Sample records for queen mandibular pheromone

  1. New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alban Maisonnasse; Cédric Alaux; Dominique Beslay; Didier Crauser; Christian Gines; Erika Plettner; Yves Le Conte

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are

  2. Influence of Age on Antennal Response of Male Honey Bees, Apis mellifera , to Queen Mandibular Pheromone and Alarm Pheromone Component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Vetter; P. Kirk Visscher

    1997-01-01

    Using a computer-controlled pheromone-puff delivery system with signal averaging, we investigated the change with age of the electroantennogram (EAG) response of drone (male) honey bees to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and an alarm pheromone component, isopentyl acetate (IPA). Drone antennae were significantly more sensitive than worker antennae to QMP, but there was no significant difference in response to IPA. Response

  3. Production and transmission of honey bee queen ( Apis mellifera L.) mandibular gland pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Naumann; Mark L. Winston; Keith N. Slessor; Glenn D. Prestwich; Francis X. Webster

    1991-01-01

    The social cohesiveness of eusocial insect colonies is maintained primarily through the utilization of pheromones. In this study we quantitatively elucidated the production, secretion, and transmission of 9-keto2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), one of the components of the mandibular gland pheromone of the honey bee queen Apis mellifera; this is the only identified primer pheromone complex in the eusocial insects. Mated queens

  4. How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone.

    PubMed

    Camiletti, Alison L; Awde, David N; Thompson, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory--that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover (for(R)) and sitter (for(s)) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background (for(s2)) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response. PMID:24323176

  5. Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees’ attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP’s effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  6. New components of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen retinue pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher I. Keeling; Keith N. Slessor; Heather A. Higo; Mark L. Winston

    2003-01-01

    The honey bee queen produces pheromones that function in both releaser and primer roles such as attracting a retinue of workers around her, attracting drones on mating flights, preventing workers from reproducing at the individual (worker egg-laying) and colony (swarming) level, and regulating several other aspects of colony functioning. The queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), consisting of five synergistic components, is

  7. Original article Effect of queen pheromone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    it appears that young workers of an age ranging from 1-6 d are mainly in- volved (Sakagami, 1953; Allen, 1960Original article Effect of queen pheromone on worker bees of different ages: behavioural worker bees to queen pheromonal blends were studied in a 4-field airflow olfactometer. The effects

  8. Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

  9. Binding interaction between a queen pheromone component HOB and pheromone binding protein ASP1 of Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen; Fu, Yuxia; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The honeybee's social behavior is closely related to the critical response to pheromone, while pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in binding and transferring those pheromones. Here we report one known PBP, antennal special protein 1(ASP1), which has high affinity with a queen mandibular pheromone component, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). In this study, multiple fluorescent spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking analysis were combined to clarify the binding process. Basically, fluorescence intensity of ASP1 could be considerably quenched by HOB with an appropriate interaction distance (3.1 nm), indicating that a complex, which is more stable in lower temperature, was formed. The fact ?H < 0, ?S < 0, by thermodynamic analysis, indicated the van der Waals and hydrogen bond as main driving force. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed the change of partial hydrophilicity of ASP1 and the increase of ?-helix after HOB addition. In conclusion, ASP1 can strongly and spontaneously interact with HOB. But the binding ability decreases with the rise of temperature, which may be necessary for sufficient social stability of hives. This study provides elucidation of the detailed binding mechanism and potential physicochemical basis of thermal stability to the social behavior of honeybee. PMID:25195542

  10. Queen and young larval pheromones impact nursing and reproductive physiology of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Kirsten S; Le Conte, Yves; Page, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Several insect pheromones are multifunctional and have both releaser and primer effects. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and e-beta-ocimene (e?), emitted by young worker larvae, have such dual effects. There is increasing evidence that these multifunctional pheromones profoundly shape honey bee colony dynamics by influencing cooperative brood care, a fundamental aspect of eusocial insect behavior. Both QMP and e? have been shown to affect worker physiology and behavior, but it has not yet been determined if these two key pheromones have interactive effects on hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development, actively used in caring of larvae, and ovary activation, a component of worker reproductive physiology. Experimental results demonstrate that both QMP and e? significantly suppress ovary activation compared to controls but that the larval pheromone is more effective than QMP. The underlying reproductive anatomy (total ovarioles) of workers influenced HPG development and ovary activation, so that worker bees with more ovarioles were less responsive to suppression of ovary activation by QMP. These bees were more likely to develop their HPG and have activated ovaries in the presence of e?, providing additional links between nursing and reproductive physiology in support of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. PMID:25395721

  11. Single class of queen pheromones stops worker reproduction in ants, bees and wasps

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Single class of queen pheromones stops worker reproduction in ants, bees and wasps A new study pheromones in wasps, ants and some bees is strikingly similar, even though these insects are separated in representative species of wasps, bees, and ants. After identifying candidate queen pheromones by analysing

  12. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli. PMID:16943499

  13. The origin and evolution of social insect queen pheromones: Novel hypotheses and outstanding problems.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; van Zweden, Jelle S; Oliveira, Ricardo C; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Nascimento, Fabio S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Queen pheromones, which signal the presence of a fertile queen and induce daughter workers to remain sterile, are considered to play a key role in regulating the reproductive division of labor of insect societies. Although queen pheromones were long thought to be highly taxon-specific, recent studies have shown that structurally related long-chain hydrocarbons act as conserved queen signals across several independently evolved lineages of social insects. These results imply that social insect queen pheromones are very ancient and likely derived from an ancestral signalling system that was already present in their common solitary ancestors. Based on these new insights, we here review the literature and speculate on what signal precursors social insect queen pheromones may have evolved from. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that these pheromones should best be seen as honest signals of fertility as opposed to suppressive agents that chemically sterilize the workers against their own best interests. PMID:25916998

  14. Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

    1981-04-01

    In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

  15. Virgin queen mandibular gland signals of Apis mellifera capensis change with age and affect honeybee worker responses.

    PubMed

    Wossler, Theresa C; Jones, Georgina E; Allsopp, Michael H; Hepburn, Randall

    2006-05-01

    The mandibular gland secretions of Apis mellifera capensis virgin queens were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Changes in the patterns of the mandibular gland volatiles of A. m. capensis virgin queens were followed from emergence until 14-d old. Ontogenetic changes in the mandibular gland secretions were largely quantitative in nature, delineating the age categories (global R = 0.612, P = 0.001), except for 7- and 14-d-old queens, which cannot be separated on their mandibular gland profiles (P = 0.2). (E)-9-Oxodec-2-enoic acid (9ODA) contributes most and most consistently to the dissimilarity between groups as well as the similarity within groups. Worker reactions to introduced virgin queens of various ages were recorded. Workers showed a significant increase in hostile reactions as queens aged (r = 0.615, N = 20, P < 0.05). Consequently, worker reactions and relative 9ODA production exhibit a positive queen age-dependent response. PMID:16739022

  16. Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Túlio M.; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P.; Amaral, Mônica F. Z. J.; von Zuben, Lucas G.; Clososki, Giuliano C.; Bento, José M. S.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B.; Lopes, Norberto P.

    2014-01-01

    In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

  17. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  18. Cloning and Expression of a Queen Pheromone-Binding Protein in the Honeybee: an Olfactory-Specific, Developmentally Regulated Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuelle Danty; Loic Briand; Christine Michard-Vanhee; Valerie Perez; Gerard Arnold; Odile Gaudemer; Dominique Huet; Jean-Claude Huet; Christian Ouali; Claudine Masson; Jean-Claude Pernollet

    1999-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracel- lular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and\\/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first time in a social insect, a binding protein called antennal-specific

  19. Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

    1988-03-01

    A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

  20. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

  1. Queen substances from the abdomen of the honey bee queen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. W. Velthuis

    1970-01-01

    The secretion of the mandibular glands of a honey bee queen enables the worker bees to react to the presence of their queen. Extirpating the mandibular glands of the queen does not prevent that she is accepted by her colony. Hitherto this was attributed to contamination of the queen's body by mandibular gland substances during or preceding the extirpation. When,

  2. Differential combinatorial coding of pheromones in two olfactory subsystems of the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-03-11

    Neural coding of pheromones has been intensively studied in insects with a particular focus on sex pheromones. These studies favored the view that pheromone compounds are processed within specific antennal lobe glomeruli following a specialized labeled-line system. However, pheromones play crucial roles in an insect's life beyond sexual attraction, and some species use many different pheromones making such a labeled-line organization unrealistic. A combinatorial coding scheme, in which each component activates a set of broadly tuned units, appears more adapted in this case. However, this idea has not been tested thoroughly. We focused here on the honey bee Apis mellifera, a social insect that relies on a wide range of pheromones to ensure colony cohesion. Interestingly, the honey bee olfactory system harbors two central parallel pathways, whose functions remain largely unknown. Using optophysiological recordings of projection neurons, we compared the responses of these two pathways to 27 known honey bee pheromonal compounds emitted by the brood, the workers, and the queen. We show that while queen mandibular pheromone is processed by l-ALT (lateral antennal lobe tract) neurons and brood pheromone is mainly processed by m-ALT (median antennal lobe tract) neurons, worker pheromones induce redundant activity in both pathways. Moreover, all tested pheromonal compounds induce combinatorial activity from several AL glomeruli. These findings support the combinatorial coding scheme and suggest that higher-order brain centers reading out these combinatorial activity patterns may eventually classify olfactory signals according to their biological meaning. PMID:25762663

  3. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  4. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  5. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  6. A General Model of Pheromone Transmission Within Honey Bee Hives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Watmough

    1997-01-01

    Many activities in a honey bee hive are thought to be regulated by non-volatile pheromones produced by the queen. These pheromones are transmitted among the workers both by direct contact and by deposition on the retrieval from the wax substrate of the hive. This paper presents a general model for the movement of these pheromones through a honey bee colony.The

  7. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  8. Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2008-08-01

    Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

  9. Mammalian Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d ) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  10. Uncoupling fertility from fertility-associated pheromones in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Malka, Osnat; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham

    2009-03-01

    Fertility-associated pheromones, chemical signals delineating ovarian development, were favourably selected in the course of evolution because it is in the best interest of both the signallers (in recruiting help from other colony members) and the receivers (in assisting them to reach an informed decision of how to maximize fitness). Such signals therefore should constitute honest, deception-proof indicators of ovarian development, suggesting, theoretically, that the processes of ovarian development and signal production are irreversibly coupled. Here we demonstrate that these processes can be uncoupled by treating queenless (QL) honeybee callow workers with methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog. While methoprene effectively inhibited ovarian development, it neither inhibited Dufour's fertility signal nor the mandibular glands' dominance signal. In fact, there was even a slight augmentation of both in the methoprene-treated bees. Thus, although fertility and fertility signals are tightly associated, they can be uncoupled by experimental manipulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ovarian development and fertility-associated signal production are triggered by a common event/signal (e.g. queen pheromone disappearance) but comprise different regulatory systems. The evolutionary implication is that these two traits have evolved independently and may have been co-opted to emphasize the reproductive status of workers in the competition for reproduction. PMID:19041321

  11. Queen bee

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alle Bilder (None; )

    2007-05-10

    There are three kinds of bees in a colony: the queen, workers, and drones. The queen bee is the largest bee and her only purpose is to mate with the drone bees and lay eggs. Drones are male bees and their sole job is to mate with the queen. Workers are sterile females, meaning they can't lay eggs. Worker bees collect nectar and food for the queen and her developing larvae and protect the hive. Bees perform dances to tell other bees where and how far away food is located.

  12. Queen Bee

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The bee marked in yellow is this hive's queen. There is usually only one queen in a hive, which the worker honeybees feed, follow, and protect. Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use changes that decrease flower abundance can affect bee health and pollination ...

  13. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test. PMID:22081302

  14. QUEEN SIGNALLING IN SOCIAL WASPS1 Jelle S. van Zweden1,2

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    1 QUEEN SIGNALLING IN SOCIAL WASPS1 Jelle S. van Zweden1,2 , Wim Bonckaert2 , Tom Wenseleers2 in social wasps12 13 Keywords: animal communication, honest signal, pheromone, cuticular14 hydrocarbons incentives (queen signalling). Here we test these competing31 hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We

  15. Mandibular reduction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Theodore C; Harrigan, Richard A; Ufberg, Jacob; Vilke, Gary M

    2008-05-01

    Patients who dislocate their mandible often present to the Emergency Department for care. Dislocation can occur after a variety of activities that hyperextend the mandible or open the mouth widely, such as yawning, laughing, or taking a large bite. Anterior dislocation is the most common type, in which the condylar head of the mandible dislocates out of the glenoid fossa anterior to the articular eminence of the temporal bone. These dislocations are often complicated by muscle spasm and trismus, making reduction more difficult. The emergency physician can often reduce the anterior mandibular dislocation with or without procedural sedation or local anesthesia. A variety of methods are available for closed reduction, including the classic approach and various alternatives such as the recumbent, posterior, and ipsilateral approaches, as well as the wrist pivot method, alternative manual technique, and gag reflex induction. This article will review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of acute mandibular dislocations, as well as discuss the various closed reduction methods available for the practitioner. PMID:18242920

  16. Queen's University : 13, 445

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    · (Maclean's) · (Globe and Mail University Report Card) · (Times Higher Education Supplement Queen's University · : 13, 445 · : 3, 127 · ( ): 1, 551 · (2008 ): 3, 500+ · : 27's University 10 · Queen's University 3 · : www.tourism.kingstoncanada.com : Queen's University

  17. Pheromone-mediated reproductive dominance hierarchies among pseudo-clonal honeybee workers

    E-print Network

    Pheromone-mediated reproductive dominance hierarchies among pseudo-clonal honeybee workers (Apis with pseudo-clonal socially parasitic Cape honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis). We show that the first) to the queen substance was interrupted and appears to be required for reproductive dominance in honeybee

  18. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers. PMID:22252612

  19. The pheromone emergency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female moths utilize sex pheromones to attract mates across a potentially long geographic distance. The biochemical basis of how moth female sex pheromones are synthesized has been elucidated in a number of species, and a particularly large amount of effort has been expended on the agricultural pes...

  20. Pheromonal communication in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Brennan; Frank Zufall

    2006-01-01

    Recent insights have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of chemical signals in influencing vertebrate behaviour. Previously unknown families of pheromonal signals have been identified that are expanding the traditional definition of a pheromone. Although previously regarded as functioning independently, the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems have been found to have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect

  1. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  2. QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY HERITAGE STUDY 1-1 Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    HERITAGE STUDY 1-3 The cultural landscape at Queen's University also embodies different traditionsHISTORY QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY HERITAGE STUDY 1-1 Queen's University Heritage Study history #12;HISTORY 1-2 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY HERITAGE STUDY INTRODUCTION Queen's University is only the most recent layer

  3. Bovine Mandibular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Trent, A. M.; Ferguson, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine mandibular fractures was conducted. An increased incidence in males, beef breeds and animals less than one year of age was identified when the study group of 17 was compared to the total bovine case load. Manipulation during dystocia was the most common cause of fractures. Four neonates had rostral mandibular fractures. Fractures caudal to or involving the premolars were restricted to animals over a year of age. Treatment was attempted in ten of the seventeen cases, with euthanasia or slaughter elected in the remaining seven cases. Of the five cases treated by internal fixation, all four neonates died from conditions related to septicemia. PMID:17422602

  4. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  5. Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger ‘selfishly’ adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish. PMID:20181562

  6. Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    questions, to attend the opening ceremonies and the special events, but most certainly to enjoy the breadth Services Queen's Chair in Teaching and Queen's University Library Learning, 2006-09 and Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering Welcome From the I@Q Steering Committee Co-Coordinator, Nathalie Soini Co

  7. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

  8. Control of the sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway in Thaumetopoea pityocampa by the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fabrias; M. Barrot; F. Camps

    1995-01-01

    This study shows that the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved in the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in Thaumetopoea pityocampa. In vitro incubation of pheromone glands with PBAN resulted in a dose-dependent increase in pheromone titer. The formation of labeled pheromone from deuterated 11-hexadecynoic acid was stimulated in pheromone glands upon in vitro incubation with PBAN. However, no

  9. Anterior mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Borisa, Ashok D.; Wagh, Amol; Kapoor, Rajat; Kori, Channabasappa G.

