in irradiated patients  

SciTech Connect

In this prospective study, mandibular reconstruction using titanium plates was evaluated in 31 patients treated between July 1988 and January 1990. Sixteen patients had prior surgery; 13 had prior radiotherapy. In 11 patients, prior radiation and surgery had failed. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy either in standard or accelerated fractions. Twelve patients had complications of either intraoral (8), extraoral (5), or combined (1) plate exposure or fistula formation (2). Factors significantly related to complications were poor nutrition, accelerated radiation, and recurrence. Sixty-one percent of all patients healed uneventfully. When patients with complications secondary to recurrence who subsequently died were excluded, the success rate was 73%. Only one patient had an unacceptable result that produced a cosmetic and functional deformity despite secondary repair.

Klotch, D.W.; Gump, J.; Kuhn, L. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

1990-10-01

402

Effects of irradiation on mandibular scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Sn) scintigraphy with computer analysis was used to investigate alterations in the pathophysiology of the normal mandible and the pathologic mandible during and after irradiation. Slight but significant elevations of uptake levels were recorded as an early effect of irradiation. The elevations correlated with the duration of treatment and normalized over a follow-up period of 6 to 12 mo. Increased mandibular metabolism was found during irradiation and in osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Scintigraphy with computer analysis proved a simple and valid method in the evaluation of early irradiation damage and pathophysiologic conditions of the mandible. The method can also be used to predict whether the irradiation damage will become irreversible.

Aitasalo, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.

1985-11-01

403

[Optimizing therapeutic methods in mandibular fractures].  

PubMed

The authors present various methods for immobilizing mandibular fractures, stressing their advantages and disadvantages. They describe modern surgical methods used in immobilizing these fractures, considering methods employed in stable, functional osteosynthesis that have improved indications for surgical therapy, and that have made obsolete intermaxillary immobilization. These methods are more acceptable for the patient because they allow for a completely normal diet, as well as the maintenance of a normal hygiene in the buccal cavity. Evolution of the recovery is more easily followed, and in case of complications interventions are easily carried out in a short time. The presence of functional stimuli enhances the development of a good callus, and the full recovery is shortened by 2-3 weeks. PMID:2978709

G?nu??, N; Stroescu, I; Vasiliu, D; Florian, B; Maftei, I; Herescu, C; Ni?escu, M; Filipescu, A; Sterian, L

404

Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth.

Kaban, L.B.; Cisneros, G.J.; Heyman, S.; Treves, S.

1982-01-01

405

Comparing Alternative Methods for Holding Virgin Honey Bee Queens for One Week in Mailing Cages before Mating  

PubMed Central

In beekeeping, queen honey bees are often temporarily kept alive in cages. We determined the survival of newly-emerged virgin honey bee queens every day for seven days in an experiment that simultaneously investigated three factors: queen cage type (wooden three-hole or plastic), attendant workers (present or absent) and food type (sugar candy, honey, or both). Ten queens were tested in each of the 12 combinations. Queens were reared using standard beekeeping methods (Doolittle/grafting) and emerged from their cells into vials held in an incubator at 34C. All 12 combinations gave high survival (90 or 100%) for three days but only one method (wooden cage, with attendants, honey) gave 100% survival to day seven. Factors affecting queen survival were analysed. Across all combinations, attendant bees significantly increased survival (18% vs. 53%, p<0.001). In addition, there was an interaction between food type and cage type (p<0.001) with the honey and plastic cage combination giving reduced survival. An additional group of queens was reared and held for seven days using the best method, and then directly introduced using smoke into queenless nucleus colonies that had been dequeened five days previously. Acceptance was high (80%, 8/10) showing that this combination is also suitable for preparing queens for introduction into colonies. Having a simple method for keeping newly-emerged virgin queens alive in cages for one week and acceptable for introduction into queenless colonies will be useful in honey bee breeding. In particular, it facilitates the screening of many queens for genetic or phenotypic characteristics when only a small proportion meets the desired criteria. These can then be introduced into queenless hives for natural mating or insemination, both of which take place when queens are one week old.

Bigio, Gianluigi; Gruter, Christoph; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2012-01-01

406

No Linkage between Genes Controlling Female Pheromone Production and Male Pheromone Response in the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)  

PubMed Central

The E and Z pheromonal strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are characterized by female production of and male preference for opposite blends of (E)-11-and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate. It is known that the pheromone production is controlled by an autosomal gene and that the males' behavior is determined by a sex-linked gene. A third gene, autosomally inherited, has been shown to determine the organization of the male pheromone receptors. In the present study the linkage relationship between the autosomal genes controlling sex pheromone production and male olfactory sensilla was investigated. A recombination experiment showed unequivocally that the genes determining the variation in pheromone production and male pheromone receptors are not closely linked and are most likely inherited independently.

