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Sample records for queen mandibular pheromone

  1. Peripheral modulation of worker bee responses to queen mandibular pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Vergoz, Vanina; McQuillan, H. James; Geddes, Lisa H.; Pullar, Kiri; Nicholson, Brad J.; Paulin, Michael G.; Mercer, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that young worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) are highly attracted to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Our results challenge this widely held view. We have found that unless young workers are exposed to QMP early in adult life, they, like foragers, avoid contact with this pheromone. Our data indicate that responses to QMP are regulated peripherally, at the level of the antennal sensory neurons, and that a window of opportunity exists in which QMP can alter a young bee's response to this critically important pheromone. Exposing young bees to QMP from the time of adult emergence reduces expression in the antennae of the D1-like dopamine receptor gene, Amdop1. Levels of Amdop3 transcript, on the other hand, and of the octopamine receptor gene Amoa1, are significantly higher in the antennae of bees strongly attracted to QMP than in bees showing no attraction to this pheromone. A decline in QMP attraction with age is accompanied by a fall in expression in worker antennae of the D2-like dopamine receptor, AmDOP3, a receptor that is selectively activated by QMP. Taken together, our findings suggest that QMP's actions peripherally not only suppress avoidance behavior, but also enhance attraction to QMP, thereby facilitating attendance of the queen. PMID:19934051

  2. New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are accredited to the QMP, this pheromone does not trigger the full behavioral and physiological response observed in the presence of the queen, suggesting the presence of additional compounds. We tested the hypothesis of a pheromone redundancy in honey bee queens by comparing the influence of queens with and without mandibular glands on worker behavior and physiology. Results Demandibulated queens had no detectable (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), the major compound in QMP, yet they controlled worker behavior (cell construction and queen retinue) and physiology (ovary inhibition) as efficiently as intact queens. Conclusions We demonstrated that the queen uses other pheromones as powerful as QMP to control the colony. It follows that queens appear to have multiple active compounds with similar functions in the colony (pheromone redundancy). Our findings support two hypotheses in the biology of social insects: (1) that multiple semiochemicals with synonymous meaning exist in the honey bee, (2) that this extensive semiochemical vocabulary exists because it confers an evolutionary advantage to the colony. PMID:20565874

  3. cGMP modulates responses to queen mandibular pheromone in worker honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Fussnecker, Brendon L.; McKenzie, Alexander M.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Responses to social cues, such as pheromones, can be modified by genotype, physiology, or environmental context. Honey bee queens produce a pheromone (queen mandibular pheromone; QMP) which regulates aspects of worker bee behavior and physiology. Forager bees are less responsive to QMP than young bees engaged in brood care, suggesting that physiological changes associated with behavioral maturation modulate response to this pheromone. Since 3′, 5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a major regulator of behavioral maturation in workers, we examined its role in modulating worker responses to QMP. Treatment with a cGMP analog resulted in significant reductions in both behavioral and physiological responses to QMP in young caged workers. Treatment significantly reduced attraction to QMP and inhibited the QMP-mediated increase in vitellogenin RNA levels in the fat bodies of worker bees. Genome-wide analysis of brain gene expression patterns demonstrated that cGMP has a larger effect on expression levels than QMP, and that QMP has specific effects in the presence of cGMP, suggesting that some responses to QMP may be dependent on an individual bees' physiological state. Our data suggest that cGMP-mediated processes play a role in modulating responses to QMP in honey bees at the behavioral, physiological, and molecular levels. PMID:21626397

  4. How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camiletti, Alison L.; Awde, David N.; Thompson, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory—that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover ( for R) and sitter ( for s) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background ( for s2) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response.

  5. Queen reproductive state modulates pheromone production and queen-worker interactions in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Sarah D.; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The mandibular glands of queen honeybees produce a pheromone that modulates many aspects of worker honeybee physiology and behavior and is critical for colony social organization. The exact chemical blend produced by the queen differs between virgin and mated, laying queens. Here, we investigate the role of mating and reproductive state on queen pheromone production and worker responses. Virgin queens, naturally mated queens, and queens instrumentally inseminated with either semen or saline were collected 2 days after mating or insemination. Naturally mated queens had the most activated ovaries and the most distinct chemical profile in their mandibular glands. Instrumentally inseminated queens were intermediate between virgins and naturally mated queens for both ovary activation and chemical profiles. There were no significant differences between semen- and saline-inseminated queens. Workers were preferentially attracted to the mandibular gland extracts from queens with significantly more activated ovaries. These studies suggest that the queen pheromone blend is modulated by the reproductive status of the queens, and workers can detect these subtle differences and are more responsive to queens with higher reproductive potential. Furthermore, it appears as if insemination substance does not strongly affect physiological characteristics of honeybee queens 2 days after insemination, suggesting that the insemination process or volume is responsible for stimulating these early postmating changes in honeybee queens. PMID:22476212

  6. Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 g in a 2 l volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMPs effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  7. Queen pheromone regulates egg production in a termite

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuuka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In social insects, resource allocation is a key factor that influences colony survival and growth. Optimal allocation to queens and brood is essential for maximum colony productivity, requiring colony members to have information on the total reproductive power in colonies. However, the mechanisms regulating egg production relative to the current labour force for brood care remain poorly known. Recently, a volatile chemical was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of new neotenic reproductives (secondary reproductives developed from nymphs or workers) in Reticulitermes speratus. The same volatile chemical is also emitted by eggs. This queen pheromone would therefore be expected to act as an honest message of the reproductive power about queens. In this study, we examined how the queen pheromone influences the reproductive rate of queens in R. speratus. We compared the number of eggs produced by each queen between groups with and without exposure to artificial queen pheromone. Exposure to the pheromone resulted in a significant decrease in egg production in both single-queen and multiple-queen groups. This is the first report supporting the role of queen pheromones as a signal regulating colony-level egg production, using synthetically derived compounds in a termite. PMID:21543395

  8. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response. PMID:25860860

  9. Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nio, Elina L.; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 l) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

  10. Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Jrgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-12-22

    The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have only been definitively identified in the honeybee. Using the black garden ant Lasius niger, we isolate the first sterility-regulating ant queen pheromone. The pheromone is a cuticular hydrocarbon that comprises the majority of the chemical profile of queens and their eggs, and also affects worker behaviour, by reducing aggression towards objects bearing the pheromone. We further show that the pheromone elicits a strong response in worker antennae and that its production by queens is selectively reduced following an immune challenge. These results suggest that the pheromone has a central role in colony organization and support the hypothesis that worker sterility represents altruistic self-restraint in response to an honest quality signal. PMID:20591861

  11. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. PMID:25959967

  12. Selection on worker honeybee responses to queen pheromone (Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankiw, T.; Winston, Mark L.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Slessor, Keith N.

    Disruptive selection for responsiveness to queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) in the retinue bioassay resulted in the production of high and low QMP responding strains of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed significantly in their retinue response to QMP after one generation of selection. By the third generation the high strain was on average at least nine times more responsive than the low strain. The strains showed seasonal phenotypic plasticity such that both strains were more responsive to the pheromone in the spring than in the fall. Directional selection for low seasonal variation indicated that phenotypic plasticity was an additional genetic component to retinue response to QMP. Selection for high and low retinue responsiveness to QMP was not an artifact of the synthetic blend because both strains were equally responsive or non-responsive to whole mandibular gland extracts compared with QMP. The use of these strains clearly pointed to an extra-mandibular source of retinue pheromones (Pankiw et al. 1995; Slessor et al. 1998; Keeling et al. 1999).

  13. Queen and young larval pheromones impact nursing and reproductive physiology of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Kirsten S; Le Conte, Yves; Page, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Several insect pheromones are multifunctional and have both releaser and primer effects. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and e-beta-ocimene (e?), emitted by young worker larvae, have such dual effects. There is increasing evidence that these multifunctional pheromones profoundly shape honey bee colony dynamics by influencing cooperative brood care, a fundamental aspect of eusocial insect behavior. Both QMP and e? have been shown to affect worker physiology and behavior, but it has not yet been determined if these two key pheromones have interactive effects on hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development, actively used in caring of larvae, and ovary activation, a component of worker reproductive physiology. Experimental results demonstrate that both QMP and e? significantly suppress ovary activation compared to controls but that the larval pheromone is more effective than QMP. The underlying reproductive anatomy (total ovarioles) of workers influenced HPG development and ovary activation, so that worker bees with more ovarioles were less responsive to suppression of ovary activation by QMP. These bees were more likely to develop their HPG and have activated ovaries in the presence of e?, providing additional links between nursing and reproductive physiology in support of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. PMID:25395721

  14. The origin and evolution of social insect queen pheromones: Novel hypotheses and outstanding problems.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; van Zweden, Jelle S; Oliveira, Ricardo C; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Nascimento, Fabio S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Queen pheromones, which signal the presence of a fertile queen and induce daughter workers to remain sterile, are considered to play a key role in regulating the reproductive division of labor of insect societies. Although queen pheromones were long thought to be highly taxon-specific, recent studies have shown that structurally related long-chain hydrocarbons act as conserved queen signals across several independently evolved lineages of social insects. These results imply that social insect queen pheromones are very ancient and likely derived from an ancestral signalling system that was already present in their common solitary ancestors. Based on these new insights, we here review the literature and speculate on what signal precursors social insect queen pheromones may have evolved from. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that these pheromones should best be seen as honest signals of fertility as opposed to suppressive agents that chemically sterilize the workers against their own best interests. PMID:25916998

  15. Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

    1981-04-01

    In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

  16. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds. PMID:26511862

  17. Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing.

    PubMed

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Romero, Carmen; Oi, Cintia A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Billen, Johan; Wckers, Felix; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-17

    A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female fecundity in 64 species of social insects. Our results show that queen pheromones are strikingly conserved across at least three independent origins of eusociality, with wasps, ants, and some bees all appearing to use nonvolatile, saturated hydrocarbons to advertise fecundity and/or suppress worker reproduction. These results suggest that queen pheromones evolved from conserved signals of solitary ancestors. PMID:24436417

  18. Queen pheromones modulate DNA methyltransferase activity in bee and ant workers.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Trontti, Kalevi; Helanterä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an important regulator of polyphenism in the social insects. Research has concentrated on differences in methylation between queens and workers, though we hypothesized that methylation is involved in mediating other flexible phenotypes, including pheromone-dependent changes in worker behaviour and physiology. Here, we find that exposure to queen pheromone affects the expression of two DNA methyltransferase genes in Apis mellifera honeybees and in two species of Lasius ants, but not in Bombus terrestris bumblebees. These results suggest that queen pheromones influence the worker methylome, pointing to a novel proximate mechanism for these key social signals. PMID:26814223

  19. A conserved class of queen pheromones? Re-evaluating the evidence in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Etya; Orlova, Margarita; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-10-22

    The regulation of reproductive division of labour is a key component in the evolution of social insects. Chemical signals are important mechanisms to regulate worker reproduction, either as queen-produced pheromones that coercively inhibit worker reproduction or as queen signals that honestly advertise her fecundity. A recent study suggested that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones across three independent origins of eusociality. In bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), pentacosane (C25) was suggested to serve as a queen pheromone. Here, we repeat these studies using a different species of bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) with a more controlled experimental design. Instead of dequeened colonies, we used same-aged, three-worker queenless groups comprising either experienced or naive workers (with/without adult exposure to queen pheromone). We quantified three hydrocarbons (C23, C25 and C27) on the cuticular surfaces of females and tested their effects on the two worker types. Our results indicate differences in responses of naive and experienced workers, genetic effects on worker reproduction, and general effects of hydrocarbons and duration of egg laying on ovary resorption rates. However, we found no evidence to support the theory that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones or queen signals in Bombus impatiens. PMID:26490791

  20. Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

  1. Effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen insemination volume on worker behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colonies consist of tens of thousands of workers and a single reproductive queen that produces a pheromone blend which maintains colony organization. Previous studies indicated that the insemination quantity and volume alter queen mandibular pheromone profiles. In our 11-month long field s...

  2. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  3. Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

    1988-03-01

    A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

  4. Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Tlio M.; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P.; Amaral, Mnica F. Z. J.; von Zuben, Lucas G.; Clososki, Giuliano C.; Bento, Jos M. S.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B.; Lopes, Norberto P.

    2014-01-01

    In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

  5. Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P; Amaral, Mônica F Z J; von Zuben, Lucas G; Clososki, Giuliano C; Bento, José M S; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P

    2014-01-01

    In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

  6. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

  7. Differential combinatorial coding of pheromones in two olfactory subsystems of the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-03-11

    Neural coding of pheromones has been intensively studied in insects with a particular focus on sex pheromones. These studies favored the view that pheromone compounds are processed within specific antennal lobe glomeruli following a specialized labeled-line system. However, pheromones play crucial roles in an insect's life beyond sexual attraction, and some species use many different pheromones making such a labeled-line organization unrealistic. A combinatorial coding scheme, in which each component activates a set of broadly tuned units, appears more adapted in this case. However, this idea has not been tested thoroughly. We focused here on the honey bee Apis mellifera, a social insect that relies on a wide range of pheromones to ensure colony cohesion. Interestingly, the honey bee olfactory system harbors two central parallel pathways, whose functions remain largely unknown. Using optophysiological recordings of projection neurons, we compared the responses of these two pathways to 27 known honey bee pheromonal compounds emitted by the brood, the workers, and the queen. We show that while queen mandibular pheromone is processed by l-ALT (lateral antennal lobe tract) neurons and brood pheromone is mainly processed by m-ALT (median antennal lobe tract) neurons, worker pheromones induce redundant activity in both pathways. Moreover, all tested pheromonal compounds induce combinatorial activity from several AL glomeruli. These findings support the combinatorial coding scheme and suggest that higher-order brain centers reading out these combinatorial activity patterns may eventually classify olfactory signals according to their biological meaning. PMID:25762663

  8. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  9. Pathological effects of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae on honey bee queen physiology (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Alaux, Cdric; Folschweiller, Morgane; McDonnell, Cynthia; Beslay, Dominique; Cousin, Marianne; Dussaubat, Claudia; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

    2011-03-01

    Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite originally described in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana, has recently been found to be cross-infective and to also parasitize the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Since this discovery, many studies have attempted to characterize the impact of this parasite in A. mellifera honey bees. Nosema species can infect all colony members, workers, drones and queens, but the pathological effects of this microsporidium has been mainly investigated in workers, despite the prime importance of the queen, who monopolizes the reproduction and regulates the cohesion of the society via pheromones. We therefore analyzed the impact of N. ceranae on queen physiology. We found that infection by N. ceranae did not affect the fat body content (an indicator of energy stores) but did alter the vitellogenin titer (an indicator of fertility and longevity), the total antioxidant capacity and the queen mandibular pheromones, which surprisingly were all significantly increased in Nosema-infected queens. Thus, such physiological changes may impact queen health, leading to changes in pheromone production, that could explain Nosema-induced supersedure (queen replacement). PMID:21156180

  10. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  11. The gene road to royalty--differential expression of hydroxylating genes in the mandibular glands of the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Malka, Osnat; Karunker, Iris; Yeheskel, Adva; Morin, Shai; Hefetz, Abraham

    2009-10-01

    The advances in honeybee sociogenomics have paved the way for the study of social communication processes at the gene level, in particular the expression of caste-specific pheromones. The queen honeybee mandibular pheromone provides an excellent model system, in that biosynthesis of the hydroxylating fatty acid caste-specific pheromone appears to be reduced to a single chemical hydroxylation step of stearic acid. Queens are typified by omega-1-hydroxylation, as opposed to the worker-typical omega-hydroxylation. We hypothesized that this bifurcation is the consequence of differential expression of caste-specific genes that code for fatty acid-hydroxylating enzymes from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family. Bioinformatics studies disclosed two candidate proteins CYP4AA1 and CYP18A1. We thus investigated the expression of these genes in the mandibular glands of queens, and of queenright (QR) and queenless (QL) workers. The real-time PCR results revealed that CYP4AA1 (omega-hydroxylation) was expressed at high levels in both QR and QL workers, whereas in queens its expression was negligible. The expression of CYP18A1 (omega-1-hydroxylation), on the other hand, was high in the queen's glands and negligible in those of QR workers. In QL workers, however, the expression of CYP18A1 was considerably elevated and significantly greater than in QR workers. Three-dimensional structural models constructed for these enzymes demonstrate differences in the active site between CYP18A1 and CYP4AA1, in line with their differential catalytic specificity. The fact that queen pheromone plasticity can be tracked all the way to gene expression provides a new insight into the process of caste differentiation and the accompanying social communication. PMID:19702829

  12. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  13. Queen Bee

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The bee marked in yellow is this hive's queen. There is usually only one queen in a hive, which the worker honeybees feed, follow, and protect. Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use changes that decrease flower abundance can affect bee health and pollination ...

  14. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  15. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the

  16. Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits.

  17. Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2008-08-01

    Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

  18. Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Kenji; Himuro, Chihiro; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Yuuka; Vargo, Edward L.; Keller, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The hallmark of social insects is their caste system: reproduction is primarily monopolized by queens, whereas workers specialize in the other tasks required for colony growth and survival. Pheromones produced by reining queens have long been believed to be the prime factor inhibiting the differentiation of new reproductive individuals. However, there has been very little progress in the chemical identification of such inhibitory pheromones. Here we report the identification of a volatile inhibitory pheromone produced by female neotenics (secondary queens) that acts directly on target individuals to suppress the differentiation of new female neotenics and identify n-butyl-n-butyrate and 2-methyl-1-butanol as the active components of the inhibitory pheromone. An artificial pheromone blend consisting of these two compounds had a strong inhibitory effect similar to live neotenics. Surprisingly, the same two volatiles are also emitted by eggs, playing a role both as an attractant to workers and an inhibitor of reproductive differentiation. This dual production of an inhibitory pheromone by female reproductives and eggs probably reflects the recruitment of an attractant pheromone as an inhibitory pheromone and may provide a mechanism ensuring honest signaling of reproductive status with a tight coupling between fertility and inhibitory power. Identification of a volatile pheromone regulating caste differentiation in a termite provides insights into the functioning of social insect colonies and opens important avenues for elucidating the developmental pathways leading to reproductive and nonreproductive castes. PMID:20615972

  19. Mammalian Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d ) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  20. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-Lpez, Leopoldo; Snchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutirrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00h and over 3-35days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test. PMID:22081302

  1. Caste-Selective Pheromone Biosynthesis in Honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.; Winston, Mark L.; Oliver, James E.

    1996-03-01

    Queen and worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) produce a caste-related blend of functionalized 8- and 10-carbon fatty acids in their mandibular glands. The biological functions of these compounds match the queen's reproductive and the worker's nonreproductive roles in the colony. Studies with deuterated substrates revealed that the biosynthesis of these acids begins with stearic acid, which is hydroxylated at the 17th or 18th position. The 18-carbon hydroxy acid chains are shortened, and the resulting 10-carbon hydroxy acids are oxidized in a caste-selective manner, thereby determining many of the functional differences between queens and workers.

  2. Drama queens.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Why is it that many 'lesbian playwrights' are unwilling to define themselves as such? "Drama Queens: Ruling with a Rod of Irony" attempts to answer this question and to discover what the term 'lesbian playwright' means within contemporary culture. It dissects the dominant homophobic and misogynist mythologies that have outlawed 'queer' girl writers to the underskirts of British theatre, and ultimately denied them either artistic or commercial currency. It examines the history of the label in the context of feminism, gay liberation and positive representation, and queries its aesthetic and economic viability in a climate where the 'lesbian playwright' is not even supported by her own community. Finally, it is an exploration into radical forms, working methodologies and new genres stimulated by being neither semantic Man nor Woman. It is a piece about cultural terrorism-and how to avoid capture. PMID:24785519

  3. Bourgeois queens and high stakes games in the ant Aphaenogaster senilis

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Adam L; Monnin, Thibaud

    2009-01-01

    Background Many animals face some form of conflict over reproductive opportunities. Queen selection in social insect colonies represents a high-stakes conflict where competition occurs among multiple queens for a few or a single reproductive role(s). The outcome of the contest is critical to the fitness of all colony individuals as most are sterile, and thus represents a conflict at multiple levels. Aphaenogaster senilis is a monogynous, monandrous, fission performing ant, in which queen selection occurs during colony fission and when replacement queens are produced to overcome orphaning. First-born queens are usually behaviourally dominant over subsequent queens, and eventually inherit the colony. We investigated the importance of physical dominance in queen selection in orphaned groups by manipulating the fighting ability of first-born queens via mandibular ablation. Results First emerged queens were heavier than second emerged queens, performed almost all aggression, were behaviourally dominant 92% of the time, and prevailed in 76% of groups after co-existing for 16 days on average. Mandibular ablation had no effect on queen behaviour or contest outcome. Conclusion Aggression is probably ritualised and contests are decided by workers based on relative queen fertility. First-born queens thus have an inherent advantage over second-born queens as they have more time to develop ovaries. Subordinates never retaliated against aggression from dominants and this lack of retaliation can be interpreted as a form of bourgeois strategy as dominants were almost always first-born. However, the lack of alternative reproductive options makes not-fighting effectively a form of suicide. High relatedness between full-sister queens means that subordinates may be better off sacrificing themselves than risking injury to both queens by fighting. PMID:19840383

  4. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

    2010-02-01

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

  5. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  6. 14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  7. Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger selfishly adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish. PMID:20181562

  8. Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-07-01

    Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger 'selfishly' adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish. PMID:20181562

  9. Queen's Garden Formations

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  10. Queen's Garden Hoodoos

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  11. Queen's Garden Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  12. Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2011-09-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed. PMID:21786084

  13. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

    Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

    Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

    The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

    Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Ant Queen Egg-Marking Signals: Matching Deceptive Laboratory Simplicity with Natural Complexity

    PubMed Central

    van Zweden, Jelle S.; Heinze, Jrgen; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Background Experiments under controlled laboratory conditions can produce decisive evidence for testing biological hypotheses, provided they are representative of the more complex natural conditions. However, whether this requirement is fulfilled is seldom tested explicitly. Here we provide a lab/field comparison to investigate the identity of an egg-marking signal of ant queens. Our study was based on ant workers resolving conflict over male production by destroying each other's eggs, but leaving queen eggs unharmed. For this, the workers need a proximate cue to discriminate between the two egg types. Earlier correlative evidence indicated that, in the ant Pachycondyla inversa, the hydrocarbon 3,11-dimethylheptacosane (3,11-diMeC27) is more abundant on the surface of queen-laid eggs. Methodology We first tested the hypothesis that 3,11-diMeC27 functions as a queen egg-marking pheromone using laboratory-maintained colonies. We treated worker-laid eggs with synthetic 3,11-diMeC27 and found that they were significantly more accepted than sham-treated worker-laid eggs. However, we repeated the experiment with freshly collected field colonies and observed no effect of treating worker-laid eggs with 3,11-diMeC27, showing that this compound by itself is not the natural queen egg-marking pheromone. We subsequently investigated the overall differences of entire chemical profiles of eggs, and found that queen-laid eggs in field colonies are more distinct from worker-laid eggs than in lab colonies, have more variation in profiles, and have an excess of longer-chain hydrocarbons. Conclusions Our results suggest that queen egg-marking signals are significantly affected by transfer to the laboratory, and that this change is possibly connected to reduced queen fertility as predicted by honest signaling theory. This change is reflected in the worker egg policing response under field and laboratory conditions. PMID:19262683

  15. The pheromone emergency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female moths utilize sex pheromones to attract mates across a potentially long geographic distance. The biochemical basis of how moth female sex pheromones are synthesized has been elucidated in a number of species, and a particularly large amount of effort has been expended on the agricultural pes...

  16. Stereochemical studies on pheromonal communications

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Pheromonal communications are heavily dependent on the stereochemistry of pheromones. Their enantioselective syntheses could establish the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring pheromones, and clarified the unique relationships between absolute configuration and bioactivity. For example, neither the (R)- nor (S)-enantiomer of sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle, is behaviorally active, while their mixture is bioactive. Recent results as summarized in the present review further illustrate the unique and diverse relationships between stereochemistry and bioactivity of pheromones. PMID:25504227

  17. Alkylpyrazines: Alarm pheromone components of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The previous identification of 2,5-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbutyl) pyrazine as the mandibular alarm pheromone of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), has been found to be incorrect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of ant extracts suggested the correct structure to be the reg...

  18. Chemical communication of queen supergene status in an ant.

    PubMed

    Trible, W; Ross, K G

    2016-03-01

    Traits of interest to evolutionary biologists often have complex genetic architectures, the nature of which can confound traditional experimental study at single levels of analysis. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, the presence of a Mendelian 'supergene' is both necessary and sufficient to induce a shift in a fundamental property of social organization, from single-queen (monogyne) to multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies. This selfish genetic element, termed the Social b (Sb) supergene, contains > 600 genes that collectively promote its fitness by inducing the characteristic polygyne syndrome, in part by causing polygyne workers to accept only queens bearing the Sb element (a behaviour termed 'worker Sb discrimination'). Here, we employ a newly developed behavioural assay to reveal that polygyne workers, many of which bear the Sb element, employ chemical cues on the cuticle of queens to achieve worker Sb discrimination, but we found no evidence for such pheromonally mediated worker Sb discrimination in monogyne workers, which universally lack the Sb element. This polygyne worker Sb discrimination was then verified through a 'green beard' effect previously described in this system. We thus have demonstrated that the Sb element is required both for production of relevant chemical cues of queens and for expression of the behaviours of workers that collectively result in worker Sb discrimination. This information fills a critical gap in the map between genotype and complex phenotype in S. invicta by restricting the search for candidate genes and molecules involved in producing this complex social trait to factors associated with the Sb element itself. PMID:26644320

  19. 11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  20. 13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  1. 12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  2. Mammalian pheromone sensing.

    PubMed

    Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese

    2007-08-01

    The traditional distinction that the mammalian main olfactory system recognizes general odor molecules and the accessory (vomeronasal) system detects pheromones is no longer valid. The emerging picture is that both systems have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect and the effects that they mediate. Recent investigations have discovered large families of pheromonal signals together with a rich variety of specific receptor systems and nasal detection pathways. Selective genetic targeting of these subsystems should help to unravel their biological role in pheromone-mediated behavioral responses. PMID:17709238

  3. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  4. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  5. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory

  6. Splinted mandibular protraction appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of mandible rather than tooth movement is an ideal treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion resulting from mandibular retrusion. In growing patients, forward repositioning of mandible by mandibular repositioning appliances is considered as a treatment of choice. Correction of mandibular retrusion by the conventional mandibular protraction appliances (MPAs) is mainly due to dento-alveolar changes and by altering the design of original MPAs, these limitations were minimized. The modified design enhanced the mandibular growth and contributed for the better skeletal correction of Class II malocclusion as compared to the conventional MPAs. This article highlights the design and fabrication of a splinted MPA for the correction of Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and also describes a patient managed by this appliance. PMID:25821367

  7. Pheromonal communication in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Zufall, Frank

    2006-11-16

    Recent insights have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of chemical signals in influencing vertebrate behaviour. Previously unknown families of pheromonal signals have been identified that are expanding the traditional definition of a pheromone. Although previously regarded as functioning independently, the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems have been found to have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect and the effects that they mediate. Studies using gene-targeted mice have revealed an unexpected diversity of chemosensory systems and their underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Future developments could show how the functions of the different chemosensory systems are integrated to regulate innate and learned behavioural and physiological responses to pheromones. PMID:17108955

  8. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Pheromones for Social Behavior and Their Coding in the Ant Antenna.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Enzmann, Brittany L; Schmidt, Yvonne; Moore, Dani; Jones, Graeme R; Parker, Jane; Berger, Shelley L; Reinberg, Danny; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Breit, Bernhard; Liebig, Jrgen; Ray, Anandasankar

    2015-08-25

    The sophisticated organization of eusocial insect societies is largely based on the regulation of complex behaviors by hydrocarbon pheromones present on the cuticle. We used electrophysiology to investigate the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) by female-specific olfactory sensilla basiconica on the antenna of Camponotus floridanus ants through the utilization of one of the largest family of odorant receptors characterized so far in insects. These sensilla, each of which contains multiple olfactory receptor neurons, are differentially sensitive to CHCs and allow them to be classified into three broad groups that collectively detect every hydrocarbon tested, including queen and worker-enriched CHCs. This broad-spectrum sensitivity is conserved in a related species, Camponotus laevigatus, allowing these ants to detect CHCs from both nestmates and non-nestmates. Behavioral assays demonstrate that these ants are excellent at discriminating CHCs detected by the antenna, including enantiomers of a candidate queen pheromone that regulates the reproductive division of labor. PMID:26279569

  9. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

  10. Bifid mandibular condyle

    PubMed Central

    Katti, Girish; Najmuddin, Mohammed; Fatima, Syeda; Unnithan, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    A 20-year-old young male patient presented with limited mouth opening and cosmetic disfigurement since childhood. On examination, marked mandibular hypoplasia resulting in a convex facial profile was noted. Further radiographic investigation using orthopantomograph and CT scan with three-dimensional reconstruction revealed bifid mandibular condyle of the right side. PMID:23131544

  11. Bifid mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Katti, Girish; Najmuddin, Mohammed; Fatima, Syeda; Unnithan, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    A 20-year-old young male patient presented with limited mouth opening and cosmetic disfigurement since childhood. On examination, marked mandibular hypoplasia resulting in a convex facial profile was noted. Further radiographic investigation using orthopantomograph and CT scan with three-dimensional reconstruction revealed bifid mandibular condyle of the right side. PMID:23131544

  12. SOCIAL INSECT PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Social insects include the social Hymenoptera (Formicidae, ants; Apidae, bees; Vespidae, wasps) and Isoptera (Termitidae, termites). Social interactions are required for effective food retrieval, brood and queen care, regulation of caste (sexuals/workers), recognition and exclusion of non-nestmates,...

  13. Queen Angelfish Hides in Mangrove Prop Roots

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Queen Angelfish peers through the safety of the mangrove roots across the rich colors and textures of corals, sponges, urchins, and algae. Queen Angelfish feed almost exclusively on sponges, which are abundant in these mangroves....

  14. Reflections on the "N" + "k" Queens Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The "N" queens problem is a classic puzzle. It asks for an arrangement of "N" mutually non-attacking queens on an "N" x "N" chessboard. We discuss a recent variation called the "N" + "k" queens problem, where pawns are added to the chessboard to allow a greater number of non-attacking queens to be placed on it. We describe some of what is known

  15. Hoodoos of the Queens Garden

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  16. Moon over the Queen's Garden

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  17. Panorama of the Queen's Garden

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

  18. 'Queen of Hearts' Oakleaf Hydrangea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late-blooming oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) cultivar was released by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Queen of Hearts’ has grown 6.5 feet high and 11 feet wide in 11 years. In early summer, it is covered with 11-inch-long inflorescences that are held upright above the foliage. Flowers ...