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor. These are usually asymptomatic until a large size is attained. Ameloblastoma has tendency to spread locally and has a high recurrence rate. Majority of ameloblastomas (80%) arise from the mandible. Ameloblastoma arising from anterior mandibular region (symphysis-menti) is rare. Very few cases of midline anterior ameloblastomas are reported in the literature. They often require wide local excision. Reconstruction of mandible in these cases is challenging. We present a case of mandibular ameloblastoma arising from symphysis-menti. Patient underwent wide surgical excision of the tumor followed by immediate reconstruction using free fibular vascular flap, stabilized with titanium reconstructive plates. A brief case report ands review of literature is presented. PMID:24765429

  10. Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

    2006-07-01

    Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees. PMID:16718558

  11. QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY HERITAGE STUDY Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    LLLLLAWNSAWNSAWNSAWNSAWNS Date: 1836-39 - Residence under construction 1860 - Botanical Gardens 1890s - Tree & shrub of the grounds of Summerhill, established in 1839, and was the site of the first botanical garden in Canada and natural history at Queen's) in 1860. The botanical garden was later neglected and in the 1890s

  12. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

  13. Brendan Dromey Queens University Belfast

    E-print Network

    Brendan Dromey Queens University Belfast M. Zepf Queens University Belfast M. Landreman, S. Hooker Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford P. Foster, A.J. Langley, C. Hooker, D. Neely, Rutherford

  14. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that...

  15. Revised Pension Plan Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    - 1 - Revised Pension Plan Of Queen's University (Amended and Restated as at January 1, 1994) History Of Plan Queen's University has operated a pension plan for members of its staff for a good many, 1962, the Amended Retirement Annuity Plan was superseded by the Revised Pension Plan Of Queen

  16. Revised Pension Plan Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Revised Pension Plan Of Queen's University (Amended and Restated as at September 1, 2012) History Of Plan Queen's University has operated a pension plan for its employees for many years. The first formal Retirement Annuity Plan was superseded by the Revised Pension Plan Of Queen's University (the "Plan

  17. Maxillofacial and mandibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Rudy, R L; Boudrieau, R J

    1992-02-01

    Any traumatic event that produces maxillofacial and/or mandibular fractures generally results in gross and usually severe patient disfigurement and often results in the patient's inability to eat and drink. These fractures are exceptionally rewarding cases as simple techniques may be performed resulting in a successful functional outcome (ability to eat and drink) within a very short period of time (24 hours) after fracture stabilization. A markedly improved cosmetic appearance follows shortly thereafter once inflammation and edema resolve. The primary principle of fracture treatment, ie, providing stable fixation to the bone fragments, may be successfully used with wiring techniques only through an appreciation and proper application of biomechanical principles. Knowledge that bending forces (divided into their tensile and compressive components) are the primary forces to be neutralized dictates the use of the wiring techniques outlined as the "standard" to which all other methods of fixation for maxillofacial and mandibular fractures are compared. The location of the tension-band surface of the bone, the alveolar (oral) surface, dictates the most appropriate position for wire placement. Successful treatment is predicted on obtaining a cosmetically acceptable and functional result (Fig 29). Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation of fractures that can be reconstructed piece-by-piece creates optimal conditions for uncomplicated healing. Fractures in which bone loss or severe comminution exists, and which cannot be anatomically reconstructed, must be reduced using dental occlusion as the template for fracture fixation, thereby avoiding malocclusion. Excessive leverage on the bone fragments may occur secondary to malocclusion, resulting in an increased risk of complications (fragment motion, loosening of implants, infection). Some fractures with comminution or bone loss may not be suitable for wire fixation and must be treated by alternate methods (eg, external skeletal fixators, plates). PMID:1570433

  18. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-06-26

    Covering: up to October 2014Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems. PMID:25849023

  19. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  20. A pheromone model for public opinion formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Jia; Yun Liu; Fei Ding; Di Xie

    2010-01-01

    A method to simulate the dynamics of public opinion formation with pheromone is proposed. It is assumed that an individual would sense and deposit pheromone during its opinion formation, and it changes and updates opinion basing on the transition probability determined by the distribution of pheromone. Using the proposed model, simulations with several sets of parameters are carried out. The

  1. Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses of Apis mellifera L along a transect from. The combined morphometric and pheromonal variance spectra indicate regions of nat- ural hybridization along a Sahara-Pyrenees transect. honeybee / population genetics / morphometrics / pheromone / N Africa / Spain

  2. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  3. Treatment of mandibular odontogenic keratocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar B Bataineh; Mansour A Al Qudah

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with surgical treatment of 31 mandibular odontogenic keratocysts, with special reference to their recurrence, and to review the literature on this subject.Study design. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all odontogenic cysts treated in the Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine at Jordan University of Science and Technology

  4. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2010-07-01

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

  5. Sex Pheromone of Anastrepha striata.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C

    2015-05-01

    The guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata, is a pest of several cultivated species of Myrtaceae in the American tropics and subtropics. During calling, A. striata males release numerous volatiles. This study was conducted to identify which of the male volatiles function as the A. striata sex pheromone and to investigate the effects of age and time of day on the emission of pheromone components. Analysis of the volatiles from males collected by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that three volatile compounds elicited repeatable responses from the antennae of females. The EAD-active compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry as ethyl hexanoate, linalool, and ethyl octanoate. In two-choice tests using Multilure traps placed in field cages, traps baited with live males, ethyl hexanoate, or the three-component blend captured more females than unbaited traps. However, there was no difference in catches when traps baited with live males were compared against traps baited with ethyl hexanoate. Although traps baited with the three-component blend caught more females than traps baited with live males, the difference was not significant. Analyses of pheromonal components released by A. striata males 8 to 26 days old showed that there was an effect of age on pheromone production and also a significant effect of time of day on pheromone emission. Release of the volatile compounds occurred from 14.00 to 18.00 hr, although traces of linalool were detected from 08.00 hr. Peak emission of pheromone compounds occurred at 14.00 hr. PMID:25912228

  6. Diet and Mandibular Morphology in African Apes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea B. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Investigations seeking to understand the relationship between mandibular form, function, and dietary behavior have focused\\u000a on the mandibular corpus and symphysis. African apes vary along a gradient of folivory\\/frugivory, yet few studies have evaluated\\u000a the morphology of the mandibular corpus and symphysis in these taxa, and the investigations have yielded mixed results. Specifically,\\u000a studies using external metrics have identified differences

  7. PHEROMONE BIOSYNTHESIS IN SOCIAL INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Social insects produce and use a very large number of organic molecules as pheromones to communicate both intra- and interspecifically, and to regulate their social interactions. This review provides an overview of the chemical nature of these compounds and where they are made in the insects, and th...

  8. Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSH–cVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

  9. Hormones, pheromones and reproductive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Stacey

    2003-01-01

    Fish commonly use reproductive hormones (steroids and prostaglandins) both as endogenous signals between reproductive tract and brain and as exogenous signals (hormonal pheromones) that synchronize gamete maturation and\\/or spawning interactions between and among conspecifics. This dual function for hormonal products not only extends traditional concepts that sex hormone actions are limited to reproductive synchrony within the individual, but also implies

  10. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  11. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  12. Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Hefetz, Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality. PMID:18704354

  13. Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Meer, Robert K.; Preston, Catherine A.; Hefetz, Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality.

  14. Olfactory Attraction of the Hornet Vespa velutina to Honeybee Colony Odors and Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets’ hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species. PMID:25549358

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

    2013-01-01

    Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system. PMID:23471444

  16. [The osteoplastic replacement of mandibular defects].

    PubMed

    Makhkamov, E U; Abdullaev, Sh IU

    1996-01-01

    Remote (from 1 to 18 years) results of mandibular defect repair were followed up in 64 patients, to whom auto- and allografts and implants of glass ceramics were implanted. A relatively low incidence of complications in patients with glass ceramic implants demonstrates its advantages over other materials for plastic repair of mandibular defects. PMID:8658577

  17. Combined maxillary and mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Molina, F

    1999-03-01

    Mandibular elongation by gradual distraction in patients with hemifacial microsomia is a simple and effective procedure to correct facial asymmetry. The changes in mandibular dimension result in changes in dental occlusion. These are minimal in children because of the rapid growth of the maxilla and can be corrected easily with minor orthodontic treatment. Mandibular distraction in adults with hemifacial microsomia produces good aesthetic results but leaves the patient with a severe alteration in the occlusion requiring complex orthodontic treatment over a long period of time. To avoid this problem, an incomplete Le Fort I osteotomy is performed simultaneously with the mandibular corticotomy. Intermaxillary fixation is placed on the fifth postoperative day, and distraction is initiated. This technique preserves the preexisting stable occlusion. After distraction, both the maxillary and mandibular occlusal planes become horizontal, and facial asymmetry is corrected. PMID:10371939

  18. The Status of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, History of Queen Conch Research

    E-print Network

    The Status of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, History of Queen Conch Research Today there are approximately 230 published scientific papers on queen conch, Strombus gigas. Publication on this species began was made in under standing processes related to growth, mortality, and reproduction in queen conch. Third

  19. Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders In January, 2013, Civil Engineering students are in the final year of their civil engineering degree. Olga and Mikhaela are the co-presidents for the Queen

  20. Marine Fisheries On the cover: The queen

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: The queen conch, Strombus gigas. Il- lustration by Harold L. Spiess. Articles July 1981, 43(7) The Biology, Fisheries, and Management of the Queen Conch, Strombus

  1. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  3. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Race

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    June 2014 THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Race INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to race and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of race or ethnic background does not take place. The Queen

  4. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Race

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Race INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to race and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of race or ethnic background does not take place. The Queen's College welcomes

  5. Statistical Assistant Research Data Centre, Queens University

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    JOB OFFER Statistical Assistant Research Data Centre, Queens University Position: Statistical@queensu.ca The Research Data Centre (RDC) is a secure Statistics Canada computer lab on the Queens University campus Assistant at the RDC, Queens University Classification: Statistics Canada term part-time CR-04 Salary: $ 44

  6. Biosynthesis and detection of pheromones and plant volatiles

    E-print Network

    Vogt, Richard G.

    dramatic change just prior to 1987 with the proposal that Pheromone Binding Proteins (PBPs) and pheromoneBiosynthesis and detection of pheromones and plant volatiles ­ introduction and overview Gary J and Molecular Biology, the biosynthesis and detection of pheromones and plant volatiles. (Edited by GJ Blomquist

  7. Pheromone Deactivation Catalyzed by Receptor Molecules: a Quantitative Kinetic Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Kaissling

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative model of pheromone-receptor interaction and pheromone deactivation, the supposed rate-limiting processes underlying the receptor potential kinetics, is worked out for the moth Antheraea polyphemus. In this model, the pheromone interacts with the receptor molecule while bound to the reduced form of the pheromone binding protein. The receptor molecules—besides their receptor function—catalyze the observed shift of the pheromone-binding protein

  8. New Therapeutics in Promoting and Modulating Mandibular Growth in Cases with Mandibular Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Alhadlaq, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Children with mandibular growth deficiency may develop airway obstruction. The standard treatment of severe airway obstruction involves invasive procedures such as tracheostomy. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been proposed in neonates with mandibular deficiency as a treatment option to avoid tracheostomy procedure later in life. Both tracheostomy and distraction osteogenesis procedures suffer from substantial shortcomings including scarring, unpredictability, and surgical complications. Forward jaw positioning appliances have been also used to enhance mandible growth. However, the effectiveness of these appliances is limited and lacks predictability. Current and future approaches to enhance mandibular growth, both experimental and clinical trials, and their effectiveness are presented and discussed. PMID:23819121

  9. Treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; PRATS-GOLCZER, VICTORIA; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, LUIS-MIGUEL; BELMONTE-CARO, RODOLFO; MARTINEZ-DE-FUENTES, RAFAEL; TORRES-CARRANZA, EUSEBIO; GACTO-SANCHEZ, PURIFICACION; GOMEZ-CIA, TOMAS

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor with a high rate of recurrence in the long term. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with mandibular ameloblastoma in order to evaluate recurrent ameloblastoma management. The study included data from 31 patients over a period of 10 years. Data collected included age, gender, tumor location, histological findings, initial treatment, number of recurrences and year of onset, type of treatment of recurrence, reconstruction and follow-up. Recurrences were detected in nine patients (29%). Tumor recurrences appeared at 32 months on average following the initial surgical procedure. Recurrences were associated mainly to inadequate initial therapeutic approach and were treated by bone resection with a safety margin of at least 1 cm beyond the radiographically visible margins. Immediate reconstruction of bone defects was performed with grafts or free flaps. PMID:24137230

  10. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  11. Aggregation response of nymphs to pheromone(s) produced by males of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Koch)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Rechav; G. B. Whitehead; M. M. Knight

    1976-01-01

    No aggregation response by tick nymphs to a pheromone(s) produced by males had been described, although such a response had been demonstrated in adults1-8. We have now shown that males of the hard tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Koch) produce a material(s) which induces aggregation of nymphs suggesting an assembly pheromone(s) (Fig. 1). The presence of this pheromone is demonstrated by biological

  12. Queen's University Student Death Protocol

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    Queen's University Student Death Protocol December 2009 #12;Student Death Protocol 2 Table Death Protocol 3 Student Death Protocol Purpose: To organize in a systematic manner the University and responses may vary in order to balance family needs with the needs of students and the University. Tenets

  13. Queen's University Student Death Protocol

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    Queen's University Student Death Protocol July 2013 #12;Student Death Protocol 2 Table of Contents Death Protocol 3 Student Death Protocol Purpose: To organize in a systematic manner the University and responses may vary in order to balance family needs with the needs of students and the University. Tenets

  14. Queen's University The Principal's Commission

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    the risk of harm associated with mental healthharm associated with mental health issues; and ­ What1 Queen's University The Principal's Commission M t l H lthon Mental Health Lynann Clapham, Roy · Consider national and international trends in mental health issues among post- secondary aged students

  15. Managing Jamaica's queen conch resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Aiken; Andre Kong; Stephen Smikle; Richard Appeldoorn; George Warner

    2006-01-01

    Jamaica's industrial fishery for queen conch (Strombus gigas) has produced a substantial amount of much-needed foreign exchange and for at least 10 years has been the most valuable component of all commercial marine fisheries activities. Since its inception in 1990 it has grown tremendously and may now be at some risk of collapse, due to problems including, among other factors,

  16. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE STAFF HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    Issue 01 THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE STAFF HANDBOOK CONTENTS Page Contents 1 Staff handbook issue & updates HANDBOOK ISSUE & UPDATES Pages Issue Number Date 1- 40 0 Relaunched January 2011 37 1 June 2011 #12;Issue hope that your experience of working here will be positive and rewarding. This Employee Handbook

  17. Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

    The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

  18. Mandibular symphysis of large-bodied hominoids.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Richard J; Hlusko, Leslea J; Duren, Dana L; Emch, Victoria C; Walker, Alan

    2005-12-01

    The hominoid mandibular symphysis has received a great deal of attention from anatomists, human biologists, and paleontologists. Much of this research has focused on functional interpretations of symphyseal shape variation. Here, we examine the two-dimensional cross-sectional shape of the adult mandibular symphysis for 45 humans, 42 chimpanzees, 37 gorillas, and 51 orangutans using eigenshape analysis, an outline-based morphometric approach. Our results demonstrate that a large proportion of the variation described by the first eigenshape correlates with proposed functional adaptations to counteract stresses at the mandibular midline during mastication. Subsequent eigenshapes describe subtle aspects of shape variation in the mandibular symphysis. The morphology associated with these eigenshapes does not conform with functional predictions, nor does it show a relationship with sexual dimorphism. However, eigenshapes provide for considerable taxonomic discrimination between the four taxa studied and may consequently prove useful in the analysis of fossil material. Comparison with elliptical Fourier analysis of the mandibular symphysis identifies eigenshape analysis as providing superior taxonomic discrimination. The results presented here demonstrate that the cross-sectional shape of the mandibular symphysis results from a complex interplay of functional and nonfunctional influences and for the first time identifies and quantifies the specific aspects of variation attributable to these factors. PMID:16715835

  19. Pheromone communication in amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Houck, Lynne D

    2009-01-01

    This selective review considers herpetological papers that feature the use of chemical cues, particularly pheromones involved in reproductive interactions between potential mates. Primary examples include garter snake females that attract males, lacertid lizards and the effects of their femoral gland secretions, aquatic male newts that chemically attract females, and terrestrial salamander males that chemically persuade a female to mate. Each case study spans a number of research approaches (molecular, biochemical, behavioral) and is related to sensory processing and the physiological effects of pheromone delivery. These and related studies show that natural pheromones can be identified, validated with behavioral tests, and incorporated in research on vomeronasal functional response. PMID:18847365

  20. Mandibular advancement and obstructive sleep apnoea: a method for determining effective mandibular protrusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Dort; E. Hadjuk; J. E. Remmers

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to test the hypotheses that it is possible, during routine polysomnography (PSG), to prospectively identify favourable candidates for mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) therapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to accurately estimate an optimal protrusive distance at which to fabricate the MRA. A series of subjects underwent a remotely controlled mandibular

  1. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

  2. Queen Dispersal Strategies in the Multiple?Queen Form of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. DeHeer; Michael A. D. Goodisman; Kenneth G. Ross

    1999-01-01

    Newly produced queens in the multiple-queen (poly- gyne) form of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta show dramatic variation in dispersal patterns, and this variation is influenced by genotypic variation at a single locus associated with the genetic marker Gp-9. Heavy, homozygous Gp-9 BB queens exhibit the highest vagility among polygyne queens and are strongly attracted to the open, disturbed-habitat patches

  3. An airborne sex pheromone in snakes.

    PubMed

    Shine, R; Mason, R T

    2012-04-23

    Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

  4. An airborne sex pheromone in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Shine, R.; Mason, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

  5. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Ishida; Walter S. Leal

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage.