Lofstedt, C.; Hansson, B. S.; Roelofs, W.; Bengtsson, B. O.

1989-01-01

407

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis...device is made of materials such as stainless steel, tantalum, titanium, cobalt-chromium based alloy,...

2013-04-01

408

Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38) without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37). The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment.

Ravi kumar, Pabbati; Jyothi, Mandava; Sirisha, Kantheti; Racca, Khushboo; Uma, Chalasani

2012-01-01

409

Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.  

PubMed

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

2013-01-23

410

Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

411

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog  

SciTech Connect

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

1988-03-15

412

Regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in three plusiinae moths: Macdunnoughia confusa, Anadevidia peponis, and Chrysodeixis eriosoma.  

PubMed

Virgin females of M. confusa, A. peponis, and C. eriosoma secrete (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate as a common main pheromone component. Their pheromone titers decreased after decapitation, and increased in the decapitated females after injection of a synthetic hormone, pheromone biosynthetic activating neuropeptide (PBAN) of Bombyx mori. In addition, an extract of brain-subesophageal ganglion complexes of each Plusiinae species activated pheromone biosynthesis in decapitated females of not only the corresponding species, but also that of Mamestra brassicae. These results indicate that pheromone biosynthesis of the three Plusiinae species is also controlled by a PBAN-like substance. However, the Plusiinae females exceptionally contained remarkable amounts of the pheromone even 1 day after decapitation. Since it has been reported that pheromones completely disappear at least 1 day after decapitation in females of many other lepdidoptran species including B. mori and M. brassicae, a different mechanism is likely regarding the regulation of the studied Plusiinae pheromone biosynthesis. Furthermore, an incorporation experiment with a labeled pheromone precursor, D9-(Z)-7-dodecenoic acid, showed that moderate biosynthesis still proceeded in the pheromone glands of M. confusa females 1 day after decapitation, providing an evidence why complete disappearance of the pheromone was not observed in the females which otherwise lacked a source of the pheromonotropic neuropeptide. PMID:11129587

Komoda, M; Inomata, S; Ono, A; Watanabe, H; Ando, T

2000-10-01

413

"Let the drag race begin": the rewards of becoming a queen.  

PubMed

Drawing upon my ethnographic experiences in a drag venue called The Park in Roanoke, Virginia, this article explores the experiences of female impersonators in terms of their early motivations for doing drag, how they create and maintain drag personas and identities, and the obstacles to becoming a queen. Departing from previous researchers that have framed female impersonation as a deviant, stigmatizing, and pathological activity, this research analyzes the significant benefits some drag queens garner by donning women's attire. An experiential understanding of drag reveals that the significant rewards from the activity--contextual power and status, self-affirmation and empowerment--are powerful motivating factors. Instead of being deviant and/or partaking in pathological behavior, female impersonators can be seen as operating on an incentive system where the benefits of doing drag positively enrich the quality of the performer's life in a context where successful queens are held in the highest regard. PMID:15132487

Hopkins, Steven J

2004-01-01

414

Oöcytes degeneration in the queen honey bee after infection by Nosema apis.  

PubMed

Terminal oöcytes containing yolk in both healthy and nosema infected queen honey bees were studied. In the healthy queens the terminal oöcytes exhibited a layer of follicular cells which were covered by a smooth-surfaced ovariole sheath. In the oöplasm were numerous electron-dense yolk granules and lipid yolk droplets. The elecron-dense yolk granules exhibited a crystalline structure. Stacks of endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the yolk granules throughout the oöplasm. Numerous mitochondria possessing well defined cristae were also observed. Oöcytes in the ovary of queen honey bees appeared degenerated after 7 days of infection by Nosema apis. The ovariole sheath was wrinkled. In the oöplasm, yolk granules were broken down into small spheres and granular substances. Numerous ribosomes without stacks of endoplasmic reticulate were observed. Lysosomes were abundant and numerous electron-dense materials surrounded by a membrane were detected. The oöcytes appeared to be extensively autolysed. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:18621203

Liu, T P

1992-01-01

415

Can alternative pathways mediate the influence of queen number on nestmate discrimination in ants?  