  19. Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimr; Hrd, Ivan; Cva?ka, Josef; obotnk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In 1959, P. Karlson and M. Lscher introduced the term pheromone, broadly used nowadays for various chemicals involved in intraspecific communication. To demonstrate the term, they depicted the situation in termite societies, where king and queen inhibit the reproduction of nest-mates by an unknown chemical substance. Paradoxically, half a century later, neither the source nor the chemical identity of this royal pheromone is known. In this study, we report for the first time the secretion of polar compounds of proteinaceous origin by functional reproductives in three termite species, Prorhinotermes simplex, Reticulitermes santonensis and Kalotermes flavicollis. Aqueous washes of functional reproductives contained sex-specific proteinaceous compounds, virtually absent in non-reproducing stages. Moreover, the presence of these compounds was clearly correlated with the age of reproductives and their reproductive status. We discuss the putative function of these substances in termite caste recognition and regulation. PMID:19939837

  20. Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimr; Hrd, Ivan; Cvacka, Josef; Sobotnk, Jan

    2010-04-01

    In 1959, P. Karlson and M. Lscher introduced the term 'pheromone', broadly used nowadays for various chemicals involved in intraspecific communication. To demonstrate the term, they depicted the situation in termite societies, where king and queen inhibit the reproduction of nest-mates by an unknown chemical substance. Paradoxically, half a century later, neither the source nor the chemical identity of this 'royal' pheromone is known. In this study, we report for the first time the secretion of polar compounds of proteinaceous origin by functional reproductives in three termite species, Prorhinotermes simplex, Reticulitermes santonensis and Kalotermes flavicollis. Aqueous washes of functional reproductives contained sex-specific proteinaceous compounds, virtually absent in non-reproducing stages. Moreover, the presence of these compounds was clearly correlated with the age of reproductives and their reproductive status. We discuss the putative function of these substances in termite caste recognition and regulation. PMID:19939837

  1. Is dauer pheromone of Caenorhabditis elegans really a pheromone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viney, M. E.; Franks, N. R.

    Animals respond to signals and cues in their environment. The difference between a signal (e.g. a pheromone) and a cue (e.g. a waste product) is that the information content of a signal is subject to natural selection, whereas that of a cue is not. The model free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms an alternative developmental morph (the dauer larva) in response to a so-called `dauer pheromone', produced by all worms. We suggest that the production of `dauer pheromone' has no fitness advantage for an individual worm and therefore we propose that `dauer pheromone' is not a signal, but a cue. Thus, it should not be called a pheromone.

  2. Volatiles from mandibular glands of male beewolves (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae,Philanthus) and their possible roles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J O; O'Neill, K M; Fales, H M; McDaniel, C A; Howard, R W

    1985-07-01

    Observations of wasp behavior indicate that male beewolves,Philanthus basilaris andP. bicinctus apply a "marking pheromone" to the leaves and stems of plants within their territories. We now provide direct evidence for the presence of volatile chemicals in the paired mandibular glands of the males, provide preliminary identification of these volatiles, and show that all of the volatile chemicals in the mandibular glands are present on freshly marked plant surfaces but are absent from unmarked plants. Pyrazines, which have been reported in other species of aculeate wasps including the EuropeanPhilanthus triangulum, were not found inP. basilaris orP. bicinctus. PMID:24310274

  3. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yaez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  4. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  5. TICK PHEROMONES AND USES THEREOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject invention provides materials and methods for tick control. The tick control methods of the subject invention are particularly advantageous because they utilize natural chemical signals (pheromones) in combination with an acaricide. The use of environmentally friendly pheromones makes i...

  6. Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Meer, Robert K.; Preston, Catherine A.; Hefetz, Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality.

  7. Mandibular gland secretions of meliponine worker bees: further evidence for their role in interspecific and intraspecific defence and aggression and against their role in food source signalling.

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Hrncir, Michael; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Schmidt, Veronika M; Barth, Friedrich G

    2009-04-01

    Like ants and termites some species of stingless bees (Meliponini), which are very important pollinators in the tropics, use pheromone trails to communicate the location of a food source. We present data on the communicative role of mandibular gland secretions of Meliponini that resolve a recent controversy about their importance in the laying of such trails. Volatile constituents of the mandibular glands have been erroneously thought both to elicit aggressive/defensive behaviour and to signal food source location. We studied Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis ('postica'), two sympatric species to which this hypothesis was applied. Using extracts of carefully dissected glands instead of crude cephalic extracts we analysed the substances contained in the mandibular glands of worker bees. Major components of the extracts were 2-heptanol (both species), nonanal (T. spinipes), benzaldehyde and 2-tridecanone (S. aff. depilis). The effect of mandibular gland extracts and of individual components thereof on the behaviour of worker bees near their nest and at highly profitable food sources was consistent. Independent of the amount of mandibular gland extract applied, the bees overwhelmingly reacted with defensive behaviour and were never attracted to feeders scented with mandibular gland extract or any of the synthetic chemicals tested. Both bee species are capable of using mandibular gland secretions for intra- and interspecific communication of defence and aggression and share 2-heptanol as a major pheromone compound. While confirming the role of the mandibular glands in nest defence, our experiments provide strong evidence against their role in food source signalling. PMID:19329748

  8. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Lfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  9. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic microbes on the evolution of social behaviour in termites. PMID:17726543

  10. The Antibacterial Protein Lysozyme Identified as the Termite Egg Recognition Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus ‘termite-ball’ and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic microbes on the evolution of social behaviour in termites. PMID:17726543

  11. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Roberto L.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tonguelip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055

  12. Multiple mandibular fractures. Treatment outlines.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giovanni; Franco, Elena; Clauser, Luigi C

    2016-02-01

    Multiple mandibular comminuted fractures usually occur in high energy traumas. The authors describe the management and treatment of multiple mandibular fractures in a young patient after a suicide attempt. PMID:26862697

  13. The joy of sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140 PMID:24030282

  14. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems. PMID:25849023

  15. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  16. Neurogenic and Neuroendocrine Effects of Goldfish Pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. We examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostagland...

  17. Anterior mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Borisa, Ashok D.; Wagh, Amol; Kapoor, Rajat; Kori, Channabasappa G.

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor. These are usually asymptomatic until a large size is attained. Ameloblastoma has tendency to spread locally and has a high recurrence rate. Majority of ameloblastomas (80%) arise from the mandible. Ameloblastoma arising from anterior mandibular region (symphysis-menti) is rare. Very few cases of midline anterior ameloblastomas are reported in the literature. They often require wide local excision. Reconstruction of mandible in these cases is challenging. We present a case of mandibular ameloblastoma arising from symphysis-menti. Patient underwent wide surgical excision of the tumor followed by immediate reconstruction using free fibular vascular flap, stabilized with titanium reconstructive plates. A brief case report ands review of literature is presented. PMID:24765429

  18. APIS MELLIFERA QUEEN REPLACEMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF CHEMICAL "STRESS".

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony undergoes a disturbance resulting in queen loss the colony begins "emergency" queen rearing to replace her. This production of new virgin queens in a colony can range in number from one to 20 or more but only a single queen will eventually head the colony...

  19. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  20. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  1. Sex Pheromone of Anastrepha striata.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C

    2015-05-01

    The guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata, is a pest of several cultivated species of Myrtaceae in the American tropics and subtropics. During calling, A. striata males release numerous volatiles. This study was conducted to identify which of the male volatiles function as the A. striata sex pheromone and to investigate the effects of age and time of day on the emission of pheromone components. Analysis of the volatiles from males collected by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that three volatile compounds elicited repeatable responses from the antennae of females. The EAD-active compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry as ethyl hexanoate, linalool, and ethyl octanoate. In two-choice tests using Multilure traps placed in field cages, traps baited with live males, ethyl hexanoate, or the three-component blend captured more females than unbaited traps. However, there was no difference in catches when traps baited with live males were compared against traps baited with ethyl hexanoate. Although traps baited with the three-component blend caught more females than traps baited with live males, the difference was not significant. Analyses of pheromonal components released by A. striata males 8 to 26 days old showed that there was an effect of age on pheromone production and also a significant effect of time of day on pheromone emission. Release of the volatile compounds occurred from 14.00 to 18.00 hr, although traces of linalool were detected from 08.00 hr. Peak emission of pheromone compounds occurred at 14.00 hr. PMID:25912228

  2. 75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC (DQE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company...

  3. Does Patriline Composition Change over a Honey Bee Queens Lifetime?

    PubMed Central

    Brodschneider, Robert; Arnold, Grard; Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A honey bee queen mates with a number of drones a few days after she emerges as an adult. Spermatozoa of different drones are stored in her spermatheca and used for the rest of the queens life to fertilize eggs. Sperm usage is thought to be random, so that the patriline distribution within a honey bee colony would remain constant over time. In this study we assigned the progeny of a naturally mated honey bee queen to patrilines using microsatellite markers at the queens age of two, three and four years. No significant changes in patriline distribution occurred within each of two foraging seasons, with samples taken one and five months apart, respectively. Overall and pair-wise comparisons between the three analyzed years reached significant levels. Over the three-year period we found a trend for patrilines to become more equally represented with time. It is important to note that this study was performed with a single queen, and thus individual and population variation in sperm usage patterns must be assessed. We discuss long-term changes in patriline composition due to mixing processes in the queens spermatheca, following incomplete mixing of different drones sperm after mating. PMID:26466632

  4. [Pain on mandibular movements].

    PubMed

    Huddleston Slater, J J R; Stegenga, B

    2006-11-01

    Pain or fatigue in the masticatory muscles or pain in the temporomandibular joints are well-known complaints. Diagnosing these complaints, that have a relation with mandibular movements, can be challenging since they can arise from the teeth and surrounding tissues, the temporomandibular joints or other musculoskeletal structures. Also referred pains are a common finding in this area. Pain history and clinical examination are crucial for a comprehensive diagnosis. Besides the disorders underlying the pain (so called axis I), the impact of the pain on the patient's physical and psychosocial functioning can play an important role in the diagnosis (axis II). PMID:17147030

  5. PHEROMONE BIOSYNTHESIS IN SOCIAL INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Social insects produce and use a very large number of organic molecules as pheromones to communicate both intra- and interspecifically, and to regulate their social interactions. This review provides an overview of the chemical nature of these compounds and where they are made in the insects, and th...

  6. Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSHcVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

  7. Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  8. Individual Variation in Pheromone Response Correlates with Reproductive Traits and Brain Gene Expression in Worker Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Sarah D.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Stone, Eric A.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera) as a model to examine differences in socially-regulated behavior among individual workers, and used transcriptional profiling to determine if specific gene expression patterns are associated with these individual differences. In honey bees, the reproductive queen produces a pheromonal signal that regulates many aspects of worker behavior and physiology and maintains colony organization. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that there is substantial natural variation in individual worker attraction to queen pheromone (QMP). Furthermore, worker attraction is negatively correlated with ovariole number—a trait associated with reproductive potential in workers. We identified transcriptional differences in the adult brain associated with individual worker attraction to QMP, and identified hundreds of transcripts that are organized into statistically-correlated gene networks and associated with this response. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrate that there is substantial variation in worker attraction to QMP among individuals, and that this variation is linked with specific differences in physiology and brain gene expression patterns. This variation in individual response thresholds may reveal underlying variation in queen-worker reproductive conflict, and may mediate colony function and productivity by creating variation in individual task performance. PMID:20161742

  9. Olfactory Attraction of the Hornet Vespa velutina to Honeybee Colony Odors and Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species. PMID:25549358

  10. Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones.

    PubMed

    Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species. PMID:25549358

  11. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  12. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  13. Individual recognition and learning of queen odors by worker honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    A honeybee queen is usually attacked if she is placed among the workers of a colony other than her own. This rejection occurs even if environmental sources of odor, such as food, water, and genetic origin of the workers, are kept constant in laboratory conditions. The genetic similarity of queens determines how similar their recognition characteristics are; inbred sister queens were accepted in 35% of exchanges, outbred sister queens in 12%, and nonsister queens in 0%. Carbon dioxide narcosis results in worker honeybees accepting nonnestmate queens. A learning curve is presented, showing the time after narcosis required by workers to learn to recognize a new queen. In contrast, worker transfers result in only a small percentage of the workers being rejected. The reason for the difference between queens and workers may be because of worker and queen recognition cues having different sources. PMID:16593008

  14. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar

    PubMed Central

    Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

  15. Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    (9, 10-/sup 3/H/sub 2/)Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity (/sup 3/H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed.

  16. Mandibular glands of male European beewolves, Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Goettler, Wolfgang; Strohm, Erhard

    2008-09-01

    Males of a solitary digger wasp, the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, possess large mandibular glands that have been reported to produce a scent marking pheromone. We analysed the morphology and ultrastructure of these glands using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The paired glands are located laterally in the head and each side consists of a larger and a smaller part. Both parts possess a collecting duct each with distinct openings at the mandible base. However, the collecting duct of the larger part is additionally connected to the pharynx through a lateral extension. The collecting ducts are bordered by a monolayered epithelium lined with cuticle that exhibits conspicuous ramified protuberances. About 1400 acini consisting of class 3 gland cells surround the ducts and are connected to them through conducting canals. The main components in the cytoplasm of these gland cells are mitochondria, well-developed smooth endoplasmatic reticulum, and electron lucent vesicles suggesting a high secretory activity. The connection between the large gland parts and the pharynx suggests that the secretion of the mandibular glands might not only be delivered directly onto the mandibles but might also be transported to and stored in the postpharyngeal gland. PMID:18394960

  17. Gustatory dysfunction after mandibular zoster.

    PubMed

    Heymans, Frdric; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Terzic, Andrej; Landis, Basile Nicolas

    2011-06-01

    Varicella zoster, limited to the mandibular nerve, is rare. Classical symptoms are pain, hypesthesia and vesicular eruption restricted to the third trigeminal segment (V3). Little is known on taste affection after mandibular nerve zoster. We report two cases of patients suffering from mandibular zoster associated with subjective taste disorder. In both cases, gustatory measures confirmed ipsilateral hemiageusia of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. After 2 months, the symptoms regressed and psychophysical measures came back to normal values, whereas post-zoster neuralgia lasted for more than 1 year. Gustatory dysfunction is a possible symptom after mandibular nerve zoster. In contrast to post-zoster neuralgia, taste function seems to recover quickly. PMID:20924630

  18. QUEENS TOWER, BRONXWHITESTONE BRIDGE, NOTE PLATE GIRDER DECK TRUSS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    QUEENS TOWER, BRONX-WHITESTONE BRIDGE, NOTE PLATE GIRDER DECK TRUSS AND LATER ADDED WARREN TRUSS IN ADDITION TO DIAGONAL STAYS - Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, Spanning East River between Whitestone, Queens & the Bronx, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  19. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Costal Grafting in Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bourlet, Jerôme; Château, Joseph; Jacquemart, Mathieu; Dufour, Clémence; Mojallal, Ali; Gleizal, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery, and free fibular flap is the gold standard for this indication. However, there are alternatives; nonvascular bone grafting is one of them, and we present the costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction, a classic technique that is reliable, efficient, and produced less morbidity than the technique of using composite free flaps. Method: A 9-year retrospective review of 54 patients treated surgically for mandibular reconstruction was performed. The criterion mainly analyzed was graft survival. The surgical technique was described in detail. Results: A total of 54 patients with mandibular bone defect were identified. Five symphysis, 46 corpus, and 20 ramus defects were considered. These patients underwent reconstruction by costal grafting, and the engrafting was successful in 92.6% of cases. Dental rehabilitation with dental implants was realized in 70% of cases. Conclusions: The approach described in this article allowed the authors to obtain good results with costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction and dental rehabilitation. Costal grafting is a good alternative for fibula free flap in specific indications. Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Since the 1980s, the gold standard for these defects is the use of free fibular flap.1 In some cases, this technique is contradicted; the surgeon then has several possibilities for the use of free osteomyocutaneous flaps (iliac crest, scapula, and serrato-costal flaps).2–8 PMID:26893990

  1. Queen Charlotte 2001 Earthquake Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.; Rogers, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    On Oct 12, 2001, an Mw=6.3 earthquake occurred off the Queen Charlotte Islands, BC. It was felt throughout Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) and the adjoining mainland. It generated a small tsunami recorded on Vancouver Island tide gauges. Moment tensor solutions show almost pure thrust faulting. There was a significant aftershock sequence associated with this event. Relocation of the catalogue aftershock sequence with respect to a key calibration event with various subsets of common stations show significant movement in the event locations. The aftershocks define an ~30 degree dipping fault plane.

  2. TRPC channels in pheromone sensing.

    PubMed

    Kiselyov, Kirill; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L

    2010-01-01

    Pheromone recognition relies on an amplification cascade that is triggered by pheromone binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The first step in translation of GPCR activation by pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and main olfactory epithelium (MOE) into a cellular response is the activation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) family member, TRPC2 [Zufall, F., Ukhanov, K., Lucas, P., Liman, E. R., and Leinders-Zufall, T. (2005). Neurobiology of TRPC2: From gene to behavior. Pflugers Arch.451, 61-71; Yildirim, E., and Birnbaumer, L. (2007). TRPC2: Molecular biology and functional importance. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 53-75]. The members of the canonical (TRPC) family of TRP channels mediate membrane permeability, specifically, Ca(2+) influx into the cytoplasm in response to activation of GPCR and tyrosine kinase receptors by hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors [Nilius, B. (2007). TRP channels in disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1772, 805-812; Venkatachalam, K., and Montell, C. (2007). TRP channels. Annu. Rev. Biochem.76, 387-417]. Mechanisms of their activation have been the focus of intense interest during the last decade. The data obtained from studies of TRPC2 have resulted in a better understanding of ion channel physiology and led to novel paradigms in modern cell biology [Lucas, P., Ukhanov, K., Leinders-Zufall, T., and Zufall, F. (2003). A diacylglycerol-gated cation channel in vomeronasal neuron dendrites is impaired in TRPC2 mutant mice: Mechanism of pheromone transduction. Neuron40, 551-561; Stowers, L., Holy, T. E., Meister, M., Dulac, C., and Koentges, G. (2002). Loss of sex discrimination and male-male aggression in mice deficient for TRP2. Science295, 1493-1500; Leypold, B. G., Yu, C. R., Leinders-Zufall, T., Kim, M. M., Zufall, F., and Axel, R. (2002). Altered sexual and social behaviors in trp2 mutant mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA99, 6376-6381]. Although TRPC2 activation by pheromones presents one of the most straightforward examples of physiological function of TRPC channels, the molecular aspects of its activation are not well understood (Yildirim, E., and Birnbaumer, L. (2007). TRPC2: Molecular biology and functional importance. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 53-75). It is natural to expect that better understanding of TRPC2 activation mechanisms will lead to breakthroughs in understanding ion channel activation mechanisms, as well as applied behavioral pharmacology. The present review is focused on the current knowledge of TRPC2 physiology with a specific focus on TRPC activation mechanisms. PMID:20831947

  3. 5. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING BROOKLYNQUEENS EXPRESSWAY. QUEENS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING BROOKLYN-QUEENS EXPRESSWAY. QUEENS, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 5.99. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  4. Pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zufall, Frank; Kelliher, Kevin R; Leinders-Zufall, Trese

    2002-08-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of mammals plays an essential role in the perception of chemical stimuli of social nature including pheromone-like signals but direct evidence for the transduction of pheromones by vomeronasal sensory neurons has been lacking. The recent development of electrophysiological and optical imaging methods using confocal microscopy has enabled researchers to systematically analyze sensory responses in large populations of mouse vomeronasal neurons. These experiments revealed that vomeronasal neurons are surprisingly sensitive and highly discriminative detectors of volatile, urinary metabolites that have pheromonal activity in recipient mice. Functional mapping studies of pheromone receptor activation have uncovered the basic principles of sensory processing by vomeronasal neurons and revealed striking differences in the neural mechanisms by which chemosensory information is detected by receptor neurons in the VNO and the main olfactory epithelium. These advances offer the opportunity to decipher the logic of mammalian pheromonal communication. PMID:12203702

  5. Behavioral Plasticity in Ant Queens: Environmental Manipulation Induces Aggression among Normally Peaceful Queens in the Socially Polymorphic Ant Leptothorax acervorum

    PubMed Central

    Trettin, Jrgen; Seyferth, Thomas; Heinze, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    The behavioral traits that shape the structure of animal societies vary considerably among species but appear to be less flexible within species or at least within populations. Populations of the ant Leptothorax acervorum differ in how queens interact with other queens. Nestmate queens from extended, homogeneous habitats tolerate each other and contribute quite equally to the offspring of the colony (polygyny: low reproductive skew). In contrast, nestmate queens from patchy habitats establish social hierarchies by biting and antennal boxing, and eventually only the top-ranking queen of the colony lays eggs (functional monogyny: high reproductive skew). Here we investigate whether queen-queen behavior is fixed within populations or whether aggression and high skew can be elicited by manipulation of socio-environmental factors in colonies from low skew populations. An increase of queen/worker ratio and to a lesser extent food limitation elicited queen-queen antagonism in polygynous colonies from Nrnberger Reichswald similar to that underlying social and reproductive hierarchies in high-skew populations from Spain, Japan, and Alaska. In manipulated colonies, queens differed more in ovarian status than in control colonies. This indicates that queens are in principle capable of adapting the magnitude of reproductive skew to environmental changes in behavioral rather than evolutionary time. PMID:24743352

  6. Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppe, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.

  7. Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses on…

  8. Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses on

  9. Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppe, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.…

  10. Mandibular torus morphology.

    PubMed

    Sellevold, B J

    1980-11-01

    The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

  11. Low natural levels of Nosema ceranae in Apis mellifera queens.

    PubMed

    Traver, Brenna E; Fell, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    Queens are the primary female reproductive individuals in honey bee colonies and, while they are generally free from Nosema ceranae infection, they are nevertheless susceptible. We sought to determine whether queens are naturally infected by N. ceranae, as these infections could be a factor in the rapid spread of this parasite. Queens were analyzed using real-time PCR and included larval queens, newly emerged, and older mated queens. Overall, we found that all tissues we examined were infected with N. ceranae at low levels but no samples were infected with Nosema apis. The infection of the ovaries and spermatheca suggests the possibility of vertical transmission of N. ceranae. PMID:22546521

  12. Elongated mandibular coronoid process as a cause of mandibular hypomobility.

    PubMed

    Kursoglu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray

    2006-07-01

    There are multiple factors in cases of mandibular hypomobility. One of these factors is elongated coronoid process. Two cases are presented to illustrate elongated coronoid process leading to mandibular hypomobility to help prevent misdiagnosis by clinicians. Coronoid process elongation is a rare condition. Both cases reported here had pulpitis on the teeth, however endodontic treatment could not be performed due to the restricted mouth opening in both cases. There were clinical findings of restricted range of motion, especially during protrusive movements. The restrictive movements did not cause pain for either patient, and the patients were not aware of their restricted mouth opening. Panoromic radiographs were taken and evaluated. The radiographs showed elongated coronoid process bilaterally. Three-dimensional computerized tomography was taken in one case only, due to the patient's financial restrictions. In cases of restricted mandibular opening, elongated coronoid process must be considered when diagnosing the cause. PMID:16933463

  13. Mandibular reconstruction with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Torroni, Andrea; Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Romandini, Mario; Gasparini, Giulio; Cervelli, Daniele; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-05-01

    Traumas, malformative or dysplastic pathologies, atrophy, osteoradionecrosis, and benign or malignant neoplasm can cause bone deficits in the mandible. Consequent mandibular defects can determine aesthetic and functional problems; therefore, being able to perform a good reconstruction is of critical importance.Several techniques have been proposed for mandibular reconstruction over the years. In this article, we present and discuss the evolution during the time of the methods of mandible reconstruction as well as pros and cons of each procedure on the basis of experience of 10 years in the maxillofacial department of the Catholic University of Sacred Heart of Rome.Free flaps represent the gold standard method of reconstruction of large mandibular defects: the fibula bone flap represents the best choice for large defects involving the arch and the mandibular ramus, whereas the deep circumflex iliac artery represents a valid alternative for mandibular defects involving the posterior region.In cases where free flap reconstructions are contraindicated, the use of regional pedicle flap combined with autologous bone grafts still represents a valid choice. Patients who are not deemed suitable for long and demanding surgery can still be treated using alloplastic materials in association with regional pedicle flap or, when adjuvant radiation therapy is needed, by simple locoregional pedicle flap. Finally, in selected cases, the bone transporting technique should be considered as a valid alternative to the more "traditional" reconstructive methods because of the extraordinary potential and its favorable cost-benefit ratio. PMID:25974797

  14. Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring. PMID:24963375

  15. Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens.

    PubMed

    Glvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring. PMID:24963375

  16. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  17. Pheromonal control: reconciling physiological mechanism with signalling theory.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Elgar, Mark A; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals. They can have profound effects on the behaviour and/or physiology of the receiver, and it is still common to hear pheromones described as controlling of the behaviour of the receiver. The discussion of pheromonal control arose initially from a close association between hormones and pheromones in the comparative physiological literature, but the concept of a controlling pheromone is at odds with contemporary signal evolution theory, which predicts that a manipulative pheromonal signal negatively affecting the receiver's fitness should not be stable over evolutionary time. Here we discuss the meaning of pheromonal control, and the ecological circumstances by which it might be supported. We argue that in discussing pheromonal control it is important to differentiate between control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's physiology (proximate control), and control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's fitness (ultimate control). Critically, a pheromone signal affecting change in the receiver's behaviour or physiology need not necessarily manipulate the fitness of a receiver. In cases where pheromonal signalling does lead to a reduction in the fitness of the receiver, the signalling system would be stable if the pheromone were an honest signal of a social environment that disadvantages the receiver, and the physiological and behavioural changes observed in the receiver were an adaptive response to the new social circumstances communicated by the pheromone. PMID:24925630

  18. PRACTICAL SYNTHESES OF SELECTED INSECT PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Practical examples of insect pheromone synthesis, from our laboratory will be presented. Examples of key reactions in synthetic pathways include: Regiospecific epoxidation (cereal leaf beetle), kinetic vs. thermodynamic control of cycloheptanone dimethylation (Aphthona flea beetles), in situ oxida...

  19. An airborne sex pheromone in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Shine, R.; Mason, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

  20. Pheromones and Pheromone Receptors Are the Primary Determinants of Mating Specificity in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A.; Sprague-Jr, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two haploid cell types, a and ?, each of which produces a unique set of proteins that participate in the mating process. We sought to determine the minimum set of proteins that must be expressed to allow mating and to confer specificity. We show that the capacity to synthesize ?-factor pheromone and a-factor receptor is sufficient to allow mating by mat?1 mutants, mutants that normally do not express any ?- or a-specific products. Likewise, the capacity to synthesize a-factor receptor and ?-factor pheromone is sufficient to allow a ste2 ste6 mutants, which do not produce the normal a cell pheromone and receptor, to mate with wild-type a cells. Thus, the a-factor receptor and ?-factor pheromone constitute the minimum set of ?-specific proteins that must be produced to allow mating as an ? cell. Furthermore, the production of these two proteins dictates the mating specificity exhibited by that cell. Further evidence that the pheromones and pheromone receptors are important determinants of mating specificity comes from studies with mat?2 mutants, cells that simultaneously express both pheromones and both receptors. We created a series of strains that express different combinations of pheromones and receptors in a mat?2 background. These constructions reveal that mat?2 mutants can be made to mate as either a cells or as ? cells by causing them to express only the pheromone and receptor set appropriate for a particular cell type. Moreover, these studies show that the inability of mat?2 mutants to respond to either pheromone is a consequence of two phenomena: adaptation to an autocrine response to the pheromones they secrete and interference with response to ? factor by the a-factor receptor. PMID:2653961

  1. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this lock-and-key tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  2. SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF ORGYIA DETRITA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (Z,Z)-6,9-(S)-11-Heneicosadienol (Z6Z9-11S-o1-C21) and (Z,Z)-6,9-(R)-11-heneicosadienol (Z6Z9-11R-o1-C21) are major sex pheromone components of female tussock moths, Orgyia detrita Guerin-Meneville (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). This conclusion is based on: 1) analyses of pheromone glad extracts of f...

  3. Analysis and evaluation of relative positions of mandibular third molar and mandibular canal impacts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hang-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to categorize the relationships between the mandibular canal and the roots and investigated the prevalence of nerve damage. Materials and Methods Through CBCT images, contact and three-dimensional positional relationships between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were investigated. With this data, prevalence of nerve damage according to the presence of contact and three-dimensional positional relationships was studied. Other factors that affected the prevalence of nerve damage were also investigated. Results When the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were shown to have direct contact in CBCT images, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in other cases. Also, in cases where the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal was vertically at the cervical level of the mandibular third molar, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in opposite cases. The percentage of mandibular canal contact with the roots of the mandibular third molar was higher when the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar. Finally, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher when the diameter of the mandibular canal lumen suddenly decreased at the contact area between the mandibular canal and the roots, as shown in CBCT images. Conclusion The three-dimensional relationship of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal can help predict nerve damage and can guide patient expectations of the possibility and extent of nerve damage. PMID:25551092

  4. Pearls of Mandibular Trauma Management

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, John C.; Feldman, Evan M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular trauma is a common problem seen by plastic surgeons. When fractures occur, they have the ability to affect the patient's occlusion significantly, cause infection, and lead to considerable pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. Physicians determining how to manage these injuries should take into consideration the nature of the injury, background information regarding the patient's health, and the patient's comorbidities. Whereas general principles guide the management of the majority of injuries, special consideration must be paid to the edentulous patient, complex and comminuted fractures, and pediatric patients. These topics are discussed in this article, with a special emphasis on pearls of mandibular trauma management. PMID:22550460

  5. Sliding osteotomies in mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, J; Soler, F; Fernandez-Alba, J; Concejo, C; Acero, J

    2001-04-15

    The aim of this article is to describe a few simple and atraumatic methods for mandibular reconstruction following the ablation of tumors or traumas. These reconstruction techniques are indicated for rebuilding short mandibular defects (less than 4 cm) or for patients in poor general condition with larger defects that cannot be remedied using longer and more complicated procedures. Five types of osteotomies were used: "C," single, double, bilateral sliding, and sagittal sliding. Osteotomies were performed on 14 patients, 13 with malignant tumors and one with a gunshot wound. Good results were obtained in 10 patients, total failure occurred in two, and complications without failure of the reconstruction arose in the other two. PMID:11373549

  6. Pregnancy in a unilaterally ovariohysterectomised queen.

    PubMed

    Jurka, Piotr; Kacprzak, Kamil J; Degórska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    A 4-year-old female Russian Blue cat presented with signs of right-sided abdominal distension, anorexia and a mucoid vaginal discharge. On the basis of clinical and ultrasonographical findings a tentative diagnosis of uterine torsion was made. Exploratory coeliotomy revealed a 900º right uterine torsion along the longitudinal axis. Unilateral ovariohysterectomy was performed. Subsequently, the cat had two successful and uneventful pregnancies. To our knowledge this is the first case report of pregnancy in a unilaterally ovariohysterectomised queen. PMID:25414240

  7. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Aditi; Manjunatha, Bhari Shranesha; Dholia, Bhavik; Althomali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66%) in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824%) only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94%) in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%). In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person. PMID:26816466

  8. Mandibular desmoplastic ameloblastoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Junior, Rui; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; Correia, Andreza Veruska Lira; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leao, Jair Carneiro; de Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa

    2012-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a tumor characterized by unique clinical, radiological, and histopathologic features, mostly an abundance of densely collagenous stroma with small nests and islands of odontogenic epithelium. Due to its aggressive, highly invasive nature, there is a tendency to treat DA with bone resection. This article reports and discusses an uncommon case of mandibular DA, focusing on the importance of early, effective treatment. PMID:22414514

  9. 21 CFR 872.4770 - Temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device that is intended to stabilize mandibular bone and provide for temporary reconstruction of the... surgical procedures requiring removal of the mandibular condyle and mandibular bone. This device is...

  10. Neuropeptide-mediated stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in an ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones are well known to initiate behavioral or physiological responses in members of the same species. The chemistry and behaviors elicited by pheromones have advanced tremendously in the 50+ years since the first pheromone identification from the silkworm moth. However, the regulation of phero...