  6. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  7. Acceptance of mated Queens and Queen Cells in Colonies of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Requeening colonies is a standard beekeeping practice with both mated queens and queen cells. More beekeepers are requeening with Russian honey bees queens because of their significantly higher resistance to varroa and tracheal mites, their good honey production and their overwintering abilities. ...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  11. Neuropeptide-mediated stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in an ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones are well known to initiate behavioral or physiological responses in members of the same species. The chemistry and behaviors elicited by pheromones have advanced tremendously in the 50+ years since the first pheromone identification from the silkworm moth. However, the regulation of phero...

  12. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  13. Pheromone Trailing Behavior of the Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Greene; Shantel L. Stark; Robert T. Mason

    2001-01-01

    The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active

  14. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Sexual Orientation

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Sexual Orientation INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to sexual orientation and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of an individual's sexual orientation or gender

  15. Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    . 388/97) 3.0 Considerations 1. Most buildings on Queen's University campus have fire alarm systems that have heat and smoke detection capability. When a smoke or heat detector activates, the alarm system, the burning location will be inspected by the Queen's University Fire Safety Co-ordinator. Fire detection

  16. Health & Safety Management System Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Health & Safety Management System Queen's University December 2003 #12;Queen's University Health & Safety Management System 2 1. Introduction Under Provincial Health and Safety legislation, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, (the OH&S Act), places the onus for compliance with the legislation

  17. Queen's Carpooling Regulations Message from the Manager

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Queen's Carpooling Regulations Message from the Manager A new carpool program has been introduced to Queen's University campus to encourage the reduction of single occupancy vehicle use. The benefits to registered participants include: · sharing vehicle expense costs; · reducing the amount of stress from

  18. October 26, 2010 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON

    E-print Network

    Offin, Dan

    , October 29 Department Colloquium Time: 2:30 p.m. Place: Jeffery 234 Speaker: Boris Levit, Queen:00 p.m. Place: Jeffery 102 Speaker: Michael Brannan, Queen's University Title: Quantum symmetries curve case. Friday, October 29, 2:30 p.m. Jeffery 234 Department Colloquium Speaker: Boris Levit Title

  19. Intellectual Property Guidelines at Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Intellectual Property Guidelines at Queen's University (Prepared by the School of Graduate Studies, revised August, 2013) #12;2 | P a g e Intellectual Property Guidelines at Queen's University Dear Graduate with a general overview of what intellectual property is, what you should know and how to find out more

  20. The Revised Pension Plan Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    The Revised Pension Plan Of Queen's University Statement of Investment Policies and Procedures of Investments Not Regularly Traded 20 5.09 Policy Review 21 #12;a:revised pension plan SIP&P 1 Section 1") provides the framework for the investment of the assets of the Revised Pension Plan of Queen's University

  1. DAVID MACINTOSH SAUNDERS Queen's School of Business

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    1 DAVID MACINTOSH SAUNDERS Queen's School of Business Queen's University Goodes Hall 143 Union investigator). BOOKS: Lewicki, R.J., Barry, B., & Saunders, D.M. (in press). Negotiation (7th edition). Burr 1999, 2nd edition 1994) Lewicki, R.J., Saunders, D.M., & Barry, B. (in press). Negotiation: Readings

  2. How is pheromone specificity encoded in proteins?

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Du, G; LaForest, S

    1995-08-01

    Pheromone specificity in the Lepidoptera is encoded in protein components of the antennal sensillum lymph and dendritic membrane. In this paper, we highlight recent work on the molecular determinants of pheromone binding affinity of pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) of three genera. First, we describe new cDNA sequences for Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae) and Agrotis segetum (Noctuidae). These data enrich the conclusions derived from our functional studies. Secondly, we indicate how preparation of multimilligram quantities of the recombinant PBP 'Apol-3' (originally from Antheraea polyphemus) has provided a platform (i) to determine the ligand binding sites using photoaffinity labeling, (ii) to conduct structural analysis by CD and NMR, and (iii) to measure binding affinities using a new binding assay. Thirdly, we describe the use of expression-cassette PCR technology to prepare two related PBPs from Antheraea perneyi to test binding affinities of naturally-occurring homologous PBPs. Our results support a model in which ligand specificity for chain length, double bond position, and terminal functionality is partially encoded in the PBPs. We propose that the final decoding is accomplished when the PBP-pheromone complex activates a G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane domain receptor that contains recognition sites for both the presented pheromone and the presenting PBP. PMID:8590031

  3. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  4. Mandibular advancement and obstructive sleep apnoea: a method for determining effective mandibular protrusion.

    PubMed

    Dort, L C; Hadjuk, E; Remmers, J E

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to test the hypotheses that it is possible, during routine polysomnography (PSG), to prospectively identify favourable candidates for mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) therapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to accurately estimate an optimal protrusive distance at which to fabricate the MRA. A series of subjects underwent a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP) test during PSG monitoring. The ability of the RCMP test to eliminate OSA and the target protrusion at which that occurred was compared with the success of a custom oral MRA in the 33 subjects who completed the protocol. The RCMP test was a success in 15 subjects and a failure in 18 subjects. Appliance therapy was initiated in 38 subjects and completed in 33. MRA therapy was successful at target protrusion in 80% of subjects who had a successful RCMP test and failed in 78% of those who failed the RCMP test. In conclusion the remotely controlled mandibular positioner test outcome demonstrated a statistically significant association with mandibular repositioning appliance outcome. The target protrusion determined during the remotely controlled mandibular positioner test was the effective therapeutic protrusion in subjects with a successful remotely controlled mandibular positioner test. PMID:16707396

  5. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s. PMID:25419364

  6. Mandibular advancement devices and seep disordered breathing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn T. Clark

    1998-01-01

    It has been nearly 90 years since a dentist first fabricated a dental appliance for a patient with snoring. Since then, mandibular advancement devices or MADs have become a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and are used to increase the caliber of the airway during sleep. Their primary use is for the patient who has snoring or mild to

  7. Intra-mandibular adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bouaichi, A; Aimad-Eddine, S; Mommers, X-A; Ella, B; Zwetyenga, N

    2014-04-01

    Intra-mandibular localization of adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare. This tumor is characterized by progressive local, regional, and distant aggressiveness. We reviewed the latest data on this rare type of cancer with a small number of reported cases, alack of consensus for its treatment, and its bad prognosis. PMID:24674932

  8. Metastasis of breast carcinoma to mandibular gingiva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E Scipio; P. R Murti; H. F Al-Bayaty; R Matthews; C Scully

    2001-01-01

    Metastatic tumours to the oral region are rare but more often involve the jaws rather than the oral soft tissues. In this report, an infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast that metastasised to the mandibular gingiva is presented. The patient consulted her dentist for what she thought was a dental abscess in the bicuspid region of the lower left jaw.

  9. APIS MELLIFERA QUEEN REPLACEMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF CHEMICAL "STRESS".

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony undergoes a disturbance resulting in queen loss the colony begins "emergency" queen rearing to replace her. This production of new virgin queens in a colony can range in number from one to 20 or more but only a single queen will eventually head the colony...

  10. Original article Heritability of the queen brood post-capping

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Heritability of the queen brood post-capping stage duration in Apis mellifera of such a selection, we estimated: (1 ) the heritability of this character through daughter-queen to mother- queen) the regression between daughter-workers to mother-queens. The heritabilities obtained with these methods were 0

  11. Social Modulation of Stress Reactivity and Learning in Young Worker Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval. PMID:25470128

  12. Discrimination of pheromone enantiomers by two pheromone binding proteins from the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Plettner, E; Lazar, J; Prestwich, E G; Prestwich, G D

    2000-08-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, uses (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, as a sex pheromone. The (-) enantiomer of the pheromone is a strong behavioral antagonist. Specialized sensory hairs, sensillae, on the antennae of male moths detect the pheromone. Once the pheromone enters a sensillum, the very abundant pheromone binding protein (PBP) transports the odorant to the sensory neuron. We have expressed the two PBPs found in gypsy moth antennae, PBP1 and PBP2, and we have studied the affinity of these recombinant PBPs for the enantiomers of disparlure. To study pheromone binding under equilibrium conditions, we developed and validated a binding assay. We have addressed the two major problems with hydrophobic ligands in aqueous solution: (1) concentration-dependent adsorption of the ligand on vial surfaces and (2) separation of the protein-bound ligand from the material remaining free in solution. We used this assay to demonstrate for the first time that pheromone binding to PBP is reversible and that the two PBPs from L. dispar differ in their enantiomer binding preference. PBP1 has a higher affinity for the (-) enantiomer, while PBP2 has a higher affinity for the (+) enantiomer. The PBP from the wild silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Apol-3) bound the disparlure enantiomers more weakly than either of the L. dispar PBPs, but Apol-3 was also able to discriminate the enantiomers. We have observed extensive aggregation of both L. dispar PBPs and an increase in pheromone binding at high (>2 microM) PBP concentrations. We present a model of disparlure binding to the two PBPs. PMID:10913308

  13. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  14. NOTE / NOTE Alarm pheromone induces a transgenerational

    E-print Network

    Mondor, Ed

    2002). Winged morphs have a longer development time, lower fertility, and a shorter life span thanNOTE / NOTE Alarm pheromone induces a transgenerational wing polyphenism in the pea aphid a transgenerational wing- induction polyphenism in response to predators and parasitoids, but the stimuli inducing

  15. Visualization of Ant Pheromone Based Path Following

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Benjamin T.

    2010-07-14

    This thesis develops a simulation and visualization of a path finding algorithm based on ant pheromone paths created in 3D space. The simulation is useful as a demonstration of a heuristic approach to NP-complete problems and as an educational tool...

  16. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

    2005-09-27

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

  17. Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:22016844

  18. Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-14

    This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

  19. Interactions of insect pheromones and plant semiochemicals

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    ) ingested at the larval stage from the host plant Crotalaria spectabilis (Figure 1) [3]. U. ornatrix larvae.g. monocrotaline) obtained by larvae from the host plant Crotalaria spectabilis [84]. TRENDS in Plant Science (Crotalaria spectabilis) (R)-hydroxydanaidal (Male pheromone of Utetheisa ornatrix) Corresponding authors

  20. Monitoring insecticide resistance with insect pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Haynes; T. A. Miller; R. T. Staten; W.-G. Li; T. C. Baker

    1986-01-01

    Summary A novel pheromone-baited sticky trap laced with insecticides proved to be a simple and effective means of monitoring insecticide resistance in the pink bollworm moth. Adult males from fields treated frequently with pyrethroid insecticides showed up to 20-fold resistance to permethrin and up to 14.5-fold resistance to fenvalerate.

  1. Beneficiary Change Queen's University Pension Plan Name: ____________________________________________________

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    Beneficiary Change ­ Queen's University Pension Plan Name: ________________________________________ Effective Date: _______________________________________________ Pension Plan · One of the regulations under the Ontario Pensions Benefits Act relates to beneficiaries and in particular to the rights of a surviving

  2. Pheromone deactivation catalyzed by receptor molecules: a quantitative kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Kaissling, K E

    1998-08-01

    A quantitative model of pheromone-receptor interaction and pheromone deactivation, the supposed rate-limiting processes underlying the receptor potential kinetics, is worked out for the moth Antheraea polyphemus. In this model, the pheromone interacts with the receptor molecule while bound to the reduced form of the pheromone binding protein. The receptor molecules--besides their receptor function--catalyze the observed shift of the pheromone-binding protein from the reduced to the oxidized form (Ziegelberger, G., Eur. J. Biochem., 232, 706-711, 1995), which deactivates the pheromone bound to pheromone binding protein. With the following parameters, the model fits morphological, radiometric, electrophysiological and biochemical data: a maximum estimate of 1.7 x 10(7) receptor molecules/cell (with 40,000 units/micron 2 of receptor cell membrane), rate constants k1 = 0.2/(s.microM) for the association, k2 = 10/s for the dissociation of the ternary complex of binding protein, pheromone and receptor, and k3 = 10/s for the deactivation via the redox shift. With these parameters, the duration of elementary receptor potentials elicited by single pheromone molecules (approximately 50 ms) reflects the lifetime of the ternary complex, tau = 1/(k2 + k3). The receptor occupancy produced by the model for threshold stimuli fits the sensitivity of the receptor cell to single pheromone molecules. PMID:9759524

  3. Furcation lesion in a mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Sena, Larryson Goncalves; Santos, Maria Helena; Goncalves, Patricia Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes can complicate dental treatment. This report presents a rare case of a furcation lesion in a mandibular canine with two roots. A 39-year-old man in general good health sought dental care for severe pain in his maxillary anterior teeth. The clinical examination showed localized swelling in the vestibular mucosa close to the mandibular left canine. Radiographic examination revealed two distinct roots and vertical bone resorption in the canine's mesial surface. Periodontal evaluation led to a diagnosis of periodontal abscess associated with furcation lesion. Despite the occurrence in an atypical location, the site of periodontal furcation received conventional therapy for initial decontamination, including tissue debridement and a combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone irrigation and antibiotics. To improve access, the decontamination was completed with surgical techniques and scaling and root planing. Early diagnosis of this rare morphological change helped to determine appropriate, timely treatment planning and optimal patient recovery. PMID:21903558

  4. Bifid mandibular condyle: CT and MRI appearance.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Onur; Bas, Ahmet; Gülsen, Gökçe; Bayraktarov, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of bilateral mediolateral bifid condyle in a 24-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation. MRI and CT findings revealed bilateral bifid condyle. PMID:22922936

  5. [Mandibular metastasis revealing thyroid carcinoma. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Mahtar, M; Kadiri, F; Detsouli, M; Raji, A; Idrissi Chekkoury, A; Benchakroun, Y

    2002-04-01

    Although thyroid cancer is not the first cause of bone metastases, this diagnosis must be always entertained because when it is found to be the cause of the metastasis, the survival is good. Bone metastases can take on different appearances and thyroid cancer discovered secondarily. We report two cases of mandibular metastases revealing a thyroid cancer and we stress on diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties. PMID:11997740

  6. Unilateral Mydriasis After Mandibular Fracture Fixation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nesioonpour, Sholeh; Khiabani, Kazem; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral mydriasis is a seriously significant finding in neurologic examinations indicating life-threatening conditions such as cerebral vascular injuries. Case Presentation: A 24 year old woman with mandibular trauma was referred to our center after five days for a reduction of the right mandibular angle fracture. The patient had no history of any loss of consciousness after the accident. Her physical examination showed no abnormalities, except those related to her mandibular fracture. The laboratory results were normal as well. At 8:30 am a general anesthesia was induced. The patient’s eyes were kept shut throughout the surgical procedure. The operation included an intraoral open reduction and fixation using two miniplates without any complications. After the operation, it was noticed that the left eye was completely dilated with no reaction to light, while the right eye was normal. The management and outcomes in this patient were described in the present case report. Conclusions: Evaluating the size of the patient’s pupils before, during and after the operation, careful history, consult, CT scan and MRI would help to diagnosis. Although no probable cause was found to explain the transient mydriasis in our patient. PMID:24829881

  7. Mandibular hypo-hyperdontia: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Sandeep, C.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition, however, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia (CHH) in three patients (one girl and two boys) with missing mandibular central incisor and an erupted mandibular mesiodens. Three rare cases of mandibular CHH were observed during routine examination, where the two anomalies manifested in the anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, these are the only cases exhibited taurodontism in association with mandibular CHH. PMID:24778987