PubMed Central

The evolution of social life is usually associated with capabilities of individuals to protect group boundaries against foreign individuals. In colonies of ants, the number of reproductive queens is known to influence the accuracy of nestmate discrimination by resident workers. However, the pathway by which this effect is mediated remains unclear. The major hypothesis has long been that workers from multiple-queen colonies commit more discrimination errors against foreigners because their colonies contain a broader diversity of genetically determined cues characterising colony membership. Until recently, this hypothesis has received little attention and poor empirical support. In a recent study, Meunier et al.1 proposed an alternative, albeit not mutually exclusive hypothesis. The presence of one or multiple queens modifies chemical signals on colony members that trigger aggressive or cooperative behaviors during foreign encounters. Here, I detail how this new hypothesis is congruent with previous results and discuss potential limits and evolutionary implications of the two suggested hypotheses.

2011-01-01

416

Localization of deformed wing virus infection in queen and drone Apis mellifera L  

PubMed Central

The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones) was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3' portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles.

Fievet, Julie; Tentcheva, Diana; Gauthier, Laurent; de Miranda, Joachim; Cousserans, Francois; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

2006-01-01

417

When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.  

PubMed

The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control. PMID:11607136

Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

1990-12-15

418

Clonal reproduction and genetic caste differences in a queen-polymorphic ant, Vollenhovia emeryi  

PubMed Central

Most social Hymenoptera are characterized by simple haploid sex determination and environment-based caste differentiation. This appears to be strikingly different in the queen-polymorphic ant Vollenhovia emeryi. Almost all long- and short-winged queens from a population in Central Japan were homozygous at three microsatellite loci, whereas workers were mostly heterozygous, suggesting either a complex system of genetic caste determination or, more likely, the production of female sexuals from unfertilized eggs by thelytokous parthenogenesis and of workers from fertilized eggs. Furthermore, male genotypes were not compatible with those of the queens and had exclusively the paternal allele found in the sterile, heterozygous workers, probably because males are produced from fertilized eggs after the exclusion of maternal nuclear DNA as recently reported for Wasmannia auropunctata. The genus Vollenhovia might provide an interesting model system to trace the evolution of unusual caste and sex determination systems.

Ohkawara, Kyohsuke; Nakayama, Megumi; Satoh, Atsumi; Trindl, Andreas; Heinze, Jurgen

2006-01-01

419

Attraction of Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to synthetic aggregation pheromones and host-related coattractants in Australian stone fruit orchards: Beetle phenology and pheromone dose studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aggregation pheromones ofCarpophilus hemipterus (L.) andCarpophilus mutilatus Erichson were field tested during a 10-month period in southern New South Wales stone fruit orchards to determineCarpophilus spp. phenology and the effect of two pheromone doses on attraction. Aggregation pheromones synergize the attraction of host volatiles toCarpophilus spp. Four major species,C. hemipterus, C. mutilatus, C. davidsoni Dobson andC. (Urophorus) humeralis (F.),

David G. James; Robert J. Bartelt; Richard J. Faulder

1994-01-01

420

Effects of pheromone loading, dispenser age, and trap height on pheromone trap catches of the oriental fruit moth in apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of field aging (0–28 days) and pheromone loading rate on the longevity of red rubber septa loaded with the sex\\u000a pheromone blend of the oriental fruit mothGrapholita molesta (Busck), were evaluated in North Carolina apple orchards in 2002. Separate field tests examined the influence of trap height\\u000a and pheromone loading rate of rubber septa on trap catches of

Orkun B. Kovanci; Coby Schal; F. Walgenbach; George G. Kennedy

2006-01-01

421

Sex pheromone of ? mating type in the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri and its synthetic analogues in relation to sex pheromones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula wingei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analogues of the peptidyl pheromone, a pheromone of Saccharomyces kluyveri, synthesized based on the amino acid sequence proposed by Sato et al. (Agric Biol Chem 45:1531–1533, 1981) were tested for both shmoo-inducing and agglutinability-inducing actions. Purified natural a pheromone of the yeast showed the highest activity among the peptides tested. When methionine in the peptides was oxidized, the activity

Hiroaki Fujimura; Naohiko Yanagishima; Akira Sakurai; Chieko Kitada; Masahiko Fujino; Isao Banno

1982-01-01

422

Mandibular condylar pseudocyst: An introduction to the orthodontist.  