  11. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Card, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  12. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  13. Pheromones in the life of insects.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Ingolf; Schmolz, Erik; Schricker, Burkhard

    2008-09-01

    Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety of tasks. The paper deals mainly with honeybee pheromones, but takes also into consideration those of wasps and hornets. Effects of pheromones are monitored ethologically by direct observation and filming as well as in a more quantitative manner with using direct and indirect calorimetry. In all experimental set-ups alarm pheromones were used as controls. They show an up to fourfold increase of activity after a few seconds, determined for small groups of insects as well as for a whole hornet nest placed in a 25-l calorimeter. A variety of cosmetics like soaps, shampoos, lotions and perfumes are included in the investigations because of repeated reports about unwarranted insect attacks which are said to be provoked by such products. None of the applied substances provoked a significant reaction of the bees (p > 0.05). A short appendix discusses the still questionable existence of pheromones in man, which were confirmed under laboratory conditions, but not yet for daily life. PMID:18214464

  14. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  15. NEST ODOR CHANGES FOLLOWING QUEEN LOSS IN APIS MELLIFERA L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript investigates the effects of queen loss on the nest odor of honey bee colonies. I sampled the nest odor (using solid-phase microextraction fibers which were then injected into a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer) of 15 colonies immediately after removing their queens a...

  16. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females. PMID:21661306

  17. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  18. ACTIVATED ZINC REDUCTION OF ENYNES TO CONJUGATED DIENE LEPIDOPTERA PHEROMONES, AND FIELD CAPTURE OF SIBERIAN MOTHS WITH SYNTHETIC PHEROMONE MIXTURES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Efficient syntheses of (Z,E)-5,7-dodecadienol, a pheromone component of the Siberian moth, Dendrolimus superans sibiricus, and (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol, a pheromone component of various Lepidopteran pheromones, were accomplished by cis-reduction of the corresponding enynols with activate...

  19. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84 %) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

  20. Pheromones: a new ergogenic aid in sport?

    PubMed

    Papaloucas, Marios; Kyriazi, Kyriaki; Kouloulias, Vassilis

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WADA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body's performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete's performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports. PMID:25710097

  1. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

  2. Giant osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, MR Muthu; Loganathan, S

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondroma or osteocartilaginous exostosis is an exophytic lesion that arises from the cortex of the bone and is cartilage-capped. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. The following is a case report of an osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle removed via extended preauricular approach to the temporomandibular joint.

  3. Pediatric Mandibular Fractures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Vashistha, Abhishek; Chugh, Ankita; Kumar, Dinesh; Bihani, Urvashi; Trehan, Mridula; Nigam, Anant G

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of craniomaxillofacial fractures seen in children and adolescents varies with evolving skeletal anatomy and socioenvironmental factors. The general principles of treating mandibular fractures are the same in children and adults: Anatomic reduction is combined with stabilization adequate to maintain it until bone union has occurred. But recognition of some of the differences between children and their adult counterparts is important in long-term esthetic and functional facial rehabilitation as effect of injury, treatment provided has a great influence on their ensuing growth. PMID:25206104

  4. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    PubMed

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases. PMID:25881386

  5. A Review of Mandibular Angle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ramiro; Oeltjen, John C.; Thaller, Seth R.

    2011-01-01

    After studying this article, the reader will be able to: (1) review the incidence and etiology of mandibular angle fractures; (2) gain an understanding of patient evaluation and general management principles; and (3) discuss indications and available techniques for management of mandibular angle fractures. Angle fractures represent the highest percentage of mandibular fractures. Two of the most common causes of mandibular angle fractures are motor vehicle accidents and assaults or altercations. With any patient who has sustained facial trauma, a thorough history and comprehensive physical examination centering on the head and neck region as well as proper radiological assessment are essential. These elements are fundamental in establishing a diagnosis and developing an appropriate treatment plan for any mandibular fracture. PMID:22655117

  6. Sex pheromones in mate assessment: analysis of nutrient cost of sex pheromone production by females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G

    2015-04-15

    It has been postulated that sex pheromones, in addition to their role in mate recognition and/or finding, may also serve a role in assessment of mate quality. For this, a sex pheromone must give honest information about a signaler's quality, with honesty ensured by a direct metabolic or indirect fitness cost to the signaler. Using a stable isotope tracer-tracee method, we characterized the nutrient pools that fuel sex pheromone production in females of the moth Heliothis virescens, as well as the relative importance of larval- and adult-acquired nutrients to this process. Females used three pools for de novo biosynthesis of sex pheromone, hemolymph trehalose, glycogen (via trehalose) and fat, and produced ca. 25% of pheromone directly from stored (previously synthesized) precursor fatty acids. Pheromone was produced roughly equally from carbohydrate and fat. Adult feeding was very important for pheromone biosynthesis, with a maximum of 65% of de novo biosynthesized pheromone produced from a single adult feed (carbohydrate). Although these nutrient pools are shared with other reproductive physiologies, notably oocyte production, it is unlikely that pheromone production imposes a significant metabolic cost on females, because (i) the amount of nutrients used for pheromone production is negligible compared with that available, (ii) the hemolymph trehalose pool is readily replaceable throughout the adult life, and (iii) in mated females, carbohydrate shortages result in reduced allocation to pheromone. PMID:25722008

  7. Estimation of bumblebee queen dispersal distances using sibship reconstruction method.

    PubMed

    Lepais, Olivier; Darvill, Ben; O'Connor, Stephanie; Osborne, Juliet L; Sanderson, Roy A; Cussans, John; Goffe, Louis; Goulson, Dave

    2010-02-01

    Dispersal ability is a key determinant of the propensity of an organism to cope with habitat fragmentation and climate change. Here we quantify queen dispersal in two common bumblebee species in an arable landscape. Dispersal was measured by taking DNA samples from workers in the spring and summer, and from queens in the following spring, at 14 sites across a landscape. The queens captured in the spring must be full sisters of workers that were foraging in the previous year. A range of sibship reconstruction methods were compared using simulated data sets including or no genotyping errors. The program Colony gave the most accurate reconstruction and was used for our analysis of queen dispersal. Comparison of queen dispersion with worker foraging distances was used to take into account an expected low level of false identification of sister pairs which might otherwise lead to overestimates of dispersal. Our data show that Bombus pascuorum and B. lapidarius queens can disperse by at least 3 and 5 km, respectively. These estimates are consistent with inferences drawn from studies of population structuring in common and rare bumblebee species, and suggest that regular gene flow over several kilometres due to queen dispersal are likely to be sufficient to maintain genetic cohesion of ubiquitous species over large spatial scales whereas rare bumblebee species appear unable to regularly disperse over distances greater than 10 km. Our results have clear implications for conservation strategies for this important pollinator group, particularly when attempting to conserve fragmented populations. PMID:20089127

  8. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  9. Ultrasensitive pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons.

    PubMed

    Leinders-Zufall, T; Lane, A P; Puche, A C; Ma, W; Novotny, M V; Shipley, M T; Zufall, F

    2000-06-15

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemoreceptive organ that is thought to transduce pheromones into electrical responses that regulate sexual, hormonal and reproductive function in mammals. The characteristics of pheromone signal detection by vomeronasal neurons remain unclear. Here we use a mouse VNO slice preparation to show that six putative pheromones evoke excitatory responses in single vomeronasal neurons, leading to action potential generation and elevated calcium entry. The detection threshold for some of these chemicals is remarkably low, near 10(-11) M, placing these neurons among the most sensitive chemodetectors in mammals. Using confocal calcium imaging, we map the epithelial representation of the pheromones to show that each of the ligands activates a unique, nonoverlapping subset of vomeronasal neurons located in apical zones of the epithelium. These neurons show highly selective tuning properties and their tuning curves do not broaden with increasing concentrations of ligand, unlike those of receptor neurons in the main olfactory epithelium. These findings provide a basis for understanding chemical signals that regulate mammalian communication and sexual behaviour. PMID:10866200

  10. Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:22016844

  11. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  12. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  13. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insects olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this lock-and-key tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  14. Histological Estimates of Ovariole Number in Honey Bee Queens, Apis mellifera, Reveal Lack of Correlation with other Queen Quality Measures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeffrey T.; Tarpy, David R.; Fahrbach, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Published estimates of the number of ovarioles found in the ovaries of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens range from 100 to 180 per ovary. Within the context of a large-scale study designed to assay the overall quality of queens obtained from various commercial sources, a simple histology-based method for accurate determination of ovariole number was developed and then applied to a sample of 75 queens. Although all 10 commercial sources evaluated provided queens with ovariole numbers within the expected range, ovariole number was found to vary significantly across sources. Overall, and within most of the individual samples, there was no correlation of ovariole number with other morphological attributes such as thoracic width, wing length, or wet weight. Queens from two of the sources, however, displayed a significant negative relationship between wet weight and ovariole number. This study provides baseline data on ovariole number in commercial honey bee queens in the United States at a time when honey bee populations are declining; the method described can be used in studies relating ovariole number in queens to egg production and behavior. PMID:21870968

  15. Malemale pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Bjrn G

    2005-01-01

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from malefemale, as compared to malemale signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from malemale signalling. PMID:16608691

  16. Multiple functions of fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, mandibular gland products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continu...

  17. Social Modulation of Stress Reactivity and Learning in Young Worker Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval. PMID:25470128

  18. Immediate mandibular distraction in mandibular hypoplasia and upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Schoemann, Mark B; Burstein, Fernando D; Bakthavachalam, Sivi; Williams, Joseph K

    2012-11-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible has become an alternative to tracheostomy in infants and children who present with upper airway obstruction due to micrognathia. To avoid prolonged intubation during distraction, we have implemented a protocol of immediate distraction at the time of distractor placement, which results in acute airway improvement. Over 2 years, 22 patients with micrognathia and severe airway obstruction have undergone mandibular distractor placement. Indications for surgery were apnea and desaturations with feeding. Resorbable distraction devices were placed bilaterally and activated to 5 to 8 mm. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 was placed in the gap. Distraction was implemented at postoperative day 2 at 2 mm/d. Forty-four distraction devices were placed in 22 patients (68% male, 32% female) with a mean age of 24.1 months (range, 3 days to 5.5 years). The average distance of distraction performed in the operating room was 5 mm. The average total distraction was 24 mm performed over 12 days. Overall, 89% of patients were extubated after distractor placement in the operating room. Two patients with difficult intubations were extubated 7 days later in the operating room with otolaryngology. Of the 4 tracheostomy patients, 1 patient was decannulated, whereas 3 patients are pending postoperative sleep studies. One patient had a minor wound complication. Tracheostomy and prolonged intubation in patients with mandibular hypoplasia have significant morbidity and mortality. We have implemented a successful protocol of immediate distraction in the operating room with placement of bone morphogenetic protein. Immediate distraction appears to be an effective method of avoiding postoperative intubation and tracheostomy. PMID:23154361

  19. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY AGENCY: Federal Highway... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Bridge Rehabilitation and Interchange Improvements Project... considered will not have a significant impact on the environment. To address these bridge conditions,...

  20. 1. SUNNYSIDE YARDS. LONG ISLAND CITY, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUNNYSIDE YARDS. LONG ISLAND CITY, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 1411, MP 3.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  1. 2. SUNNYSIDE YARDS. LONG ISLAND CITY, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SUNNYSIDE YARDS. LONG ISLAND CITY, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 1411, MP 3.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  2. Terminal Investment: Individual Reproduction of Ant Queens Increases with Age

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Jürgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1]), but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens. PMID:22509399

  3. Targeted disruption of a single sex pheromone receptor gene completely abolishes in vivo pheromone response in the silkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Mikami, Akihisa; Uchino, Keiro; Tabuchi, Masashi; Zhang, Feng; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    Male moths use species-specific sex pheromones to identify and orientate toward conspecific females. Odorant receptors (ORs) for sex pheromone substances have been identified as sex pheromone receptors in various moth species. However, direct in vivo evidence linking the functional role of these ORs with behavioural responses is lacking. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, female moths emit two sex pheromone components, bombykol and bombykal, but only bombykol elicits sexual behaviour in male moths. A sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 is specifically tuned to bombykol and is expressed in specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the pheromone sensitive long sensilla trichodea of male silkmoth antennae. Here, we show that disruption of the BmOR1 gene, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), completely removes ORN sensitivity to bombykol and corresponding pheromone-source searching behaviour in male moths. Furthermore, transgenic rescue of BmOR1 restored normal behavioural responses to bombykol. Our results demonstrate that BmOR1 is required for the physiological and behavioural response to bombykol, demonstrating that it is the receptor that mediates sex pheromone responses in male silkmoths. This study provides the first direct evidence that a member of the sex pheromone receptor family in moth species mediates conspecific sex pheromone information for sexual behaviour. PMID:26047360

  4. Viruses Associated with Ovarian Degeneration in Apis mellifera L. Queens

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Laurent; Ravallec, Marc; Tournaire, Magali; Cousserans, François; Bergoin, Max; Dainat, Benjamin; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2011-01-01

    Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1) sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1) than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively). Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology. PMID:21283547

  5. Queen attractivity in the Argentine ant Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr).

    PubMed

    Cariou-Etienne, A; Aron, S; Passera, L

    1992-01-01

    The origin of queen attractivity in the Argentine ant was estimated by presenting body parts (head, thorax, abdomen) of dead queens to workers. Whatever the preparation, crushed or intact, the thorax was always significantly more attractive than other parts of the body. The legs seemed to be highly attractive to the workers, mainly through lactile stimuli. The results are discussed with regards to the occurrence of thoracic glands. PMID:24924611

  6. Asexual queen succession in the higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus.

    PubMed

    Fougeyrollas, Romain; Dolejšová, Klára; Sillam-Dussès, David; Roy, Virginie; Poteaux, Chantal; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Yves

    2015-06-22

    Asexual queen succession (AQS), in which workers, soldiers and dispersing reproductives are produced sexually while numerous non-dispersing queens arise through thelytokous parthenogenesis, has recently been described in three species of lower termites of the genus Reticulitermes. Here, we show that AQS is not an oddity restricted to a single genus of lower termites, but a more widespread strategy occurring also in the most advanced termite group, the higher termites (Termitidae). We analysed the genetic structure in 10 colonies of the Neotropical higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus (Syntermitinae) using five newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci. The colonies contained one primary king accompanied either by a single primary queen or by up to almost 200 neotenic queens. While the workers, the soldiers and most future dispersing reproductives were produced sexually, the non-dispersing neotenic queens originated through thelytokous parthenogenesis of the founding primary queen. Surprisingly, the mode of thelytoky observed in E. neotenicus is most probably automixis with central fusion, contrasting with the automixis with terminal fusion documented in Reticulitermes. The occurrence of AQS based on different mechanisms of ploidy restoration raises the hypothesis of an independent evolutionary origin of this unique reproductive strategy in individual lineages of lower and higher termites. PMID:26019158

  7. Does Patriline Composition Change over a Honey Bee Queen's Lifetime?

    PubMed

    Brodschneider, Robert; Arnold, Grard; Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A honey bee queen mates with a number of drones a few days after she emerges as an adult. Spermatozoa of different drones are stored in her spermatheca and used for the rest of the queen's life to fertilize eggs. Sperm usage is thought to be random, so that the patriline distribution within a honey bee colony would remain constant over time. In this study we assigned the progeny of a naturally mated honey bee queen to patrilines using microsatellite markers at the queen's age of two, three and four years. No significant changes in patriline distribution occurred within each of two foraging seasons, with samples taken one and five months apart, respectively. Overall and pair-wise comparisons between the three analyzed years reached significant levels. Over the three-year period we found a trend for patrilines to become more equally represented with time. It is important to note that this study was performed with a single queen, and thus individual and population variation in sperm usage patterns must be assessed. We discuss long-term changes in patriline composition due to mixing processes in the queen's spermatheca, following incomplete mixing of different drones' sperm after mating. PMID:26466632

  8. Pheromones in a superorganism: from gene to social regulation.

    PubMed

    Alaux, C; Maisonnasse, A; Le Conte, Y

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the importance of hormones in controlling organism homoeostasis, pheromones play a major role in the regulation of group homoeostasis at the social level. In social insects, pheromones coordinate the association of "unitary" organisms into a coherent social unit or so called "superorganism." For many years, honey bees have been a convincing model for studying pheromone regulation of social life. In addition, with the recent sequencing of its genome, a global view of pheromone communication is starting to emerge, and it is now possible to decipher this complex chemical language from the molecular to the social level. We review here the different pheromones regulating the main biological functions of the superorganism and detail their respective action on the genome, physiology and behavior of nestmates. Finally, we suggest some future research that may improve our understanding of the remarkably rich syntax of pheromone communication at the social level. PMID:20831956

  9. New Therapeutics in Promoting and Modulating Mandibular Growth in Cases with Mandibular Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Alhadlaq, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Children with mandibular growth deficiency may develop airway obstruction. The standard treatment of severe airway obstruction involves invasive procedures such as tracheostomy. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been proposed in neonates with mandibular deficiency as a treatment option to avoid tracheostomy procedure later in life. Both tracheostomy and distraction osteogenesis procedures suffer from substantial shortcomings including scarring, unpredictability, and surgical complications. Forward jaw positioning appliances have been also used to enhance mandible growth. However, the effectiveness of these appliances is limited and lacks predictability. Current and future approaches to enhance mandibular growth, both experimental and clinical trials, and their effectiveness are presented and discussed. PMID:23819121

  10. Treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; PRATS-GOLCZER, VICTORIA; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, LUIS-MIGUEL; BELMONTE-CARO, RODOLFO; MARTINEZ-DE-FUENTES, RAFAEL; TORRES-CARRANZA, EUSEBIO; GACTO-SANCHEZ, PURIFICACION; GOMEZ-CIA, TOMAS

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor with a high rate of recurrence in the long term. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with mandibular ameloblastoma in order to evaluate recurrent ameloblastoma management. The study included data from 31 patients over a period of 10 years. Data collected included age, gender, tumor location, histological findings, initial treatment, number of recurrences and year of onset, type of treatment of recurrence, reconstruction and follow-up. Recurrences were detected in nine patients (29%). Tumor recurrences appeared at 32 months on average following the initial surgical procedure. Recurrences were associated mainly to inadequate initial therapeutic approach and were treated by bone resection with a safety margin of at least 1 cm beyond the radiographically visible margins. Immediate reconstruction of bone defects was performed with grafts or free flaps. PMID:24137230

  11. Pheromone antagonism in the European corn borer moth Ostrinia nubilalis.

    PubMed

    Gemeno, César; Sans, Albert; López, Carmen; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2006-05-01

    Mixing the sex pheromones of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, results in significantly lower captures of O. nubilalis when compared to traps loaded with its pheromone alone. Rubber septa loaded with a constant concentration of the pheromone of O. nubilalis and different percentages of the S. nonagrioides pheromone (from 1 to 100%) causes dose-dependent antagonism in the field. Electroantennograms of O. nubilalis males showed high antennal responses to its own pheromone components, followed by smaller responses to the major, [(Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac)], and two minor components [dodecyl acetate (12:Ac) and (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald)] of the S. nonagrioides pheromone. There was almost no response to the S. nonagrioides minor component (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH). Field tests that used traps baited with the O. nubilalis pheromone plus individual components of S. nonagrioides showed that Z11-16:Ald causes the antagonism. Adding 1% Z11-16:Ald to the pheromone of O. nubilalis reduced oriented flight and pheromone source contact in the wind tunnel by 26% and 83%, respectively, and trap captures in the field by 90%. The other three pheromone components of S. nonagrioides inhibited pheromone source contact but not oriented flight of O. nubilalis males and did not inhibit capture in the field. Cross-adaptation electroantennogram suggests that Z11-16:Ald stimulates a different odor receptor neuron than the pheromone components of O. nubilalis. We conclude that Z11-16:Ald is a potent antagonist of the behavioral response of O. nubilalis. PMID:16739024

  12. Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Wei; Leal, Walter S.

    2008-08-08

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

  13. Eddies off the Queen Charlotte Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The bright red, green, and turquoise patches to the west of British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska's Alexander Archipelago highlight the presence of biological activity in the ocean. These colors indicate high concentrations of chlorophyll, the primary pigment found in phytoplankton. Notice that there are a number of eddies visible in the Pacific Ocean in this pseudo-color scene. The eddies are formed by strong outflow currents from rivers along North America's west coast that are rich in nutrients from the springtime snowmelt running off the mountains. This nutrient-rich water helps stimulate the phytoplankton blooms within the eddies. (For more details, read Tracking Eddies that Feed the Sea.) To the west of the eddies in the water, another type of eddy-this one in the atmosphere-forms the clouds into the counterclockwise spiral characteristic of a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere. (Click on the image above to see it at full resolution; or click to see the scene in true-color.) The snow-covered mountains of British Columbia are visible in the upper righthand corner of the image. This scene was constructed using SeaWiFS data collected on June 13, 2002. SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. The Trail Pheromone of the Venomous Samsum Ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis

    PubMed Central

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; AlAbdullah, Mosa Abdullah; AlKhalifa, Mohamed Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own. PMID:21529253

  15. Virgin honeybee queens fail to suppress worker fertility but not fertility signalling.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Margarita; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham

    2013-03-01

    Queen mating status in social insects is a matter of crucial importance for workers because of its influence on the queen's productivity and consequently their fitness. Behavioural and physiological reactions of workers to the queens mating status have been studied as a proxy to mechanisms maintaining insect sociality. Here we show that unmated honeybee queens have considerably impaired capacity to trigger worker sterility and cooperative behaviour in comparison to mated (and thus more productive) queens and that under unmated queens social harmony in honeybee societies and queen's dominant position are somewhat compromised. Together with this it is shown that honeybee workers exposed to unmated queens despite being active reproductively and behaving accordingly display an impaired ability to advertise their fertility compared to queenless workers. These findings suggest that reproductive development, behavioural reactions and production of fertility signals are differentially regulated and differently influenced by the queen's presence. PMID:23232436

  16. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Paryab, Mehrsa; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in children with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergoing orthodontic treatment, were selected based on inclusion criteria, skeletal occlusion and stage of dental development. The radiographs were divided into two groups: I: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with normal skeletal occlusion (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages); II: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with mandibular retrognathism (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages). The radiographs were traced and the linear distance from the mandibular foramen to the borders of the mandibular ramus and its angular position were identified. The measurements were compared between the two groups and among the four dental age groups by t-test, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. No statistically significant differences werefound between the patients with normal skeletal occlusion and patients with mandibular retrognathism (P>0.05). Statistical tests showed significant differences in the vertical location of mandibular foramen and gonial angle between the four dental age groups (P<0.05). Conclusion. Mandibular retrognathism does not have a significant impact on the location of the mandibular foramen in the mixed dentition period. The childs dental age would be considered in the localization of the mandibular foramen. PMID:26236430

  17. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system. PMID:25840687

  18. Basidiomycete mating type genes and pheromone signaling.

    PubMed

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-06-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  19. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ? 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  20. The Red Queen lives: Epistasis between linked resistance loci.

    PubMed

    Metzger, César M J A; Luijckx, Pepijn; Bento, Gilberto; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    A popular theory explaining the maintenance of genetic recombination (sex) is the Red Queen Theory. This theory revolves around the idea that time-lagged negative frequency-dependent selection by parasites favors rare host genotypes generated through recombination. Although the Red Queen has been studied for decades, one of its key assumptions has remained unsupported. The signature host-parasite specificity underlying the Red Queen, where infection depends on a match between host and parasite genotypes, relies on epistasis between linked resistance loci for which no empirical evidence exists. We performed 13 genetic crosses and tested over 7000 Daphnia magna genotypes for resistance to two strains of the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. Results reveal the presence of strong epistasis between three closely linked resistance loci. One locus masks the expression of the other two, while these two interact to produce a single resistance phenotype. Changing a single allele on one of these interacting loci can reverse resistance against the tested parasites. Such a genetic mechanism is consistent with host and parasite specificity assumed by the Red Queen Theory. These results thus provide evidence for a fundamental assumption of this theory and provide a genetic basis for understanding the Red Queen dynamics in the Daphnia-Pasteuria system. PMID:26763092

  1. Presence of Nosema ceranae associated with honeybee queen introductions.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Irene; Cepero, Almudena; Pinto, Maria Alice; Martn-Hernndez, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; De la Ra, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Microsporidiosis caused by Nosema species is one of the factors threatening the health of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), which is an essential element in agriculture mainly due to its pollination function. The dispersion of this pathogen may be influenced by many factors, including various aspects of beekeeping management such as introduction of queens with different origin. Herein we study the relation of the presence and distribution of Nosema spp. and the replacement of queens in honeybee populations settled on the Atlantic Canary Islands. While Nosema apis has not been detected, an increase of the presence and distribution of Nosema ceranae during the last decade has been observed in parallel with a higher frequency of foreign queens. On the other hand, a reduction of the number of N. ceranae positive colonies was observed on those islands with continued replacement of queens. We suggest that such replacement could help maintaining low rates of Nosema infection, but healthy queens native to these islands should be used in order to conserve local honeybee diversity. PMID:24568841

  2. Venom alkaloid and cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are associated with social organization, queen fertility status, and queen genotype in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G; Haight, Kevin L; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jrgen

    2011-11-01

    Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers' attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype. PMID:22095515

  3. Venom Alkaloid and Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles Are Associated with Social Organization, Queen Fertility Status, and Queen Genotype in the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta

    PubMed Central

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G.; Haight, Kevin L.; Keller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers’ attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype. PMID:22095515

  4. The value of oviposition timing, queen presence and kinship in a social insect

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Martina; Helanter, Heikki; Sundstrm, Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive cooperation confers benefits, but simultaneously creates conflicts among cooperators. Queens in multi-queen colonies of ants share a nest and its resources, but reproductive competition among queens often results in unequal reproduction. Two mutually non-exclusive factors may produce such inequality in reproduction: worker intervention or queen traits. Workers may intervene by favouring some queens over others, owing to either kinship or queen signals. Queens may differ in their intrinsic fecundity at the onset of oviposition or in their timing of the onset of oviposition, leading to their unequal representation in the brood. Here, we test the role of queen kin value (relatedness) to workers, timing of the onset of oviposition and signals of presence by queens in determining the maternity of offspring. We show that queens of the ant Formica fusca gained a significantly higher proportion of sexuals in the brood when ovipositing early, and that the presence of a caged queen resulted in a significant increase in both her share of sexual brood and her overall reproductive share. Moreover, the lower the kin value of the queen, the more the workers invested in their own reproduction by producing males. Our results show that both kinship and breeding phenology influence the outcome of reproductive conflicts, and the balance of direct and indirect fitness benefits in the multi-queen colonies of F. fusca. PMID:23843391

  5. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors in both adult and immature stages. Multiple pheromones and neural pathways that underlie adult social behavior have been described in the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, but there is no...

  6. Evolution of mating pheromone and receptor genes in Pucciniomycotina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating pheromones and their receptors act as a switch controlling phenotypic changes required for successful mating in fungi. Although basidiomycete mating pheromones and their processing were first described in Rhodosporidium toruloides a red yeast in the Sporidiobolales, the receptor gene was ne...

  7. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  8. Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

  9. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed. PMID:11944826

  10. Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that the abdomen and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and for the first time describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD...

  11. ANTENNAL FEEDBACK LOOP REGULATES PHEROMONE RELEASE IN BEETLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of pheromone release is critical for intraspecific communication and avoidance of predators release is critical for intraspecific communication and avoidance of predators or parasites dependent on such messages. Pheromone production is under endocrine control in insects (1,2). However, ...

  12. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

  13. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  14. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  15. Self Assessment in Insects: Honeybee Queens Know Their Own Strength

    PubMed Central

    Hepburn, Colleen; Hepburn, H. Randall; Jin, Shui-Hua; Crewe, Robin M.; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hu, Fu-Liang; Pirk, Christian W. W.

    2008-01-01

    Contests mediate access to reproductive opportunities in almost all species of animals. An important aspect of the evolution of contests is the reduction of the costs incurred during intra-specific encounters to a minimum. However, escalated fights are commonly lethal in some species like the honeybee, Apis mellifera. By experimentally reducing honeybee queens' fighting abilities, we demonstrate that they refrain from engaging in lethal contests that typically characterize their reproductive dominance behavior and coexist peacefully within a colony. This suggests that weak queens exploit an alternative reproductive strategy and provides an explanation for rare occurrences of queen cohabitation in nature. Our results further indicate that self-assessment, but not mutual assessment of fighting ability occurs prior to and during the agonistic encounters. PMID:18183293

  16. How many gamergates is an ant queen worth?

    PubMed

    Monnin, Thibaud; Peeters, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Ant reproductives exhibit different morphological adaptations linked to dispersal and fertility. By reviewing the literature on taxa where workers can reproduce sexually (i.e. become gamergates) we show that (1) species with a single gamergate generally have lost the winged queen caste, whereas only half of the species with several gamergates have, and (2) single-gamergate species have smaller colonies than multiple-gamergate species. Comparison with "classical" ants without gamergates, where having one vs having several winged queens are two distinct syndromes, suggests that having one vs having several gamergates are not. Gamergate number does not affect the success of colony fission, but retention of the queen caste permits the option of independent foundation. PMID:17721700

  17. How many gamergates is an ant queen worth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, Thibaud; Peeters, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Ant reproductives exhibit different morphological adaptations linked to dispersal and fertility. By reviewing the literature on taxa where workers can reproduce sexually (i.e. become gamergates) we show that (1) species with a single gamergate generally have lost the winged queen caste, whereas only half of the species with several gamergates have, and (2) single-gamergate species have smaller colonies than multiple-gamergate species. Comparison with classical ants without gamergates, where having one vs having several winged queens are two distinct syndromes, suggests that having one vs having several gamergates are not. Gamergate number does not affect the success of colony fission, but retention of the queen caste permits the option of independent foundation.

  18. [Cervical vertebrae: Mandibular growth dynamism indicators?].

    PubMed

    Raberin, Monique; Cozor, Ilinca; Gobert-Jacquart, Stéphanie

    2012-03-01

    A study of mandibular growth maturation was performed on a population of 103 patients during orthodontic treatment (69 girls and 34 boys) from 11 to 16 years, having initially a Class II skeletal discrepancy. The relationship between wrist maturation indices and the cervical vertebrae maturation was studied by Lamparski classification. Significant correlations were found between Björk stages, MP3=, MP3 cap and MP3 U and respectively Lamparski stages as CVS 2, CVS 3-4 and CVS 5-6. This retrospective longitudinal study identified three mandibular variables at three different maturation stages according to Björk classification and to the six stages of Lamparski classification. The relationships between these different maturation stages and a quantitative mandibular response permit to estimate optimal time for our orthodontic therapy. The results indicate a significant increase in mandibular length between CVS 4 and CVS 5, suggesting the persistence of a condylar response to a stimulation therapy after CVS3 or CVS 4 stages (MP3 cap). Mandibular growth seems to continue after MP3 U stage or CVS 5 stage. PMID:22455650

  19. Etiology, treatment, and complications of mandibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Munante-Cardenas, Jose Luis; Facchina Nunes, Paulo Henrique; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate some epidemiological characteristics, surgical treatment methods, and complications of cases involving mandibular fractures. Records from 119 patients treated for mandibular fractures between January 2006 and December 2011 were analyzed. We find mandibular fractures mostly affect Caucasian (72.2%) men (80.7%). The mean age of the patients was 28.1 years. Road traffic accidents (RTA) caused the most fractures (49.5%), followed by physical violence, including gunshot wounds (21%). Motorcycle accidents were the most common cause of RTA (76.2%). The most affected mandibular regions were the parasymphysis (26.9%) and the mandible angle (25.1%). Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments were applied (90.4% and 9.6%, respectively). The most common surgical approach was the intraoral (64.9%), using the 2.0-mm fixation system (88.0%). Complications such as postoperative infections, malocclusion, and paresthesia occurred in 36 patients (30.2%). This research revealed interesting features about the etiology of mandibular fractures that were mostly associated with RTA. Severity of the trauma and noncompliance of the patients were factors that contributed to the development of postoperative complications. PMID:25643329

  20. Mandibular osteonecrosis due to bisphosphonate use

    PubMed Central

    ?alvarc?, Ahmet; Alt?nay, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Due to their efficient osteoclastic inhibitor effect in bone metabolism and antiangiogenic activity, bisphosphonates are widely used in many cancer diseases particularly in prostate cancers with bone metastasis, lung cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma, as well as in systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, Paget disease and osteogenesis imperfect for the last 13 years. Prostate cancer is a common cancer in males and it is the leading cause of bone metastasis. Mandibular metastasis is rarely encountered during the course of prostate cancer. Mandibular osteonecrosis as well has begun to be observed along with the availability of more efficient and stronger formulations developed following the use of bisphosphonates. Zolendronic acid, which has been used also by our patient, has widely come into practice as a 3rd generation bisphosphonate. Because of prostate cancer and widespread bone metastases, our patient has been receiving zolendronic acid with maximum androgen blockage for 4 years. Tomography of the patient, who has undergone intensive treatment because of submandibular abscess, demonstrated extensive osteonecrosis in the fovea sublingual region of the mandible corpus. In large series, although, mandibular osteonecrosis was widely seen due to bisphosphonate use for the metastases of lung and breast cancers, this rate was between 9.6% and 11% for prostate cancer within the series. Although our patient had no mandibular metastasis before, mandibular necrosis was observed due to long-term bisphosphonate use. We are going to present our patient who had this rare complication with his clinical picture. PMID:26328198

  1. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the...