  8. Targeted disruption of a single sex pheromone receptor gene completely abolishes in vivo pheromone response in the silkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Mikami, Akihisa; Uchino, Keiro; Tabuchi, Masashi; Zhang, Feng; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    Male moths use species-specific sex pheromones to identify and orientate toward conspecific females. Odorant receptors (ORs) for sex pheromone substances have been identified as sex pheromone receptors in various moth species. However, direct in vivo evidence linking the functional role of these ORs with behavioural responses is lacking. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, female moths emit two sex pheromone components, bombykol and bombykal, but only bombykol elicits sexual behaviour in male moths. A sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 is specifically tuned to bombykol and is expressed in specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the pheromone sensitive long sensilla trichodea of male silkmoth antennae. Here, we show that disruption of the BmOR1 gene, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), completely removes ORN sensitivity to bombykol and corresponding pheromone-source searching behaviour in male moths. Furthermore, transgenic rescue of BmOR1 restored normal behavioural responses to bombykol. Our results demonstrate that BmOR1 is required for the physiological and behavioural response to bombykol, demonstrating that it is the receptor that mediates sex pheromone responses in male silkmoths. This study provides the first direct evidence that a member of the sex pheromone receptor family in moth species mediates conspecific sex pheromone information for sexual behaviour. PMID:26047360

  9. Reconstruction of Beagle Hemi-Mandibular Defects with Allogenic Mandibular Scaffolds and Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, JinChao; Liu, HuaWei; Hu, Min; Yue, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible) in a large animal model. Methods Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at4 (n?=?4), 12 (n?=?4), 24 (n?=?4) or 48 weeks (n?=?3) postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD) of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes. Results Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth factors. PMID:25153673

  10. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ants/queen.html BEING QUEEN BY PETER TYSON

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    in the brood comb, a honeybee queen larva, chosen by the workers, lives in a more spacious cell and gets fed, E. burchelli workers go first, ferrying food and larvae. Only after nightfall does the queen follow, escorted by a mass of soldier ants that completely surround her and will Dwarfing her attendant daughters

  11. Notice to Post on Queen's Parking Website Questions & Answers about Queen's New Parking Rates

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Notice to Post on Queen's Parking Website Questions & Answers about Queen's New Parking Rates Q. What are the new parking rates? A. Parking rate increases happen every year, but given the financial situation of our parking facilities, a larger than average increase will happen this year. The university

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of pheromone-binding protein in moth antennae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Steinbrecht; M. Ozaki; G. Ziegelberger

    1992-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins are supposed to play an important role in stimulus transport and\\/or inactivation in olfactory sense organs. In an attempt to precisely localize pheromone-binding protein in the antenna of moths, post-embedding immunocytochemistry was performed using an antiserum against purified pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. In immunoblots of antennal homogenates, the antiserum reacted exclusively with pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus,

  13. Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Wei [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Leal, Walter S. [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: wsleal@ucdavis.edu

    2008-08-08

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

  14. A yeast pheromone-based inter-species communication system.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Stefan; Clemens, André; Rödel, Gerhard; Ostermann, Kai

    2015-02-01

    We report on a pheromone-based inter-species communication system, allowing for a controlled cell-cell communication between the two species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a proof of principle. It exploits the mating response pathways of the two yeast species employing the pheromones, ?- or P-factor, as signaling molecules. The authentic and chimeric pheromone-encoding genes were engineered to code for the P-factor in S. cerevisiae and the ?-factor in S. pombe. Upon transformation of the respective constructs, cells were enabled to express the mating pheromone of the opposite species. The supernatant of cultures of S. pombe cells expressing ?-factor were able to induce a G1 arrest in the cell cycle, a change in morphology to the typical shmoo effect and expression driven by the pheromone-responsive FIG1 promoter in S. cerevisiae. The supernatant of cultures of S. cerevisiae cells expressing P-factor similarly induced cell cycle arrest in G1, an alteration in morphology typical for mating as well as the activation of the pheromone-responsive promoters of the rep1 and sxa2 genes in a pheromone-hypersensitive reporter strain of S. pombe. Apparently, both heterologous pheromones were correctly processed and secreted in an active form by the cells of the other species. Our data clearly show that the species-specific pheromone systems of yeast species can be exploited for a controlled inter-species communication. PMID:25331280

  15. The Solution NMR Structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP Provides New Insight into Pheromone Recognition by Pheromone-binding Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Mohanty; Sergey Zubkov; Angela M. Gronenborn

    2004-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here,

  16. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A...

  17. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A...

  18. Periodicity of sex pheromone biosynthesis, release and degradation in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker).

    PubMed

    Foster, S P

    2000-03-01

    Pheromone titer in moths is a product of three processes occurring in or at the surface of the pheromone gland: biosynthesis, release, and intraglandular degradation, of pheromone. Changes in titers of sex pheromone, the fatty acyl pheromone analog (FAPA), and tetradecanoate, a pheromone biosynthetic intermediate, were studied in detail in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker). Although changes in the pheromone titers in a day were relatively small, with the peak titer being 2-3 times greater than that at the trough, pheromone titer did show a distinct diel periodicity. Titer of the FAPA showed a similar, but less variable, diel pattern, but tetradecanoate titer showed little or no diel pattern. The pattern of pheromone titer suggested that females biosynthesize pheromone at two different rates during the photoperiod: a high rate during the latter half of the photophase and most of the scotophase, which is associated with a high pheromone titer, and a low rate throughout the first half of the photophase, which is associated with a low titer. Consistent with data on commencement of copulation, pheromone was released from the second hour of the scotophase through to the eighth hour. Pheromone release rate during this period appeared to be similar to the rate of pheromone biosynthesis. In contrast to the other two processes, pheromone degradation did not appear to have a diel pattern. Females decapitated at different times of the photoperiod showed a similar decline in pheromone titer, consistent with the reaction kinetics being first order in pheromone titer. PMID:10685100

  19. [Mandibular fractures. Our patient enrollment during the past 2 years].

    PubMed

    Divaris, M; Nottet, J B; Goudot, P; Kakou; Nivet, P; Dichamp, J; Bertrand, J C; Guilbert, F; Vaillant, J M

    1992-01-01

    The method of patient referral; the patient's physical predisposition, the localization and the treatment undertaken for the different mandibular fractures seen by SOS Face over the past two years were analyzed. The 312 mandibular fractures were used to reevaluate the commonly accepted statistics concerning these parameters. PMID:1475604

  20. Mandibular trauma treatment: A comparison of two protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kommers, Sofie C.; Roccia, Fabio; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of mandibular fractures treated in two European centre in 10 years. Study Design: This study is based on 2 systematic computer-assisted databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two centers in Turin, Italy and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands for ten years. Only patients who were admitted for mandibular fractures were considered for this study. Results: Between 2001 and 2010, a total of 752 patients were admitted at Turin hospital with a total of 1167 mandibular fractures not associated with further maxillofacial fractures, whereas 245 patients were admitted at Amsterdam hospital with a total of 434 mandibular fractures. At Amsterdam center, a total of 457 plates (1.5 - 2.7 mm) were used for the 434 mandibular fracture lines, whereas at Turin center 1232 plates (1.5 – 2.5 mm) were used for the management of the 1167 mandibular fracture lines. At Turin center, 190 patients were treated primarily with IMF, whereas 35 patients were treated with such treatment option at Amsterdam center. Conclusions: Current protocols for the management of mandibular fractures are quite efficient. It is difficult to obtain a uniform protocol, because of the difference of course of each occurring fracture and because of surgeons’ experiences and preferences. Several techniques can still be used for each peculiar fracture of the mandible. Key words:Mandibular fracture, facial trauma, maxillofacial, treatment, multicentre, database. PMID:25475782

  1. Regulation of Mandibular Postures: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Woda; P. Pionchon; S. Palla

    2001-01-01

    This review argues that (1) the habitual mandibular position is constantly variable and so cannot be considered as a craniomandibular reference point, (2) there is no unique centric relation, (3) mandibular posture greatly depends on head posture, (4) clinical evaluation of the occlusal vertical dimension is mostly empirical, and (5) neither the vertical dimension at rest nor the centric relation

  2. Quantitative GC analysis of secondary alcohol pheromones: determination of release rate of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pheromone from lures.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Soroker, V; Harel, M; Nakache, J; Dunkelblum, E

    2002-11-01

    Aliphatic secondary alcohols are components of several aggregation pheromones of important beetle and weevil pests. Some of these pheromones are used frequently for the monitoring and mass trapping of the relevant insects. We encountered severe difficulties in direct GC quantitative analysis of these compounds. Therefore, we developed a simple GC analysis of secondary alcohols convening them to trifluoroacetyl derivatives and using secondary alcohol acetates as internal standards. This method was applied for the quantitative analysis of several secondary alcohols, including the aggregation pheromone components of the almond bark beetle and the red palm weevil. The release rate of the latter pheromone from commercial lures was also determined. PMID:12523569

  3. Is androstadienone a putative human pheromone?

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Torri, P; Baroni, S; Catena Dell'Osso, M; Consoli, G; Boncinelli, V

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of different evidences, androstadienone, a steroid compound produced in the armpit, has been proposed as a human pheromone, although its physiological levels appear too low to induce a response under experimental conditions. For this reason, the majority of researchers in this area puts into question the "legitimacy" of androstadienone, and prefers to consider the axillary extracts in its entirety, like a sort of "medicinal tea", the components of which still remain to be identified, but that taken together may induce a response, or function as a carrier of other active substances. Another option is that androstadienone acts with varying degrees of potency and, at lower concentrations, according to the context and to specific behavioral situations. The aim of this paper is to review all relevant data regarding androstadienone, in order to ascertain whether it may be considered a physiological pheromone and, as such, a possible target of future modulators of some human behaviors. PMID:21291365

  4. The secret of truffles: A steroidal pheromone?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Claus; H. O. Hoppen; H. Karg

    1981-01-01

    Summary The steroid 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol has a pronounced musk-like scent. It is a major constituent of the pheromone of the boar. It occurs also in axillary sweat of men but is devoid of androgenic activity. The presence of this steroid has been demonstrated in truffles (Tuber melanosporum) both by radioimmunoassay and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in quantities of 40–60 ng\\/g fresh

  5. Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Canger, E M; Çelenk, P

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

  6. QUEEN'S COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS 2015 Entry Please note that highlighted scholarship are administered centrally, rather than through The Queen's College

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    QUEEN'S COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS 2015 Entry Please note that highlighted scholarship are administered centrally, rather than through The Queen's College Title of Scholarship Criteria Value Duration Nationality Number Closing date for applications

  7. Mandibular plasmacytoma of jaw - a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Meet; Kaur, Parwinder; Gupta, Rakhi; Gupta, Shally; Singh, Simranjit

    2014-08-01

    The plasma cell neoplasm may present as Extramedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) in soft tissues in bone as a Solitary Plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) or as a part of multi focal disseminated disease Multiple Myeloma (MM). The majority of 80% occurs in head and neck region. In our case, a 62-year-old male patient presented with a non tender swelling of short duration. The swelling was noted obliterating the vestibular depth in right lower mandibular region. The radiological features were non specific. PMID:25302275

  8. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ? 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  9. Social behavior and pheromonal communication in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert T; Parker, M Rockwell

    2010-10-01

    The role of pheromones in orchestrating social behaviors in reptiles is reviewed. Although all reptile orders are examined, the vast majority of the literature has dealt only with squamates, primarily snakes and lizards. The literature is surprisingly large, but most studies have explored relatively few behaviors. The evolution of chemical signaling in reptiles is discussed along with behaviors governed by pheromones including conspecific trailing, male-male agonistic interactions, sex recognition and sex pheromones, and reptilian predator recognition. Nonreptilian prey recognition by chemical cues was not reviewed. The recent literature has focused on two model systems where extensive chemical ecology studies have been conducted: the reproductive ecology of garter snakes and the behavioral ecology of Iberian lacertid lizards. In these two systems, enough is known about the chemical constituents that mediate behaviors to explore the evolution of chemical signaling mechanisms that affect life history patterns. In addition, these models illuminate natural and sexual selection processes which have lead to complex chemical signals whose different components and concentrations provide essential information about individuals to conspecifics. Reptiles provide excellent candidates for further studies in this regard not only in squamates, but also in the orders where little experimental work has been conducted to date. PMID:20585786

  10. The number of queens: An important trait in ant evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Hölldobler; Edward O. Wilson

    1977-01-01

    The pervasive social and ecological differences between ant colonies that have a single queen and those that have multiple queens are defined. The evolutionary tendencies which lead to polygyny and the adaptive significance of multiple queens are examined. The discussion of the ecological consequences of polygyny and monogyny leads to a deeper understanding of territoriality, spacing and species packing in

  11. Pheromone Components and Diel Periodicity of Pheromonal Communication in Lymantria fumida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; David Holden

    1999-01-01

    Extracts of pheromone glands from female Lymantria fumida were analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and by coupled GC–mass spectrometry (MS). The two compounds that elicited responses from male L. fumida antennae were identified as cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (disparlure) and 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene (2me-Z7–18Hy). Field experiments in northern Japan demonstrated that synthetic (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] and 2me-Z7–18Hy are synergistic sex pheromone components of L.

  12. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system. PMID:25840687

  13. vol. 153, no. 6 the american naturalist june 1999 Queen Dispersal Strategies in the Multiple-Queen Form of the

    E-print Network

    Yi, Soojin

    -Queen Form of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta Christopher J. DeHeer,1,* Michael A. D. Goodisman,2 December 17, 1998 abstract: Newly produced queens in the multiple-queen (poly- gyne) form of the fire ant strategies, dispersal, social organ- ization, gene flow, polygyny, fire ants. Dispersal is a trait that has

  14. Behavioral plasticity in ant queens: environmental manipulation induces aggression among normally peaceful queens in the socially polymorphic ant Leptothorax acervorum.

    PubMed

    Trettin, Jürgen; Seyferth, Thomas; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The behavioral traits that shape the structure of animal societies vary considerably among species but appear to be less flexible within species or at least within populations. Populations of the ant Leptothorax acervorum differ in how queens interact with other queens. Nestmate queens from extended, homogeneous habitats tolerate each other and contribute quite equally to the offspring of the colony (polygyny: low reproductive skew). In contrast, nestmate queens from patchy habitats establish social hierarchies by biting and antennal boxing, and eventually only the top-ranking queen of the colony lays eggs (functional monogyny: high reproductive skew). Here we investigate whether queen-queen behavior is fixed within populations or whether aggression and high skew can be elicited by manipulation of socio-environmental factors in colonies from low skew populations. An increase of queen/worker ratio and to a lesser extent food limitation elicited queen-queen antagonism in polygynous colonies from Nürnberger Reichswald similar to that underlying social and reproductive hierarchies in high-skew populations from Spain, Japan, and Alaska. In manipulated colonies, queens differed more in ovarian status than in control colonies. This indicates that queens are in principle capable of adapting the magnitude of reproductive skew to environmental changes in behavioral rather than evolutionary time. PMID:24743352

  15. PHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND TOXICOLOGY Site of Pheromone Production in Female Supella longipalpa

    E-print Network

    studies that localize the site of pheromone production--release in S. longipalpa. Materials and MethodsPHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND TOXICOLOGY Site of Pheromone Production in Female Supella longipalpa pheromone, pheromone gland, Supella longipalpa IN MANY INSECTS, especially in the Lepidoptera, glandular

  16. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

  17. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

  18. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  19. ANTENNAL FEEDBACK LOOP REGULATES PHEROMONE RELEASE IN BEETLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of pheromone release is critical for intraspecific communication and avoidance of predators release is critical for intraspecific communication and avoidance of predators or parasites dependent on such messages. Pheromone production is under endocrine control in insects (1,2). However, ...

  20. Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells

    E-print Network

    Nie, Qing

    Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms

  1. Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that the abdomen and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and for the first time describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD...

  2. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    PubMed Central

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Ró?y?o, T. Katarzyna; Ró?y?o-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mas?owska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

  3. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  4. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics. PMID:25876837

  5. Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring. PMID:24963375

  6. September 28, 2010 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON

    E-print Network

    Offin, Dan

    . Modular forms are analytic functions which play a central role in modern number theory. We describe:30 p.m. Place: Jeffery 115 Speaker: Wesley Burr, Queen's University Title: The Jackknife: An Introduction Abstract Attached Wednesday, September 29 Curves Seminar Time: 3:30 p.m. ­ 5:00 p.m. Place

  7. Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Metropolitan Museum accompanies their retrospective exhibition of the work of couturier Alexander McQueen, who committed suicide at age 40 in 2010. McQueen was known for his lavishly staged runway shows, for example his spring 2003 collection, "Irere", featured a recreation of a shipwreck complete with pirates and amazons, and models falling overboard. "It's only a game" in 2005, was a human chess game, with models dressed as chess pieces, such a knight in a horsehairs skirt. On the exhibition's website, visitors can view selected objects including McQueen's extremely low-slung trousers, "bumsters" or the Spine Corset, a silver exoskeleton, worn over a dress. Narration is provided by Andrew Bolton, the British curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Costume Institute, Michelle Olly, who wore one of the dresses, and McQueen himself. There is also a section of online videos available here, where visitors can watch a model in a chiffon dress drop into the ocean, and see the chess pieces move.