PubMed

The aims of this article are to introduce mandibular condylar pseudocysts to orthodontists, present 2 relevant case reports, and discuss possible differential diagnoses. Condylar pseudocyst is a radiologic variant of pterygoid fovea, which is the site of insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle to the head of the mandibular condyle. A pathognomonic picture of a solitary well-defined radiolucency with radiopaque borders, located on the anterior aspect of the condyle in an asymptomatic orthodontic patient, is characteristic. PMID:24075670

Yitschaky, Oded; Friedlander-Barenboim, Silvina; Friedman, Menahem; Tzur-Gadassi, Liat; Zadik, Yehuda

2013-10-01

423

Mandibular morphology and diet in the genus Cebus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of hard-object feeding on the size and shape of the mandibular corpus was investigated through a comparative\\u000a biomechanical analysis of the jaws of adult femaleCebus apella andCebus capucinus. Computed tomography (CT) was used to discern the amount and distribution of cortical bone at M2 and symphyseal cross sections. From these data, the biomechanical properties of the mandibular corpus

David J. Daegling

1992-01-01

424

Impaction of permanent mandibular second molar: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the prevalence of impacted mandibular second molar (MM2) and the association between MM2 impaction and crowding. The clinical significance of the angle between first and second mandibular molar and of the space between the first mandibular molar (MM1) and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus in MM2 impaction were also evaluated. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study , from the dental records of 2,945 caucasian young orthodontics patients, 40 subjects with MM2 impaction were included in a study group (SG) and compared with a control group (CG) of 200 subjects without MM2 impactions. The crowding, the angle of inclination of MM2, the distance between MM1 and mandibular ramus, the canine and molar relationships, and the lower centre line discrepancy were measured. For the statistical analysis , descriptive statistics and t-Student for independent sample groups were used. Results: The prevalence of impacted MM2 was 1.36%. The independent-Samples t-Test between SG and CG showed: the presence of crowding (P?0.001), an higher angle values of MM2 inclination (P?0.001) and a smaller distance between MM1 and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus (P?0.001) in the SG. Conclusion: The impaction of MM2 is a relatively rare occurrence in orthodontic caucasian populations. The crowding, a higher angle values of MM2 inclination and a reduced distance between MM1 and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus, at the time of one third of MM2 root formation (T1), characterize MM2 impaction. Key words:Impacted mandibular second molar, impaction, orthodontics.

Altieri, Federica; Di Mambro, Alfonso; Galluccio, Gabriella; Barbato, Ersilia

2013-01-01

425

The Role of Pheromonal Responses in Rodent Behavior: Future Directions for the Development of Laboratory Protocols  

PubMed Central

Pheromones—chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific—are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam–pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects.

Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

2013-01-01

426

A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

2008-06-01

427

Production and fate of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone.  

PubMed

Biochemical studies demonstrate that three steroids postulated to function as the sea lamprey migratory pheromone are released in sufficient quantities, and possess adequate stability and binding characteristics, to function as a multi-component pheromone in natural river waters. Mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of the holding water of recently fed larval lamprey demonstrated that each of these compounds is released at rates of 5-25 ng larva(-1) h(-1), adequate to produce picomolar (biologically relevant) concentrations in river waters. Petromyzonamine disulfate (PSDS) was released at about twice the rate of the other two components, petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS) and petromyzonol sulfate (PS). Unfed larvae also released all three steroids but only at about two-thirds the rate of fed larvae and in a different ratio. However, a behavioral test of fed and unfed larval holding waters suggested this change in pheromone ratio does not diminish pheromonal signal function in the winter when larvae are not feeding. A study of steroid degradation found that PADS and PSDS had half-lives of about 3 days, similar to values previously described for PS and sufficiently slow for the entire pheromone to persist in river mouths. Finally, both MS and electro-olfactogram recording found that contrary to previous suggestions, natural levels of natural organic matter found in streams do not bind to these steroids in ways that diminish their natural biological potency. In conclusion, it appears highly likely that a mixture of PADS, PSDS and PS is present at biologically relevant concentrations and ratios in many Great Lakes streams where it functions as a pheromonal attractant. PMID:20091116

Fine, J M; Sorensen, P W

2010-01-21

428

Differences and similarities in cardenolide contents of queen and monarch butterflies in florida and their ecological and evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida queen butterflies are highly variable in cardenolide content and, in three populations studied, contained less cardenolide than did a sample of sympatric Florida monarchs. The possibility that queens stored a more potent set of cardenolides from their host plants (and therefore were as well protected as monarchs, even at lower concentrations) is refuted by Chromatographic analysis of wild butterflies,

James A. Cohen

1985-01-01

429

Why do some social insect queens mate with several males? Testing the sex-ratio manipulation hypothesis in Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers, selecting for workers to invest more in males. In populations with female-biased sex ratios, queens heading such male-producing colonies would achieve a higher fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a Swiss and a Swedish population of the ant Lasius niger. There was substantial and consistent variation in queen mating frequency and colony sex allocation within and among populations, but no evidence that workers regulated sex allocation in response to queen mating frequency; the investment in females did not differ among paternity classes. Moreover, population-mean sex ratios were consistently less female biased than expected under worker control and were close to the queen optimum. Queens therefore had no incentive to manipulate sex ratios because their fitness did not depend on the sex ratio of their colony. Thus, we found no evidence that the sex-ratio manipulation theory can explain the evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in L. niger. PMID:11989685

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Gertsch, Pia J; Keller, Laurent

2002-03-01

430

Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication  

PubMed Central

Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning.