  4. Rotational Distraction for the Treatment of Severe Mandibular Retrognathia

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Masaharu; Alcalde, Rafael E.; Yano, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Noriko; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: The main problem with intraoral distraction of the mandible is the inability to achieve the three-dimensional mandibular correction as planned preoperatively. We developed a technique that allows spontaneous changes in the direction of mandibular elongation using an intraoral distractor. Methods: After mandibular osteotomy, the distractor is fixed to the distal segment of the mandible using a single bicortical screw, allowing anterior-posterior, vertical and limited lateromedial changes in the vector of distraction. Mandibular lengthening is performed while keeping the maxilla and mandible in class I occlusion with intermaxillary fixation. Results: As the distraction device is activated allowing mandibular elongation, the proximal segment, guided by the surrounding soft tissues, moves and rotates posterosuperiorly. Mandibular lengthening is continued until the condylar head reaches an adequate position in the mandibular fossa as confirmed clinically and radiographically. Conclusion Thirty-three patients with mandibular retrognathia received this treatment and good results were obtained. PMID:26301156

  5. Turbidity-current channels in Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Powell, R.D.; Rearic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Queen Inlet is unique among Glacier Bay fjords because it alone has a branching channel system incised in the Holocene sediment fill of the fjord floor. Queen Inlet and other known channel-containing fjords are marine-outwash fjords; the tidewater glacial fjords do not have steep delta fronts on which slides are generated and may not have a sufficient reservoir of potentially unstable coarse sediment to generate channel-cutting turbidity currents. Presence or absence of channels, as revealed in the ancient rock record, may be one criterion for interpreting types of fjords. -Authors

  6. Long Term Stability and Relapse Following Mandibular Advancement and Mandibular Setback Surgeries: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Darshan, S Vinay; Ronad, Yusuf Ahammed; Kishore, M S V; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Rajesh, M; Suman, S D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the long-term hard and soft tissue changes following mandibular advancement and setback surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 subjects each were selected who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy mandibular advancement and mandibular setback groups. Pre-surgical (T1), immediate post-surgical (T2) and long-term post-surgical (T3) cephalograms were compared for hard and soft tissue changes. After cephalometric measurements, the quantity of changes between T1-T2 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2 and T1-T3 was compared with assess the long-term changes and stability. Results: In mandibular advancement the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long term post-surgical is 7%, which accounts for a relapse of 7%. In mandibular setback, the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long-term post-surgical is 29%, which accounts for a relapse of 29%. Conclusion: Mandibular advancement remained stable over the long period when compared to mandibular setback. PMID:25395792

  7. A new technique for mandibular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Puricelli, Edela

    2007-01-01

    Sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) is a surgical technique largely employed for mandibular mobilizations in orthognatic procedures. However, the traditional design of buccal osteotomy, located at the junction of mandibular ramus and body, may prevent more extensive sliding between the bone segments, particularly on the advance, laterality and verticality of the mandibular body. The author proposes a new technical and conceptual solution, in which osteotomy is performed in a more distal region, next to the mental formamen. Technically, the area of contact between medullary-cancellous bone surfaces is increased, resulting in larger sliding rates among bone segments; it also facilitates the use of rigid fixation systems, with miniplates and monocortical screws. Conceptually, it interferes with the resistance arm of the mandible, seen as an interpotent lever of the third gender. PMID:17355642

  8. [Fractures of the mandibular condyle. Therapeutic controversies].

    PubMed

    Martins, J S; Frage, Z B

    1999-01-01

    The condylar mandibular fractures are important because its incidence, possible complications and controversial treatment. The treatment of condylar fractures has generated more controversy and discussion than any other in the field of maxillofacial trauma. The main goal of treatment is restoration of function and not anatomic restoration of parts. Despite several clinical and anatomical studies still lack consensus regarding the best method of treatment. This review article focus on the controversy that surrounds treatment of the condylar fractures, trying to supply consensus about questions like: Should condylar mandibular fractures be managed via a closed or open technique? What is the best surgical approach? Surgical timing? What is the degree and duration of mandibular immobilization? Is or not necessary to treat the ATM disc? PMID:10481324

  9. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960...

  10. Selection against Aerial Dispersal in Ants: Two Non-Flying Queen Phenotypes in Pogonomyrmex laticeps

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Christian; Keller, Roberto A.; Johnson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The South American seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex laticeps has dimorphic queens: ergatoid (permanently wingless) and brachypterous (short, non-functional wings). Surveys in western Argentina indicated that colonies near Chilecito, La Rioja Province, produced only ergatoid queens, while those near Punta Balasto, Catamarca Province (263 km away), produced only brachypterous queens. Brachypterous queens were significantly larger than ergatoid queens for 10 of 11 external characters, but both phenotypes had comparable reproductive potential, i.e., a spermatheca and a similar number of ovarioles. Using normal winged queens of the closely related P. uruguayensis for comparison, we determined that both queen phenotypes in P. laticeps had a full set of dorsal thoracic sclerites, albeit each sclerite was much reduced, whereas workers had a thorax without distinct dorsal sclerites. Sclerites were fused and immobile in ergatoid queens, while they were separable and fully articulated in brachypterous queens. Both phenotypes lacked the big indirect flight muscles, but brachypterous queens retained the tiny direct flight muscles. Overall, this dimorphism across populations indicates that there are alternative solutions to selective pressures against flying queens. We lack field data about colony founding strategy (independent or dependent) for either queen phenotype, but colonies at both sites produced numerous gynes, and we infer that all foundresses initiate colonies independently and are obligate foragers. PMID:23110094

  11. The effects of pesticides on queen rearing and virus titers in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colo...

  12. Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Detects Honey Bee Queen Insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the ...

  13. Queen Replacement in African and European Honey Bee Colonies with and without Afterswarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the dynamics of the queen replacement process in African and European colonies that did and did not produce afterswarms. If colonies did not produce afterswarms, the queen replacement process was completed in 24-48 hours, the first-emerging virgin queen (VQ) typically inherited the nata...

  14. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy detects queen honey bee insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the...

  15. Selection against aerial dispersal in ants: two non-flying queen phenotypes in Pogonomyrmex laticeps.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Christian; Keller, Roberto A; Johnson, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The South American seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex laticeps has dimorphic queens: ergatoid (permanently wingless) and brachypterous (short, non-functional wings). Surveys in western Argentina indicated that colonies near Chilecito, La Rioja Province, produced only ergatoid queens, while those near Punta Balasto, Catamarca Province (263 km away), produced only brachypterous queens. Brachypterous queens were significantly larger than ergatoid queens for 10 of 11 external characters, but both phenotypes had comparable reproductive potential, i.e., a spermatheca and a similar number of ovarioles. Using normal winged queens of the closely related P. uruguayensis for comparison, we determined that both queen phenotypes in P. laticeps had a full set of dorsal thoracic sclerites, albeit each sclerite was much reduced, whereas workers had a thorax without distinct dorsal sclerites. Sclerites were fused and immobile in ergatoid queens, while they were separable and fully articulated in brachypterous queens. Both phenotypes lacked the big indirect flight muscles, but brachypterous queens retained the tiny direct flight muscles. Overall, this dimorphism across populations indicates that there are alternative solutions to selective pressures against flying queens. We lack field data about colony founding strategy (independent or dependent) for either queen phenotype, but colonies at both sites produced numerous gynes, and we infer that all foundresses initiate colonies independently and are obligate foragers. PMID:23110094

  16. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  17. Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphal; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerd, Xim

    2011-12-01

    In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25C to 60C), cooled down to 25C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

  18. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ? 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional tremors are triggered by the subsequent Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the near strike-parallel incidence for many triggering earthquakes, which tends to produce maximum triggering potential for vertical strike-slip faults. These results suggest a shear faulting mechanism is responsible for the triggered tremor on the QCF. The triggering threshold of dynamic stress is higher than that found at the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault (2-3 KPa). This could be due to the sparse network coverage in the QCF, which may miss weak tremor signals triggered by smaller-size events. Our observations suggest that triggered tremor could occur in many places on major strike-slip faults around the world, although the necessary conditions for tremor generation are still not clear at this stage.

  19. Involvement of Queen Alexandra College: A European Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, T. S.

    1990-01-01

    Queen Alexandra College of Further Education for Blind and Partially Sighted in Birmingham, England, is one of six rehabilitation centers to be involved in an initiative aimed at improving the training of disabled people as part of the HELIOS (Handicapped People in the European Community Living Independently in an Open Society) program.…

  20. Killer Queens: screen representations of the gay psychopath.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    Killer Queen is a well-known term with a developing definition. Over the last century attitudes have changed considerably towards both homosexuality and mental illness but in rather different ways. In exploring the depiction of this characterization in film and how it has evolved, consideration is given to whether or which of these changes might be responsible. PMID:19459106

  1. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  2. Ultrastructure and formation of the physogastric termite queen cuticle.

    PubMed

    Bordereau, C

    1982-01-01

    The physogastric termite queen is the most striking example in insects of growth in size without cuticular moulting. This phenomenon has been studied with electron microscopy and histochemical tests in two species of higher termites, Cubitermes fungifaber and Macrotermes bellicosus. The abdominal hypertrophy (physogastry) is allowed by growth of the arthrodial membranes of the swarming imago. The growth is slow (over several years) but important: the cuticular dry weight is multiplied by 20 in C. fungifaber, by 100-150 in M. bellicosus. The termite queen cuticle arises from the transformation of the cuticle of the swarming imago or imaginal cuticle (unfolding and growing of the epicuticle, stretching of the endocuticle, resorption of the subcuticle) and from the secretion of a new endocuticle or royal endocuticle. The termite queen is the first example known in insects of epicuticular growth. In the physogastric queen, three cuticular types are observed: the rigid cuticle of the sclerites, the soft cuticle of the arthrodial membranes and the partially rigid cuticle of special structures, the neosclerites, which show both rigidity and growth. The fibrillar architecture varies according to the abdominal zones and the position within the cuticle. It appears to be determined by the forces arising from the musculature and the anisometric abdominal growth. The king does not become physogastric, although its cuticle is also modified. PMID:6214044

  3. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may

  4. Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is…

  5. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

  6. Redemptive Journey: The Storytelling Motif in Andersen's "The Snow Queen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misheff, Sue

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how Hans Christian Andersen's "The Snow Queen" uses the motif of storytelling to describe the journey taken by the heroine Gerda. Identifies a story as that which is alive and active and which causes catharsis for those who participate in it. (MG)

  7. GENE-EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES IN HONEY BEE WORKERS AND QUEENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important for agriculture worldwide. We have identified genes whose expression varies between developing queen and worker honey bees during caste determination. Here we describe the expression patterns of these genes over time to deterimine 1)the persistence of caste...

  8. Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is

  9. Queens Tri-School Confederation, 1991-92 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, Susan; Dworkowitz, Barbara

    An evaluation was done of the Queens Tri-School Confederation, three high schools in the New York City Public Schools funded by a federal grant from the Magnet Schools Assistance Program. The grant provided Hillcrest, Jamaica, and Thomas A. Edison High Schools with funds to develop or expand emergency technician programs at Hillcrest; a law

  10. 65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of the Fleet," serving as the oldest Coast Guard Cutter in active service when U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Ingham was decommissioned on May 27, 1988. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter FIR, Puget Sound Area, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial

  12. Artificial diets for juvenile queen conch: Studies examine algae content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University found juvenile queen conch fed diets containing added macroalgae had higher survival than a control given catfish feed only, but saw no significant difference in overall growth rates among the treatments. In a secon...

  13. Docile sitters and active fighters in paper wasps: a tale of two queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardile, Sujata; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2002-02-01

    Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis are sympatric, primitively eusocial paper wasps widely distributed in peninsular India. We compare the two species, especially their queens, in an attempt to begin to understand the role of the power of queens over their workers, in social organisation and evolution. Queens of R. marginata have lower levels of activity, rates of interactions and dominance behaviour, compared with queens of R. cyathiformis. For the same variables, R. marginata queens are either indistinguishable from or have lower values than their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens have higher values than their workers. R. marginata queens never occupy the top rank while R. cyathiformis queens are always at the top of the behavioural dominance hierarchies of their colonies. R. marginata queens thus do not appear to use dominance behaviour to suppress reproduction by their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens appear to do so. These different mechanisms used by the two queens to regulate worker reproduction give them different powers over their workers, because R. marginata queens are completely successful in suppressing reproduction by their nestmates while in R. cyathiformis colonies, other individuals also sometimes lay eggs. There is also some evidence that the different powers of the queens result in different mechanisms of regulation of worker foraging in the two species - decentralised, self-regulation in R. marginata and relatively more centralised regulation by the queen in R. cyathiformis. Thus we show here, perhaps for the first time, that the power of the queens over their workers can have important consequences for social organisation and evolution.

  14. Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, James Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    Background The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and systems biology. Results Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates. PMID:24693353

  15. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. PMID:24597605

  16. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation.

    PubMed

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing. PMID:19280169

  17. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing that olfaction is perfectly functional in birds and birds use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts. Although the existence of pheromones has never been formally demonstrated in this vertebrate class, different groups of birds, such as petrels, auklets and ducks have been shown to produce specific scents that could play a significant role in within-species social interactions. Behavioral experiments have indeed demonstrated that these odors influence the behavior of conspecifics. Additionally, in quail, deprivation of olfactory inputs decreases neuronal activation induced by sexual interactions with a female. It seems therefore well established that birds enjoy a functional sense of smell and a fast growing body of experimental evidence suggests that they use this channel of olfactory communication to control their social life. The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds. PMID:20490809

  18. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  19. Yeast pheromone pathway modeling using Petri nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our environment is composed of biological components of varying magnitude. The relationships between the different biological elements can be represented as a biological network. The process of mating in S. cerevisiae is initiated by secretion of pheromone by one of the cells. Our interest lies in one particular question: how does a cell dynamically adapt the pathway to continue mating under severe environmental changes or under mutation (which might result in the loss of functionality of some proteins known to participate in the pheromone pathway). Our work attempts to answer this question. To achieve this, we first propose a model to simulate the pheromone pathway using Petri nets. Petri nets are directed graphs that can be used for describing and modeling systems characterized as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, non-deterministic, and/or stochastic. We then analyze our Petri net-based model of the pathway to investigate the following: 1) Given the model of the pheromone response pathway, under what conditions does the cell respond positively, i.e., mate? 2) What kinds of perturbations in the cell would result in changing a negative response to a positive one? Method In our model, we classify proteins into two categories: core component proteins (set ?) and additional proteins (set ?). We randomly generate our model's parameters in repeated simulations. To simulate the pathway, we carry out three different experiments. In the experiments, we simply change the concentration of the additional proteins (?) available to the cell. The concentration of proteins in ? is varied consistently from 300 to 400. In Experiment 1, the range of values for ? is set to be 100 to 150. In Experiment 2, it is set to be 151 to 200. In Experiment 3, the set ? is further split into ? and ?, with the idea that proteins in ? are more important than those in ?. The range of values for ? is set to be between 151 to 200 while that of ? is 100 to 150. Decision trees were derived from each of the first two experiments to allow us to more easily analyze the conditions under which the pheromone is expressed. Conclusion The simulation results reveal that a cell can overcome the detrimental effects of the conditions by using more concentration of additional proteins in ?. The first two experiments provide evidence that employing more concentration of proteins might be one of the ways that the cell uses to adapt itself in inhibiting conditions to facilitate mating. The results of the third experiment reveal that in some case the protein set ? is sufficient in regulating the response of the cell. Results of Experiments 4 and 5 reveal that there are certain conditions (parameters) in the model that are more important in determining whether a cell will respond positively or not. PMID:25080237

  20. Insect pheromones and precursors in female African elephant urine.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Thomas E; Eggert, Mindy S; House, Sam J; Weddell, Margaret E; Schulte, Bruce A; Rasmussen, L E L

    2006-08-01

    Using automated solid-phase dynamic extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, our search for urinary chemical signals from ovulatory female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) has revealed the bark beetle aggregation pheromones frontalin, exo-brevicomin, and endo-brevicomin, as well as their precursors and the aphid alarm pheromones (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (E)-beta-farnesene. Enantiomeric ratios for brevicomins have been determined. Prior discovery of common insect/elephant pheromones in Asian elephants, namely, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and frontalin, suggests that the present findings may yield valuable insights into chemical communication among African elephants. PMID:16758337

  1. Worker honey bee pheromone regulation of foraging ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankiw, Tanya

    The evolution of sociality has configured communication chemicals, called primer pheromones, which play key roles in regulating the organization of social life. Primer pheromones exert relatively slow effects that fundamentally alter developmental, physiological, and neural systems. Here, I demonstrate how substances extracted from the surface of foraging and young pre-foraging worker bees regulated age at onset of foraging, a developmental process. Hexane-extractable compounds washed from foraging workers increased foraging age compared with controls, whereas extracts of young pre-foraging workers decreased foraging age. This represents the first known direct demonstration of primer pheromone activity derived from adult worker bees.

  2. Surgical treatment of comminuted mandibular fractures using a low-profile locking mandibular reconstruction plate system

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Takahiro; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Sekine, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of comminuted mandibular fractures is challenging due to the severity of associated injuries and the need for a careful diagnosis with adequate treatment planning. Recently, open reduction and stable internal fixation (OR-IF) with a load-bearing reconstruction plate have been advocated for reliable clinical outcomes with minimal complications. This clinical prospective study evaluated OR-IF in the surgical management of comminuted mandibular fractures with a new low-profile, thin, mandibular locking reconstruction plate. Materials and Methods: We prospectively assessed OR-IF of comminuted mandibular fractures with a low-profile locking mandibular reconstruction plate in 12 patients (nine men, three women; mean age 32.2 [range 16-71] years) between April 2010 and December 2011. The clinical characteristics and associated clinical parameters of patients were evaluated over a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Results: Traffic accidents caused 50% of the fractures, followed by falls (25%). Four patients (33.3%) had associated midfacial maxillofacial fractures, while five patients had other mandibular fractures. Seven patients (58.3%) needed emergency surgery, mostly for airway management. Anatomical reduction of the comminuted segments re-established the mandibular skeleton in stable occlusion with rigid IF via extraoral (33.3%), intraoral (50%), or combined (16.7%) approaches. Immediate functional recovery was achieved. Sound bone healing was confirmed in all patients, with no complications such as malocclusion, surgical site infection, or malunion with a mean follow-up of 16.3 (range 12-24) months. Conclusions: OR-IF using a low-profile reconstruction plate system is a reliable treatment for comminuted mandibular fractures, enabling immediate functional recovery with good clinical results. PMID:25593862

  3. Multiple Genes Encoding Pheromones and a Pheromone Receptor Define the B?1 Mating-Type Specificity in Schizophyllum Commune

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, L. J.; Raudaskoski, M.; Specht, C. A.; Raper, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The genes defining multiple B mating types in the wood-rotting mushroom Schizophyllum commune are predicted to encode multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors. These genes are clustered in each of two recombinable and independently functioning loci, B? and B?. A difference in specificity at either locus between a mated pair of individuals initiates an identical series of events in sexual morphogenesis. The B?1 locus was recently found to contain genes predicted to encode three lipopeptide pheromones and a pheromone receptor with a seven-transmembrane domain. These gene products interact in hetero-specific pairs, the pheromone of one B? specificity with the receptor of any one of the other eight B? specificities, and are likely to activate a signaling cascade similar to that known for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that the B?1 locus also contains at least three pheromone genes and one pheromone receptor gene, which function similarly to the genes in the B?1 locus, but only within the series of B? specificities. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the B?1 and B?1 loci suggest that each arose from a common ancestral sequence, allowing us to speculate about the evolution of this unique series of regulatory genes. PMID:9178005

  4. Potential new method of design for reconstruction of complicated mandibular defects: a virtual deformable mandibular model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Zhigang, Cai; Xin, Peng; Yang, Wang; Chuanbin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of complicated mandibular defects, including misshaped and missing bones, is challenging, and the success of reconstruction depends to a large extent on the formulation of a precise surgical plan. There is still no ideal preoperative method of design for reconstruction to deal with large, cross-midline, mandibular, segmental defects. We have built a virtual deformable mandibular model (VDMM) with 3-dimensional animation software. Sixteen handles were set on the model, and these could be easily controlled with a computer mouse to change the morphology of the deformable mandibular model. The computed tomographic (CT) data from 10 normal skulls was used to validate the adjustability of the VDMM. According to the positions of the mandibular fossa of the temporomandibular joint, the maxillary dental arch, and the craniomaxillofacial profile, the model could be adjusted to an ideal contour, which was coordinated with the skull. The VDMM was then adjusted further according to the morphology of the original mandible. A 3-dimensional comparison was made between the model of the deformed mandible and the original mandible. Using 16 control handles, the VDMM could be adjusted to a new outline, which was similar in shape to the original mandible. Within 3mm deviation either way, the absolute mean distribution of deviation between the contour of the deformed model and the original mandible was 92.5%. The VDMM might be useful for preoperative design of reconstruction of complicated mandibular defects. PMID:26711316

  5. Giant cementoblastoma of the impacted mandibular incisor.

    PubMed

    Karaal, Naci; Agdo?an, zgr; Livao?lu, Murat; Uralo?lu, Muhammet; zel, Birol

    2011-11-01

    The cementoblastoma is a relatively rare type of all odontogenic tumors. The incisor and impacted or unerupted tooth involvement by a cementoblastoma is extremely rare. We present a case report of a giant cementoblastoma that involved an impacted mandibular incisor. PMID:22134313

  6. [Facial nerve paralysis and mandibular fracture].

    PubMed

    Salonna, I; Fanizzi, P; Quaranta, A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe three cases of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in patients with a mandibular fracture. In two cases, in which the onset of palsy was uncertain, the facial nerve injury was contralateral to the fractured side. Topodiagnostic tests showed neural damage at the third intrapetrosal portion and at the genicular ganglion. In one of the two patients tomography revealed a fracture line through the anterio-superior wall of the external auditory canal homolateral to the facial palsy. In the third subject palsy set in immediately after the trauma and was ipsilateral to the mandibular fracture; the facial lesion was localized at the genicular ganglion. In the first two cases, functional recovery was spontaneous (40 and 0 days after the trauma respectively). In the third subject, the nerve was decompressed surgically with a complete functional recovery two months later. The functional and clinical findings of these three cases show that a contralateral facial palsy secondary to a mandibular fracture resolves spontaneously while the traumatic displacement of the mandibular condyle may determine a temporal bone fracture sometimes followed by a lesion in the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve. An event such as the latter may delay functional recovery and thus warrant surgery such as in cases of Bell's palsy. PMID:1298156

  7. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity. PMID:22114424

  8. Comparisons of the queen volatile compounds of instrumentally inseminated versus naturally mated honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Instrumental insemination is an attractive alternative to natural mating because specific genetic crosses can be made, thus producing colonies with desired traits. However, there are conflicting reports on the quality and acceptance of instrumentally inseminated (II) queens compared to naturally ma...

  9. Does the queen win it all? Queen-worker conflict over male production in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaux, Cdric; Savarit, Fabrice; Jaisson, Pierre; Hefetz, Abraham

    Social insects provide a useful model for studying the evolutionary balance between cooperation and conflict linked to genetic structure. We investigated the outcome of this conflict in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, whose annual colony life cycle is characterized by overt competition over male production. We established artificial colonies composed of a queen and unrelated workers by daily exchange of callow workers between colony pairs of distinct genetic make-up. Using microsatellite analysis, this procedure allowed an exact calculation of the proportion of worker-derived males. The development and social behavior of these artificial colonies were similar to those of normal colonies. Despite a high worker reproduction attempt (63.8% of workers had developed ovaries and 38.4% were egg-layers), we found that on average 95% of the males produced during the competition phase (CPh) were queen-derived. However, in four colonies, queen death resulted in a considerable amount of worker-derived male production. The different putative ultimate causes of this efficient control by the queen are discussed, and we suggest a possible scenario of an evolutionary arms race that may occur between these two female castes.

  10. Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jacob G; Guidat, Florian S; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2013-06-23

    In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen-worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a 'switch point' in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen-worker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

  11. An assessment of early mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E F; L'Abb, E N; Oettl, A C

    2012-04-10

    Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch and associated muscle attachment sites. These findings might be valuable in the estimation of age in unidentified individuals and to monitor prenatal growth of the mandible for the early diagnosis of conditions associated with stunted mandibular growth. PMID:22154436

  12. Experimental manipulation of queen number affects colony sex ratio investment in the highly polygynous ant Formica exsecta

    PubMed Central

    Kmmerli, Rolf; Helms, Ken R; Keller, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    In polygynous (multiple queens per nest) ants, queen dispersal is often limited with young queens being recruited within the parental colony. This mode of dispersal leads to local resource competition between nestmate queens and is frequently associated with extremely male-biased sex ratios at the population level. The queen-replenishment hypothesis has been recently proposed to explain colony sex ratio investment under such conditions. It predicts that colonies containing many queens (subject to high local resource competition) should only produce males, whereas colonies hosting few queens (reduced or no local resource competition) should produce new queens in addition to males. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in the ant Formica exsecta by manipulating queen number over three consecutive years in 120 colonies of a highly polygynous population. Queens were transferred from 40 colonies into another 40 colonies while queen number was not manipulated in 40 control colonies. Genetic analyses of worker offspring revealed that our treatment significantly changed the number of reproductive queens. The sex ratio of colonies was significantly different between treatments in the third breeding season following the experiment initiation. We found that, as predicted by the queen-replenishment hypothesis, queen removal resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of colonies that produced new queens. These results provide the first experimental evidence for the queen-replenishment hypothesis, which might account for sex ratio specialization in many highly polygynous ant species. PMID:16096090

  13. Effect of unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis on mandibular morphology in rabbits with antigen-induced temporomandibular joint arthritis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K; Pedersen, T K; Svendsen, P; Hauge, E M; Schou, S; Nrholt, S E

    2015-08-01

    Aim was to evaluate effect of unilateral distraction osteogenesis (DO) on mandibular morphology in rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Forty 8-week-old rabbits were divided into four groups. In groups A,C, arthritis was induced in the right TMJ. Groups A,B underwent DO. Group D served as control group. Cephalometric analysis of mandibular angle, mandibular ramus height, mandibular collum height, and total posterior mandibular height was done on CT-scans preoperatively (T0), after distraction (T1), and at euthanasia (T2). Two-factor ANOVA evaluated the effect of DO and antigen-induced arthritis. No effect of DO or arthritis was observed on mandibular angle or mandibular collum height. For T0-T1, DO increased mandibular ramus height 12.3% (95% CI 5.2-19.4%) in group B (P=0.001) and total posterior mandibular height 6.2% (95% CI 0.3-12.1%) in group A (P=0.04) and 10.0% (95% CI 4.3-15.7%) in group B (P=0.001). For T1-T2, no significant changes occurred in arthritic rabbits (group A). In conclusion, DO increased total posterior mandibular height in rabbits with arthritis. Postoperatively, no significant effect of DO was observed in rabbits with arthritis. Mandibular DO could be a viable treatment modality in patients with TMJ-arthritis. PMID:25835759

  14. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  15. Directional Bias and Pheromone for Discovery and Coverage on Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-11

    Natural multi-agent systems often rely on “correlated random walks” (random walks that are biased toward a current heading) to distribute their agents over a space (e.g., for foraging, search, etc.). Our contribution involves creation of a new movement and pheromone model that applies the concept of heading bias in random walks to a multi-agent, digital-ants system designed for cyber-security monitoring. We examine the relative performance effects of both pheromone and heading bias on speed of discovery of a target and search-area coverage in a two-dimensional network layout. We found that heading bias was unexpectedly helpful in reducing search time and that it was more influential than pheromone for improving coverage. We conclude that while pheromone is very important for rapid discovery, heading bias can also greatly improve both performance metrics.

  16. Kinetics of male pheromone production by Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pavis, C; Barr, N

    1993-11-01

    Males of Amblyomma variegatum (F.), when attached on their host, produce a pheromonal blend composed of methyl salicylate, ortho-nitrophenol, and nonanoic acid, which acts as an aggregation-attachment pheromone. Using olfactometry assays, assays on hosts, and quantification of the compounds by capillary gas chromatography, the kinetics of pheromone production has been studied. Males engorged for at least 10 d elicit attachment from most of the tested females. Attractiveness of males for females is significant only between days 14 and 23 of engorgement. Before 10 d of attachment, the amounts of pheromones detected in hexanic male body extracts are very low (< 10 ng); they then increase to a maximum of 2 micrograms for the major compound per male. Large amounts can be detected until 80 d of engorgement. The inter-individual variation is very large throughout the engorgement period. The interest and the limitations of the different techniques used are discussed. PMID:8271253

  17. Pheromone-based mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota...

  18. Acp70A regulates Drosophila pheromones through juvenile hormone induction.

    PubMed

    Bontonou, Gwnalle; Shaik, Haq Abdul; Denis, Batrice; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Mated Drosophila melanogaster females show a decrease in mating receptivity, enhanced ovogenesis, egg-laying and activation of juvenile hormone (JH) production. Components in the male seminal fluid, especially the sex peptide ACP70A stimulate these responses in females. Here we demonstrate that ACP70A is involved in the down-regulation of female sex pheromones and hydrocarbon (CHC) production. Drosophila G10 females which express Acp70A under the control of the vitellogenin gene yp1, produced fewer pheromones and CHCs. There was a dose-dependent relationship between the number of yp1-Acp70A alleles and the reduction of these compounds. Similarly, a decrease in CHCs and diene pheromones was observed in da > Acp70A flies that ubiquitously overexpress Acp70A. Quantitative-PCR experiments showed that the expression of Acp70A in G10 females was the same as in control males and 5 times lower than in da > Acp70A females. Three to four days after injection with 4.8 pmol ACP70A, females from two different strains, exhibited a significant decrease in CHC and pheromone levels. Similar phenotypes were observed in ACP70A injected flies whose ACP70A receptor expression was knocked-down by RNAi and in flies which overexpress ACP70A N-terminal domain. These results suggest that the action of ACP70A on CHCs could be a consequence of JH activation. Female flies exposed to a JH analog had reduced amounts of pheromones, whereas genetic ablation of the corpora allata or knock-down of the JH receptor Met, resulted in higher amounts of both CHCs and pheromonal dienes. Mating had negligible effects on CHC levels, however pheromone amounts were slightly reduced 3 and 4 days post copulation. The physiological significance of ACP70A on female pheromone synthesis is discussed. PMID:25484200

  19. SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell Deckert

    2000-08-25

    The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

  20. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the longrange attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  1. Decrypting Cryptic Click Beetle Species by Analysis of Sex Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Knig, Christian; Steidle, Johannes L M; Tolasch, Till

    2015-08-01

    Despite sex pheromones being highly species specific, their use as phylogenetic characters and a tool for the verification of species status are still relatively few compared to use of morphological and molecular characters. Earlier studies revealed that within the click beetle species Idolus picipennis, two types can be separated based on pheromone composition. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of pheromone from a third type of Idolus revealed the presence of geranyl hexanoate and geranyl octanoate in a ratio of ca. 1:9. Neryl esters and farnesyl esters, present in the glands of the other two species, are absent in this type. In field experiments, males of all three types were attracted specifically to synthetic mixtures of pheromone resembling their own females. This suggests that cross attraction among different types is unlikely and indicates that they are likely distinct species. Using the large numbers of male beetles caught in pheromone traps, morphological differences between the species were studied and an identification key derived. This study highlights the role of sex pheromones as a powerful tool in integrative taxonomy and systematics to study the phylogenetic position and evolution of taxa and to determine the taxonomic status of cryptic species. PMID:26238957

  2. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  3. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  4. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  5. Unifocal versus multifocal mandibular fractures and injury location.