  8. Queens College Officially Sealed Transcript Request Form

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Queens College Officially Sealed Transcript Request Form Before completing this form make sure [ ] Graduate [ ] Both [ ] NOTE: OFFICIALLY SEALED TRANSCRIPTS may be mailed to the student ONLY if the student/ State/ Zip: I am forwarding this Officially Sealed Transcript to: OFFICIALLY SEALED TRANSCRIPT MAILED

  9. Queen Mary, University of London An Overview

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    of the colleges of the University of London, Queen Mary's 3,000 staff deliver world-class degree programmes Business School at City University in the Times Higher RAE ranking, coming within the top half of business schools. · With a budget of £270 million per annum and a yearly economic impact on the UK economy of over

  10. May 17, 2011 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON

    E-print Network

    Offin, Dan

    INFO SHEET May 17, 2011 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON Department of Mathematics and Statistics http://www.mast.queensu.ca CALENDAR Wednesday, May 18 Summer Number Theory Seminar Time: 3:00 p.m. ­ 4 Modula Forms Abstract Attached Monday, May 23 Victoria Day University offices are closed. Items

  11. Original article Fluvalinate treatment of queen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to control V jacobsoni with flu- valinate have also been favorable (Bor- neck and Merle, 1987, 1989; Koeniger from Varroa-infested to non- infested areas. Although the efficacy of flu- valinate against V jacobsoni.5% a i); and (2), effect of treatment with a 1% flu- valinate strip on queen mortality, brood vi- ability

  12. Finding Children's Literature @ Queen's Education Library

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    is shelved Searching for Children's Books in QCAT: By Title Leave out the and a if they begin words. You can for Children's Books in QCAT: By Topic If you want to do a topic search, use the More Search Limits feature of QCAT, the Queen's Library Catalogue, to limit your search to the Education Library -- K-12 Books

  13. The strangulated umbilical hernia of Queen Caroline.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2014-11-01

    One of the lessons we learn from medical history is how great the improvement has been in the management of commonplace surgical emergencies. Less than three hundred years ago, the Queen of England, in her healthy middle age, died of a straightforward strangulated umbilical hernia. PMID:26012198

  14. Principal's Written Report Queen's University Senate

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    levers" to induce efficiency targets in universities while maintaining levels of quality for studentsPrincipal's Written Report Queen's University Senate 17th April, 2012 In the short time of post secondary education in driving the economy, it also indicated an inclination to steer financial

  15. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value. PMID:26048489

  16. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with unilateral dislocated condyle fracture after treatment with a mandibular repositioning splint: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woojin; Pae, Ahran; Kwon, Kung-Rock

    2013-06-01

    This clinical report describes the use of a mandibular repositioning splint and the subsequent prosthodontic treatment of a unilateral dislocated condyle fracture for a patient whose injury resulted in significant mandibular deviation and malocclusion. The use of a mandibular repositioning splint considerably reduced the mandibular deviation, and a stable mandibular position was maintained with the definitive prosthesis. PMID:23763780

  17. Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

  18. Effects of irradiation on mandibular scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Aitasalo, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Sn) scintigraphy with computer analysis was used to investigate alterations in the pathophysiology of the normal mandible and the pathologic mandible during and after irradiation. Slight but significant elevations of uptake levels were recorded as an early effect of irradiation. The elevations correlated with the duration of treatment and normalized over a follow-up period of 6 to 12 mo. Increased mandibular metabolism was found during irradiation and in osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Scintigraphy with computer analysis proved a simple and valid method in the evaluation of early irradiation damage and pathophysiologic conditions of the mandible. The method can also be used to predict whether the irradiation damage will become irreversible.

  19. Use of a mandibular plate to maintain intergonial width in a partially edentulous patient undergoing mandibular symphysis reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas; Gordon, Paul E; Attarpour, Ali R; Winograd, Jonathan M; Peacock, Zachary S

    2013-12-01

    One of the most challenging and essential aspects of management of patients with traumatic or ablative deformities involving the mandibular symphysis is maintenance of intergonial width. Classically, the use of occlusal splints has been a simple and cost-effective solution to this problem. Patients who are edentulous, the use of Gunning splints with circummandibular wires is an alternative strategy. In the present report, we describe the use of a mandibular fixation plate for maintenance of intergonial width in an edentulous patient with a postablative mandibular symphysis defect. PMID:24436775

  20. Mandibular advancement device for obstructive sleep apnea: An overview.

    PubMed

    Jayesh, S Raghavendra; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of mandibular advancement device (MAD). The primary purpose of MAD is to move the mandible forwards relative to maxilla in ordered to widen the airway to prevent to closure. PMID:26015718

  1. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  2. Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days. PMID:22442616

  3. Mandibular advancement device for obstructive sleep apnea: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Jayesh, S. Raghavendra; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of mandibular advancement device (MAD). The primary purpose of MAD is to move the mandible forwards relative to maxilla in ordered to widen the airway to prevent to closure. PMID:26015718

  4. Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

  5. Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

  6. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was strong positive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs.

  7. Orthodontic fixation of mandibular fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    1998-01-01

    The present case illustrates a nonsurgical method of fixing a minimally displaced mandibular fracture with use of an easily prepared orthodontic appliance. This method offers several advantages for both the attending staff and the patient. PMID:10196820

  8. Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, James Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    Background The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and systems biology. Results Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates. PMID:24693353

  9. Intraosseous mandibular artero-venous malformations: case report.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Minutoli, Fabio; Catalfamo, Luciano; Romano, Fabio; Longo, Marcello; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio

    2009-03-01

    Intraosseous mandibular artero-venous malformations (AVMs) are rare (5% of all vascular malformations) but of great clinical importance. They can lead to dental emergencies and may cause disfigurement, morbidity, and even death. We describe the radiological appearance and the endovascular treatment of a rare high-flow vascular malformation of the mandibular body resembling a dental cyst, embolized by Guglielmi's detachable coils (GDC). PMID:19027310

  10. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Astrid T; Marr, Melanie; Schöfl, Gerhard; Lorenz, Sybille; Svatos, Ales; Heckel, David G

    2008-01-01

    Background The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). To assess the mode of inheritance of this variation, we also analyzed the pheromone composition of F1 hybrid females. Results Relative to intra-strain variation, the pheromone composition of the two strains differed significantly. Corn strain females contained significantly more of the second most abundant pheromone compound Z11-16:Ac (m), and significantly less of most other compounds, than rice strain females. When females were injected with PBAN before their glands were extracted, the differences between the strains were less pronounced but still statistically significant. The pheromone composition of hybrid females showed a maternal inheritance of the major component Z9-14:Ac (M) as well as of Z11-16:Ac (m). Most other compounds showed an inheritance indicating genetic dominance of the corn strain. The within-strain phenotypic correlations among the various components were consistent with their hypothesized biosynthetic pathway, and between-strain differences in the correlation structure suggested candidate genes that may explain the pheromone differences between the two strains. These include ?9- and ?11 desaturases, and possibly also a ?7-desaturase, although the latter has not been identified in insects so far. Conclusion The two host strains of S. frugiperda produce systematically differing female sex pheromone blends. Previously-documented geographic variation in the sexual communication of this species did not take strain identity into account, and thus may be partly explained by different strain occurrence in different regions. The finding of pheromone differences reinforces the possibility of incipient reproductive isolation among these strains, previously shown to differ in the timing of nocturnal mating activity and host plant use. Finding the genetic basis of the pheromone differences, as well as these other biological traits, will help to elucidate the role of premating isolation in the continuing differentiation of these two strains that may eventually lead to speciation. PMID:19109878

  11. Relationship of the lingual frenum to the mandibular central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Garg, Sanchit; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Agarwal, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Clinical implication The purpose of this study is to record the vertical distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum and incisal edge of mandibular central incisors in dentulous subjects and then determine the mean vertical distance and to suggest guidelines for positioning of mandibular central incisors in complete dentures. Method In this study, 150 dentulous subjects (75 males and 75 females) were chosen based on predecided inclusion criteria. A mandibular cast was obtained from irreversible hydrocolloid impression in modified stock trays for each subject. All subjects were instructed to elevate the tongue while the impressions were made. The vertical distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the casts and then the values were statistically analyzed. Result The distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum (AALF) mesioincisal edge of mandibular central incisor (CI) in male, female and total (male + female) subjects was measured. In males it ranged from 7.3 to 8.9 mm with mean (±SD) 8.29 ± 0.36 mm while in females it ranged from 7.1 to 9.0 mm with mean (±SD) 8.21 ± 0.38 mm. Conclusion It is believed that the application of this anatomic relation can provide a reliable point for arranging and checking the position of the mandibular central incisors for complete dentures in patients with class I ridge relationship. PMID:25853047

  12. Effects of pheromone plume structure and visual stimuli on the pheromone-modulated upwind flight of male gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar ) in a Forest (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Willis; C. T. David; J. Murlis; R. T. Cardé

    1994-01-01

    The pheromone-modulated upwind flight ofLymantria dispar males responding to different pheromone plume structures and visual stimuli designed to mimic trees was video recorded in a forest. Males flying upwind along pheromone plumes of similar structure generated tracks that were similar in appearance and quantitatively similar in almost all parameters measured, regardless of the experimentally manipulated visual stimuli associated with the

  13. Patterns of endothermy in bumblebee queens, drones and workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Heinrich

    1972-01-01

    1.The thoracic temperatures (TTh) of captiveBombus edwardsii queens and drones from the current year approached ambient temperatures (TA) at night, but warm-up was frequent throughout the day.2.ABombus vosnesenskii queen which had initiated nest building maintained TTh nearly continuously between 37.4 and 38.8 °C at night and in the daytime. On the other hand, the TTh of an overwintered queen which

  14. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  15. Pheromone-based mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota...

  16. Directional Bias and Pheromone for Discovery and Coverage on Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-11

    Natural multi-agent systems often rely on “correlated random walks” (random walks that are biased toward a current heading) to distribute their agents over a space (e.g., for foraging, search, etc.). Our contribution involves creation of a new movement and pheromone model that applies the concept of heading bias in random walks to a multi-agent, digital-ants system designed for cyber-security monitoring. We examine the relative performance effects of both pheromone and heading bias on speed of discovery of a target and search-area coverage in a two-dimensional network layout. We found that heading bias was unexpectedly helpful in reducing search time and that it was more influential than pheromone for improving coverage. We conclude that while pheromone is very important for rapid discovery, heading bias can also greatly improve both performance metrics.

  17. Pheromone trailing behavior of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.

    PubMed

    Greene, M J; Stark, S L; Mason, R T

    2001-11-01

    The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active conspecifics was tested in the laboratory by using a Y maze. Males displayed a trailing response to both female and male pheromone trails over blank controls. As males of this species display ritualized combat behavior, these responses likely represent both direct and indirect mechanisms, respectively, for the location of potential mates in the wild. Males did not, however, discriminate between male and female trails when given a choice on the Y maze. PMID:11817075

  18. Automated selection of appropriate pheromone representations in ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James; Randall, Marcus; Hendtlass, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a constructive metaheuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the pheromone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by following any systematic process. In some representations, distinct solutions appear multiple times, increasing the effective size of the search space and potentially misleading ants as to the true learned value of those solutions. In this article, we present a novel system for automatically generating appropriate pheromone representations, based on the characteristics of the problem model that ensures unique pheromone representation of solutions. This is the first stage in the development of a generalized ACO system that could be applied to a wide range of problems with little or no modification. However, the system we propose may be used in the development of any problem-specific ACO algorithm. PMID:16053571

  19. Control of human mandibular posture during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Timothy S; Flavel, Stanley C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Mandibular movements and masseter muscle activity were measured in humans during hopping, walking and running to determine whether reflexes contribute to the maintenance of jaw position during locomotion. In initial experiments, subjects hopped so that they landed either on their toes or on their heel. Landing on the toes provoked only small mandibular movements and no reflex responses in the masseter electromyogram (EMG). Landing on the heels with the jaw muscles relaxed caused the mandible to move vertically downwards relative to the maxilla, and evoked a brisk reflex response in the masseter at monosynaptic latency. Neither this relative movement of the mandible nor the reflex was seen when the teeth were clenched: hence the reflex is not the result of vestibular activation during head movement. The same variables were measured in a second series of experiments while subjects stood, walked and ran at various speeds and at various inclinations on a treadmill. During walking, the vertical movements of the head and therefore the mandible were slow and small, and there was no tonic masseter EMG or gait-related activity in the jaw-closing muscles. When subjects ran, the vertical head and jaw movement depended on the running speed and the inclination of the treadmill. Landing on the heels induced larger movements than landing on the toes. About 10 ms after each foot-strike, the mandible moved downwards relative to the maxilla, thereby stretching the jaw-closing muscles and activating them at segmental reflex latency. This caused the mandible to move back upwards. The strength of the reflex response was related to the speed and amplitude of the vertical jaw movement following landing. It is concluded that, during walking, the small, slow movements of the mandible relative to the maxilla are subthreshold for stretch reflexes in the jaw muscles: i.e. the mandible is supported by visco-elasticity of the soft tissues in the masticatory system. However, the brisker downward movements of the mandible after heel-landing during hopping and running evoke segmental reflex responses which contribute to the active maintenance of the posture of the mandible. This is a unique demonstration of how a stretch reflex operates to maintain posture under entirely natural conditions. PMID:14678503

  20. Admission Regulations Queen's University, Faculty of Arts and Science

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Admission Regulations Queen's University, Faculty of Arts and Science TABLE .................................................................................................................................................... 3 ADMISSION REGULATION 1: ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY ........................................................................ 4 ADMISSION REGULATION 2: ADMISSION WITH AN ONTARIO SECONDARY SCHOOL DIPLOMA

  1. Aggregation pheromones in Drosophila borealis and Drosophila littoralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bartelt; Angela M. Schaner; Larry L. Jackson

    1988-01-01

    Mature males ofDrosophila borealis andD. littoralis (Diptera: Drosophilidae) produce pheromones that attract both males and females in a wind-tunnel bioassay. Ethyl tiglate is a major pheromone component in both species. Isopropyl tiglate is a minor component, as active as ethyl tiglate on an equal-weight basis, but less abundant in the flies. Both species respond to (Z)-9-heneicosene, a compound they do

  2. Prevalence and pattern of mandibular fracture in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay; Mudhol, Anupama; Madan, Ramnik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiology and pattern of mandibular fracture vary considerably among different study populations. Despite many reports about the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of mandibular fracture there is limited knowledge about the specific type or pattern of mandibular fractures in South Asian countries. This study attempts to delineate predictable patterns of fracture based on patient demographics and mechanism of injury in central part of India. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients with mandibular fractures treated over a 3 years period were identified and analyzed based on age, sex, mechanism of trauma, seasonal variation, drug/alcohol abuse, number and anatomic location. Results: We reviewed 464 patients having mandibular fractures with age ranging from 7 to 89 years. Male (343, 79%) to female (91, 21%) ratio was 3.7:1, significantly higher for males. The highest incidence (37.5%) of mandibular fractures was in the age group of 21–30 years. The main cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs, 68.8%) followed by falls (16.8%), assaults (11%) and other reasons (3.8%). Parasymphyseal fractures were the most frequent 331 (41.1%), followed by condyle (135) and angle (124) fractures in occurrence. Mandibular angle fractures were found mostly to be associated with assault victims. Conclusion: The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of these associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management. Because RTAs are most frequent, good traffic sense needs to be imbibed and developed by the government as well as the public. PMID:25937725

  3. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  4. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  5. Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

    2011-10-01

    Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

  6. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  7. Mandibular osteosarcoma in a nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Kim, Kenneth; Serio, Jacqueline; Paulsen, Daniel; Rademacher, Nathalie; Pirie, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    A four-year-old neutered male nutria (Myocastor coypus) was presented for a one-day history of lethargy and anorexia. A right-sided facial swelling and loose right mandibular fourth molar that exuded caseous exudate from the root were noted; however, the animal continued to decline despite removal of the affected tooth and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Radiographs showed a lytic proliferative bony lesion on the right mandible that appeared to expand in size over the course of a week. Due to its declining clinical condition and poor response to therapy, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy revealed an invasive bony neoplasm of the right mandible, histologically consistent with an osteosarcoma, that was invading the mandible and dental arcade, likely contributing to tooth root infection and osteomyelitis. Endocardiosis of the tricuspid valve was incidentally found as well with early cardiac remodeling of the right ventricle. This is the first report of an osteosarcoma and endocardiosis in a nutria. PMID:25314853