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2009-01-01

431

Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication.  

PubMed

Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning. PMID:19117912

Bredy, Timothy W; Barad, Mark

2008-12-30

432

Non-progressive evolution, the Red Queen hypothesis, and the balance of nature.  

PubMed

The Red Queen hypothesis, or the ability organisms have to control and regulate the available trophic energy, is a recently proposed parameter for measuring fitness. Firstly, this hypothesis is analysed in terms of its heuristic power. Secondly, the claimed causal dependence between this parameter and a, still controversial, law of constant extinction is judged to be unjustified, however reasonable such a claim appears to be. Finally, the ubiquity of competition in nature which is seemingly required by the Red Queen and supposedly realized at the expense of a mutualistic alternative, is deemed to be a questionable assumption. PMID:115188

Castrodeza, C

1979-01-01

433

Counting solutions for the N -queens and Latin-square problems by Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply Monte Carlo simulations to count the numbers of solutions of two well-known combinatorial problems: the N -queens problem and Latin-square problem. The original system is first converted to a general thermodynamic system, from which the number of solutions of the original system is obtained by using the method of computing the partition function. Collective moves are used to further accelerate sampling: swap moves are used in the N -queens problem and a cluster algorithm is developed for the Latin squares. The method can handle systems of 104degrees of freedom with more than 1010000 solutions.

Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng

2009-01-01

434

The relationship between multiple mating by queens, within-colony genetic variability and fitness in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Multiple mating has been suggested to benefit social insect queens because high genetic variation within colonies might decrease the load imposed by sterile diploid males, enhance resistance to parasites and pathogens, and lead to a more effective division of labour and/or a wider range of tolerable environmental conditions. We tested these hypotheses in the ant Lasius niger with three population samples from Switzerland and Sweden. We found no diploid males in young or mature colonies suggesting a lack of diploid male load. Colonies with multiply-mated queens were not larger nor did they produce more sexuals than colonies with singly-mated queens. We did find a significantly lower frequency of multiple mating among newly mated queens than among the queens heading mature colonies in one population sample (Switzerland 1997). However, this result was not repeated in the other study population, or in the following year in the Swiss population. PMID:14635899

Fjerdingstad, E J; Gertsch, P J; Keller, L

2003-09-01

435

Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism.  

PubMed

Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental programme includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary size allometry may disrupt queen development and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism. PMID:21696476

Linksvayer, T A; Kaftanoglu, O; Akyol, E; Blatch, S; Amdam, G V; Page, R E

2011-06-23

436

Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism  

PubMed Central

Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental program includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary time scales. Our results indicate: that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary allometry may disrupt queen development, and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism.

Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Akyol, Ethem; Blatch, Sydella; Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.

2011-01-01

437

[Clinical study of mandibular condyle injury].  

PubMed

Mandibular condyle fractures develop frequently and show the variable type of injury and complication. New opinions have emerged from recent investigation into condylar fractures. The author investigated 246 patients with condylar fractures who visited SNUDH from January 1980 to August, 1988, 8. with regard to clinical and treatment aspects, area and displacement of fractures, associated teeth injury and other body injury, complications. At last I have got the following results. 1. The incidence to condylar fractures in a series of 765 mandibular fractures may be as high as 32.2%. 2. The male patients are 3 times more than female patients. The highest frequency was recorded in the group 21-30 years of age. (34.1%). 3. Falls caused the greatest number of condylar fractures (45.2%) and next was in assult (25.6%), traffic accidents (22.4%). 4. Unilateral condylar fractures were present in 74.8%, giving a left: right ratio of 1.2:1. In cases of unilateral fracture, subcondylar fractures were by far the commonest (32.9%) but in cases of bilateral fracture, condylar neck fractures were by far the commonest. In children under 15 years of age, condylar neck fractures were more common but in patients over 16 years of age, subcondylar fractures were common. 5. Anteromedial fracture dislocations were by far the commonest (20.3%). In children under 15 years of age, fracture deviations were common but in patients over 16 years of age, fracture displacements were common. 6. 44.7% of patients with condylar fractures sustained the teeth injuries. Teeth fractures were by far the commonest. 7. Single condylar fractures showed a frequency of 30.5%. Of the concomitant fractures elsewhere in the mandible, symphysis fractures were by far the commonest (54.1%). 8. Associated other body injuries showed a frequency of 28.0%. Of them, head injuries were by far the commonest. 9. The mean interval from injury to treatment was 14.3 days. Of the treatment of condylar fractures, open reduction was by far the commonest (70.3%). Closed reduction comprised 19.9% and functional therapy comprised 8.5%. 10. In 67 patients with possible follow up period, the following complications were developed, two ankylosis, anterior open bite, mouth opening limitation, mouth opening deviation. PMID:2489622