    PubMed

    Buch, Karen; Mottalib, Adham; Nadgir, Rohini N; Fujita, Akifumi; Sekiya, Kotaro; Ozonoff, Al; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Mandibular fractures are frequently encountered in the trauma setting and comprise a significant number of facial injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and injury patterns of unifocal and multifocal mandibular fractures using thin-section imaging. Following IRB approval, 220 patients with mandibular fractures identified on maxillofacial CT scans performed between October 2008 and February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Examinations were performed on 64-multidetector row CT scanners with axial images acquired at 1.25-mm slice thickness. The location and number of fractures as well as causative mechanisms were recorded. Fractures were unifocal in 108/220 (49 %) and multifocal in 112/220 (51 %) patients. The mandibular angle was the most common fracture site in both unifocal and multifocal mandible fractures. In cases with multifocal mandibular fractures, bilateral fractures were more common (83 %) than unilateral multifocal mandibular fractures (17 %). Fractures involving the parasymphysis, the mandibular body, or ramus were significantly associated with the presence of additional mandibular fractures (p < 0.0001). While multifocal and unifocal fractures occurred in near equal frequency, bilateral multifocal fractures were much more common than unilateral multifocal mandibular fractures. Alveolar ridge fractures were exclusively seen in unifocal mandibular fractures. PMID:26797024

  6. Pheromones mediating copulation and attraction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, Hany K. M.; Ebrahim, Shimaa A. M.; Thoma, Michael; Mohamed, Ahmed A. M.; Keesey, Ian W.; Trona, Federica; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Svato, Ale; Sachse, Silke; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific olfactory signals known as pheromones play important roles in insect mating systems. In the model Drosophila melanogaster, a key part of the pheromone-detecting system has remained enigmatic through many years of research in terms of both its behavioral significance and its activating ligands. Here we show that Or47b-and Or88a-expressing olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) detect the fly-produced odorants methyl laurate (ML), methyl myristate, and methyl palmitate. Fruitless (fruM)-positive Or47b-expressing OSNs detect ML exclusively, and Or47b- and Or47b-expressing OSNs are required for optimal male copulation behavior. In addition, activation of Or47b-expressing OSNs in the male is sufficient to provide a competitive mating advantage. We further find that the vigorous male courtship displayed toward oenocyte-less flies is attributed to an oenocyte-independent sustained production of the Or47b ligand, ML. In addition, we reveal that Or88a-expressing OSNs respond to all three compounds, and that these neurons are necessary and sufficient for attraction behavior in both males and females. Beyond the OSN level, information regarding the three fly odorants is transferred from the antennal lobe to higher brain centers in two dedicated neural lines. Finally, we find that both Or47b- and Or88a-based systems and their ligands are remarkably conserved over a number of drosophilid species. Taken together, our results close a significant gap in the understanding of the olfactory background to Drosophila mating and attraction behavior; while reproductive isolation barriers between species are created mainly by species-specific signals, the mating enhancing signal in several Drosophila species is conserved. PMID:25964351

  7. Pheromones mediating copulation and attraction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Hany K M; Ebrahim, Shimaa A M; Thoma, Michael; Mohamed, Ahmed A M; Keesey, Ian W; Trona, Federica; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Svato, Ale; Sachse, Silke; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2015-05-26

    Intraspecific olfactory signals known as pheromones play important roles in insect mating systems. In the model Drosophila melanogaster, a key part of the pheromone-detecting system has remained enigmatic through many years of research in terms of both its behavioral significance and its activating ligands. Here we show that Or47b-and Or88a-expressing olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) detect the fly-produced odorants methyl laurate (ML), methyl myristate, and methyl palmitate. Fruitless (fru(M))-positive Or47b-expressing OSNs detect ML exclusively, and Or47b- and Or47b-expressing OSNs are required for optimal male copulation behavior. In addition, activation of Or47b-expressing OSNs in the male is sufficient to provide a competitive mating advantage. We further find that the vigorous male courtship displayed toward oenocyte-less flies is attributed to an oenocyte-independent sustained production of the Or47b ligand, ML. In addition, we reveal that Or88a-expressing OSNs respond to all three compounds, and that these neurons are necessary and sufficient for attraction behavior in both males and females. Beyond the OSN level, information regarding the three fly odorants is transferred from the antennal lobe to higher brain centers in two dedicated neural lines. Finally, we find that both Or47b- and Or88a-based systems and their ligands are remarkably conserved over a number of drosophilid species. Taken together, our results close a significant gap in the understanding of the olfactory background to Drosophila mating and attraction behavior; while reproductive isolation barriers between species are created mainly by species-specific signals, the mating enhancing signal in several Drosophila species is conserved. PMID:25964351

  8. No evidence of volatile chemicals regulating reproduction in a multiple queen ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coston, Duncan J.; Gill, Richard J.; Hammond, Robert L.

    2011-07-01

    Efficient cooperation in eusocial insect colonies requires effective communication, and there is abundant evidence of non-volatile chemicals playing a role in regulating reproduction within colonies. In contrast, there have been fewer studies investigating the role of volatile chemicals. This study investigated the potential role of volatile chemicals in regulating queen reproduction either by directly inhibiting queen reproduction or by honestly signalling queen fecundity to workers. We tested this using multiple queen colonies of the ant ( Leptothorax acervorum) from a functionally monogynous population where one queen monopolizes all reproduction. Nine colonies, each with an established laying queen, were split to produce two colony fragmentsone containing the reproducing queen (group 1) and one containing only previously non-reproducing queens (group 2). Each group was separated by a fine wire mesh preventing physical contact, but allowing volatile chemical contact. In each group 2 fragment, we found that a single formerly non-reproductive queen commenced reproduction and that the rate of egg laying and maximum number of eggs recorded did not significantly differ between groups 1 and 2, results that do not support volatile chemicals as playing a role in regulating queen reproduction. Instead, our findings suggest that physical contact is necessary to maintain functional monogyny.

  9. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Simonds, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens. PMID:26466796

  10. Factorial calculation of nutrient requirements in lactating queens.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, E

    1998-12-01

    The energy, protein, calcium and phosphorus requirements of lactating queens were estimated by using the factorial method. Requirement values for protein and energy were divided into requirements for maintenance and for milk production. For maintenance, existing data were used. For milk production, the net requirements were calculated by summing the energy and protein losses in milk; the gross requirements were then estimated taking into account the utilization of metabolizable energy (ME) for milk production and the digestibility of protein and its utilization for milk production. Net maintenance requirements for calcium and phosphorus were calculated from endogenous fecal, renal and cutaneous losses. Losses in milk were added. For calculation of gross calcium and phosphorus requirements, utilization was estimated from true digestibility under suboptimal, but not extreme conditions. For queens with large litters at the peak of lactation, the following estimated requirements were derived (per kg body weight): 0.81 MJ ME, 14 g protein, 428 mg calcium and 303 mg phosphorus. PMID:9868218

  11. Transcriptome comparison of the sex pheromone glands from two sibling Helicoverpa species with opposite sex pheromone components

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sex pheromone component can lead to reproductive isolation. The sibling noctuid species, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, share the same two sex pheromone components, Z9-16:Ald and Z11-16:Ald, but in opposite ratios, providing an typical example of such reproductive isolation. To investigate how the ratios of the pheromone components are differently regulated in the two species, we sequenced cDNA libraries from the pheromone glands of H. armigera and H. assulta. After assembly and annotation, we identified 108 and 93 transcripts putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, transport, and degradation in H. armigera and H. assulta, respectively. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, phylogenetic, and mRNA abundance analyses suggested that some of these transcripts involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathways perform. Based on these results, we postulate that the regulation of desaturases, KPSE and LPAQ, might be key factor regulating the opposite component ratios in the two sibling moths. In addition, our study has yielded large-scale sequence information for further studies and can be used to identify potential targets for the bio-control of these species by disrupting their sexual communication. PMID:25792497

  12. Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Stephanie; van Zweden, Jelle S; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-10-22

    Remembering individual identities is part of our own everyday social life. Surprisingly, this ability has recently been shown in two social insects. While paper wasps recognize each other individually through their facial markings, the ant, Pachycondyla villosa, uses chemical cues. In both species, individual recognition is adaptive since it facilitates the maintenance of stable dominance hierarchies among individuals, and thus reduces the cost of conflict within these small societies. Here, we investigated individual recognition in Pachycondyla ants by quantifying the level of aggression between pairs of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long-term memory of individual identity is present and functional in ants. This novel finding represents an advance in our understanding of the mechanism determining the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals. PMID:17594958

  13. Mandibular first premolar with four canals.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Lee, Angeline H C; Zhang, Chengfei

    2013-02-01

    A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of four distinct root canals and four apical foramina is described. This occurrence in mandibular first premolar has rarely been reported in the endodontic literature. Endodontic treatment that considers the anatomic variation of root canal morphology is important to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal. This offers valuable adjuncts for the successful negotiation of calcified main canals, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. PMID:23382063

  14. Mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst: enucleation without extraction.

    PubMed

    Shohat, I; Buchner, A; Taicher, S

    2003-12-01

    The mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst (MBBC) is a cystic lesion, which occurs on the buccal surface of the permanent mandibular first molar in children around 6-8 years old. Treatment of the cyst has been controversial: extraction of the involved tooth and enucleation of the cyst, or only enucleation, without extraction. The aim of this article is to familiarize oral and maxillofacial surgeons with this entity and the appropriate treatment approach. The diagnostic features of MBBC are described and the treatment approach in five patients with a total of seven cysts is presented. Two cases were identified in identical twins. Enucleation of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth is the treatment of choice when the available data and experience in treating MBBC are considered. PMID:14636611

  15. Pediatric mandibular hypomobility: current management and controversies.

    PubMed

    Costello, Bernard J; Edwards, Sean P

    2005-11-01

    Limited range of motion of the pediatric mandible (eg, mandibular hypomobility) presents many challenges. Untreated or recurrent hypomobility can cause problems with mastication, oral hygiene, speech, growth, and the airway. Treatments for ankylosis or adhesions include coronoidectomy, gap arthroplasty, costochondral rib reconstruction, prosthetic joint replacement, and transport distraction osteogenesis. There are many different causes of mandibular hypomobility in young patients, including idiopathic (congenital), posttraumatic, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and iatrogenic. A detailed evaluation and diagnosis of the limited range of motion are critical to developing an appropriate treatment strategy. This article outlines evaluation, differential diagnosis, and the current operative approaches for treating hypomobility in young patients. Controversies related to timing of various procedures and the uses of various treatment options are discussed. PMID:18088799

  16. Mandibular mass in a child on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa M; Mohammed, Faten F; Adham, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    We here with report a 13-year-old female patient on regular hemodialysis for the past five years who presented with a large mandibular mass. This was detected to be a brown tumor due to severe renal osteodystrophy as a complication of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The tumor did not regress even with intensive treatment with intravenous active vitamin D and needed surgical removal. PMID:26787582

  17. Complicated canal morphology of mandibular first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Pallavi, Vyapaka; Kumar, Janga Ravi; Mandava, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Subramanian Hari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly. PMID:26538977

  18. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    You, Tae Min; Kim, Kee-Deog; Jeong, Ho-Gul

    2015-01-01

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case. PMID:26730373

  19. Unilateral Mydriasis After Mandibular Fracture Fixation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nesioonpour, Sholeh; Khiabani, Kazem; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral mydriasis is a seriously significant finding in neurologic examinations indicating life-threatening conditions such as cerebral vascular injuries. Case Presentation: A 24 year old woman with mandibular trauma was referred to our center after five days for a reduction of the right mandibular angle fracture. The patient had no history of any loss of consciousness after the accident. Her physical examination showed no abnormalities, except those related to her mandibular fracture. The laboratory results were normal as well. At 8:30 am a general anesthesia was induced. The patients eyes were kept shut throughout the surgical procedure. The operation included an intraoral open reduction and fixation using two miniplates without any complications. After the operation, it was noticed that the left eye was completely dilated with no reaction to light, while the right eye was normal. The management and outcomes in this patient were described in the present case report. Conclusions: Evaluating the size of the patients pupils before, during and after the operation, careful history, consult, CT scan and MRI would help to diagnosis. Although no probable cause was found to explain the transient mydriasis in our patient. PMID:24829881

  20. Late treatment of a mandibular gunshot wound.

    PubMed

    Slusarenko da Silva, Yuri; de Gouveia, Marcia Maria; Alves, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Migliolo, Rodrigo Chenu

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular gunshot injuries are esthetically and functionally devastating, causing comminuted fractures and adjacent tissue destruction depending on the weapon gauge, projectile shape, impact kinetic energy, and density of the injured structures. If the mandibular fracture is not adequate or promptly treated, the broken fragments will fail to heal. In case of a treatment delay, progressive bone loss and fracture contracture will require a customized approach, which includes open reduction, removal of fibrous tissue between the bony stumps, and fixation of the fracture with a reconstruction plate and autogenous graft. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old man wounded on the mandible 15 years ago. With the aid of computed tomography and a prototype, a surgical plan was designed including open reduction and internal fixation of the segmental mandibular defect with a reconstruction plate and bone graft harvested from the iliac crest. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful and the 12-month follow up showed a positive aesthetic and functional result. PMID:26484326

  1. Late treatment of a mandibular gunshot wound

    PubMed Central

    de Gouveia, Marcia Maria; Alves, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Migliolo, Rodrigo Chenu

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular gunshot injuries are esthetically and functionally devastating, causing comminuted fractures and adjacent tissue destruction depending on the weapon gauge, projectile shape, impact kinetic energy, and density of the injured structures. If the mandibular fracture is not adequate or promptly treated, the broken fragments will fail to heal. In case of a treatment delay, progressive bone loss and fracture contracture will require a customized approach, which includes open reduction, removal of fibrous tissue between the bony stumps, and fixation of the fracture with a reconstruction plate and autogenous graft. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old man wounded on the mandible 15 years ago. With the aid of computed tomography and a prototype, a surgical plan was designed including open reduction and internal fixation of the segmental mandibular defect with a reconstruction plate and bone graft harvested from the iliac crest. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful and the 12-month follow up showed a positive aesthetic and functional result. PMID:26484326

  2. Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chamero, Pablo; Marton, Tobias F; Logan, Darren W; Flanagan, Kelly; Cruz, Jason R; Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stowers, Lisa

    2007-12-01

    Mice use pheromones, compounds emitted and detected by members of the same species, as cues to regulate social behaviours such as pup suckling, aggression and mating. Neurons that detect pheromones are thought to reside in at least two separate organs within the nasal cavity: the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each pheromone ligand is thought to activate a dedicated subset of these sensory neurons. However, the nature of the pheromone cues and the identity of the responding neurons that regulate specific social behaviours are largely unknown. Here we show, by direct activation of sensory neurons and analysis of behaviour, that at least two chemically distinct ligands are sufficient to promote male-male aggression and stimulate VNO neurons. We have purified and analysed one of these classes of ligand and found its specific aggression-promoting activity to be dependent on the presence of the protein component of the major urinary protein (MUP) complex, which is known to comprise specialized lipocalin proteins bound to small organic molecules. Using calcium imaging of dissociated vomeronasal neurons (VNs), we have determined that the MUP protein activates a sensory neuron subfamily characterized by the expression of the G-protein Galpha(o) subunit (also known as Gnao) and Vmn2r putative pheromone receptors (V2Rs). Genomic analysis indicates species-specific co-expansions of MUPs and V2Rs, as would be expected among pheromone-signalling components. Finally, we show that the aggressive behaviour induced by the MUPs occurs exclusively through VNO neuronal circuits. Our results substantiate the idea of MUP proteins as pheromone ligands that mediate male-male aggression through the accessory olfactory neural pathway. PMID:18064011

  3. A parallel algorithm for solving the n-queens problem based on inspired computational model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaocai; Huang, Dongmei; Tan, Jian; Liu, Taigang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Lei

    2015-05-01

    DNA computing provides a promising method to solve the computationally intractable problems. The n-queens problem is a well-known NP-hard problem, which arranges n queens on an n n board in different rows, columns and diagonals in order to avoid queens attack each other. In this paper, we present a novel parallel DNA algorithm for solving the n-queens problem using DNA molecular operations based on a biologically inspired computational model. For the n-queens problem, we reasonably design flexible length DNA strands representing elements of the allocation matrix, take appropriate biologic manipulations and get the solutions of the n-queens problem in proper length and O(n(2)) time complexity. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations, simultaneity simplify the complexity of the computation and simulate to verify the feasibility of the DNA algorithm. PMID:25817410

  4. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  5. Reclaiming the crown: queen to worker conflict over reproduction in Aphaenogaster cockerelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adrian A.; Hölldobler, Bert; Liebig, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    In many social taxa, reproductively dominant individuals sometimes use aggression to secure and maintain reproductive status. In the social insects, queen aggression towards subordinate individuals or workers has been documented and is predicted to occur only in species with a small colony size and a low level of queen-worker dimorphism. We report queen aggression towards reproductive workers in the ant species Aphaenogaster cockerelli, a species with a relatively large colony size and a high level of reproductive dimorphism. Through analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, we show that queens are aggressive only to reproductively active workers. Non-reproductive workers treated with a hydrocarbon typical for reproductives are attacked by workers but not by queens, which suggests different ways of recognition. We provide possible explanations of why queen aggression is observed in this species.

  6. Chemical profiles, division of labor and social status in Pachycondyla queens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentschert, J.; Kolmer, K.; Hlldobler, B.; Bestmann, H.-J.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Heinze, J.

    2001-03-01

    Queens of the neotropical ponerine ant Pachycondyla cf. 'inversa' may co-operate during colony founding. One of several co-founding queens specializes in foraging, whereas the others remain in the nest and guard the brood. Division of labor is achieved by aggressive interactions, which result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of cuticular hydrocarbons obtained from live queens by SPME revealed consistent differences between the patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons of queens with high versus low rank: only high-ranking queens showed considerable amounts of cuticular pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecene (n-C17:1). These two substances presumably originate from the queens' Dufour glands.

  7. Mandibular hypo-hyperdontia: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, S V S G; Sandeep, C; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition, however, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia (CHH) in three patients (one girl and two boys) with missing mandibular central incisor and an erupted mandibular mesiodens. Three rare cases of mandibular CHH were observed during routine examination, where the two anomalies manifested in the anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, these are the only cases exhibited taurodontism in association with mandibular CHH. PMID:24778987

  8. Reconstruction of Beagle Hemi-Mandibular Defects with Allogenic Mandibular Scaffolds and Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, JinChao; Liu, HuaWei; Hu, Min; Yue, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible) in a large animal model. Methods Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at4 (n?=?4), 12 (n?=?4), 24 (n?=?4) or 48 weeks (n?=?3) postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD) of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes. Results Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth factors. PMID:25153673

  9. Avoid mistakes when choosing a new home: Nest choice and adoption of Leptothorax ant queens.

    PubMed

    Bernadou, Abel; Ruther, Joachim; Heinze, Jrgen

    2015-08-01

    In ants, mating and colony founding are critical steps in the life of ant queens. Outside of their nests, young queens are exposed to intense predation. Therefore, they are expected to have evolved behavior to accurately and quickly locate a nesting place. However, data on the early life history of female reproductives are still lacking. Leptothorax gredleri is a suitable model organism to study the behavior of young queens. Reproductives can be reared under artificial conditions and readily mate in the laboratory. After mating, L. gredleri queens have the options to found solitarily, seek adoption into another colony, or return into their natal nest. In this study, we investigated the decision-making processes of female sexuals before and after mating. In particular, we tested whether female sexuals use chemical cues to find their way back to the nest, studied if they prefer their own nest over other nesting sites and followed the adoption dynamics of mated queens over 8 weeks (plus hibernation and spring). We showed that female sexuals and freshly mated queens spent more time on substrate previously used by workers from their own colony and from another colony than on a blank substrate. This discriminatory capability of queens appears to be lost in old, reproductive queens. Nest choice experiments showed that female sexuals and freshly mated queens can distinguish their own nest while old mated queens do not. When reintroduced in their maternal colony, young queens were readily adopted, but a few weeks later aggression against young queens led to their emigration from the maternal nest and eventually also death. PMID:26086676

  10. Peripheral, Central and Behavioral Responses to the Cuticular Pheromone Bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster Males

    PubMed Central

    Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Martin, Jean-Ren; Marion-Poll, Frdric; Ferveur, Jean-Franois

    2011-01-01

    Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be mostly but not only detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i) the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii) the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii) the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception. PMID:21625481

  11. Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

  12. Using an electronic nose to rapidly assess grandlure content in boll weevil pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil eradication programs are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure, the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils. Although this approach accurately quantifies the pheromone content...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  18. 78 FR 77772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “A Royal Passion: Queen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Photography'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  19. Changes in reproductive roles are associated with changes in gene expression in fire ant queens.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Yannick; Wang, John; Keller, Laurent

    2010-03-01

    In species with social hierarchies, the death of dominant individuals typically upheaves the social hierarchy and provides an opportunity for subordinate individuals to become reproductives. Such a phenomenon occurs in the monogyne form of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, where colonies typically contain a single wingless reproductive queen, thousands of workers and hundreds of winged nonreproductive virgin queens. Upon the death of the mother queen, many virgin queens shed their wings and initiate reproductive development instead of departing on a mating flight. Workers progressively execute almost all of them over the following weeks. To identify the molecular changes that occur in virgin queens as they perceive the loss of their mother queen and begin to compete for reproductive dominance, we collected virgin queens before the loss of their mother queen, 6 h after orphaning and 24 h after orphaning. Their RNA was extracted and hybridized against microarrays to examine the expression levels of approximately 10,000 genes. We identified 297 genes that were consistently differentially expressed after orphaning. These include genes that are putatively involved in the signalling and onset of reproductive development, as well as genes underlying major physiological changes in the young queens. PMID:20163551

  20. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from...

  1. Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jacob G.; Guidat, Florian S.; Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2013-01-01

    In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen–worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a ‘switch point’ in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen–worker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

  2. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  3. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Min; Seo, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Yeol

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  4. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; Gonzlez, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Frster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 125565, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  5. The mothematics of female pheromone signaling: strategies for aging virgins.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Symonds, Matthew R E; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Although females rarely experience strong mate limitation, delays or lifelong problems of mate acquisition are detrimental to female fitness. In systems where males search for females via pheromone plumes, it is often difficult to assess whether female signaling is costly. Direct costs include the energetics of pheromone production and attention from unwanted eavesdroppers, such as parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Suboptimal outcomes are also possible from too many or too few mating events or near-simultaneous arrival of males who make unwanted mating attempts (even if successfully thwarted). We show that, in theory, even small costs can lead to a scenario where young females signal less intensely (lower pheromone concentration and/or shorter time spent signaling) and increase signaling effort only as they age and gather evidence (while still virgin) on whether sperm limitation threatens their reproductive success. Our synthesis of the empirical data available on Lepidoptera supports this prediction for one frequently reported component of signaling-time spent calling (often reported as the time of onset of calling at night)-but not for another, pheromone titer. This difference is explicable under the plausible but currently untested assumption that signaling earlier than other females each night is a more reliable way of increasing the probability of acquiring at least one mate than producing a more concentrated pheromone plume. PMID:25674695

  6. Male Courtship Pheromones Induce Cloacal Gaping in Female Newts (Salamandridae)

    PubMed Central

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones are an important component of sexual communication in courting salamanders, but the number of species in which their use has been demonstrated with behavioral evidence remains limited. Here we developed a behavioral assay for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the aquatically courting Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl. By performing an in-depth study of the courtship behavior, we show that females invariably open their cloaca (cloacal gaping) before engaging in pinwheel behavior, the circling movement that is the prelude to spermatophore uptake. In contrast, cloacal gaping was not observed in failed courtships, where females escaped or displayed thanatosis. Since gaping mainly occurred during male amplexus and cloacal imposition, which is the obvious period of pheromone transfer, we next investigated whether male courtship water (i.e., water holding courtship pheromones) alone was able to induce this reaction in females. These tests showed that courtship water induced cloacal gaping significantly more than water, even in the absence of a male. Cloacal gaping thus provides a simple and robust test for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the Iberian ribbed newt. Since opening the cloaca is an essential prerequisite for spermatophore pick-up in all internally fertilizing salamanders, we hypothesize that variations on this assay will also be useful in several other species. PMID:26771882

  7. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity.

    PubMed

    Katti, S; Lokhande, N; Gonzlez, D; Cassill, A; Renthal, R

    2013-02-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins, using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila odorant-binding protein that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in Escherichia?coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Frster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ?100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ?200?nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ?90?nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the Laughlin, Ha, Jones and Smith model of pheromone reception are discussed. PMID:23121132

  8. Male Courtship Pheromones Induce Cloacal Gaping in Female Newts (Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones are an important component of sexual communication in courting salamanders, but the number of species in which their use has been demonstrated with behavioral evidence remains limited. Here we developed a behavioral assay for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the aquatically courting Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl. By performing an in-depth study of the courtship behavior, we show that females invariably open their cloaca (cloacal gaping) before engaging in pinwheel behavior, the circling movement that is the prelude to spermatophore uptake. In contrast, cloacal gaping was not observed in failed courtships, where females escaped or displayed thanatosis. Since gaping mainly occurred during male amplexus and cloacal imposition, which is the obvious period of pheromone transfer, we next investigated whether male courtship water (i.e., water holding courtship pheromones) alone was able to induce this reaction in females. These tests showed that courtship water induced cloacal gaping significantly more than water, even in the absence of a male. Cloacal gaping thus provides a simple and robust test for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the Iberian ribbed newt. Since opening the cloaca is an essential prerequisite for spermatophore pick-up in all internally fertilizing salamanders, we hypothesize that variations on this assay will also be useful in several other species. PMID:26771882

  9. Sex pheromone of tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, A; Eiras, A E; Gries, G; Gries, R; Urdaneta, N; Mirás, B; Badji, C; Jaffe, K

    2001-10-01

    Five candidate pheromone components were identified by analyzing pheromone gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD), and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS) : (E)-11-hexadecenol(E11-16 : OH), (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16 : OH), (E)-11-hexadecenal, (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, and (Z)-3,(Z)-6,(Z)-9-tricosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy). In electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, synthetic E11-16 : OH elicited stronger antennal responses at low doses than other candidate pheromone components. Field tests demonstrated that synthetic E11-16 : OH as a trap bait was effective in attracting males, whereas addition of Z11-16 : OH inhibited the males' response. Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy strongly enhanced attractiveness of E11-16 : OH, but was not attractive by itself. A pheromone blend with synergistic behavioral activity of an alcohol (E11-16 : OH) and hydrocarbon (Z3,Z6,Z9-23 : Hy) component is most unusual in the Lepidoptera. The synthetic two-component pheromone is approximately 60 times more attractive than the female-produced blend and might facilitate the control of this pest. PMID:11710613

  10. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication. PMID:18977394

  11. The Structure, Stability and Pheromone Binding of the Male Mouse Protein Sex Pheromone Darcin

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Marie M.; McLean, Lynn; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Lian, Lu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mouse urine contains highly polymorphic major urinary proteins that have multiple functions in scent communication through their abilities to bind, transport and release hydrophobic volatile pheromones. The mouse genome encodes for about 20 of these proteins and are classified, based on amino acid sequence similarity and tissue expression patterns, as either central or peripheral major urinary proteins. Darcin is a male specific peripheral major urinary protein and is distinctive in its role in inherent female attraction. A comparison of the structure and biophysical properties of darcin with MUP11, which belongs to the central class, highlights similarity in the overall structure between the two proteins. The thermodynamic stability, however, differs between the two proteins, with darcin being much more stable. Furthermore, the affinity of a small pheromone mimetic is higher for darcin, although darcin is more discriminatory, being unable to bind bulkier ligands. These attributes are due to the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of darcin being smaller, caused by the presence of larger amino acid side chains. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of the binding cavity, together with its extreme stability, are consistent with darcin being able to exert its function after release into the environment. PMID:25279835

  12. Double mandibular osteotomy with segmental mandibular swing approach to parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Shouvanik; Dam, Aniruddha; Hossain, Mollah Arafat; Chatterjee, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    Surgical removal of benign tumors of the Parapharyngeal space (PPS) is the treatment of choice. PPS tumors may remain undetected for long periods of time and large tumors in the PPS can extend into the Retropharyngeal Space or into the Infra-Temporal Fossa. Anatomically, the mandible represents a significant obstacle to successful PPS surgery. Except for very small tumors, it is difficult to remove larger tumors from this region without some form of mandibular retraction. The standard mandibular "swing" approach involves splitting of the lower lip and a single parasymphysis osteotomy for retraction of the mandible laterally to expose the PPS. However, the morbidity associated with midline lip split and anesthesia of the hemi-labial region caused by the severing of the mental nerve is an unwanted complication of this approach. In this article, we describe an easier double mandibular osteotomy (Segmental Mandibular Swing Approach) which avoids the morbidity associated with lip splitting or intra-oral mucosal incision but allows excellent exposure of the superior and lateral aspect of PPS for easier removal of large tumors in this region. PMID:25937739

  13. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Ghin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  14. Role of Polarized G Protein Signaling in Tracking Pheromone Gradients.