  8. On the reversibility of mandibular symphyseal fusion.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremiah E; Lack, Justin B; Ravosa, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    Experimental and comparative studies suggest that a major determinant of increased ossification of the mandibular symphysis is elevated masticatory stress related to a mechanically challenging diet. However, the morphology of this joint tracks variation in dietary properties in only some mammalian clades. Extant anthropoid primates are a notable exception: synostosis is ubiquitous in this speciose group, despite its great age and diverse array of feeding adaptations. One possible explanation for this pattern is that, once synostosis evolves, reversion to a lesser degree of fusion is unlikely or even constrained. If correct, this has important implications for functional and phylogenetic analyses of the mammalian feeding apparatus. To test this hypothesis, we generated a molecular tree for 76 vespertilionoid and noctilionoid chiropterans using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and examined character evolution using parsimony and likelihood ancestral-state reconstructions along with the binary state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model. Results indicate that reversals have occurred within Vespertilionoidea. In contrast, noctilionoids exhibit an anthropoid-like pattern, which suggests that more detailed comparisons of the functional and developmental bases for fusion in these bat clades may provide insight into why fusion is maintained in some lineages but not in others. Potential functional and developmental explanations for the lack of reversal are discussed. PMID:22946814

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans Pheromones Regulate Multiple Complex Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Edison, Arthur S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances A family of small molecules called ascarosides act as pheromones to control multiple behaviors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. At picomolar concentrations, a synergistic mixture of at least three ascarosides produced by hermaphrodites causes male-specific attraction. At higher concentrations, the same ascarosides, perhaps in a different mixture, induce the developmentally arrested stage known as dauer. The production of ascarosides is strongly dependent on environmental conditions, although relatively little is known about the major variables and mechanisms of their regulation. Thus, male mating and dauer formation are linked through a common set of small molecules whose expression is sensitive to a given microenvironment, suggesting a model by which ascarosides regulate the overall life cycle of C. elegans. PMID:19665885

  10. Pheromones mediating copulation and attraction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, Hany K. M.; Ebrahim, Shimaa A. M.; Thoma, Michael; Mohamed, Ahmed A. M.; Keesey, Ian W.; Trona, Federica; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Svatoš, Aleš; Sachse, Silke; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific olfactory signals known as pheromones play important roles in insect mating systems. In the model Drosophila melanogaster, a key part of the pheromone-detecting system has remained enigmatic through many years of research in terms of both its behavioral significance and its activating ligands. Here we show that Or47b-and Or88a-expressing olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) detect the fly-produced odorants methyl laurate (ML), methyl myristate, and methyl palmitate. Fruitless (fruM)-positive Or47b-expressing OSNs detect ML exclusively, and Or47b- and Or47b-expressing OSNs are required for optimal male copulation behavior. In addition, activation of Or47b-expressing OSNs in the male is sufficient to provide a competitive mating advantage. We further find that the vigorous male courtship displayed toward oenocyte-less flies is attributed to an oenocyte-independent sustained production of the Or47b ligand, ML. In addition, we reveal that Or88a-expressing OSNs respond to all three compounds, and that these neurons are necessary and sufficient for attraction behavior in both males and females. Beyond the OSN level, information regarding the three fly odorants is transferred from the antennal lobe to higher brain centers in two dedicated neural lines. Finally, we find that both Or47b- and Or88a-based systems and their ligands are remarkably conserved over a number of drosophilid species. Taken together, our results close a significant gap in the understanding of the olfactory background to Drosophila mating and attraction behavior; while reproductive isolation barriers between species are created mainly by species-specific signals, the mating enhancing signal in several Drosophila species is conserved. PMID:25964351

  11. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  12. Pathological mandibular fracture: A severe complication of periimplantitis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campo, Francisco; Naval-Parra, Beatriz; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, dental implant treatment is a very common option for patients even in medical compromised conditons. Some complications related to them have been described. Periimplantitis (PI) is one of the biggest concerns complications of these kind of treatments, probably has a multifactorial aethiology. Usually the consequences of PI are the loss of the implants and prostheses, expenses of money and time for dentists and patients. Very often PI implies the necesity of repeating the treatment . Pathological mandibular fracture due to PI is a severe but infrequent complication after dental implant treatment, especially after PI. In this study we present three cases of mandibular pathologic fractures among patients with different medical and dental records but similar management: two of them had been treated years ago of oral squamous cell carcinoma with surgery and radiotherapy, the other patient received oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis some years after implantation. We analized the causes, consequences and posible prevention of these fractures as well as the special features of this kind of mandibular fractures and the different existing treatments. Key words:Periimplantitis, pathological mandibular fracture, mandibular atrophy, bicortical implants.

  13. Update on patterns of mandibular fracture in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shreya; Chambers, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular fractures often present to hospital, so if we understand trends in patterns of fractures and their demographics it may help us to deliver a better service, and prevent these injuries. Here, we compare current data on mandibular fractures in Tasmania with data from 15 years ago, and with current world trends. Patients who presented to the Royal Hobart Hospital with fractured mandibles were audited, and the data analysed and compared with those from a previous study. About 37 fractured mandibles presented to hospital each year. Most patients were men aged 20-30 years old. Ninety-seven of the 159 fractures (61%) were secondary to assault, 27 (17%) were the result of sport, and 24 (15%) followed falls. Road crashes contributed only 5% of mandibular fractures. Sixty-six patients (60%) were intoxicated at the time of injury. The angle of the mandible was the most common site of fracture and open reduction and internal fixation was the treatment of choice. There have been important changes in mandibular fracture patterns in Tasmania in the last 15 years. There was a rise in alcohol-related interpersonal violence, and men were most commonly involved. There was also a decrease in mandibular fractures caused by road crashes, which suggests an improvement in road safety. PMID:25453253

  14. A SOY WAX BASED SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INSECT PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granules composed of soy wax were evaluated for the ability to serve as an insect pheromone release system. A simple new method of producing small wax granules is reported. The concentration dependence of pheromone release is reported for the granules....

  15. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    E-print Network

    Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined. Keywords Agrilus planipennis . Contact pheromone . 3-Methyltricosane . Emerald ash borer. Mating system

  16. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

  17. Sex pheromone traps for monitoring the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella : Effect of pheromone components, pheromone dose, field aging of dispenser, and type of trap on male captures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Anshelevich; M. Kehat; E. Dunkelblum; S. Greenberg

    1993-01-01

    The effects of pheromone components, pheromone dose in the dispenser, aging of dispenser in the field, and trap type on trapping\\u000a efficiency of males of the honeydew moth,Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Mill.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were investigated. At dosages of 2 or 0.2 mg, a binary blend containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal\\u000a (Z11–16: Aid) and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13–18:Ald) (1:1) was as effective in attracting males as a

  18. Evolution of behavioral responses to sex pheromone in mutant laboratory colonies of Trichoplusia ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Biao Liu; Kenneth F. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Male cabbage looper moths,Trichoplusia ni, from two colonies in which all females express an abnormal sex pheromone production phenotype were evaluated in a laboratory wind tunnel for upwind flight responses to the normal and abnormal sex pheromones. The abnormal sex pheromone blend consisted of 20 times as much (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and 30-fold less (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate compared to the normal pheromone

  19. Dodecyl acetate, a second pheromone component of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Bjostad; Lyle K. Gaston; Lesly L. Noble; J. Harvey Moyer; H. H. Shorey

    1980-01-01

    Dodecyl acetate was identified as a second component of the sex pheromone ofTrichoplusia ni (Hübner). Dodecyl acetate comprised 9.6% by weight of the total pheromone [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate plus dodecyl acetate] extracted from glands and 7.3% by weight of the total pheromone evaporated from the surfaces of glands. Dodecyl acetate appears to function as a short-range pheromone component. Evaporation at female

  20. Teaching Online at Queens College DRAFT, JAN2009

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Teaching Online at Queens College DRAFT, JAN2009 A variety of courses offered at Queens College, identity of participants, and teaching evaluations. Using Internet-based technologies for teaching delivery, to better exploit the unique resources offered by the Internet.) d. Does the instructor have

  1. TheQueens,theDrones and theWorkers

    E-print Network

    Starks, Philip

    TheQueens,theDrones and theWorkers Phil's Peace By Phil starks If I sit still long enough and a few hundred drones. The queen is mother to them all, and is respected accordingly. The drones are brothers, and as a boy with three sisters of my own, I can empathize with their plight: Drones

  2. The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zachary

    The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production Katie E. Wharton,a Fred C and regu- lation of males (drones). We examined whether honeybee queens can influence drone regulation by either allowing or prevent- ing them from laying drone eggs for a period of time and then examining

  3. Social life: the paradox of multiple-queen colonies

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    questionof why young queens join estab lished colonies and why resident queensand workers acceptthem second set of issuesrelates to the mechanisms maintainingreproductivealtruism by workers when several insect workers are hlghly related to the brood they rear when colonies are headed by a single queen

  4. REGULAR ARTICLE Queen-worker differences in spermatheca reservoir

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    REGULAR ARTICLE Queen-worker differences in spermatheca reservoir of phylogenetically basal ants April 2006 /Published online: 14 June 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 Abstract Ant queens mate when young, workers in most species never mate. We have compared the histological organization of spermathe- cae in 25

  5. Queen Quality Eric C. Mussen, Extension Apiculturist, UC Davis

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    young bees always have to be available to the colony in order to provide adequate nurse bees. Production or too hot ruins potential queens. There should be adequate worker bees in the nuclei to keep the queen cell covered and warm. The worker population should contain a substantial number of 9 to 12 day old

  6. Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution of single-use bottled water shall not be permitted on campus. DEFINITION Single-Use Bottled Water - A water

  7. Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution of singleuse bottled water shall not be permitted on campus. DEFINITION SingleUse Bottled Water A water

  8. Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects ovarian development in caged workers 1998; accepted 9 March 1999) Abstract - The inhibitory effects of honeybee queen tergal gland secretion on worker ovarian devel- opment was studied using a laboratory bioassay with the honeybee races Apis

  9. NEST ODOR CHANGES FOLLOWING QUEEN LOSS IN APIS MELLIFERA L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript investigates the effects of queen loss on the nest odor of honey bee colonies. I sampled the nest odor (using solid-phase microextraction fibers which were then injected into a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer) of 15 colonies immediately after removing their queens a...

  10. The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone

    E-print Network

    Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

    The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone J. R. Chasnov*, W. K. So chemotaxis assays, we demonstrate that females secrete a potent sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance, whereas hermaphrodites do not. The female sex pheromone is not species-specific, with males

  11. Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanka Pophof

    2002-01-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The

  12. Antennal-specific Pheromone-degrading Aldehyde Oxidases from the Moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rybczynski; R. G. Vogt; M. R. LernerS

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating be- haviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concen- tration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone con- centration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths

  13. Traffic Signal Control by Using Traffic Congestion Prediction Based on Pheromone Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsunori Tawara; Naoto Mukai

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion has been a long-held social problem because of the increasing number of vehicles. In this paper, we apply a pheromone model to a traffic signal control in order to alleviate the traffic congestion. The pheromone model is a tool to communicate among insects (e.g., ants) for their crowd action. In our target problem, the pheromone is strewed by

  14. Using an electronic nose to rapidly assess grandlure content in boll weevil pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil eradication programs are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure, the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils. Although this approach accurately quantifies the pheromone content...

  15. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  16. Identification and Synthesis of a Female-Produced Sex Pheromone for the Cerambycid Beetle Prionus californicus

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    as the Rocky Mountains and Colorado (Linsley 1962). The adults are among the largest longhorned beetlesIdentification and Synthesis of a Female-Produced Sex Pheromone for the Cerambycid Beetle Prionus cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus produce a powerful sex pheromone that attracts males. The pheromone

  17. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

  18. A new vertebrate courtship pheromone, PMF, affects female receptivity in a terrestrial salamander

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Stevan J.

    A new vertebrate courtship pheromone, PMF, affects female receptivity in a terrestrial salamander L been documented only in salamanders. These courtship pheromones have been investigated most intensively in plethodontid salamanders. The source of the plethodontid courtship pheromone is the male's submandibular

  19. Peripheral, Central and Behavioral Responses to the Cuticular Pheromone Bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster Males

    PubMed Central

    Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Martin, Jean-René; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be — mostly but not only — detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i) the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii) the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii) the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception. PMID:21625481

  20. Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2

    E-print Network

    Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2 T.C.BAKER AND R. T 48824 Reprinted from the ENVIRONMENTALENTOMOLOGY #12;Disruption of Gypsy Moth1 Male Sex Pheromone Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth), while flying upwind toward a pheromone source, respond to high frequency

  1. The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Nieberding; Helene de Vos; Maria V. Schneider; Jean-Marc Lassance; Natalia Estramil; Jimmy Andersson; Joakim Bång; Erik Hedenström; Christer Löfstedt; Paul M. Brakefield

    2008-01-01

    Background: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the

  2. The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Nieberding; Helene de Vos; Maria V. Schneider; Jean-Marc Lassance; Natalia Estramil; Jimmy Andersson; Joakim Bång; Erik Hedenström; Christer Löfstedt; Paul M. Brakefield; Michael Somers

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundFemale sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated

  3. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher I. Keeling; Gary J. Blomquist; Claus Tittiger

    2004-01-01

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used

  4. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry. Methods 55 adult patients, 26 males (26?±?5 yrs) and 29 females (26?±?5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint. Results Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14?±?318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5?±?418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12?±?0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39?±?0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes. Conclusions The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling. PMID:24354862

  5. Mandibular talon cusps: A Systematic review and data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Panampally, George-Kurian; Chen, Yong; Tian, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mandibular talon cusps distribution from the comprehensive literature search and proposal of new classification Material and Methods: The study was a review of articles published in the English language from January 1960 to December 2013. The PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholor databases were searched electronically using ‘talon cusp’, ‘dens evaginatus’, ‘anterior teeth’, mandible, ‘primary dentition’ and ‘ permanent dentition’ as search terms in various combinations. The citation lists from the included references were subsequently examined, and a hand search was also performed in an attempt to identify additional reports. The distribution, characteristics, common tooth type, associated dental anomaly and proposal of new classification have been included in final data analysis. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Chi square test (SPSS, version 17). Results: Overall 37 citations were retrieved from the literature where one was prevalence studies and rest were case reports among those two were duplication. Total 35 articles with 43 patients were reported on mandibular talon cusps. Males were predominantly affected than females (p<0.05). Eight cases (19%) were reported in archeological skulls 81% were clinical reports. Forty cases (93%) were reported in permanent dentition while 7% cases in primary dentition. Lingual mandibular talon are more common than facial type in permanent dentition facial talons (p<0.05). Seven cases (18%) were bilaterally involved. Double tooth (45%) was commonly associated with mandibular talons. Most of the cases reported from Asia and asia derived populations. Conclusions: Central incisor is the most common tooth type that effected by talon cusp in permanent dentition and lateral incisor is in primary dentition. Lingual talons are common in mandible. Double tooth common dental anomaly associated with mandibular talon cusp. Most of the case reported from Asia. Talon cusps should be classified as facial, lingual, and facial and lingual types. Key words:Double tooth, permanent dentition, primary dentition, mandibular arch, Talon cusp. PMID:25593665

  6. [Mandibular fractures in sports. Retrospective study of 48 cases].