Kim, Y K; Min, B I

1989-11-01

438

Control of human mandibular posture during locomotion  

PubMed Central

Mandibular movements and masseter muscle activity were measured in humans during hopping, walking and running to determine whether reflexes contribute to the maintenance of jaw position during locomotion. In initial experiments, subjects hopped so that they landed either on their toes or on their heel. Landing on the toes provoked only small mandibular movements and no reflex responses in the masseter electromyogram (EMG). Landing on the heels with the jaw muscles relaxed caused the mandible to move vertically downwards relative to the maxilla, and evoked a brisk reflex response in the masseter at monosynaptic latency. Neither this relative movement of the mandible nor the reflex was seen when the teeth were clenched: hence the reflex is not the result of vestibular activation during head movement. The same variables were measured in a second series of experiments while subjects stood, walked and ran at various speeds and at various inclinations on a treadmill. During walking, the vertical movements of the head and therefore the mandible were slow and small, and there was no tonic masseter EMG or gait-related activity in the jaw-closing muscles. When subjects ran, the vertical head and jaw movement depended on the running speed and the inclination of the treadmill. Landing on the heels induced larger movements than landing on the toes. About 10 ms after each foot-strike, the mandible moved downwards relative to the maxilla, thereby stretching the jaw-closing muscles and activating them at segmental reflex latency. This caused the mandible to move back upwards. The strength of the reflex response was related to the speed and amplitude of the vertical jaw movement following landing. It is concluded that, during walking, the small, slow movements of the mandible relative to the maxilla are subthreshold for stretch reflexes in the jaw muscles: i.e. the mandible is supported by visco-elasticity of the soft tissues in the masticatory system. However, the brisker downward movements of the mandible after heel-landing during hopping and running evoke segmental reflex responses which contribute to the active maintenance of the posture of the mandible. This is a unique demonstration of how a stretch reflex operates to maintain posture under entirely natural conditions.

Miles, Timothy S; Flavel, Stanley C; Nordstrom, Michael A

2004-01-01

439

Examination of the relationship between mandibular position and body posture.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing mandibular position on body posture and reciprocally, body posture on mandibular position. Forty-five (45) asymptomatic subjects (24 males and 21 females, ages 21-53 years, mean age 30.7 years) were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of two groups, based on the table of random numbers. The only difference between group I and group II was the sequence of the testing. The MatScan (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) system was used to measure the result of changes in body posture (center of foot pressure: COP) while subjects maintained the following 5 mandibular positions: (1) rest position, (2) centric occlusion, (3) clinically midlined jaw position with the labial frena aligned, (4) a placebo wax appliance, worn around the labial surfaces of the teeth and (5) right eccentric mandibular position. The T-Scan II (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) system was used to analyze occlusal force distribution in two postural positions, with and without a heel lift under the right foot. Total trajectory length of COP in centric occlusion was shorter than in the rest position (p < 0.05). COP area in right eccentric mandibular position was larger than in centric occlusion (p < 0.05). When subjects used a heel lift under the right foot, occlusal forces shifted to the right side compared to no heel lift (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, it was concluded that changing mandibular position affected body posture. Conversely, changing body posture affected mandibular position. PMID:17983123

Sakaguchi, Kiwamu; Mehta, Noshir R; Abdallah, Emad F; Forgione, Albert G; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Takao; Yokoyama, Atsuro

2007-10-01

440

DIGITAL PHEROMONES FOR AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION OF SWARMING UAV'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern UAV's reduce the threat to human operators, but do not decrease the manpower requirements. Each aircraft requires a flight crew of one to three, so deploying large numbers of UAV's requires committing and coordinating many human warfighters. Insects perform impressive feats of coordination without direct inter-agent coordination, by sensing and depositing pheromones (chemical scent markers) in the environment (14).

H. Van Dyke Parunak; LCDR Michael Purcell; Robert O'Connell

2002-01-01

441

Pheromone Signaling Mechanisms in Yeast: A Prototypical Sex Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in our understanding of G protein and MAP kinase signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and

Yuqi Wang; Henrik G. Dohlman

2004-01-01

442

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world but toxic bait systems affect non-target ant species and can not be used in sensitive ecosystems. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of food resources back to the colony....