    PubMed

    McClure, Allison W; Minakova, Maria; Dyer, Jayme M; Zyla, Trevin R; Elston, Timothy C; Lew, Daniel J

    2015-11-23

    Yeast cells track gradients of pheromones to locate mating partners. Intuition suggests that uniform distribution of pheromone receptors over the cell surface would yield optimal gradient sensing. However, yeast cells display polarized receptors. The benefit of such polarization was unknown. During gradient tracking, cell growth is directed by a patch of polarity regulators that wanders around the cortex. Patch movement is sensitive to pheromone dose, with wandering reduced on the up-gradient side of the cell, resulting in net growth in that direction. Mathematical modeling suggests that active receptors and associated G proteins lag behind the polarity patch and act as an effective drag on patch movement. Invivo, the polarity patch is trailed by a G protein-rich domain, and this polarized distribution of G proteins is required to constrain patch wandering. Our findings explain why G protein polarization is beneficial and illuminate a novel mechanism for gradient tracking. PMID:26609960

  15. Regulation of Isoprenoid Pheromone Biosynthesis in Bumblebee Males.

    PubMed

    Prchalová, Darina; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2016-02-01

    Males of the closely related species Bombus terrestris and Bombus lucorum attract conspecific females by completely different marking pheromones. MP of B. terrestris and B. lucorum pheromones contain mainly isoprenoid (ISP) compounds and fatty acid derivatives, respectively. Here, we studied the regulation of ISP biosynthesis in both bumblebees. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses indicated that acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) transcripts are abundant in the B. terrestris labial gland. Maximal abundance of these transcripts correlated well with AACT enzymatic activity detected in the LG extracts. In contrast, transcript abundances of AACT, HMGR, and FPPS in B. lucorum were low, and AACT activity was not detected in LGs. These results suggest that transcriptional regulation plays a key role in the control of ISP biosynthetic gene expression and ISP pheromone biosynthesis in bumblebee males. PMID:26632352

  16. The Genetic Basis of Pheromone Evolution in Moths.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G

    2016-03-11

    Moth sexual pheromones are widely studied as a fine-tuned system of intraspecific sexual communication that reinforces interspecific reproductive isolation. However, their evolution poses a dilemma: How can the female pheromone and male preference simultaneously change to create a new pattern of species-specific attraction? Solving this puzzle requires us to identify the genes underlying intraspecific variation in signals and responses and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for their interspecific divergence. Candidate gene approaches and functional analyses have yielded insights into large families of biosynthetic enzymes and pheromone receptors, although the factors controlling their expression remain largely unexplored. Intra- and interspecific crosses have provided tantalizing evidence of regulatory genes, although, to date, mapping resolution has been insufficient to identify them. Recent advances in high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with established techniques, have great potential to help scientists identify the specific genetic changes underlying divergence and resolve the mystery of how moth sexual communication systems evolve. PMID:26565898

  17. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-03-15

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

  18. Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

    2012-02-01

    Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem. PMID:22115807

  19. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular...

  4. Gertrude Stein, opium queen: notes on a mistaken embrace.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Gertrude Stein was not only a fairly open lesbian but also Jewish, expatriate, and androgynous-all attributes that often retarded mass-market success. Why then was she so popular? The article offers original research highlighting how Stein was constructed as a kind of "opium queen" in the popular American press, and the ways that this decadent, bohemian celebrity persona allowed her to operate as "broadly queer" rather than "specifically gay" in the American cultural imaginary-a negotiation that accounts for the mass-market success rather than censure of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas despite the unparalleled visibility of its lesbian erotics. PMID:23316838

  5. Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

    1994-02-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

  6. Distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178

  7. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate). Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO). All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%). Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old) the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old) a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the endpoint was obtained: symptoms and signs of airway obstruction were resolved, PAS and maxillomandibular relationship improved, and tracheotomy, when present, removed. During the follow-up, no injury to the inferior alveolar nerve was noted and scarring was significant in only the two cases treated with external devices. Conclusion Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis is a good solution in solving respiratory distress when other procedures are failed in paediatric patients with severe micrognatia. PMID:22300418

  8. Measurement of torque during mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando D; Lukas, Saylan; Forsthoffer, Dina

    2008-05-01

    In a prospective study, 26 patients aged 9 days to 12 years old underwent mandibular distraction. There were 18 bilateral and 8 unilateral distractions performed. Five patients had previous distraction. Torque measurements were performed during the distraction process. A modest linear increase in torque was noted during the distraction process. Older patients required more torque to achieve the same distraction length as younger patients. The results of this study suggest that distraction forces are relatively modest, which may allow for greater freedom of distractor design. PMID:18520377

  9. Mandibular surgery: technologic and technical improvements.

    PubMed

    Herford, Alan S; Stringer, Dale E; Tandon, Rahul

    2014-11-01

    The ability of surgeons to use advanced techniques can significantly improve both surgical outcome and patient satisfaction. Surgical evolution in mandibular orthognathic surgery is no exception, because advancements have aided both surgical planning and technique. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the historical progression of improvements in this technique and appreciate the technologic advancements as they are happening. Computer-driven surgical planning is becoming increasingly popular, providing surgeons and patients with the ability to adjust to intraoperative and postoperative variations. By using these capabilities, clinicians are now able to give patients the best possible outcomes. PMID:25438881

  10. Regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in three plusiinae moths: Macdunnoughia confusa, Anadevidia peponis, and Chrysodeixis eriosoma.

    PubMed

    Komoda, M; Inomata, S; Ono, A; Watanabe, H; Ando, T

    2000-10-01

    Virgin females of M. confusa, A. peponis, and C. eriosoma secrete (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate as a common main pheromone component. Their pheromone titers decreased after decapitation, and increased in the decapitated females after injection of a synthetic hormone, pheromone biosynthetic activating neuropeptide (PBAN) of Bombyx mori. In addition, an extract of brain-subesophageal ganglion complexes of each Plusiinae species activated pheromone biosynthesis in decapitated females of not only the corresponding species, but also that of Mamestra brassicae. These results indicate that pheromone biosynthesis of the three Plusiinae species is also controlled by a PBAN-like substance. However, the Plusiinae females exceptionally contained remarkable amounts of the pheromone even 1 day after decapitation. Since it has been reported that pheromones completely disappear at least 1 day after decapitation in females of many other lepdidoptran species including B. mori and M. brassicae, a different mechanism is likely regarding the regulation of the studied Plusiinae pheromone biosynthesis. Furthermore, an incorporation experiment with a labeled pheromone precursor, D9-(Z)-7-dodecenoic acid, showed that moderate biosynthesis still proceeded in the pheromone glands of M. confusa females 1 day after decapitation, providing an evidence why complete disappearance of the pheromone was not observed in the females which otherwise lacked a source of the pheromonotropic neuropeptide. PMID:11129587

  11. Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the challenges in insect chemical ecology is to understand how insect pheromones are synthesised, detected and degraded. Genome wide survey by comparative sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for this challenge. A. ipsilon is a destructive pest of many crops and further characterization of the genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and transport could offer potential targets for disruption of their chemical communication and for crop protection. Results Here we report 454 next-generation sequencing of the A. ipsilon pheromone gland transcriptome, identification and expression profiling of genes putatively involved in pheromone production, transport and degradation. A total of 23473 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis, 86% of which were A. ipsilon specific. 42 transcripts encoded enzymes putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, of which 15 were specifically, or mainly, expressed in the pheromone glands at 5 to 120-fold higher levels than in the body. Two transcripts encoding for a fatty acid synthase and a desaturase were highly abundant in the transcriptome and expressed more than 40-fold higher in the glands than in the body. The transcripts encoding for 2 acetyl-CoA carboxylases, 1 fatty acid synthase, 2 desaturases, 3 acyl-CoA reductases, 2 alcohol oxidases, 2 aldehyde reductases and 3 acetyltransferases were expressed at a significantly higher level in the pheromone glands than in the body. 17 esterase transcripts were not gland-specific and 7 of these were expressed highly in the antennae. Seven transcripts encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 8 encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified. Two CSP transcripts (AipsCSP2, AipsCSP8) were highly abundant in the pheromone gland transcriptome and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. One OBP (AipsOBP6) were pheromone gland-enriched and three OBPs (AipsOBP1, AipsOBP2 and AipsOBP4) were antennal-enriched. Based on these studies we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects. PMID:24053512

  12. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were successfully separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily...

  13. Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

    2012-12-01

    Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

  14. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-05-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  15. Eolian and fluvial facies in sandstones of Queen Formation, Permian basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, J.; Malicse, A.; Siegel, J.; Holley, C.; Bilir, S.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1988-02-01

    The Queen Formation (Guadalupian) is a sequence of carbonates, evaporites, and sandstones that is found across the Northwestern shelf and Central Basin platform of the Permian basin. Cores, logs, and thin sections of the Queen sandstones, which are commonly stratigraphic traps for oil, were examined in five fields in order to determine their sedimentation history.

  16. COLONY INSULARITY THROUGH QUEEN CONTROL ON WORKER SOCIAL MOTIVATION IN ANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony territoriality in the ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (Colony Deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups,...

  17. AN EVALUATION OF COMMERCIALLY-PRODUCED QUEENS THAT HAVE THE SMR TRAIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study demonstrated that commercially-produced queen bees, Apis mellifera L, could provide a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor when free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: ...

  18. Killing and replacing queen-laid eggs: low cost of worker policing in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, Martin H; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2014-07-01

    Worker honeybees, Apis mellifera, police each other's reproduction by killing worker-laid eggs. Previous experiments demonstrated that worker policing is effective, killing most (∼98%) worker-laid eggs. However, many queen-laid eggs were also killed (∼50%) suggesting that effective policing may have high costs. In these previous experiments, eggs were transferred using forceps into test cells, mostly into unrelated discriminator colonies. We measured both the survival of unmanipulated queen-laid eggs and the proportion of removal errors that were rectified by the queen laying a new egg. Across 2 days of the 3-day egg stage, only 9.6% of the queen-laid eggs in drone cells and 4.1% in worker cells were removed in error. When queen-laid eggs were removed from cells, 85% from drone cells and 61% from worker cells were replaced within 3 days. Worker policing in the honeybee has a high benefit to policing workers because workers are more related to the queen's sons (brothers, r = 0.25) than sister workers' sons (0.15). This study shows that worker policing also has a low cost in terms of the killing of queen-laid eggs, as only a small proportion of queen-laid eggs are killed, most of which are rapidly replaced. PMID:24921604

  19. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens: Evaluating Susceptibility and Infection Routes

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph; Kryger, Per

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107 in the majority of these queens after nine days. Symptomatic worker bees may transmit sufficient active CBPV particles to the queen through trophallaxis, to cause an overt infection. PMID:24618857

  20. 8. New York Connecting RR viaduct crossing 27th Street. Queens, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. New York Connecting RR viaduct crossing 27th Street. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 6.62. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  1. 9. New York Connecting RR viaduct crossing 25th Street. Queens, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. New York Connecting RR viaduct crossing 25th Street. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 6.71. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  2. 7. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING 31ST STREET. QUEENS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING 31ST STREET. QUEENS, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 6.45. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  3. 6. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING 35TH STREET. QUEENS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING 35TH STREET. QUEENS, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 6.31. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  4. Potential increase in mating frequency of queens in feral colonies of Bombus terrestris introduced into Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Maki N.; Saito, Fuki; Tsuchida, Koji; Goka, Koichi

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of several species, bumblebees are monandrous. We examined mating frequency in feral colonies of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris in Japan . Using microsatellite markers, genotyping of sperm DNA stored in the spermatheca of nine queens detected multiple insemination paternities in one queen; the others were singly mated. The average effective paternity frequency estimated from the genotypes of queens and workers was 1.23; that estimated from the workers' genotype alone was 2.12. These values were greater than those of laboratory-reared colonies in the native ranges of B. terrestris. The genotypes of one or two workers did not match those of their queens or showed paternities different from those of their nestmates; this may have arisen from either queen takeover or drifting of workers. These alien workers were responsible for the heterogeneous genotype distribution within each B. terrestris colony, resulting in higher estimates of paternity frequency than of insemination frequency. The high mating frequency of introduced B. terrestris may have occurred by artificial selection through mass breeding for commercialization. Moreover, polyandrous queens may be selectively advantageous, because reproduction by such queens is less likely to be disturbed by interspecific mating than that by monandrous queens.

  5. Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2004-12-01

    Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen’s egg-marking signal.

  6. Queen Specific Exocrine Glands in Legionary Ants and Their Possible Function in Sexual Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hölldobler, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The colonies of army ants and some other legionary ant species have single, permanently wingless queens with massive post petioles and large gasters. Such highly modified queens are called dichthadiigynes. This paper presents the unusually rich exocrine gland endowment of dichthadiigynes, which is not found in queens of other ant species. It has been suggested these kinds of glands produce secretions that attract and maintain worker retinues around queens, especially during migration. However, large worker retinues also occur in non-legionary species whose queens do not have such an exuberance of exocrine glands. We argue and present evidence in support of our previously proposed hypothesis that the enormous outfit of exocrine glands found in dichthadiigynes is due to sexual selection mediated by workers as the main selecting agents. PMID:26986740

  7. Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Mandibular Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Wu, Ju-Hui; Chen, Chun-Ming; Du, Je-Kang

    2015-09-01

    Previously, arsenic was a popular devitalizing agent used to necrotize inflamed dental pulp to lower the pulp sensitivity owing to the unavailability of appropriate anesthesia. However, leakage from the apical foramen, lateral or accessory canals, or cracks in the tooth is common. This can be dangerous because of the reportedly high toxic effects of arsenic in both hard and soft tissues, leading to gingival and osseous necrosis and, consequently, osteomyelitis. Therefore, arsenic can prove fatal for both bones and teeth and is no longer used. We encountered a case involving a 50-year-old man who had developed mandibular osteomyelitis with lower lip paresthesia caused by arsenic trioxide used during endodontic treatment. The patient was treated with appropriate antibiotics, adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and adequate surgical debridement. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can induce neovascularization in necrosed tissues and improve bone and soft tissue healing. At a 4-year follow-up visit, bone healing was observed, with restoration of periodontal health, although the paresthesia had persisted. We describe this case, present a review of the relevant published data, and discuss the possible causes, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up protocol of mandibular osteomyelitis caused by arsenic trioxide. PMID:25896568

  8. In Vivo Bioreactors for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, A.M.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach. PMID:25139360

  9. Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, V. P.; Singh, Gyan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment. PMID:24987621

  10. Mandibular fractures in iraq: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Bede, Salwan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the mandibular fractures relating to gender, age, the etiology of injury, and the rendered treatment modalities and complications. The data of the patients who sustained mandibular fractures were retrieved and were analyzed retrospectively, and based on these data a descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 112 patients were included in this study; the most common cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs) followed by assaults and missile injuries. The most frequently involved age group was 11 to 20 years, treatment modalities included conservative, closed reduction and indirect fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 11.6, 79.5, and 8.9% of the cases, respectively. Most of the major complications were injury related. This study showed RTAs to be the most frequent cause followed by assaults, it also showed that a high percentage of assault victims were females mainly of low socioeconomic status. Another distinguishing feature in this study was the high incidence of missile injuries in the form of bullets and blasts. Closed reduction still has an important role in the treatment of fractures of mandible especially when the necessary equipments for ORIF are not readily available. A higher complication rate was observed in patients diagnosed with multiple and comminuted fractures as well as those caused by violence in the form of missile and assault injuries. PMID:25709754

  11. Social regulation of maternal traits in nest-founding bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) queens.

    PubMed

    Woodard, S Hollis; Bloch, Guy; Band, Mark R; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-09-15

    During the nest-founding phase of the bumble bee colony cycle, queens undergo striking changes in maternal care behavior. Early in the founding phase, prior to the emergence of workers in the nest, queens are reproductive and also provision and feed their offspring. However, later in the founding phase, queens reduce their feeding of larvae and become specialized on reproduction. This transition is synchronized with the emergence of workers in the colony, who assume the task of feeding their siblings. Using a social manipulation experiment with the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we tested the hypothesis that workers regulate the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in nest-founding bumble bee queens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that early-stage nest-founding queens with workers prematurely added to their nests reduce their brood-feeding behavior and increase egg laying, and likewise, late-stage nest-founding queens increase their brood-feeding behavior and decrease egg-laying when workers are removed from their nests. Further, brood-feeding and egg-laying behaviors were negatively correlated. We used Agilent microarrays designed from B. terrestris brain expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) to explore a second hypothesis, that workers alter brain gene expression in nest-founding queens. We found evidence that brain gene expression in nest-founding queens is altered by the presence of workers, with the effect being much stronger in late-stage founding queens. This study provides new insights into how the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in queen bumble bees is regulated during the nest initiation phase of the colony cycle. PMID:23966589

  12. Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

    2006-07-01

    The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

  13. Social regulation of maternal traits in nest-founding bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) queens

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, S. Hollis; Bloch, Guy; Band, Mark R.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the nest-founding phase of the bumble bee colony cycle, queens undergo striking changes in maternal care behavior. Early in the founding phase, prior to the emergence of workers in the nest, queens are reproductive and also provision and feed their offspring. However, later in the founding phase, queens reduce their feeding of larvae and become specialized on reproduction. This transition is synchronized with the emergence of workers in the colony, who assume the task of feeding their siblings. Using a social manipulation experiment with the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we tested the hypothesis that workers regulate the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in nest-founding bumble bee queens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that early-stage nest-founding queens with workers prematurely added to their nests reduce their brood-feeding behavior and increase egg laying, and likewise, late-stage nest-founding queens increase their brood-feeding behavior and decrease egg-laying when workers are removed from their nests. Further, brood-feeding and egg-laying behaviors were negatively correlated. We used Agilent microarrays designed from B. terrestris brain expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) to explore a second hypothesis, that workers alter brain gene expression in nest-founding queens. We found evidence that brain gene expression in nest-founding queens is altered by the presence of workers, with the effect being much stronger in late-stage founding queens. This study provides new insights into how the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in queen bumble bees is regulated during the nest initiation phase of the colony cycle. PMID:23966589

  14. Identification of a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in the social lives of various mammalian species. Some of these chemicals are called pheromones. Rats release a specific odor into the air when stressed. This stress-related odor increases the anxiety levels of other rats; therefore, it is possible that the anxiety-causing molecules are present in the stress-related odorants. Here, we have tried to identify the responsible molecules by using the acoustic startle reflex as a bioassay system to detect anxiogenic activity. After successive fractionation of the stress-related odor, we detected 4-methylpentanal and hexanal in the final fraction that still possessed anxiogenic properties. Using synthetic molecules, we found that minute amounts of the binary mixture, but not either molecule separately, increased anxiety in rats. Furthermore, we determined that the mixture increased a specific type of anxiety and evoked anxiety-related behavioral responses in an experimental model that was different from the acoustic startle reflex. Analyses of neural mechanisms proposed that the neural circuit related to anxiety was only activated when the two molecules were simultaneously perceived by two olfactory systems. We concluded that the mixture is a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying a rat pheromone. Our results could aid further research on rat pheromones, which would enhance our understanding of chemical communication in mammals. PMID:25512532

  15. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  16. Pheromonic Representation of User Quests by Digital Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Endre; Kantor, Paul B.; Neu, Dave J.

    1999-01-01

    In the "Ant World" project, items to be retrieved are "quests" represented by entire collections of judged documents. To save space and time, methods were developed for representing these complex entities in a short string of about 1,000 bytes, called a Digital Information Pheromone (DIP). Principles are presented for determining the DIP for a

  17. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A first principle modeling approach is applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data include field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as laboratory data collected on three semiochemi...

  18. PHEROMONES OF MILKWEED BUGS ( HETEROPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) ATTRACT WAYWARD PLANT BUGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetically reconstructed aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), revealed thatalso attractsed males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae)in mid-summer and early fall males of the mirid bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight., w...

  19. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

  20. Efficient sex pheromone trapping: catching the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Gadi, Nirupa; Taianao, Anthony J

    2012-07-01

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is the most serious pest of sweetpotato around the world, damaging sweetpotatoes in the field and in storage, as well as being a quarantine pest. Because the larval period is spent within vines or tubers, and the adults are nocturnal, chemical control frequently is not effective. In addition, there are few natural enemies, and pheromone-based trapping does not appear to reduce the damage level. In the present study, we evaluated a number of parameters that affect pheromone-based trap catch, including trap design, trap size, trap color, and height at which the traps are placed. Pherocon unitraps caught higher numbers than ground, funnel water, or delta traps. Medium-sized traps (13??17.5 cm) were more effective than larger or smaller traps. In a color-choice test, C. formicarius preferred red over gray, brown, blue, white, yellow, black, or red traps; light red was more attractive than other shades of red. Maximum catches were obtained when the traps were set 50 cm above the crop canopy. Light-red unitraps with pheromone lures caught more adults than identical traps without lures, suggesting that C. formicarius is influenced by both visual and olfactory cues. Pheromone-baited light-red unitraps, 13??17.5 cm, installed 50 cm above the crop canopy, were the most effective at catching C. formicarius adults, and they appear to have the greatest potential for use in trap-and-kill strategies and eradication programs. PMID:22782300

  1. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  2. Synthesis of a dimethylfuran-containing macrolide insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grignard chemistry was utilized to construct a key trisubstituted furan intermediate (3,4-dimethyl-2-[5-(tetrahydroppyran-2-yloxy)pentyl]furan) from 2,3-dimethylbutenolide, prepared via a Reformatsky route. The carbon skeleton of the macrolide pheromone also requires construction of a propionic aci...

  3. Sex Pheromone of the Rare Click Beetle Betarmon bisbimaculatus.

    PubMed

    König, Christian; Szallies, Alexander; Steidle, Johannes L M; Tolasch, Till

    2016-01-01

    The click beetle Betarmon bisbimaculatus (Fabricius, 1803) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) has a scattered distribution throughout a large area in Europe and the near East. Due to its scarcity, little is known about the ecology, biology, and development of this peculiar species. Here, we studied the composition of the female-released sex pheromone of B. bisbimaculatus. Neryl hexanoate, neryl octanoate, and neryl decanoate, in a ratio of approximately 3:1:6, were the only volatile compounds present in the extracts of pheromone glands. A synthetic mixture of all three compounds in the natural ratio was highly attractive to males in field traps. When the compounds were tested individually, only traps baited with neryl hexanoate were attractive, but they caught only a sixth of the males compared to the mixture. Based on the similarity of their sex pheromones, we propose that the tribe Pomachiliini with B. bisbimaculatus is closely related to the tribe Agriotini. This study shows the potential of sex pheromone studies for monitoring of rare and threatened insects as well as for elucidating phylogenetic relationships. PMID:26698594

  4. Efforts to identify the sex pheromone of the potato psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cooperators on this project previously identified a sex pheromone of a psyllid pest of pears, the first such identification for any psyllid. We now have evidence that female potato psyllids also emit a sex attractant. Attractiveness of females in olfactometer assays depends upon female mating stat...

  5. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world but toxic bait systems affect non-target ant species and can not be used in sensitive ecosystems. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of food resources back to the colony....

  6. BUG PHEROMONES (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA) AND TACHINID FLY HOST-FINDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data and observations on wild tachinid flies that were attracted to traps baited with known or suspected pheromones for the following stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are reported: Podisus maculiventris (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), Thyanta accerra custator McAtee, Acrosternum...

  7. ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

  8. SEX PHEROMONE FOR CRANBERRY BLOSSOM WORM, EPIGLAE APIATA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aitan), in New Jersey. The sex pheromone of this insect was identified to be a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), a...

  9. REFINING THE PHEROMONE-BASED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DOGWOOD BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris is an increasingly important pest of apple grown on size-controlling rootstocks in eastern North America. Many apple producers monitor populations of the key pests of apple using sex pheromone traps, and may base their management decisions on pher...

  10. Chemical cues and pheromones in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Buchinger, Tyler J; Siefkes, Michael J; Zielinski, Barbara S; Brant, Cory O; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cues and pheromones guide decisions in organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The neurobiology, function, and evolution of olfaction are particularly well described in insects, and resulting concepts have driven novel approaches to pest control. However, aside from several exceptions, the olfactory biology of vertebrates remains poorly understood. One exception is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), which relies heavily upon olfaction during reproduction. Here, we provide a broad review of the chemical cues and pheromones used by the sea lamprey during reproduction, including overviews of the sea lamprey olfactory system, chemical cues and pheromones, and potential applications to population management. The critical role of olfaction in mediating the sea lamprey life cycle is evident by a well-developed olfactory system. Sea lamprey use chemical cues and pheromones to identify productive spawning habitat, coordinate spawning behaviors, and avoid risk. Manipulation of olfactory biology offers opportunities for management of populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where the sea lamprey is a destructive invader. We suggest that the sea lamprey is a broadly useful organism with which to study vertebrate olfaction because of its simple but well-developed olfactory organ, the dominant role of olfaction in guiding behaviors during reproduction, and the direct implications for vertebrate pest management. PMID:26609313

  11. An inhibitory sex pheromone tastes bitter for Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Fabien; Hiroi, Makoto; Twele, Robert; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Umemoto, Daisuke; Manire, Grard; Marion-Poll, Frdric; Ozaki, Mamiko; Francke, Wittko; Cobb, Matthew; Everaerts, Claude; Tanimura, Teiichi; Ferveur, Jean-Franois

    2007-01-01

    Sexual behavior requires animals to distinguish between the sexes and to respond appropriately to each of them. In Drosophila melanogaster, as in many insects, cuticular hydrocarbons are thought to be involved in sex recognition and in mating behavior, but there is no direct neuronal evidence of their pheromonal effect. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures of responses to natural and synthetic compounds, we show that Z-7-tricosene, a Drosophila male cuticular hydrocarbon, acts as a sex pheromone and inhibits male-male courtship. These data provide the first direct demonstration that an insect cuticular hydrocarbon is detected as a sex pheromone. Intriguingly, we show that a particular type of gustatory neurons of the labial palps respond both to Z-7-tricosene and to bitter stimuli. Cross-adaptation between Z-7-tricosene and bitter stimuli further indicates that these two very different substances are processed by the same neural pathways. Furthermore, the two substances induced similar behavioral responses both in courtship and feeding tests. We conclude that the inhibitory pheromone tastes bitter to the fly. PMID:17710124

  12. Evaluation of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Sweetpotato Weevils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten types of pheromone traps for monitoring sweetpotato weevils, Cylas formicarius (F.) were evaluated in sweetpotato fields at the US Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC, during 2001 and 2002. A funnel trap, a modification of a water-pan trap, and the Pherocon sticky trap were the most eff...

  13. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

  14. Original sagittal split osteotomy revisited for mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Myung-Jin; Chang, Young-II

    2001-06-01

    Introduction: A malformed mandible and an abnormally positioned mandibular foramen make it difficult to plan an ideal osteotomy line for mandibular distraction. In addition, there have been reports of such complications as nonunion, damage and stretch injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and tooth germ damage when conventional osteotomy or corticotomy are used for mandibular distraction. The authors utilized the original sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Patients and Methods: Five patients (three unilateral hemifacial microsomia, one bilateral hemifacial microsomia, and one mandibular retrusion) were included in this study of distraction osteogenesis using the sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Extraoral distraction devices were applied to the first four patients. An intraoral device with mono-cortical screw fixation was used for the fifth patient. Result: In all five cases, the results of the distraction were satisfactory. Complications (as listed) of conventional osteotomy when used for distraction were avoided. Satisfactory results were achieved and these were also well maintained postoperatively (mean follow up: 36 months). Conclusion: The authors believe that sagittal osteotomy for mandibular distraction osteogenesis makes it possible, to avoid injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during operation and stretching injury during distraction and to prevent tooth germ injury. It is also possible to diversify the osteotomy line for various force vectors to enlarge the bony contact surface area. Therefore, we suggest that sagittal split ramus osteotomy should be used as a preferred modification of osteotomy for mandibular distraction. Copyright 2001 European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:11403554

  15. Backward distraction osteogenesis in a patient with severe mandibular micrognathia.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Morishita, Tadashi; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2013-09-01

    Maxillary skeletal prognathism can involve severe mandibular micrognathia with marked mandibular retrognathism or hypoplasia. For patients with such a condition, a conventional treatment is mandibular advancement by sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). This procedure has problems such as insufficient advancement, instability of jaw position, and postoperative relapse. Thus, in recent years, mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been used in some patients. Mandibular distraction has many advantages, but an ideal occlusion is difficult to achieve using this procedure. That is, 3-dimensional control cannot be attained using an internal device that is unidirectional. This report describes a case of severe mandibular micrognathia in a 14-year-old girl treated using backward distraction osteogenesis. This procedure was first reported by Ishii et al (Jpn J Jaw Deform 2004; 14:49) and involves a combination of SSRO and ramus distraction osteogenesis. In the present study, intermaxillary fixation in centric occlusion was performed after osteotomy, and proximal bone segments were distracted in a posterosuperior direction. This procedure is a superior surgical technique that avoids the drawbacks of SSRO and conventional mandibular distraction. However, it applies a large load to the temporomandibular joints and requires thorough management. Thus, careful evaluation needs to be made of the indication for backward distraction osteogenesis. PMID:24036745

  16. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  17. Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

  18. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  19. Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Isolation in Five Mirid Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Taek-Jun; Ahn, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mate location in many mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) is mediated by female-released sex pheromones. To elucidate the potential role of the pheromones in prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric species, we investigated differences in the pheromone systems of five mirid species, Apolygus lucorum, Apolygus spinolae, Orthops campestris, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Taylorilygus apicalis. GC/MS analyses of metathoracic scent gland extracts of virgin females showed that all five species produced mixtures of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, but in quite different ratios. (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate was the major component of A. spinolae, while hexyl butyrate was the most abundant component in the pheromone blends of the other four species. In addition to the three compounds, a fourth component, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate, was present in the gland extracts of A. lucorum and T. apicalis females. Field tests suggest that the ternary blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal as found in the extracts of the females of each species do not inhibit attraction of conspecific males but ensure species-specificity of attraction between A. lucorum, O. campestris and T. apicalis. Furthermore, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate was essential for attraction of A. lucorum and T. apicalis males, but strongly inhibited attraction of male A. spinolae, O. campestris and S. rubrovittatus. The combined results from this study and previous studies suggest that the minor component and pheromone dose in addition to the relative ratio of the major components play an important role in reproductive isolation between mirid species. PMID:25973902

  20. A Mutation With Major Effects on Drosophila melanogaster Sex Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Marcillac, Fabrice; Bousquet, Franois; Alabouvette, Josiane; Savarit, Fabrice; Ferveur, Jean-Franois

    2005-01-01

    Sex pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals that are crucial for mate attraction and discrimination. In Drosophila melanogaster, the predominant hydrocarbons on the cuticle of mature female and male flies are radically different and tend to stimulate or inhibit male courtship, respectively. This sexual difference depends largely upon the number of double bonds (one in males and two in females) added by desaturase enzymes. A mutation was caused by a PGal4 transposon inserted in the desat1 gene that codes for the desaturase crucial for setting these double bonds. Homozygous mutant flies produced 7090% fewer sex pheromones than control flies, and the pheromonal difference between the sexes was almost abolished. A total of 134 excision alleles were induced by pulling out all or a part of the transposon. The pheromonal profile was generally rescued in excision alleles with a completely or largely removed transposon whereas it remained mutant in alleles with a larger piece of the transposon. Five desat1 transcripts were detected during larval-to-adult development. Their levels were precisely quantified in 24-hr-old adults, a critical period for the production of sex pheromones. Three transcripts significantly varied between control females and males; however, the predominant transcript showed no difference. In mutant flies, the predominant transcript was highly decreased with the two sexually dimorphic transcripts.These two transcripts were also absent in the sibling species D. simulans, which shows no sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons. We also induced a larval-lethal allele that lacked all transcripts and failed to complement the defective hydrocarbon phenotype of mutant alleles. PMID:15489528

  1. Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Beeman, Richard W.; Campbell, James F.; Park, Yoonseong; Aikins, Michael J.; Mori, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2011-09-01

    We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the average amount of DMD released daily by single feeding males of T. castaneum was 878 ± 72 ng (SE). Analysis of different body parts identified the abdominal epidermis as the major source of aggregation pheromone; the thorax was a minor source, while no DMD was detectable in the head. No internal organs or obvious male-specific glands were associated with pheromone deposition. Complete separation of all four stereoisomers of DMD was achieved following oxidation to the corresponding acid, derivatization with (1 R, 2 R)- and (1 S, 2 S)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)cyclohexanol to diastereomeric esters, and their separation on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at -54°C. Analysis of the hexane eluate from Porapak-Q-collected volatiles from feeding males revealed the presence of all four isomers (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S)/(4 S,8 R)/(4 S,8 S) at a ratio of approximately 4:4:1:1. A walking orientation bioassay in a wind tunnel with various blends of the four synthetic isomers further indicated that the attractive potency of the reconstituted natural blend of 4:4:1:1 was equivalent to that of the natural pheromone and greater than that of the 1:1 blend of (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S) used in commercial lures.