    PubMed

    Paoli, J R; Fabié, L; Dodart, L; Lauwers, F; Boutault, F; Fabié, M

    1999-12-01

    We present a retrospective study of 48 isolated mandibular fractures related to athletic activities. We studied patient age, sex, sport involved, mandibular location of the fracture and the therapeutic implication. The sex ratio was 4/1 and mean age 24 years. Rugby and cross-country biking were the more frequently involved sports (79%). We recall preventive measures. Miniplate osteosynthesis was used as often as possible in order to avoid intermaxillary fixation (IMF) (40%) or to limit the duration of IMF. This allowed early return to sport activities. PMID:10672650

  7. Nonodontogenic mandibular lesions: differentiation based on CT attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Özgür, An?l; Kara, Engin; Arpac?, Rabia; Arpac?, Taner; Esen, Kaan; Kara, Taylan; Duce, Meltem Nass; Apayd?n, Feramuz Demir

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular lesions are classified as odontogenic and nonodontogenic based on the cell of origin. Odontogenic lesions are frequently encountered at head and neck imaging. However, several nonodontogenic pathologies may also involve mandible and present further diagnostic dilemma. Awareness of the imaging features of nonodontogenic lesions is crucial in order to guide clinicians in proper patient management. Computed tomography (CT) may provide key information to narrow diagnostic considerations. Nonodontogenic mandibular lesions may have lytic, sclerotic, ground-glass, or mixed lytic and sclerotic appearances on CT. In this article, our aim is to present various nonodontogenic lesions of the mandible by categorizing them according to their attenuations on CT. PMID:25297390

  8. Identification and synthesis of insect pheromone XXX. Sex pheromone of mulberry clearwing moth Paradoxecia pieli Lieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Zhong-Xin; Lin Guo-Qiang; Liu Han-Quan; Pu Guan-Qin; Du He-Ming; Mao Jian-Pin; Meng Lian-Zhong; Wu Cai-Hong

    1992-01-01

    (E,Z)-3,13-OctadecadienyI acetate (1a) and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol(2a) were identified from the sex pheromone gland of the virgin female mulberry clearwing mothParadoxecia pieli L., by GC analysis, EAG, SCR survey, and field bioassay. One female equivalent contained 250 ng of1a and 30 ng of2a. In the field tests, 100µg of synthetic1a was attractive to male moths of the species.

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE The effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen reproductive

    E-print Network

    Tarpy, David R.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE The effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen reproductive potential division of labor is exemplified by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), in which a single, polyandrous queen of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher

  10. Date: July 11 15, 2011 Location: Harrison LeCaine Hall, Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    in a close environment with Queen's music faculty member Jeff Hanlon. Through the ukulele and other in Arts and Education from Queen's University, and a Masters degree in Music Performance from the Yale and chamber music at Queen's School of Music, Queen's Conservatory of Music, and teaches ukulele with the ALCD

  11. STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS TO QUANTITATIVE SEISMIC RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING AT WEST PEARL QUEEN

    E-print Network

    PEARL QUEEN FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO By Cristian Hernando Malaver #12;A thesis submitted in the reservoir characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration at West Pearl Queen Field, ear Hobbs, New and confined migration of CO2 within the Queen Formation at West Pearl Queen field is rated as excellent. Given

  12. Piping by queens of Apis cerana Fabricius 1793 and Apis koschevnikovi v Buttel-Reepen 1906

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short note Piping by queens of Apis cerana Fabricius 1793 and Apis koschevnikovi v Buttel Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia (Received 1 February 1993; accepted 1 August 1994) Summary — Piping queens.39 quacks/s vs 3.0 quacks/s). queen piping / Apis cerana / Apis koschevnikovi INTRODUCTION Queen piping

  13. Brittle Faults of the Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 Charles Merguerian

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Brittle Faults of the Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 Charles Merguerian Geology and associated rocks of the Queens Tunnel Complex. Faults in the Queens Tunnel vary from early ductile faults to evaluate the seismic potential of these neotectonic features is evident. Geology of the Queens Tunnel

  14. The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    REVIEW The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic and Abiotic Factors Through Time Michael J. Benton Evolution may be dominated by biotic factors, as in the Red Queen the Red Queen or the Court Jester. The Red Queen model (1) stems from Darwin, who viewed evo- lution

  15. Octopamine modulates the sensitivity of silkmoth pheromone receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Pophof, B

    2000-03-01

    Effects of octopamine and its antagonist epinastine on electrophysiological responses of receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus specialised to the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal were investigated. Injections of octopamine and epinastine into the moths had no effect on the transepithelial potential of the antennal-branch preparation nor on the spontaneous nerve impulse frequency in either type of receptor neuron. However, in the presence of continuous low-intensity pheromone stimulation, octopamine significantly increased the nerve impulse frequency in the acetate receptor neuron, but not in the aldehyde receptor neuron. Octopamine and epinastine had no significant effect on the receptor potential amplitudes elicited in both receptor neuron types by pheromone stimulation. However, the peak nerve impulse frequency in the response of both receptor neuron types to pheromone was significantly affected: decreased by epinastine and increased by octopamine over a broad range of pheromone concentrations. In control experiments, injection of physiological saline did not significantly alter the peak nerve impulse frequency. The effect of octopamine was established within 1 h after injection and persisted for about 4 h. The possibility of a direct action of octopamine on the nerve impulse generation by the receptor neurons is discussed. PMID:10757246

  16. Origin and diversification of a salamander sex pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Vandebergh, Wim; Treer, Dag; Willaert, Bert; Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Bossuyt, Franky

    2015-02-01

    Sex pheromones form an important facet of reproductive strategies in many organisms throughout the Animal Kingdom. One of the oldest known sex pheromones in vertebrates are proteins of the Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF) system, which already had a courtship function in early salamanders. The subsequent evolution of salamanders is characterized by a diversification in courtship and reproduction, but little is known on how the SPF pheromone system diversified in relation to changing courtship strategies. Here, we combined transcriptomic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses to investigate the evolution of the SPF pheromone system in nine salamandrid species with distinct courtship displays. First, we show that SPF originated from vertebrate three-finger proteins and diversified through multiple gene duplications in salamanders, while remaining a single copy in frogs. Next, we demonstrate that tail-fanning newts have retained a high phylogenetic diversity of SPFs, whereas loss of tail-fanning has been associated with a reduced importance or loss of SPF expression in the cloacal region. Finally, we show that the attractant decapeptide sodefrin is cleaved from larger SPF precursors that originated by a 62 bp insertion and consequent frameshift in an ancestral Cynops lineage. This led to the birth of a new decapeptide that rapidly evolved a pheromone function independently from uncleaved proteins. PMID:25415963

  17. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication. PMID:18977394

  18. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  19. Trigeminocardiac Reflex by Mandibular Extension on Rat Pial Microcirculation: Role of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Dominga; Federighi, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, M. Paola; del Seppia, Cristina; Ghione, Sergio; Colantuoni, Antonio; Scuri, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we have extended our previous findings about the effects of 10 minutes of passive mandibular extension in anesthetized Wistar rats. By prolonging the observation time to 3 hours, we showed that 10 minutes mandibular extension caused a significant reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate respect to baseline values, which persisted up to 160 minutes after mandibular extension. These effects were accompanied by a characteristic biphasic response of pial arterioles: during mandibular extension, pial arterioles constricted and after mandibular extension dilated for the whole observation period. Interestingly, the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolished the vasoconstriction observed during mandibular extension, while the administration of N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the vasodilation observed after mandibular extension. Either drug did not affect the reduction of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate induced by mandibular extension. By qRT-PCR, we also showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene expression was significantly increased compared with baseline conditions during and after mandibular extension and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression markedly increased at 2 hours after mandibular extension. Finally, western blotting detected a significant increase in neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression. In conclusion mandibular extension caused complex effects on pial microcirculation involving opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide release by both neurons and endothelial vascular cells at different times. PMID:25551566

  20. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Prestwich, G D; Riddiford, L M

    1988-03-15

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-[3H]hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant. PMID:2831215

  1. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-03-15

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

  2. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  3. Ultrastructure of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria. PMID:21671995

  4. Osteochondroma of bilateral mandibular condyle: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Yang, Chi; Chen, Min-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondroma represents the largest group of benign tumors of bone, which usually develops in long bones and relatively uncommon in the craniofacial region. The condyle and coronoid tip are the most common sites of occurrence in the mandible, but both sides of condyle involved has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of osteochondroma arising from the bilateral mandibular condyle. PMID:25932269

  5. Investigation of midfacial and mandibular morphology: Strain tensor analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    The method of strain tensor (ST) analysis efficiently demonstrates the morphological differences in skeletal jaw growth and provides more information for orthodontic diagnosis and orthopedic therapy of jaw disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to investigate midfacial and mandibular size and shape differences in a sample of normal Class I molar occlusion and Class III malocclusion. Fifty Chinese boys

  6. Bilateral temporomandibular joint dislocation with locked mandibular impaction.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Sally L; Jansen, Leigh A; Brown, D Ross; Courtemanche, Douglas J; Boyle, James C

    2012-02-01

    Bilateral anterior temporomandibular joint dislocation is very rare, with only 2 reported cases published. In the present report, we describe a healthy 25-year-old man from Haida Gwaii, in British Columbia, Canada, who was transferred to our tertiary trauma center with life-threatening complications of a bilateral anterior temporomandibular joint dislocation with locked mandibular impaction. PMID:22260912

  7. An essential role of the yeast pheromone-induced Ca2+ signal is to activate calcineurin.

    PubMed Central

    Withee, J L; Mulholland, J; Jeng, R; Cyert, M S

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies showed that, in wild-type (MATa) cells, alpha-factor causes an essential rise in cytosolic Ca2+. We show that calcineurin, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, is one target of this Ca2+ signal. Calcineurin mutants lose viability when incubated with mating pheromone, and overproduction of constitutively active (Ca(2+)-independent) calcineurin improves the viability of wild-type cells exposed to pheromone in Ca(2+)-deficient medium. Thus, one essential consequence of the pheromone-induced rise in cytosolic Ca2+ is activation of calcineurin. Although calcineurin inhibits intracellular Ca2+ sequestration in yeast cells, neither increased extracellular Ca2+ nor defects in vacuolar Ca2+ transport bypasses the requirement for calcineurin during the pheromone response. These observations suggest that the essential function of calcineurin in the pheromone response may be distinct from its modulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Mutants that do not undergo pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest (fus3, far1) show decreased dependence on calcineurin during treatment with pheromone. Thus, calcineurin is essential in yeast cells during prolonged exposure to pheromone and especially under conditions of pheromone-induced growth arrest. Ultrastructural examination of pheromone-treated cells indicates that vacuolar morphology is abnormal in calcineurin-deficient cells, suggesting that calcineurin may be required for maintenance of proper vacuolar structure or function during the pheromone response. Images PMID:9190206

  8. Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

    1994-02-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

  9. Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

    1985-12-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

  10. Blackheaded fireworm: Laboratory and field studies of its sex pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. McDonough; H. G. Davis; S. Voerman

    1987-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of maleRhopobota naevana (Hübner), the blackheaded fireworm, to all of the monoene straightchain 12- and 14-carbon alcohols and acetates implicated (Z)-11-tetradecenl-1-ol (Z11–14:OH) and its acetate (Z11–14:Ac) as sex pheromone components.Z11–14:Ac produced the strongest EAG response of all compounds tested. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of extract of female sex pheromone glands (SPG) confirmed the presence ofZ11–14:OH (125

  11. Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the challenges in insect chemical ecology is to understand how insect pheromones are synthesised, detected and degraded. Genome wide survey by comparative sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for this challenge. A. ipsilon is a destructive pest of many crops and further characterization of the genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and transport could offer potential targets for disruption of their chemical communication and for crop protection. Results Here we report 454 next-generation sequencing of the A. ipsilon pheromone gland transcriptome, identification and expression profiling of genes putatively involved in pheromone production, transport and degradation. A total of 23473 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis, 86% of which were A. ipsilon specific. 42 transcripts encoded enzymes putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, of which 15 were specifically, or mainly, expressed in the pheromone glands at 5 to 120-fold higher levels than in the body. Two transcripts encoding for a fatty acid synthase and a desaturase were highly abundant in the transcriptome and expressed more than 40-fold higher in the glands than in the body. The transcripts encoding for 2 acetyl-CoA carboxylases, 1 fatty acid synthase, 2 desaturases, 3 acyl-CoA reductases, 2 alcohol oxidases, 2 aldehyde reductases and 3 acetyltransferases were expressed at a significantly higher level in the pheromone glands than in the body. 17 esterase transcripts were not gland-specific and 7 of these were expressed highly in the antennae. Seven transcripts encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 8 encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified. Two CSP transcripts (AipsCSP2, AipsCSP8) were highly abundant in the pheromone gland transcriptome and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. One OBP (AipsOBP6) were pheromone gland-enriched and three OBPs (AipsOBP1, AipsOBP2 and AipsOBP4) were antennal-enriched. Based on these studies we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects. PMID:24053512

  12. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination. PMID:25104758

  13. Selective and pH-dependent binding of a moth pheromone to a pheromone-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Leal, Walter S; Chen, Angela M; Erickson, Melissa L

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) data suggest that the major pheromone-binding protein (PBP) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus, ApolPBP1, undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change similar to that previously observed for the PBP from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorPBP. All three constituents of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac, E6,Z11-16Ald, and E4,Z9-14Ac, bound to ApolPBP1 with apparent high affinity at high pH, but reduced binding at low pH when tested individually in a "cold binding assay." In competitive assays, however, ApolPBP1 showed considerable preference for the major constituent of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac. These data suggest that specificity of PBPs contributes at least in part to the remarkable selectivity of moth's olfactory system. PMID:16132337

  14. Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees. PMID:19529971

  15. Panoramic radiographs do not accurately detect curvature of or close association with the mandibular canal of mandibular third molar roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thomas Deahl

    2003-01-01

    Original ArticleBell GW, Rodgers JM, Grime RJ, Edwards KL, Hahn MR, Dorman ML, et al. The accuracy of dental panoramic tomographs in determining the root morphology of mandibular third molar teeth before surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;95(1):119–25.

  16. Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Mohl; Heinz Breer; Jürgen Krieger

    2002-01-01

    .   We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and\\u000a 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate\\u000a that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac

  17. A Critical Look at the Queen Bee Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jane; Kushner, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the popular "Queen Bee" stereotype of successful female executives, and concludes that the stereotype is too narrow in focus and fails to take into account complex psychological and experiential variables. (Author/EJT)

  18. Queen's speech omission represents 'major setback' for nursing regulation.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The government's failure to include in the Queen's speech legal measures that could have reformed costly fitness to practise processes is a 'major setback', according to the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26036364

  19. QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MTH6115 Cryptography

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MTH6115 Cryptography Course Information Winter/Spring 2011. (Introductory.) Dominic Welsh. Codes and Cryptography. Oxford University Press. Paul Douglas Stinson. Cryptography: Theory and Practice. Chapman and Hall. Assignment Information: I intend to produce approximately

  20. Academic Critical Care Physicians Critical Care Medicine Program, Queen's University

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    a unique mix of year-round recreational, cultural and academic opportunities. Remuneration is competitive individuals. Queen's University is committed to employment equity and diversity in the workplace and welcomes

  1. Structural differences in the drone olfactory system of two phylogenetically distant Apis species, A. florea and A. mellifera.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, A; Brückner, D

    2001-02-01

    Male insects that are attracted by sex pheromones to find their female mates over long distances have specialized olfactory subsystems. Morphologically, these subsystems are characterized by a large number of receptor neurons sensitive to components of the female's pheromones and hypertrophied glomerular subunits ('macroglomeruli' or 'macroglomerular complexes') in the antennal lobes, in which the axons of the receptor neurons converge. The olfactory subsystems are adapted for an increased sensitivity to perceive minute amounts of pheromones. In Apis mellifera, drones have 18,600 olfactory poreplate sensilla per antenna, each equipped with receptor neurons sensitive to the queen's sex pheromone, and four voluminous macroglomeruli (MG1-MG4) in the antennal lobes. In contrast, we show that drones of the phylogenetically distant species, Apis florea, have only 1,200 poreplate sensilla per antenna and only two macroglomeruli in their antennal lobes. These macroglomeruli are homologous in anatomical position to the two most prominent macroglomeruli in A. mellifera, the MG1 and MG2, but they are much smaller in size. The morphological and anatomical differences described here suggest major modifications in the sex-pheromone processing subsystem of both species: (1) less pheromone sensitivity in A. florea and (2) a more complex sex-pheromone processing and thus a more complex sex-pheromone communication in A. mellifera. Research in honey bee sex-pheromone communication dates back to the 1960s, when Gary (1962) demonstrated that in Apis mellifera the queen's mandibular gland secretion and especially its main component, 9-ODA (9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid), is highly attractive to drones on their nuptial flight. Later, cross-species attraction experiments showed that other honey bee species, Apis florea, A. cerana, and A. dorsata probably also use the queen's mandibular gland secretion as a mating attractant (Butler et al. 1967; Sanasi et al. 1971). Besides its function in mating behavior, the queen's mandibular gland secretion is the main pheromone regulating queen-worker interactions (Free 1987). In this context, several studies have demonstrated the behavioral significance of single components (Slessor et al. 1988) and differences in the composition of the secretion between Apis species (Plettner et al. 1996, 1997; Keeling et al. 2000). Regarding the interspecific differences in the queen's signal, the question arises whether this variation is reflected in the olfactory system of drones and workers of the various species. PMID:11320892

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Krarup, S; Darvann, TA; Larsen, P; Marsh, JL; Kreiborg, S

    2005-01-01

    Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth and tooth eruption in three dimensions based on computer tomography (CT) scans, extending the principles of mandibular growth analysis proposed by Björk in 1969 from two to three dimensions. As longitudinal CT data from normal children are not available (for ethical reasons), CT data from children with Apert syndrome were employed, because it has been shown that the mandible in Apert syndrome is unaffected by the malformation, and these children often have several craniofacial CT scans performed during childhood for planning of cranial and midface surgery and for follow-up after surgery. A total of 49 datasets from ten children with Apert syndrome were available for study. The number of datasets from each individual ranged from three to seven. The first CT scan in each of the ten series was carried out before 1 year of age, and the ages for the 49 scans ranged from 1 week to 14.5 years. The mandible and the teeth were segmented and iso-surfaces generated. Landmarks were placed on the surface of the mandible, along the mandibular canals, the inner contour of the cortical plate at the lower border of the symphysis menti, and on the teeth. Superimposition of the mandibles in the longitudinal series was performed using the symphysis menti and the mandibular canals as suggested by Björk. The study supported the findings of stability of the symphysis menti and the mandibular canals as seen in profile view previously reported by Björk & Skieller in 1983. However, the mandibular canals were, actually, relocated laterally during growth. Furthermore, the position of tooth buds remained relatively stable inside the jaw until root formation started. Eruption paths of canines and premolars were vertical, whereas molars erupted in a lingual direction. The 3D method would seem to offer new insight into jaw growth and tooth eruption, but further studies are needed. PMID:16313399

  3. PHEROMONES OF MILKWEED BUGS ( HETEROPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) ATTRACT WAYWARD PLANT BUGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetically reconstructed aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), revealed thatalso attractsed males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae)in mid-summer and early fall males of the mirid bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight., w...