443

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) is a constructive metaheuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the phero- mone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by following any systematic process. In some representations, distinct solutions appear mul- tiple times, increasing the eective size of the search space

James Montgomery; Marcus Randall; Tim Hendtlass

2005-01-01

444

Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether a putative human sex?attractant pheromone increases specific sociosexual behaviors of postmenopausal women, we tested a chemically synthesized formula derived from research with underarm secretions from heterosexually active, fertile women that was recently tested on young women. Participants (n = 44, mean age = 57 years) were postmenopausal women who volunteered for a double?blind placebo?controlled study designed “to

Susan Rako; Joan Friebely

2004-01-01

445

Factors influencing release of hostmarking pheromone by Rhagoletis pomonella flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fly or fruit treatments on quality and\\/or quantity of host-marking pheromone (HMP) trail substance released by apple maggot flies (Rhagoletis pomonella) following oviposition was evaluated. Among flies, considerable variation existed in the amount of HMP substance deposited, but overall, the amount of substance released on successively offered fruit (over a day or a week) did not change

A. L. Averill; R. J. Prokopy

1988-01-01

446

Synthesis of a dimethylfuran-containing macrolide insect pheromone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grignard chemistry was utilized to construct a key trisubstituted furan intermediate (3,4-dimethyl-2-[5-(tetrahydroppyran-2-yloxy)pentyl]furan) from 2,3-dimethylbutenolide, prepared via a Reformatsky route. The carbon skeleton of the macrolide pheromone also requires construction of a propionic aci...

447

Taste and pheromone perception in mammals and flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory systems of insects and mammals have analogous anatomical features and use similar molecular logic for olfactory coding. The molecular underpinnings of the chemosensory systems that detect taste and pheromone cues have only recently been characterized. Comparison of these systems in Drosophila and mouse uncovers clear differences and a few surprising similarities.

Hiroaki Matsunami; Hubert Amrein

2003-01-01

448

Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

449

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents.  

PubMed

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-03-04

450

Pheromonic Representation of User Quests by Digital Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the "Ant World" project, items to be retrieved are "quests" represented by entire collections of judged documents. To save space and time, methods were developed for representing these complex entities in a short string of about 1,000 bytes, called a Digital Information Pheromone (DIP). Principles are presented for determining the DIP for a…

Boros, Endre; Kantor, Paul B.; Neu, Dave J.

1999-01-01

451

Are androgen steroids acting as pheromones in humans?  

PubMed

In animals, chemosensory communication is successfully used to transmit behaviourally relevant information, e.g. information about sexual status, danger and social organisation. In many instances pheromones might have evolved from hormone-like substances. Consequently, a large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromonal properties of androgen steroids. Besides discussing the production and perception of androgen steroids, it will primarily be questioned whether their perception can alter mood and behaviour in humans. Therefore, a study has been carried out to investigate whether local preferences can be altered through androstenone exposure. It is shown that heterosexual women and homosexual men prefer seats sprayed with androstenone. However, as this effect is positively correlated with the sensitivity to androstenone, the effect might be due to a general olfactory attraction of low androstenone concentrations. In regard to the conflicting results of studies on putative human pheromones, it will finally be discussed whether the perceptual context and the individual learning history of the perceiver contribute significantly to a successful communication of pheromonal information. PMID:15501487

Pause, Bettina M

2004-10-30

452

Effectiveness of Emerged Pheromone Communication in an Ant Foraging Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collective behavior of social insects has been a puzzling problem for scientists for a long time. In par- ticular, it is well known that ants solve difficult prob- lems, for instance selecting the shortest pathway by communicating with each other via pheromone. How is it possible for such simple creatures to coordinate their behaviors and to solve problems as

Yoshiyuki Nakamichi; Takaya Arita

2005-01-01

453

Definitive evidence for cuticular pheromones in a cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orthoptera include many species established as important model systems in the study of animal behaviour, particularly in relation to communication and mating systems. Although most interest has focused on auditory communication, increasing circumstantial evidence suggests that there may be a widespread additional communication channel in the form of cuticular contact pheromones. Using the field cricket,Gryllus bimaculatuswe conducted a behavioural

TOM TREGENZA; NINA WEDELL

1997-01-01

454

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

455

Role of metabolism of the mating pheromone in sexual differentiation of the heterobasidiomycete Rhodosporidium toruloides.  