  2. The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    PubMed Central

    Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursorpheromone receptor pair (hpr1hpp1 or hpr2ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

  3. Lingual Guttering Technique for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Tejraj P; Pandit, Vikram S; Patil, Shankargouda; Pawar, Vivek; Shetty, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the clinical feasibility of lingual bone guttering technique for surgical extraction of mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with thick lingual cortical plate were included in the study. Surgical extraction of mandibular third molars by lingual bone guttering technique was performed in all the subjects. These subjects were evaluated for integrity of lingual cortical plate and sensation of lingual nerve postoperatively. Results: All extractions done by lingual bone guttering technique were clinically feasible to perform and no complications were seen. Conclusion: Lingual bone guttering technique can be used safely in extraction of mandibular third molars with thick lingual cortical plate. PMID:25214725

  4. Mandibular first molar with single root and single root canal

    PubMed Central

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Ramesh, Sachhi; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable anatomic complexities and abnormalities with respect to number of roots and root canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of a fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal was diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. This case report presents a rare case of successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and root canal. PMID:26180424

  5. Mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Saulo Ellery; Sato, Fabio Ricardo Loureiro; Sawazaki, Renato; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Mrcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst is a cystic lesion occurring on the buccal surface of the permanent mandibular first molar in 6- to 8-year-old children. The purpose of this article was to present a case report of an 8-year-old with a radiolucent area on the permanent mandibular left first molar, with clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics compatible with the pathological entity mentioned. The treatment adopted in this case was enucleation without extraction. The patient is still under observation without any sign of recurrence. PMID:22041012

  6. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value. PMID:26048489

  7. It is not all pheromones: No evidence that pheromones affect digging face choice during ant nest excavation.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Ants create nests of a size that is tailored to the number of individuals in a nest via a self-organized process. It is not yet clear how they accomplish this. Deposition and evaporation of pheromones at the digging face has been hypothesised by Deneubourg and Franks (1995) and Buhl et al. (2005) to be part of the nest construction process, with models being presented to support this contention. This hypothesis was tested by allowing groups of 5 Acromyrmex lundi workers to choose between two excavation sites, one that was freshly exposed to digging and one where digging had ceased an hour previously. It was expected that if pheromones played a role in stimulating digging, then ants would show a preference for digging in the "fresh" sites rather than the "aged" sites where the putative digging pheromone had decayed. No significant difference in digging activity between "fresh" and "aged" sites was detected. It is therefore likely that, while digging pheromones may play other roles in other parts of the digging system, they do not play an important role in regulation of soil excavation at the digging face. PMID:26529291

  8. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in Relation with Dental Implantology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives It is critical to determine the location and configuration of the mandibular canal and related vital structures during the implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature concerning the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle anatomical variations related to the implant surgery. Material and Methods Literature was selected through the search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1973 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, prosthetic and periodontal journals and books were performed. Results In total, 46 literature sources were obtained and morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to implant treatment in posterior mandible were presented as two entities: intraosseous mandibular canal and associated inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Conclusions A review of morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to mandibular canal and mandibular vital structures are very important especially in implant therapy since inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that osteotomies in implant dentistry should not be developed in the posterior mandible until the position of the mandibular canal is established. PMID:24421958

  9. Aggregation pheromone ofCarpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and responses toCarpophilus pheromones in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, R J; Weaver, D K; Arbogast, R T

    1995-11-01

    The major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone ofCarpophilus dimidiatus (F.) is (3E, 5E, 7E, 9E)-6,8-diethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7,9-dodecatetraene. It attracts beetles of both sexes in the field and is synergized by odors from fermenting bread dough; mean trap catches for the tetraene alone, tetraene plus dough, dough alone, and control were 24.5, 48.3, 0.02, and 0.00, respectively. In the laboratory, individual males produced 0.58 g0.35 g (SD) of the tetraene per day, but males in groups of 10-50 produced <2% as much per beetle. A second male-specific compound, (3E, 5E, 7E, 9E)-5,7-diethyl-9-methyl-3,5,7,9-tridecatetraene, was also identified fromC. dimidiatus and is about 5% as abundant as the major pheromone component.Carpophilus flight activity was monitored for one year in South Carolina corn fields with the pheromones forC. dimidiatus, C. freemani Dobson,C. mutilatus Erichson,C. hemipterus (L.),C. lugubris Murray, andC. obsoletus Erichson, all in combination with bread dough. The first four of these species accounted for 18, 70, 5.7, and 0.03%, respectively, of the totalCarpophilus trapped, but noC. lugubris orC. obsoletus were captured. Captures ofC. freemani were as high as 11,400/trap/week. Species specificity for the first four pheromones was high, except that a synthetic impurity in theC. dimidiatus pheromone was somewhat attractive toC. freemani andC. mutilatus. Three other species captured.C. antiques Melsheimer,C. marginellus Motschulsky, andC. humeralis (F.), accounted for 0.005, 5.0, and 1.3% of the total catch, respectively.C. antiquus was attracted primarily to the pheromone ofC. dimidiatus, butC. marginellus andC. humeralis responded to most of the test pheromones. There were two major periods ofCarpophilus flight activity: February through June and September through November. PMID:24233828

  10. Evidence for two-step regulation of pheromone biosynthesis by the pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide in the moth Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of pheromone biosynthesis by the neuropeptide PBAN was investigated in the moth Heliothis virescens. When decapitated females were injected with [2-14C] acetate, females co-injected with PBAN produced significantly greater quantities of radiolabeled fatty acids in their pheromone gland t...

  11. Postmating changes in cuticular chemistry and visual appearance in Ectatomma tuberculatum queens (Formicidae: Ectatomminae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Riviane R.; Ionescu-Hirsh, Armin; Simon, Tovit; Delabie, Jacques; Robert, Jacques; Fresneau, Dominique; Hefetz, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    In the ectatommine ant Ectatomma tuberculatum, the visual appearance of queens changes after mating and ovarian development in that their cuticle turns from shiny to matte. In this study, we have shown that this change seems to be caused by 15-fold accumulation of hydrocarbons, in particular heptacosane that covers the multiple grooves present on the cuticular surface creating a wax coat in mated fully fertile queens. Analyses of the scrapped wax revealed that it is composed largely of heptacosane. Peak-by-peak comparison of the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition of mated, virgin with developed ovaries and virgin with nondeveloped ovaries revealed significant differences between the queen groups. Although the total amount of the CHC of virgin queens with developed ovaries was not higher than virgin queens that did not have developed ovaries, the composition showed a shift toward the mated queen. While it is possible that the large accumulation of hydrocarbons may give extra physical and chemical protection to queens, we propose that the switch in the relative abundance of heptacosane and nonacosane and perhaps of other components is indicative of being a mating and fertility cue. This is the first report in social insects where external chemical changes are accompanied by changes in visual appearance.

  12. Material Properties of the Mandibular Trabecular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Éva; Magyar, Lóránt; Bojtár, Imre

    2014-01-01

    The present paper introduces a numerical simulation aided, experimental method for the measurement of Young's modulus of the trabecular substance in the human mandible. Compression tests were performed on fresh cadaveric samples containing trabecular bone covered with cortical layer, thus avoiding the destruction caused by the sterilization, preservation, and storage and the underestimation of the stiffness resulting from the individual failure of the trabeculae cut on the surfaces. The elastic modulus of the spongiosa was determined by the numerical simulation of each compression test using a specimen specific finite element model of each sample. The received mandibular trabecular bone Young's modulus values ranged from 6.9 to 199.5 MPa.

  13. Contemporary Management of Infected Mandibular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Brian; Kushner, George M.; Tiwana, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of infected mandibular fractures has advanced rather dramatically over the past 50 years. Immobilization with maxillomandibular fixation and/or splints, removal of diseased teeth in the fracture line, external fixation, use of antibiotics, debridement, and rigid internal fixation has played a role in management. Perhaps the most important advance was the realization that infected fractures also result from moving fragments and nonvital bone, not just bacteria. Controlling movement and eliminating the dead bone allowed body defenses to also eliminate bacteria. The next logical step in the evolution of treatment was primary bone grafting of the resulting defect following application of rigid internal fixation and debridement of the dead bone. We offer our results with this treatment in 21 infected fractures, 20 of which achieved primary union. PMID:22110786

  14. Biphasic synovial sarcoma in mandibular region

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Malik, Sangeeta; Bhola, Nitin; Chaudhary, Minal

    2011-01-01

    The term synovioma was coined by Smith in 1927, and later in 1936 Knox suggested the name synovial sarcoma. It occurs primarily in the paraarticular regions, usually in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules. On rare occasions it may be seen in areas without any apparent relationship to synovial structures as in parapharyngeal region or the abdominal cavity. The first description of synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region was by Pack and Ariel in 1950. The majority of these tumors seem to take origin from paravertebral connective tissue spaces and manifest as solitary retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal masses near the carotid bifurcation. Synovial sarcoma has been reported in soft palate, tongue, maxillofacial region, angle of mandible, sternoclavicular region, scapular region, and the esophagus. We report a case of 28-year-old male patient with synovial sarcoma in mandibular region with biphasic pattern. PMID:22529590

  15. Bilateral mandibular fracture related to osteoradionecrosis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shikha; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan

    2015-01-01

    Mandible is the most frequently affected bone during head and neck irradiation. Late changes in the mandible may manifest in the form of reduced bone density, dental caries, loss of spongiosa trabeculations, delayed healing following dental extraction, pathologic fractures, osteoradionecrosis, trismus, growth defects in children or second malignancies. Pathologic fractures of mandibular bone are rare and may be spontaneous or traumatic (following dental extraction). We report the case of a 55-year lady, who had undergone surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for carcinoma oral tongue T2N0M0 on a cobalt-60 unit and was disease-free. After a follow-up of 8 years post-irradiation, she presented with sudden onset oral pain and inability to open mouth. Pantomogram showed fracture at the junction of body and ramus of the mandible bilaterally. PMID:26097342

  16. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

    2012-04-20

    Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

  17. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  18. Spring-mediated mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Tufaro, Anthony P; Vander Kolk, Craig A; Manson, Paul N

    2003-09-01

    Successful performance of distraction osteogenesis requires rigorous patient compliance with a daily activation regimen of a percutaneous screw. Previous clinical studies have found that failure of patient compliance with this regimen is the most common complication leading to technical failure of the distraction process. The authors have developed an internalized spring-mediated device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis that can potentially abrogate the risks associated with patient compliance by allowing for automated distraction across an osteotomy. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A segment of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy reinforced at both ends with a pinball was fashioned into an inferiorly based arc and secured to the mandible with stainless steel wire. On postoperative day 12, spring activation commenced by cutting a wire binding the two pinballs to one another. Animals were observed for 6 weeks before they were killed. Radiographic studies and decalcified histologic analysis were performed on extracted mandibles. Temperature- and displacement-dependent properties of the shape memory alloy were also examined. Five animals were excluded from the study due to infection, nonunion, or device failure. A mean distraction of 1.2 mm in the distracted hemimandible relative to the nonoperated hemimandible was found (P <.001, two-tailed paired t test). The maximum distraction achieved in an experimental specimen using the spring distractor was 3.7 mm. There were no other histologic or radiographic differences found between study specimens and specimens subjected to traditional distraction methods. Biomechanical testing of the shape memory alloy revealed a temperature-dependent increase in force at body temperature compared with room temperature and a reduction in force with increased displacement of the spring. This study demonstrates the feasibility of spring-mediated distraction osteogenesis across an osteotomy. As the field of distraction osteogenesis matures, the next level of sophistication in the clinical development of devices will incorporate technology that permits fully internalized and automated distraction to occur. PMID:14501343

  19. Asymmetric Dispersal and Colonization Success of Amazonian Plant-Ants Queens

    PubMed Central

    Bruna, Emilio M.; Izzo, Thiago J.; Inouye, Brian D.; Uriarte, Maria; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We used empirical data and inverse modeling—a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal—to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis) having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp.) that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors. Conclusions/Significance We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means of quantifying the dispersal of ant queens. PMID:21826219

  20. Development of the Honey Bee Gut Microbiome throughout the Queen-Rearing Process

    PubMed Central

    Tarpy, David R.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is used extensively to produce hive products and for crop pollination, but pervasive concerns about colony health and population decline have sparked an interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important insects. Currently, only the microbiome of workers has been characterized, while little to nothing is known about the bacterial communities that are associated with queens, even though their health and proper function are central to colony productivity. Here, we provide a large-scale analysis of the gut microbiome of honey bee queens during their developmental trajectory and through the multiple colonies that host them as part of modern queen-rearing practices. We found that queen microbiomes underwent a dramatic shift in size and composition as they aged and encountered different worker populations and colony environments. Queen microbiomes were dominated by enteric bacteria in early life but were comprised primarily of alphaproteobacteria at maturity. Furthermore, queen gut microbiomes did not reflect those of the workers who tended them and, indeed, they lacked many of the bacteria that are considered vital to workers. While worker gut microbiotas were consistent across the unrelated colony populations sampled, the microbiotas of the related queens were highly variable. Bacterial communities in mature queen guts were similar in size to those of mature workers and were characterized by dominant and specific alphaproteobacterial strains known to be associated with worker hypopharyngeal glands. Our results suggest a model in which queen guts are colonized by bacteria from workers' glands, in contrast to routes of maternal inoculation for other animal microbiomes. PMID:25724964

  1. Ovarian ultrastructure in virgin queens of Apis mellifera L. narcotized by CO?.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bruno; Cruz-Landim, Carminda da

    2012-07-01

    Ovaries of newly emerged virgin queens, aged 1, 3, 5, and 10 days, were submitted to an atmosphere of CO? for 1 min, and studied by transmission electron microscopy. Newly emerged control and experimental queens were kept caged during 15 days with six nurse workers (changed every 2 days) and fed with sugar candy and water ad libitum. For the ultrastructural studies, the ovaries were collected when the queens were 3, 5, 10, and 15 days old. The effect of the treatment on the ovary was mainly evaluated by cell death incidence and acid phosphatase detection. Neither the confinement nor CO? treatment interfered with the pattern of queen ovarian development for up to 5 days; that is, no differences were observed in ovarian ultrastructure or acid phosphatase activity between control and treated queens. Beyond the age of 10 days, treated queens showed a lower rate of cell death than controls, but the positivity to acid phosphatase reaction remained similar in both. The protective effect of CO? on cells, however, did not persist, and 15-day-old treated queens showed no differences compared to the controls in the rates of cell death or enzyme reactivity. In conclusion, treatment with CO? did not significantly change the ultrastructure of ovarian cells, or acid phosphatase activity in them, during the caging time of the queens. From an applied perspective, the short-term imprisonment of newly emerged queens outside of the colony, as is done by beekeepers, does not seem to affect their performance in terms of future fertility, although the narcosis, as applied in this study, may negatively affect their long-term performance. PMID:22421335

  2. Development of the honey bee gut microbiome throughout the queen-rearing process.

    PubMed

    Tarpy, David R; Mattila, Heather R; Newton, Irene L G

    2015-05-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is used extensively to produce hive products and for crop pollination, but pervasive concerns about colony health and population decline have sparked an interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important insects. Currently, only the microbiome of workers has been characterized, while little to nothing is known about the bacterial communities that are associated with queens, even though their health and proper function are central to colony productivity. Here, we provide a large-scale analysis of the gut microbiome of honey bee queens during their developmental trajectory and through the multiple colonies that host them as part of modern queen-rearing practices. We found that queen microbiomes underwent a dramatic shift in size and composition as they aged and encountered different worker populations and colony environments. Queen microbiomes were dominated by enteric bacteria in early life but were comprised primarily of alphaproteobacteria at maturity. Furthermore, queen gut microbiomes did not reflect those of the workers who tended them and, indeed, they lacked many of the bacteria that are considered vital to workers. While worker gut microbiotas were consistent across the unrelated colony populations sampled, the microbiotas of the related queens were highly variable. Bacterial communities in mature queen guts were similar in size to those of mature workers and were characterized by dominant and specific alphaproteobacterial strains known to be associated with worker hypopharyngeal glands. Our results suggest a model in which queen guts are colonized by bacteria from workers' glands, in contrast to routes of maternal inoculation for other animal microbiomes. PMID:25724964

  3. Gene expression differences in relation to age and social environment in queen and worker bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Almond, Edward J; Huggins, Timothy J; Parker, Joel D; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2016-05-01

    Eusocial insects provide special insights into the genetic pathways influencing aging because of their long-lived queens and flexible aging schedules. Using qRT-PCR in the primitively eusocial bumble bee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus), we investigated expression levels of four candidate genes associated with taxonomically widespread age-related pathways (coenzyme Q biosynthesis protein 7, COQ7; DNA methyltransferase 3, Dnmt3; foraging, for; and vitellogenin, vg). In Experiment 1, we tested how expression changes with queen relative age and productivity. We found a significant age-related increase in COQ7 expression in queen ovary. In brain, all four genes showed higher expression with increasing female (queen plus worker) production, with this relationship strengthening as queen age increased, suggesting a link with the positive association of fecundity and longevity found in eusocial insect queens. In Experiment 2, we tested effects of relative age and social environment (worker removal) in foundress queens and effects of age and reproductive status in workers. In this experiment, workerless queens showed significantly higher for expression in brain, as predicted if downregulation of for is associated with the cessation of foraging by foundress queens following worker emergence. Workers showed a significant age-related increase in Dnmt3 expression in fat body, suggesting a novel association between aging and methylation in B. terrestris. Ovary activation was associated with significantly higher vg expression in fat body and, in younger workers, in brain, consistent with vitellogenin's ancestral role in regulating egg production. Overall, our findings reveal a mixture of novel and conserved features in age-related genetic pathways under primitive eusociality. PMID:26883339

  4. Unilateral sagittal split mandibular ramus osteotomy: indications and geometry.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Jacques; Reyneke, Johan P; Damstra, Janalt

    2016-02-01

    Small mandibular asymmetries may be corrected by unilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (USSO). This study had two objectives: first to define the geometric changes in the mandibular condyle and the lower incisor teeth that result from the rotation of the major segment (n=26), and secondly to examine in a clinical study the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of 23 patients after correction of mandibular asymmetry by USSO to find out if there were any long-term adverse effects. Small mandibular asymmetries (<5mm) can be corrected by USSO. Secondary anteroposterior changes as a result of setback or advancement on the operated side should be taken into account during the planning of treatment. The small rotational changes of the condyle did not adversely affect the TMJ. PMID:26774360

  5. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ravi kumar, Pabbati; Jyothi, Mandava; Sirisha, Kantheti; Racca, Khushboo; Uma, Chalasani

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38) without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37). The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment. PMID:23346422

  6. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization. PMID:8402340

  7. Mandibular First Molar with a Radix Entomolaris: An Endodontic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Priyanka; Uppin, Veerendra M

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the mandibular first molar can display significant anatomical variations namely the number of root canals, the number of roots and morphology. Mandibular molars may sometimes have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris). If encountered, an awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its canal morphology can contribute to the successful outcome of root canal treatment. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris, which is a rare entity and poses as an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome. PMID:24910685

  8. Morphology of Mandibular Incisors: A Study on CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Kamtane, Smita; Ghodke, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the study was to identify the number of root canals and examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material/Methods This study was conducted at Elite CBCT & Dental Diagnostics, Pune. One hundred mandibular incisors were evaluated for the number of root, root canals and root morphology. Results In the present study, amongst 102 mandibular incisors, all had one root, 36% of them had a second canal, and Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusions CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors. PMID:26834865

  9. Pheromone Source Location by Flying Moths: A Supplementary Non-Anemotactic Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas C.; Kuenen, L. P. S.

    1982-06-01

    After the wind was stopped in an insect flight tunnel, male oriental fruit moths continued to fly in zigzag fashion along a stationary pheromone plume. Their lateral excursions from the time-averaged pheromone plume were no greater without wind than in wind of 38 centimeters per second. When the pheromone plume was removed and the wind stopped, males initiated wider track reversals when they reached the pheromone-free area in still air than they had made while in the pheromone plume. This non-anemotactic mechanism of maintaining plume contact--possibly a special kind of klinotaxis--when coupled with the orthokinetic retinal velocity of apparent ground pattern motion, allowed males to reach the pheromone source area from 1 to 2 meters away without wind.

  10. Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzel, Matthew D.; Bearfield, Jeremy C.; Keeling, Christopher I.; McCormack, Colin C.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production.

  11. Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Bearfield, Jeremy C; Keeling, Christopher I; McCormack, Colin C; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production. PMID:17093975

  12. Chemical structure and biological activity of a quorum sensing pheromone from Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Ozaki, Koki; Usami, Syohei

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto secrets a peptide pheromone, named ComXnatto pheromone, as an inducer for biofilm formation containing poly-γ-glutamic acid. Recently, the ComXnatto pheromone was identified to be a hexapeptide with an amino acid sequence of Lys-Trp-Pro-Pro-Ile-Glu, and the tryptophan residue was post-translationally modified with a farnesyl group. In order to determine the precise modification of the tryptophan residue, ComXnatto pheromone was synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis. Biological activity of the ComXnatto pheromone was then investigated. It was demonstrated that poly-γ-glutamic acid production were accelerated by ComXnatto pheromone at more than 1 nM in natto. PMID:26276536

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Murine Mandibular Condylar Cartilage Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Utreja, A.; Kalajzic, Z.; Sobue, T.; Rowe, D.; Wadhwa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The mandibular condylar cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue containing cells at various stages of chondrocyte maturation organized into 4 zones: superficial, polymorphic, flattened, and hypertrophic. The goal of this study was to use transgenic mice containing chondrocyte maturation markers fused to fluorescent protein transgenes to isolate and characterize homogenous cell populations of the mandibular condylar cartilage. Methods Fluorescent reporter expression in the mandibular condylar cartilage of transgenic mice containing the 3.6-kb fragment of the rat collagen type 1 promoter fused to a topaz-fluorescent protein (Col3.6-tpz), collagen type 2 promoter fused to a cyan-fluorescent protein (Col2-cyan), and/or collagen type 10 promoter fused to cherry-fluorescent protein (Col10-cherry) was examined. Mandibular condylar cartilage cells were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and either used for gene expression analysis or plated in cell cultures and exposed to adipogenic, osteogenic, or chondrogenic conditions. To determine cell fate, transgenic mice containing the Col3.6-cre recombinase were bred with cre reporter mice. Results Localization and analysis of gene expression revealed that Col3.6-tpz-positive cells corresponded to the polymorphic/flattened zones and Col2-cyan-positive cells corresponded to the flattened/hypertrophic zones of the mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage FACS-sorted Col3.6-tpz-positive cells have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. Cell fate mapping revealed that Col3.6 cells are precursors of some of the hypertrophic chondrocytes in the mandibular condylar cartilage. Conclusion Col3.6-tpz cells represent an earlier stage of the mandibular condylar cartilage maturation pathway. PMID:21646777

  14. Female Sex Pheromone in the Skin and Circulation of a Garter Snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstka, William R.; Crews, David

    1981-11-01

    Serums and extracts of tissues from the female garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) each act as a pheromone and elicit male courtship behavior when applied to the back of another male. Since pheromonal activity is present in yolk and liver tissue of untreated females and can be induced with estrogen treatment in the serums and livers of males, the pheromone may be associated with the circulating yolk lipoprotein, vitellogenin.

  15. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Anendd; Mundada, Bhushan; Deshmukh, Rahul; Bhutekar, Umesh; Kala, Atul; Waghwani, Kapil; Mishra, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF), and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%). In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA) n = 07 (58.33%) followed by fall n = 04 (33.33%) and assault n = 1 (8.33%). The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function. PMID:26613050

  16. Relationship of the lingual frenum to the mandibular central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Garg, Sanchit; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Agarwal, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Clinical implication The purpose of this study is to record the vertical distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum and incisal edge of mandibular central incisors in dentulous subjects and then determine the mean vertical distance and to suggest guidelines for positioning of mandibular central incisors in complete dentures. Method In this study, 150 dentulous subjects (75 males and 75 females) were chosen based on predecided inclusion criteria. A mandibular cast was obtained from irreversible hydrocolloid impression in modified stock trays for each subject. All subjects were instructed to elevate the tongue while the impressions were made. The vertical distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the casts and then the values were statistically analyzed. Result The distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum (AALF) mesioincisal edge of mandibular central incisor (CI) in male, female and total (male+female) subjects was measured. In males it ranged from 7.3 to 8.9mm with mean (SD) 8.290.36mm while in females it ranged from 7.1 to 9.0mm with mean (SD) 8.210.38mm. Conclusion It is believed that the application of this anatomic relation can provide a reliable point for arranging and checking the position of the mandibular central incisors for complete dentures in patients with class I ridge relationship. PMID:25853047

  17. Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types

    PubMed Central

    Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

  18. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  19. Sex pheromone for the brownbanded cockroach is an unusual dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrone.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, R E; Webster, F X; Zhang, A; Schal, C; Liang, D; Sreng, I; Roelofs, W L

    1993-01-01

    Female brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa, emit a sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance. This pheromone was isolated and identified as 5-(2,4-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (which we refer to as supellapyrone), and its structure was confirmed by synthesis. A racemic blend of the synthetic compound elicited behavioral and electrophysiological responses comparable to the natural pheromone across a range of doses. This compound is not only a very different type of cockroach pheromone but also makes up an additional class of natural products--namely, 3,5-dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrones. PMID:11607437

  20. Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.

    PubMed

    Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones. PMID:23131844

  1. 4. Photocopy of circa 186265 lithograph James Queen, Artist P.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of circa 1862-65 lithograph James Queen, Artist P.S. Duval and Sons of Philadelphia, Lithographers SOUTH FRONT CIRCA 1862-65 - West Chester Young Ladies Seminary, 300 Maple Avenue, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  2. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  3. Mating with an allopatric male triggers immune response and decreases longevity of ant queens.

    PubMed

    Schrempf, A; von Wyschetzki, K; Klein, A; Schrader, L; Oettler, J; Heinze, J

    2015-07-01

    In species with lifelong pair bonding, the reproductive interests of the mating partners are aligned, and males and females are expected to jointly maximize their reproductive success. Mating increases both longevity and fecundity of female reproductives (queens) of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, indicating a tight co-evolution of mating partners. Here, we show that mating with a male from their own population increases lifespan and reproductive success of queens more than mating with a male from a different population, with whom they could not co-evolve. A comparison of transcriptomes revealed an increased expression of genes involved in immunity processes in queens, which mated with males from a different population. Increased immune response might be proximately associated with decreased lifespan. Our study suggests a synergistic co-evolution between the sexes and sheds light on the proximate mechanisms underlying the decreased fitness of allopatrically mated queens. PMID:26059759

  4. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest insects, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicotinoids on S. invicta has never been investigated. In this study, the newly mated queens were fed with water containing 0.01 or 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid. Imidacloprid at both concentrations did not cause any increase in queen mortality during the founding stage; however, it significantly reduced queens' brood tending ability. In the 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid treatment, the time to larval emergence was significantly delayed and no pupae or adult workers were produced. This study provides clear evidence that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations has a significant detrimental impact on S. invicta queens and the development of incipient colonies. PMID:26643971

  5. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  6. Brain Growth and Cognitive Development: A Response to Richard McQueen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Herman

    1984-01-01

    Responding to McQueen (this issue), Epstein notes that the Cognitive Levels Matching project in Shoreham, New York, is entirely independent of his brain studies, which merely provide corroborating physiological evidence for a theory grounded in educational psychology. (TE)

  7. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Estel J; Perfecto, Ivette

    2012-01-01

    Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. PMID:23139877

  8. Exposure to female fertility pheromones influences men's drinking.

    PubMed

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Research has shown that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. In the current study, we investigated whether decision making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (nonalcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a nonfertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view. PMID:26053321

  9. Exposure to Female Fertility Pheromones Influences Men’s Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. The current study investigated whether decision-making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (non-alcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a non-fertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view. PMID:26053321

  10. The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in queenless worker honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Mor; Malka, Osnat; Meer, Robert K. Vander; Hefetz, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    In honeybees, workers under queenless condition compete for reproduction and establish reproductive dominance hierarchy. Ovary activation is generally accompanied by the expression of queen-like pheromones. Biogenic amines (BAs), in particular dopamine, are believed to be involved in this process by regulating ovarian development. However, the role of BAs in establishing reproductive dominance or their effect on queen-like pheromone production was not investigated. Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. One bee in a pair was treated with either OA or TA while the other was fed sugar solution. TA was found to enhance ovary development and the production of esters in the Dufour's gland and 9HDA (queen component) in the mandibular glands, thus facilitating worker reproductive dominance. OA, on the other hand, did not enhance ovarian development or ester production, but increased the production of 10HDA (worker major component) in the mandibular glands of their sugar-paired mates. OA is known to induce foraging behavior by workers, while increased production of 10HDA characterizes nursing workers. Therefore, we suggest that TA induces reproductive division of labor, while OA treatment results in caste differentiation of workers to foragers and nurses.

  11. Sex pheromone of South American tortricid moth Argyrotaenia sphaleropa.

    PubMed

    Nunez, S; De, Vlieger J J; Rodriquez, J J; Persoons, C J; Scatoni, I

    2002-02-01

    By means of electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the sex pheromone of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa was identified as a mixture of (Z)-11-tetradecenal, (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienal, (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, and (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienyl acetate in the ratio of 1:4:10:40. Best trap catches were obtained with mixtures of (Z)-11-tetradecenal and (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienal in the ratio of 1:4 to 1:9. PMID:11926198

  12. Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Kirsch, Philipp; Cork, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five decades of pheromone research. Hundreds of pheromones and other semiochemicals have been discovered that are used to monitor the presence and abundance of insects and to protect plants and animals against insects. The estimated annual production of lures for monitoring and mass trapping is on the order of tens of millions, covering at least 10 million hectares. Insect populations are controlled by air permeation and attract-and-kill techniques on at least 1 million hectares. Here, we review the most important and widespread practical applications. Pheromones are increasingly efficient at low population densities, they do not adversely affect natural enemies, and they can, therefore, bring about a long-term reduction in insect populations that cannot be accomplished with conventional insecticides. A changing climate with higher growing season temperatures and altered rainfall patterns makes control of native and invasive insects an increasingly urgent challenge. Intensified insecticide use will not provide a solution, but pheromones and other semiochemicals instead can be implemented for sustainable area-wide management and will thus improve food security for a growing population. Given the scale of the challenges we face to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the time is right to intensify goal-oriented interdisciplinary research on semiochemicals, involving chemists, entomologists, and plant protection experts, in order to provide the urgently needed, and cost-effective technical solutions for sustainable insect management worldwide. PMID:20108027

  13. Make It New: The Queens Library for Teens and Dallas's Bookmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Maureen; Kenney, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Each weekday when school let out, the Queens Library at Far Rockaway--a branch of the Queens Library in New York City--would fill with nearly 100 teens. Drawn by the public-use computers, many others, who had dropped out of school, would also crowd in. To invoke a cliche, the situation was both an opportunity and a challenge. The popularity of the

  14. Treatment of mandibular-condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Krenkel, C

    1997-03-01

    Particularly with true dislocation fractures, nonoperative treatment with maxillomandibular fixation followed by physiotherapeutic exercises leads to poor results, as was proved with axiography and clinical examinations. The main reason for this is the shortening and scarring of the condyloid process and the lack of function of the lateral pterygoid muscle. The condyle with its insertion of the muscle is usually displaced medially and anterially and nearly in touch with the origin on the pterygoid process so that protrusion by the muscle is no longer possible. The physiologic relationship of the lateral pterygoid muscle is restored after reduction of the condyle and osteosynthesis of the condylar neck fracture and the original distance between origin and insertion of the muscle is re-established and is a fundamental necessity for regaining function (Fig. 40). The anchor screw osteosynthesis is a most effective technique with low limitations for its indication. A comparison with plates shows this technique to be very economic because one anchor screw has the effect of at least one five-hole plate with five plating screws. That means a reduction of osteosynthesis implants of up to 80%, which saves a lot of money. On the other hand, the sophisticated technique of an anchor screw osteosynthesis needs some training on the part of the surgeon to get the best results possible. In general, we could realize that the anchor screw osteosynthesis gives a perfect adaptation of the fracture ends with compression also on the inner cortical layer, which with plates is only possible in rare cases. After an osteosynthesis of mandibular condyle neck fractures with an axial anchor-screw there are a few cases with an absorptive process in the fracture interface where the screw migrates in an axial direction with loosening of the osteosynthesis. This effect can be compared with the effect of a dynamic hip screw, which leads to compression of the callus, which speeds up bony union at the expense of shortening the bone. When the same absorption happens using a plate, the fracture ends cannot become sintered and the plate is in danger of fracturing as a result of metal fatigue. Ceipek evaluated 136 patients with mandibular condylar neck fractures treated with axial anchor screw osteosynthesis. Thirty-six of these screws showed signs of migration, but only 3.7% for more than 4 mm. For the migration process there are some important risk factors: difficult repositioning of the proximal fragment, dorsal luxation fracture, indirect method of anchor screw osteosynthesis, narrow condyle neck, no intercuspation in the molar region, no compliance, and disturbance of bone healing. Another stable technique of osteosynthesis should be used if patients show more risk than one risk factor. PMID:11905341

  15. Strength in numbers: large and permanent colonies have higher queen oviposition rates in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Mayr).

    PubMed

    Abril, Slvia; Gmez, Crisanto

    2014-03-01

    Polydomy associated with unicoloniality is a common trait of invasive species. In the invasive Argentine ant, colonies are seasonally polydomous. Most follow a seasonal fission-fussion pattern: they disperse in the spring and summer and aggregate in the fall and winter. However, a small proportion of colonies do not migrate; instead, they inhabit permanent nesting sites. These colonies are large and highly polydomous. The aim of this study was to (1) search for differences in the fecundity of queens between mother colonies (large and permanent) and satellite colonies (small and temporal), (2) determine if queens in mother and satellite colonies have different diets to clarify if colony size influences social organization and queen feeding, and (3) examine if colony location relative to the invasion front results in differences in the queen's diet. Our results indicate that queens from mother nests are more fertile than queens from satellite nests and that colony location does not affect queen oviposition rate. Ovarian dissections suggest that differences in ovarian morphology are not responsible for the higher queen oviposition rate in mother vs. satellite nests, since there were no differences in the number and length of ovarioles in queens from the two types of colonies. In contrast, the higher ?(15)N values of queens from mother nests imply that greater carnivorous source intake accounts for the higher oviposition rates. PMID:24462573

  16. Reidentification of pheromone composition of Sparganothis sulfureana (Clemens) and evidence of geographic variation in male responses from two US states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas chromatographic electroantennagraphic analyses of pheromone gland extracts of calling female Sparganothis sulfureana revealed at least 6 compounds that consistently elicited electroantennographic responses from male antennae. In addition to the major pheromone compound, (E)-11-tetradecenyl ace...

  17. Biofilm growth alters regulation of conjugation by a bacterial pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura; Barnes, Aaron; Dunny, Gary; Chatterjee, Anushree; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yarwood, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, enhancing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, biofilms are likely locations for antibiotic resistance transfer events involving nosocomial pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis. Here we demonstrate that growth in biofilms alters the induction of conjugation by a sex pheromone in E. faecalis. Mathematical modeling suggested that a higher plasmid copy number in biofilm cells would enhance a switch-like behavior in the pheromone response of donor cells with a delayed, but increased response to the mating signal. Alterations in plasmid copy number, and a bimodal response to induction of conjugation in populations of plasmid-containing donor cells were both observed in biofilms, consistent with the predictions of the model. The pheromone system may have evolved such that donor cells in biofilms are only induced to transfer when they are in extremely close proximity to potential recipients in the biofilm community. These results may have important implications for development of chemotherapeutic agents to block resistance transfer and treat biofilm-related clinical infections. PMID:21843206

  18. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    PubMed

    Fassotte, Brnice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frdric; Verheggen, Franois J

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (-)-?-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; ?-elemene, methyl-eugenol, ?-humulene, and ?-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  19. Flexible origin of hydrocarbon/pheromone precursors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Garrido, Damien; Bontonou, Gwnalle; Napal, Laura; Mazuras, Nicolas; Denis, Batrice; Rubin, Thomas; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Montagne, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    In terrestrial insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) provide protection from desiccation. Specific CHCs can also act as pheromones, which are important for successful mating. Oenocytes are abdominal cells thought to act as specialized units for CHC biogenesis that consists of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) synthesis, optional desaturation(s), elongation to very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and removal of the carboxyl group. By investigating CHC biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, we showed that VLCFA synthesis takes place only within the oenocytes. Conversely, several pathways, which may compensate for one another, can feed the oenocyte pool of LCFAs, suggesting that this step is a critical node for regulating CHC synthesis. Importantly, flies deficient in LCFA synthesis sacrificed their triacylglycerol stores while maintaining some CHC production. Moreover, pheromone production was lower in adult flies that emerged from larvae that were fed excess dietary lipids, and their mating success was lower. Further, we showed that pheromone production in the oenocytes depends on lipid metabolism in the fat tissue and that fatty acid transport protein, a bipartite acyl-CoA synthase (ACS)/FA transporter, likely acts through its ACS domain in the oenocyte pathway of CHC biogenesis. Our study highlights the importance of environmental and physiological inputs in regulating LCFA synthesis to eventually control sexual communication in a polyphagous animal. PMID:26353752

  20. Definitive evidence for cuticular pheromones in a cricket

    PubMed

    Tregenza; Wedell

    1997-10-01

    The Orthoptera include many species established as important model systems in the study of animal behaviour, particularly in relation to communication and mating systems. Although most interest has focused on auditory communication, increasing circumstantial evidence suggests that there may be a widespread additional communication channel in the form of cuticular contact pheromones. Using the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatuswe conducted a behavioural assay which demonstrated that males can distinguish the sex of conspecifics using such a channel. Male response to females (courtship song) was completely abolished by using an organic solvent to remove cuticular hydrocarbons and associated compounds from a stimulus female. It was subsequently restored by painting the washed female with the dissolved extract. This technique controls for the possibility, inherent in previous tests, that the lack of response to washed body parts might be due to the washing process itself. The composition of the cuticles of males and females was analysed using gas chromatography. This revealed that the two sexes differ markedly in the quantities of the majority of the compounds found in the cuticular extract that had previously been shown to be used in mate recognition. This suggests that mate recognition is likely to be due to the relative concentrations of several cuticular compounds, rather than a single 'sex pheromone'. It supports previous assertions of the existence of contact pheromones in the Orthoptera, suggesting that they may be widespread in this group.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344449

  1. Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindstrm, Per

    2005-05-17

    The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379

  2. Gender-bias primes elicit queen-bee responses among senior policewomen.

    PubMed

    Derks, Belle; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi; de Groot, Kim

    2011-10-01

    Queen bees are senior women in male-dominated organizations who have achieved success by emphasizing how they differ from other women. Although the behavior of queen bees tends to be seen as contributing to gender disparities in career outcomes, we argue that queen-bee behavior is actually a result of the gender bias and social identity threat that produce gender disparities in career outcomes. In the experiment reported here, we asked separate groups of senior policewomen to recall the presence or absence of gender bias during their careers, and we measured queen-bee responses (i.e., masculine self-descriptions, in-group distancing, and denying of discrimination). Such gender-bias priming increased queen-bee responses among policewomen with low gender identification, but policewomen with high gender identification responded with increased motivation to improve opportunities for other women. These results suggest that gender-biased work environments shape women's behavior by stimulating women with low gender identification to dissociate with other women and to display queen-bee responses as a way to achieve individual mobility. PMID:21873568

  3. Intrinsic survival advantage of social insect queens depends onreproductive activation.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, O; Knigseder, F; Heinze, J; Schrempf, A

    2015-12-01

    The central trade-off between reproduction and longevity dominates most species' life history. However, no mortality cost of reproduction is apparent in eusocial species, particularly social insects in the order Hymenoptera: one or a few individuals (typically referred to as queens) in a group specialize on reproduction and are generally longer lived than all other group members (typically referred to as workers), despite having the same genome. However, it is unclear whether this survival advantage is due to social facilitation by the group or an intrinsic, individual property. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the correlation between reproduction and longevity is due to a direct mechanistic link or an indirect consequence of the social role of the reproductives. To begin addressing these questions, we performed a comparison of queen and worker longevity in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior under social isolation conditions. Survival of single queens and workers was compared under laboratory conditions, monitoring and controlling for brood production. Ourresults indicate that there is no intrinsic survival advantage of queens relative to workers unless individuals are becoming reproductively active. This interactive effect of caste and reproduction on life expectancy outside of the normal social context suggests that the positive correlation between reproduction and longevity in social insect queens is due to a direct link that can activate intrinsic survival mechanisms to ensure queen longevity. PMID:26348543

  4. Termite queens close the sperm gates of eggs to switch from sexual to asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Males and females are in conflict over genetic transmission in the evolution of parthenogenesis, because it enhances female reproductive output but deprives the males genetic contribution. For males, any trait that coerces females into sexual reproduction should increase their fitness. However, in the termite Reticulitermes speratus, queens produce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically while using normal sexual reproduction to produce other colony members. Here, we show that termite queens produce parthenogenetic offspring in the presence of kings by closing the micropyles (sperm gates; i.e., openings for sperm entry) of their eggs. Our field survey showed that termite eggs show large variation in numbers of micropyles, with some having none. Microsatellite analysis showed that embryos of micropyleless eggs develop parthenogenetically, whereas those of eggs with micropyles are fertilized and develop sexually. Surveys of eggs among queens of different age groups showed that queens begin to lay micropyleless eggs when they are older and thus, need to produce their replacements parthenogenetically. In addition, we found clear seasonality in new neotenic queen differentiation and micropyleless egg production. This micropyle-dependent parthenogenesis is the first identification, to our knowledge, of the mechanism through which females control egg fertilization over time in diploid animals, implying a novel route of the evolution of parthenogenesis in favor of female interests without interference from males. PMID:25404335

  5. First deliveries after estrus induction using deslorelin and endoscopic transcervical insemination in the queen.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Daniele; Bini, Costanza; Kster, Daniel Gerhard; Molari, Valeria; Cunto, Marco

    2015-09-15

    The present study consists of two distinct parts, experiment 1 and experiment 2. In experiment 1, 13 anestrous queens were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implant to assess its effectiveness in inducing estrus in the domestic cat. Deslorelin is currently used for the reversible suppression of ovarian and testicular activity in dogs and cats and for estrus induction in the bitch. Estrus induction is also reported in the queen but never reported with a targeted study. All the queens showed a positive response to the induction protocol, and estrus was detected within an average of 5.0 2.2 days after the implant placement in 13 out of 13 subjects (100%). Seven of 13 queens exhibited behavioral manifestations of estrus, and the mean number of follicles detected at ultrasound examination was 4.8 1.6 per subject. In experiment 2, three of the queens previously treated with deslorelin for estrus induction were submitted to artificial insemination through endoscopic transcervical catheterization, a new nonsurgical technique for intrauterine sperm deposition. All of them (100%) were pregnant after insemination and they gave birth to healthy litters. The study, as a whole, proves the effectiveness of the 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implants in inducing estrus in the domestic cat and is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing fertility of the induced estruses. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of endoscopic transcervical catheterization for artificial insemination in the queen. PMID:26092701

  6. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonalves; Serro, Jos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  7. Maternity-related plasticity in circadian rhythms of bumble-bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Belluci, Selma; Bloch, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Unlike most animals studied so far in which the activity with no circadian rhythms is pathological or linked to deteriorating performance, worker bees and ants naturally care for their sibling brood around the clock with no apparent ill effects. Here, we tested whether bumble-bee queens that care alone for their first batch of offspring are also capable of a similar chronobiological plasticity. We monitored locomotor activity of Bombus terrestris queens at various life cycle stages, and queens for which we manipulated the presence of brood or removed the ovaries. We found that gynes typically emerged from the pupae with no circadian rhythms, but after several days showed robust rhythms that were not affected by mating or diapauses. Colony-founding queens with brood showed attenuated circadian rhythms, irrespective of the presence of ovaries. By contrast, queens that lost their brood switched again to activity with strong circadian rhythms. The discovery that circadian rhythms in bumble-bee queens are regulated by the life cycle and the presence of brood suggests that plasticity in the circadian clock of bees is ancient and related to maternal behaviour or physiology, and is not a derived trait that evolved with the evolution of the worker caste. PMID:21508036

  8. Classifications of mandibular canal branching: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mauricio Augusto Aquino; Lagravere-Vich, Manuel Oscar; Amaral, Tânia Mara Pimenta; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Guimaraes; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To gather existing radiographic classifications of mandibular canals branching, considering the criteria on which these were based. METHODS: The search for studies on mandibular canals based on imaging exams included literature reviews, epidemiological studies of prevalence, descriptive studies, or case reports. An electronic search in the MEDLINE (OvidSP), PubMed, EMBASE (OvidSP), Web of Science (Thompson Reuters), and Scopus (Elsevier) databases was performed, as well as a manual evaluation of the references of the selected articles. Combinations of key words were placed in each database. No restrictions were imposed regarding the year of publication or language. References collected in duplicate were removed by the authors. A table was drawn up, containing the included studies and respective interest data. RESULTS: Six classifications of mandibular canals branching were selected for the present literature review. Four were based on two-dimensional radiographic exams, and two were performed based on three-dimensional tomographic exams. Three-dimensional classifications were determined based on the analysis found in the least number of exams, comparatively to two-dimensional studies. The prevalence of mandibular canal branching varied from 0% to 38.75% in the works based on two-dimensional exams, while those found in three-dimensional exams ranged from 15.6% to 65%. The studies were mostly referred to branches that began in the mandibular ramus. Just one classification considered the branches that began in the mandibular body region. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional exams appear to be the best method to view mandibular canal branching. Further studies are warranted to determine its true prevalence and questions concerning to associations. PMID:26753068

  9. Prevalence and pattern of mandibular fracture in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay; Mudhol, Anupama; Madan, Ramnik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiology and pattern of mandibular fracture vary considerably among different study populations. Despite many reports about the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of mandibular fracture there is limited knowledge about the specific type or pattern of mandibular fractures in South Asian countries. This study attempts to delineate predictable patterns of fracture based on patient demographics and mechanism of injury in central part of India. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients with mandibular fractures treated over a 3 years period were identified and analyzed based on age, sex, mechanism of trauma, seasonal variation, drug/alcohol abuse, number and anatomic location. Results: We reviewed 464 patients having mandibular fractures with age ranging from 7 to 89 years. Male (343, 79%) to female (91, 21%) ratio was 3.7:1, significantly higher for males. The highest incidence (37.5%) of mandibular fractures was in the age group of 2130 years. The main cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs, 68.8%) followed by falls (16.8%), assaults (11%) and other reasons (3.8%). Parasymphyseal fractures were the most frequent 331 (41.1%), followed by condyle (135) and angle (124) fractures in occurrence. Mandibular angle fractures were found mostly to be associated with assault victims. Conclusion: The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of these associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management. Because RTAs are most frequent, good traffic sense needs to be imbibed and developed by the government as well as the public. PMID:25937725

  10. Pheromonal and Behavioral Cues Trigger Male-to-Female Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Joanne Y.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Levine, Joel D.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR) was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF) elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral responses towards males and females can be completely reversed. Therefore, both pheromonal and behavioral cues are used by Drosophila males in recognizing a conspecific as a competitor. PMID:21124886

  11. Mandibular osteosarcoma in a nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Kim, Kenneth; Serio, Jacqueline; Paulsen, Daniel; Rademacher, Nathalie; Pirie, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    A four-year-old neutered male nutria (Myocastor coypus) was presented for a one-day history of lethargy and anorexia. A right-sided facial swelling and loose right mandibular fourth molar that exuded caseous exudate from the root were noted; however, the animal continued to decline despite removal of the affected tooth and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Radiographs showed a lytic proliferative bony lesion on the right mandible that appeared to expand in size over the course of a week. Due to its declining clinical condition and poor response to therapy, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy revealed an invasive bony neoplasm of the right mandible, histologically consistent with an osteosarcoma, that was invading the mandible and dental arcade, likely contributing to tooth root infection and osteomyelitis. Endocardiosis of the tricuspid valve was incidentally found as well with early cardiac remodeling of the right ventricle. This is the first report of an osteosarcoma and endocardiosis in a nutria. PMID:25314853

  12. [Three-dimensional modeling of mandibular distraction].

    PubMed

    Morgon, L A; Trunde, F; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2003-12-01

    Facial hemi-atrophy affects 1 in 4000 or 5000 children. We propose treating this deformation of the 1st branchial arch with the "bone distraction" lengthening technique first described by Ilizarov in the 1950s, which has already been employed with the mandible. We have modelled mandibular distraction in facial hemi-atrophy patients and discuss the benefits of such pre-surgical planning encompassing the assistance of pre- and post-operative as well as surgically coordinated orthodontic therapy. Using X scanner views of a 5 year-old girl patient, we have developed a distraction-simulation software, which makes the pathological side harmonious with the healthy side along the medial sagittal plane. In order to obtain facial symmetry, put bones in balance, and orient the occlusal plane horizontally, essential requisites of occlusal stability, it is necessary: to employ a 2 or 3-dimensional distractor, to pre-plan the distraction and screw positioning, to set up a fixed orthodontic treatment plan prior to beginning distraction therapy. PMID:15301361

  13. Mandibular sexual dimorphism analysis in CBCT scans.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism using anthropometric measurements on mandibular images obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The sample consisted of 160 CT scans collected from a Brazilian population (74 males, 86 females) aged 18-60 years. The CBCT images were analyzed by five reviewers. Six measurements (ramus length, gonion-gnathion length, minimum ramus breadth, gonial angle, bicondylar breadth, and bigonial breadth) were collected for the sexual prediction analysis. For the statistical analysis, intraclass correlation was used to evaluate intra- and inter-reviewers, analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values of these measurements, binary logistic regression equations were created to predict sex. Using these four variables, the rate of correct sex classification was 95.1%. After, the discriminant function was used to validate the formula built. Accuracy of 93.33% and 94.74% was found for estimating male and females, respectively. Thus, the formula developed in this study can be used for sex estimation in forensic settings. PMID:26773251

  14. Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures. PMID:25298715

  15. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60-90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  16. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60–90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  17. [Research Progress in Black Queen Cell Virus Causing Disease].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Song, Zhanyun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xianghui; Sui, Jiachen; Wang, Zhenguo; Mou, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In nature, honeybees are the most important pollinators. They play a vital role in both protecting the diversity of natural ecosystems, and maintaining the yield-improving effects of agroecosystems. But in recent years, epidemic disease in bees has caused huge losses. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) is a bee pathogen that was first reported in 1955. It mainly infects bee larvae and pupae, making their bodies turn dark and black, and causing a massive decrease in the bee population. More specifically, the virus makes the exterior of the cell walls in the larvae and pupae turn black. BQCV is a seasonal epidemic, spread by means horizontal and vertical transmission, and is often unapparent. BQCV not only infects a variety of bee species, but also spiders, centipedes and other arthropods. It can also be coinfected with other honeybee viruses. In recent years, research has shown that the Nosema intestinal parasite plays an important role in BQCV transmission and bees carrying Nosema that become infected with BQCV have increased mortality. Here we summarize current research on the incidence, prevalence, geographical distribution and transmission of BQCV. PMID:26470541

  18. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  19. Re-evaluation of the PBAN receptor molecule: characterization of PBANR variants expressed in the pheromone glands of moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is initiated following pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) activation. PBANR was initially cloned from pheromone glands (PGs) of Helicoverpa zea and Bombyx mori. The B. mori PBANR is characterized by a relatively long C-terminus that...

  20. Distraction osteogenesis for correction of post ankylosis mandibular deformities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahmed; Fareed, Wamiq Musheer; Tandon, Parul; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Temporomandibular joint ankylosis, a debilitating disease mainly affecting children, is characterized by progressive restriction of mouth opening and maxilla-mandibular developmental deformities. Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis has been developed as a standard surgical strategy for rectification of craniofacial deformities. The purpose of this study was to assess mono-planar distraction devices for the correction of various mandibular asymmetries in patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis who developed restricted mouth opening and mandibular retrognathia. All patients were treated using one-stage distraction osteogenesis followed by temporalis fascia interpositional arthroplasty under general anesthesia. A significant increase in mandibular ramus and base length was observed. Although an increase in anterior lower facial height was observed, it was not significant statistically. A decrease in posterior lower facial height and corpus was observed. Oblique distraction with angular osteotomy allowed lengthening of both the ramus and corpus, yielding satisfactory results and hence eliminating the need of secondary surgery. In conclusion, univector internal distractors are effective for correction of multi-planar mandibular deficiencies by optimizing its placement through meticulous planning. PMID:26243521

  1. Update on patterns of mandibular fracture in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shreya; Chambers, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular fractures often present to hospital, so if we understand trends in patterns of fractures and their demographics it may help us to deliver a better service, and prevent these injuries. Here, we compare current data on mandibular fractures in Tasmania with data from 15 years ago, and with current world trends. Patients who presented to the Royal Hobart Hospital with fractured mandibles were audited, and the data analysed and compared with those from a previous study. About 37 fractured mandibles presented to hospital each year. Most patients were men aged 20-30 years old. Ninety-seven of the 159 fractures (61%) were secondary to assault, 27 (17%) were the result of sport, and 24 (15%) followed falls. Road crashes contributed only 5% of mandibular fractures. Sixty-six patients (60%) were intoxicated at the time of injury. The angle of the mandible was the most common site of fracture and open reduction and internal fixation was the treatment of choice. There have been important changes in mandibular fracture patterns in Tasmania in the last 15 years. There was a rise in alcohol-related interpersonal violence, and men were most commonly involved. There was also a decrease in mandibular fractures caused by road crashes, which suggests an improvement in road safety. PMID:25453253

  2. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Methods: A woman with 5.88 of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. Results: A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32 of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). The other categories of evaluators identified asymmetries and assigned significantly lower grades, starting from 5.88 of occlusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations. PMID:26560821

  3. Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 122cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation. PMID:22884679

  4. Pathological mandibular fracture: A severe complication of periimplantitis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campo, Francisco; Naval-Parra, Beatriz; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, dental implant treatment is a very common option for patients even in medical compromised conditons. Some complications related to them have been described. Periimplantitis (PI) is one of the biggest concerns complications of these kind of treatments, probably has a multifactorial aethiology. Usually the consequences of PI are the loss of the implants and prostheses, expenses of money and time for dentists and patients. Very often PI implies the necesity of repeating the treatment . Pathological mandibular fracture due to PI is a severe but infrequent complication after dental implant treatment, especially after PI. In this study we present three cases of mandibular pathologic fractures among patients with different medical and dental records but similar management: two of them had been treated years ago of oral squamous cell carcinoma with surgery and radiotherapy, the other patient received oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis some years after implantation. We analized the causes, consequences and posible prevention of these fractures as well as the special features of this kind of mandibular fractures and the different existing treatments. Key words:Periimplantitis, pathological mandibular fracture, mandibular atrophy, bicortical implants. PMID:26155355

  5. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient's discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities. PMID:26770841

  6. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  7. Pheromone modulates plant odor responses in the antennal lobe of a moth.

    PubMed

    Chaffiol, Antoine; Dupuy, Fabienne; Barrozo, Romina B; Kropf, Jan; Renou, Michel; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    In nature, male moths are exposed to a complex plant odorant environment when they fly upwind to a sex pheromone source in their search for mates. Plant odors have been shown to affect responses to pheromone at various levels but how does pheromone affects plant odor perception? We recorded responses from neurons within the non-pheromonal "ordinary glome ruli" of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to single and pulsed stimulations with the plant odorant heptanal, the pheromone, and their mixture in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon. We identified 3 physiological types of neurons according to their activity patterns combining excitatory and inhibitory phases. Both local and projection neurons were identified in each physiological type. Neurons with excitatory responses to heptanal responded also frequently to the pheromone and showed additive responses to the mixture. Moreover, the neuron's ability of resolving successive pulses generally improved with the mixture. Only some neurons with combined excitatory/inhibitory, or purely inhibitory responses to heptanal, also responded to the pheromone. Although individual mixture responses were not significantly different from heptanal responses in these neurons, pulse resolution was improved with the mixture as compared with heptanal alone. These results demonstrate that the pheromone and the general odorant subsystems interact more intensely in the moth AL than previously thought. PMID:24798893

  8. From release to absorption: Elucidating the effects of a desert locust pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a glass-vial bioassay to test the contact effect of the desert locust pheromone phenylacetonitrile (PAN) on nymphs and adults after 2 hand 4 h respectively, and quantified the amount of the pheromone absorbed and released by the nymphs after 2 h and 12 h. We also monitored the knockdown effe...

  9. Proteinaceous Pheromone Homologs Identified from the Cloacal Gland Transcriptome of a Male Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin W.; Eisthen, Heather L.; Williams, Barry L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones play an important role in modifying vertebrate behavior, especially during courtship and mating. Courtship behavior in urodele amphibians often includes female exposure to secretions from the cloacal gland, as well as other scent glands. The first vertebrate proteinaceous pheromone discovered, the decapeptide sodefrin, is a female attracting pheromone secreted by the cloacal gland of male Cynops pyrrhogaster. Other proteinaceous pheromones in salamanders have been shown to elicit responses from females towards conspecific males. The presence and levels of expression of proteinaceous pheromones have not been identified in the family Ambystomatidae, which includes several important research models. The objective of this research was therefore to identify putative proteinaceous pheromones from male axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum, as well as their relative expression levels. The results indicate that axolotls possess two different forms of sodefrin precursor-like factor (alpha and beta), as well as a putative ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor. The beta form of sodefrin precursor-like factor was amongst the most highly expressed transcripts within the cloacal gland. The ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor was expressed at a level equivalent to the beta sodefrin precursor-like factor. The results are from a single male axolotl; therefore, we are unable to assess how representative our results may be. Nevertheless, the presence of these highly expressed proteinaceous pheromones suggests that male axolotls use multiple chemical cues to attract female conspecifics. Behavioral assays would indicate whether the putative protein pheromones elicit courtship activity from female axolotls. PMID:26885665

  10. Influence of temperature on the rate of grandlure released from boll weevil pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although pheromone lures dosed with grandlure are effective in attracting boll weevils to traps, ambient temperatures may influence the rate of pheromone released from lures and subsequently affect the detection efficiency of traps. We examined the rate of grandlure released from three commercial l...

  11. Management of oriental fruit moth with ground ULV spray applications of a microencapsulated sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromones have been widely used to manage oriental fruit moth (OFM) in stone fruits for 30 years. Microencapsulated formulations of sex pheromone have been developed and have proven to be an effective tactic. Recently, we developed the use of ultra low volume (ULV) ground applications of these ...

  12. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    PubMed

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. PMID:26796788

  13. FIELD RESPONSES OF CEREAL LEAF BEETLE, OULEMA MELANOPUS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) TO ITS AGGREGATION PHEROMONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of overwintering cereal leaf beetle (CLB) adults to the male-produced pheromone, (E)-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-6-octen-3-one, was evaluated in a field trial in Oregon. Yellow sticky traps baited with 50 fig, 150 micrograms and 500 micrograms of pheromone in the presence of the plant-derived c...

  14. Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) responses to sex pheromone and blacklight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with the sex pheromone blend of (Z7)- and (Z5)-tetradecenyl acetate captured significant numbers of male spotted cutworm moths, Xestia c-nigrum (L.). Nearly no males were captured in traps baited with (Z7)-tetradecenyl acetate, the major pheromone component. Antennae of spotted cutworm ...

  15. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH PHEROMONE BINDING PROTEINS OF THE GYPSY MOTH, LYMANTRIA DISPAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone olfaction in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, involves accurate distinction of compounds with similar structure and polarity. The identified pheromone is (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, 1a, and a known antagonist is (7Z) 2-methyloctadec-7-ene, 4a. The first step in olfaction...

  16. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  17. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  18. Proteinaceous Pheromone Homologs Identified from the Cloacal Gland Transcriptome of a Male Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin W; Eisthen, Heather L; Williams, Barry L

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones play an important role in modifying vertebrate behavior, especially during courtship and mating. Courtship behavior in urodele amphibians often includes female exposure to secretions from the cloacal gland, as well as other scent glands. The first vertebrate proteinaceous pheromone discovered, the decapeptide sodefrin, is a female attracting pheromone secreted by the cloacal gland of male Cynops pyrrhogaster. Other proteinaceous pheromones in salamanders have been shown to elicit responses from females towards conspecific males. The presence and levels of expression of proteinaceous pheromones have not been identified in the family Ambystomatidae, which includes several important research models. The objective of this research was therefore to identify putative proteinaceous pheromones from male axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum, as well as their relative expression levels. The results indicate that axolotls possess two different forms of sodefrin precursor-like factor (alpha and beta), as well as a putative ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor. The beta form of sodefrin precursor-like factor was amongst the most highly expressed transcripts within the cloacal gland. The ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor was expressed at a level equivalent to the beta sodefrin precursor-like factor. The results are from a single male axolotl; therefore, we are unable to assess how representative our results may be. Nevertheless, the presence of these highly expressed proteinaceous pheromones suggests that male axolotls use multiple chemical cues to attract female conspecifics. Behavioral assays would indicate whether the putative protein pheromones elicit courtship activity from female axolotls. PMID:26885665

  19. SEX ATTRACTANT PHEROMONE FROM THE RICE STALK STINK BUG, TIBRACA LIMBATIVENTRIS STAL (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The male-produced sex pheromone from the Brazilian rice stalk stink bug is reported. Olfactometer bioassays with sexually mature males and females showed that males attracted females, suggesting that males release a sex pheromone for this species. Males were not attracted to either sex, nor were fe...

  20. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) trail pheromone enhances consumption of liquid sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, L; Klotz, J H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated whether the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), trail pheromone, Z9-16:Ald, could enhance recruitment to and consumption of liquid sucrose solutions. All tests were done as paired comparisons with a 10% sucrose solution as food. In the laboratory, mixing 20 microl of a 10-microg/ml solution of the pheromone with 50 microl of the 10% sucrose solution increased the number of ants feeding by >150%. In a field test, we combined the trail pheromone with a 10% sucrose solution in 50-ml vials. These vials were covered with a plastic membrane that has 1.5-mm-diameter holes punched uniformly across its surface. Ants could drink from the holes after the vials were inverted. For half of the vials, 1 microg of the pheromone was put onto the plastic membrane before the vials were filled with a 10% sucrose solution. The remaining vials had no pheromone on the plastic membrane. After 4 h we measured the consumption in each vial. Bait consumption with the pheromone was enhanced by 29%. In a 2nd series of tests, vials were left outside for 24 h. The consumption rate was 33% higher with the pheromone compared with the controls that didn't have pheromone. PMID:14658521