PubMed

A trypsin-type endopeptidase (Kamiya et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 94:855-860, 1980) responsible for the metabolism of rhodotorucine A, the farnesyl undecapeptide mating pheromone secreted by mating type A cells of Rhodosporidium toruloides, was biologically characterized. Metabolic activity was found to be present exclusively on the cell surface of the pheromone target cell. The activity was highly specific to the pheromone, and a biologically inactive analog which has the complete amino acid sequence of rhodotorucine A but lacks the farnesyl residue was not metabolized by intact cells. Pheromone metabolism was inhibited by trypsin substrates such as tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester. The presence of tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester strongly inhibited the sexual differentiation induced by the pheromone at a concentration which did not affect the vegetative growth of R. toruloides. Pheromone-induced sexual differentiation was also strongly inhibited by a metabolizable analog, rhodotorucine A S-oxide, but not by a non-metabolizable one. In mutants defective in early processes of mating, the decrease in the pheromone metabolic activity correlated well with the extent of loss of sensitivity to the pheromone. Both the pheromone metabolism and the capacity for sexual differentiation of a sterile mutant were restored concomitantly with reversion from the sterile to the fertile phenotype. These results suggested that metabolism of the mating pheromone plays an essential role in the process of sexual differentiation in R. toruloides. PMID:7050081

Miyakawa, T; Nishihara, M; Tsuchiya, E; Fukui, S

1982-09-01

456

Spatial representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre in the ant brain.  

PubMed

Pheromones play major roles in intraspecific communication in many animals. Elaborated communication systems in eusocial insects provide excellent materials to study neural mechanisms for social pheromone processing. We previously reported that alarm pheromone information is processed in a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. However, representation of alarm pheromone information in a secondary olfactory centre is unknown in any animal. Olfactory information in the antennal lobe is transmitted to secondary olfactory centres, including the lateral horn, by projection neurons (PNs). In this study, we compared distributions of terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive and -insensitive PNs in the lateral horn of ants. Distributions of their dendrites largely overlapped, but there was a region where boutons of pheromone-sensitive PNs, but not those of pheromone-insensitive PNs, were significantly denser than in the rest of the lateral horn. Moreover, most of a major type of pheromone-sensitive efferent neurons from the lateral horn extended dendritic branches in this region, suggesting specialization of this region for alarm pheromone processing. This study is the first study to demonstrate the presence of specialized areas for the processing of a non-sexual, social pheromone in the secondary olfactory centre in any animal. PMID:20375054

Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Mizunami, Makoto

2010-04-07

457

Distraction osteogenesis in a severe mandibular deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplasia. In this case report, distraction with a multidirectional extraoral device was performed to gradually lengthen the corpus and ramus of a patient who had a severe hypoplastic mandible. Materials and methods The patient underwent bilateral extraoral ramus and corpus distraction osteogenesis. After seven days of latency period, distraction was performed 0.5 mm twice a day. Subsequent consolidation period was 12 weeks. Results The patient's mandible was elongated successfully. Cephalometric analysis revealed that ANB angle decreased from 13° to 6°, overjet of 15 mm decreased to 4 mm, corpus length increased from 49 mm to 67 mm, and ramus length increased from 41 mm to 43 mm. Posterior airway space (PAS) also increased due to advancement of the mandible. In stereolithographic model evaluation it was determined that the distances from condylion to gonion and from gonion to pogonion increased. Conclusion Satisfactory results from both aesthetic and functional standpoints were obtained by distraction osteogenesis of the ramus and corpus.

Ortakoglu, Kerim; Karacay, Seniz; Sencimen, Metin; Akin, Erol; Ozyigit, Aykut H; Bengi, Osman

2007-01-01

458

On the reversibility of mandibular symphyseal fusion.  

PubMed

Experimental and comparative studies suggest that a major determinant of increased ossification of the mandibular symphysis is elevated masticatory stress related to a mechanically challenging diet. However, the morphology of this joint tracks variation in dietary properties in only some mammalian clades. Extant anthropoid primates are a notable exception: synostosis is ubiquitous in this speciose group, despite its great age and diverse array of feeding adaptations. One possible explanation for this pattern is that, once synostosis evolves, reversion to a lesser degree of fusion is unlikely or even constrained. If correct, this has important implications for functional and phylogenetic analyses of the mammalian feeding apparatus. To test this hypothesis, we generated a molecular tree for 76 vespertilionoid and noctilionoid chiropterans using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and examined character evolution using parsimony and likelihood ancestral-state reconstructions along with the binary state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model. Results indicate that reversals have occurred within Vespertilionoidea. In contrast, noctilionoids exhibit an anthropoid-like pattern, which suggests that more detailed comparisons of the functional and developmental bases for fusion in these bat clades may provide insight into why fusion is maintained in some lineages but not in others. Potential functional and developmental explanations for the lack of reversal are discussed. PMID:22946814

Scott, Jeremiah E; Lack, Justin B; Ravosa, Matthew J

2012-04-22