  4. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  5. Definitive evidence for cuticular pheromones in a cricket

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOM TREGENZA; NINA WEDELL

    1997-01-01

    The Orthoptera include many species established as important model systems in the study of animal behaviour, particularly in relation to communication and mating systems. Although most interest has focused on auditory communication, increasing circumstantial evidence suggests that there may be a widespread additional communication channel in the form of cuticular contact pheromones. Using the field cricket,Gryllus bimaculatuswe conducted a behavioural

  6. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

  7. Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa) Summary — In a simultaneous choice test, bees killed by freezing were more attractive to Varroa than bees stung to death by other bees. The smell of the sting apparatus proved to be repellent for Varroa

  8. DIGITAL PHEROMONES FOR AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION OF SWARMING UAV'S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Van Dyke Parunak; LCDR Michael Purcell; Robert O'Connell

    2002-01-01

    Modern UAV's reduce the threat to human operators, but do not decrease the manpower requirements. Each aircraft requires a flight crew of one to three, so deploying large numbers of UAV's requires committing and coordinating many human warfighters. Insects perform impressive feats of coordination without direct inter-agent coordination, by sensing and depositing pheromones (chemical scent markers) in the environment (14).

  9. Evaluation of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Sweetpotato Weevils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten types of pheromone traps for monitoring sweetpotato weevils, Cylas formicarius (F.) were evaluated in sweetpotato fields at the US Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC, during 2001 and 2002. A funnel trap, a modification of a water-pan trap, and the Pherocon sticky trap were the most eff...

  10. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  11. Harderian gland pheromone in the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delbert D. Thiessen; Andrew Clency; Michael Goodwin

    1976-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) secretes an attractant pheromone from the Harderian gland during a facial groom. The material exits at the external nares and is spread over select areas of the face. Its presence stimulates investigation by conspecifics, as seen by video observations. The half-life of the fluorescence of the material on the face following a groom parallels the

  12. Filamentous nature of pheromone plumes protects integrity of signal from background chemical noise in cabbage looper moth,Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y B; Haynes, K F

    1992-03-01

    (Z)-7-Dodecenol failed to interrupt pheromone-mediated anemotactic responses by male cabbage looper moths,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a wind tunnel when released 5 cm crosswind on both sides of the pheromone source or 10 cm upwind of the source to create an overlapping plume downwind. Significant inhibitory effects of (Z)-7-dodecenol were observed when released with the six-component pheromone blend from the same septum or abutting septa. These results indicate that (Z)-7-dodecenol needs to be received simultaneously with the pheromone blend to inhibit the anemotactic responses of males to the sex pheromone. We suggest that this feature and the filamentous nature of pheromone plumes render pheromone signals relatively protected from background chemical noise that may originate from pheromone plumes of other insect species. Unless filaments from a pheromone signal and an inhibitor arrive simultaneously, the integrity of the signal is maintained. PMID:24254938

  13. Chaotic Red Queen coevolution in three-species food chains

    PubMed Central

    Dercole, Fabio; Ferriere, Regis; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution between two antagonistic species follows the so-called ‘Red Queen dynamics’ when reciprocal selection results in an endless series of adaptation by one species and counteradaptation by the other. Red Queen dynamics are ‘genetically driven’ when selective sweeps involving new beneficial mutations result in perpetual oscillations of the coevolving traits on the slow evolutionary time scale. Mathematical models have shown that a prey and a predator can coevolve along a genetically driven Red Queen cycle. We found that embedding the prey–predator interaction into a three-species food chain that includes a coevolving superpredator often turns the genetically driven Red Queen cycle into chaos. A key condition is that the prey evolves fast enough. Red Queen chaos implies that the direction and strength of selection are intrinsically unpredictable beyond a short evolutionary time, with greatest evolutionary unpredictability in the superpredator. We hypothesize that genetically driven Red Queen chaos could explain why many natural populations are poised at the edge of ecological chaos. Over space, genetically driven chaos is expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of local populations, even under homogenizing environmental fluctuations, and thus to promote genetic diversity among ecological communities over long evolutionary time. PMID:20356888

  14. Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Isolation in Five Mirid Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Taek-Jun; Ahn, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mate location in many mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) is mediated by female-released sex pheromones. To elucidate the potential role of the pheromones in prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric species, we investigated differences in the pheromone systems of five mirid species, Apolygus lucorum, Apolygus spinolae, Orthops campestris, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Taylorilygus apicalis. GC/MS analyses of metathoracic scent gland extracts of virgin females showed that all five species produced mixtures of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, but in quite different ratios. (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate was the major component of A. spinolae, while hexyl butyrate was the most abundant component in the pheromone blends of the other four species. In addition to the three compounds, a fourth component, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate, was present in the gland extracts of A. lucorum and T. apicalis females. Field tests suggest that the ternary blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal as found in the extracts of the females of each species do not inhibit attraction of conspecific males but ensure species-specificity of attraction between A. lucorum, O. campestris and T. apicalis. Furthermore, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate was essential for attraction of A. lucorum and T. apicalis males, but strongly inhibited attraction of male A. spinolae, O. campestris and S. rubrovittatus. The combined results from this study and previous studies suggest that the minor component and pheromone dose in addition to the relative ratio of the major components play an important role in reproductive isolation between mirid species. PMID:25973902

  15. Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Beeman, Richard W.; Campbell, James F.; Park, Yoonseong; Aikins, Michael J.; Mori, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2011-09-01

    We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the average amount of DMD released daily by single feeding males of T. castaneum was 878 ± 72 ng (SE). Analysis of different body parts identified the abdominal epidermis as the major source of aggregation pheromone; the thorax was a minor source, while no DMD was detectable in the head. No internal organs or obvious male-specific glands were associated with pheromone deposition. Complete separation of all four stereoisomers of DMD was achieved following oxidation to the corresponding acid, derivatization with (1 R, 2 R)- and (1 S, 2 S)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)cyclohexanol to diastereomeric esters, and their separation on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at -54°C. Analysis of the hexane eluate from Porapak-Q-collected volatiles from feeding males revealed the presence of all four isomers (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S)/(4 S,8 R)/(4 S,8 S) at a ratio of approximately 4:4:1:1. A walking orientation bioassay in a wind tunnel with various blends of the four synthetic isomers further indicated that the attractive potency of the reconstituted natural blend of 4:4:1:1 was equivalent to that of the natural pheromone and greater than that of the 1:1 blend of (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S) used in commercial lures.

  16. Severe skeletal Class III malocclusion treated with 2-stage orthognathic surgery with a mandibular step osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2014-04-01

    To reduce a large amount of mandibular setback and to prevent pharyngeal airway space narrowing when correcting a severe anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy, a mandibular step osteotomy is often combined with 2-stage orthognathic surgery. This case report describes a successful 2-stage orthognathic treatment combined with a mandibular step osteotomy. A 20-year-old man had severe mandibular protrusion, facial asymmetry, and macroglossia. Phase 1 surgery included the mandibular step osteotomy and a partial glossectomy; then we performed phase 2 surgery with a 2-piece LeFort I segmental osteotomy and a bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy to correct the patient's mandibular protrusion and facial asymmetry. The total treatment period was 30 months, and the final result was improvement of the patient's facial appearance. PMID:24680021

  17. Skeletal stability following mandibular advancement with and without advancement genioplasty.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, C; van der Linden, W J; Reyneke, J P

    2015-05-01

    The correction of most cases of skeletal class II mandibular deficiency requires surgical advancement of the mandible for treatment of the malocclusion. Often genioplasty is included in the procedure to improve the soft tissue profile. Long-term skeletal stability is an important goal for the surgeon and orthodontist following bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and is influenced by the muscles attached to the mandible. Following the surgical advancement of the mandible, the suprahyoid muscle complex is stretched and even more so when the procedure is combined with surgical advancement of the chin. This retrospective comparative study determined the long-term skeletal stability of patients who had undergone surgical advancement of the mandible by means of BSSO with an advancement genioplasty, compared to those who had undergone mandibular advancement surgery (BSSO) without an advancement genioplasty. This study concluded that the postoperative hard tissue relapse following BSSO advancement, with or without genioplasty, was clinically insignificant. PMID:25592706

  18. Functional anatomy of the temporo-mandibular joint (II).

    PubMed

    Sava, Anca; Scutariu, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Jaw movement is analyzed as an action between two rigid components jointed together in a particular way, the movable mandible against the stabilized cranium. Opening and closing movements are symmetrical; that is, both sides of the cranio-mandibular articulation are making the same movements. Protrusive and retrusive movements may also be symmetrical. The mandibular muscles determine all the complicated postures and-movements of the jaw. Their behavior can be greatly clarified by restating certain fundamentals crucial to purposive muscular activity. The joint derives its arterial supply from the superficial temporal artery and the maxillary artery. Branches of the auriculo-temporal and masseteric nerves and postganglionic sympathetic nerves supply the tissues associated with the capsular ligament and the looser posterior bilaminar extension of the disc. PMID:23700914

  19. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    PubMed

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients. PMID:24156980

  20. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  1. Transalveolar repositioning of an impacted immature permanent mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Guler, Nurhan; Sungurtekin-Ekci, Elif; Sandalli, Nuket

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to discuss the four-year follow-up of a transalveolar transplantation of an impacted immature permanent mandibular left canine. A nine year-old-boy was referred to the dental school because of a mandibular swelling associated with the impacted canine. Under local anesthesia, the tooth was extracted and transplanted in its own space, followed by a two-week orthodontic fixation. The radiographic examination two months later revealed the presence of external inflammatory root resorption, which was treated with an apexification. The overall status of the transplanted tooth and the surrounding hard and soft tissues four years post-treatment indicates a successful outcome. PMID:25514261

  2. Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Gašpar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kova?i?, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis. PMID:25098573

  3. The relationship of tinnitus to craniocervical mandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelb, H; Gelb, M L; Wagner, M L

    1997-04-01

    Patients with craniocervical mandibular (TMD) disorders can present with tinnitus as a primary or secondary complaint. The embryology and functional anatomy of the middle ear, temporomandibular joint, muscles of mastication and associated tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics was found to be helpful in establishing etiologic concepts which relate tinnitus to these temporomandibular disorders. In addition to etiologic concepts, treatment modalities are described. The authors relate their experiences as well as those of others with different patient populations. PMID:9586516

  4. Extrusion of impacted mandibular second molar using removable appliance

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M. K.; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Saravanan, R.; Vikram, N. Raj; Kumar, R. Vinoth; Prasath, R. Eshwara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the principles of case management of impacted mandibular molars and to illustrate their potential to respond well to treatment. Although the scope of treatment may be influenced by the patient's age, past dental history, severity of impaction, dentoalveolar development, and root form, the case reports demonstrate the inherent potential for good treatment outcome even in the most unfavorable circumstances. PMID:25210378

  5. A Review of Mandibular Fractures in a Craniomaxillofacial Trauma Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A G Tay; V K L Yeow; B K Tan; K Sng; M H S Huang; C L Foo

    This report is a retrospective review of 74 cases of mandibular fractures managed in a craniomaxillofacial trauma centre betwee n January 1994 and May 1998. Demographic data revealed that 85% of the patient population were male, with a mean age of 27.5 years. The commonest causes of injury were motor vehicle accidents (48.6%), followed by assault (16.2%) and accidental falls

  6. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meiyu Tian; Yinzhong Duan; Xiaohong Duan

    2010-01-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg–Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick

  7. Rare, simultaneous, multiple, and recurrent mandibular bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Milles, Maano; Singer, Steven R; Rinaggio, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Simple bone cysts, also referred to as traumatic bone cysts, are benign connective tissue-lined cavities occurring most commonly in young people. Most of the time, they occur as solitary radiolucencies. In the jaws, they also have been reported to occur concurrently with benign fibro-osseous lesions. The radiographic appearance of simple bone cysts could be confused with other jaw cysts and benign tumors. This case report presents a patient who had 3 separate lesions simultaneously within the mandible. The right mandibular lesion presented as a multilocular radiolucency. The 2 left mandibular lesions were periapical, with mixed radiodensities and radiographically mimicked lesions of focal or periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. More aggressive benign lesions of the jaw were initially included in the differential diagnosis, as well. A biopsy revealed the diagnosis of simple bone cysts in all 3 locations. Minimal surgical management resulted in complete recovery of these osseous defects only to recur in 2 years on the mandibular left premolar-molar region. A new biopsy confirmed that the lesion was a recurrent simple bone cyst. Simultaneous presence of benign cemento-osseous dysplasia was also considered, as it is known to coexist with the simple bone cysts. PMID:19081903

  8. Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) has rarely been reported in the oral cavity. Herein reported is a case of PSCC in the mandibular gum. A 70-year-old man consulted our hospital because of a papillary tumor in the left mandibular gum. Physical examination revealed an exophytic papillary tumor of the left mandibular gum, and an excision of the tumor was performed. Grossly, the tumor was exophytic and papillary, and measured 1 x 1 x 0.8 cm. Microscopically, the tumor showed exophytic papillary proliferation with fibrovascular cores and consisted of atypical squamous epithelial cells. The tumor cells showed hyperchromasia, nuclear atypia, mitotic figures, apoptotic bodies, cancer pearls, and individual keratinization. Mild stromal invasion was seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, p63, p53, and Ki-67 (labeling index=40%), but negative for human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV in situ hybridization revealed no signals. Therefore, PSCC was diagnosed. The lateral and vertical margins are negative for tumor cell. The pathological diagnosis was PSCC. The patient was healthy and free from tumor three months after the operation. PMID:22977668

  9. The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in queenless worker honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Mor; Malka, Osnat; Meer, Robert K. Vander; Hefetz, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    In honeybees, workers under queenless condition compete for reproduction and establish reproductive dominance hierarchy. Ovary activation is generally accompanied by the expression of queen-like pheromones. Biogenic amines (BAs), in particular dopamine, are believed to be involved in this process by regulating ovarian development. However, the role of BAs in establishing reproductive dominance or their effect on queen-like pheromone production was not investigated. Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. One bee in a pair was treated with either OA or TA while the other was fed sugar solution. TA was found to enhance ovary development and the production of esters in the Dufour's gland and 9HDA (queen component) in the mandibular glands, thus facilitating worker reproductive dominance. OA, on the other hand, did not enhance ovarian development or ester production, but increased the production of 10HDA (worker major component) in the mandibular glands of their sugar-paired mates. OA is known to induce foraging behavior by workers, while increased production of 10HDA characterizes nursing workers. Therefore, we suggest that TA induces reproductive division of labor, while OA treatment results in caste differentiation of workers to foragers and nurses.

  10. Pheromone monitoring of rare and threatened insects: exploiting a pheromone-kairomone system to estimate prey and predator abundance.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mattias C; Svensson, Glenn P

    2009-12-01

    Pheromone-based monitoring is a promising new method for assessing the conservation status of many threatened insect species. We examined the versatility and usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring by integrating a pheromone-kairomone trapping system and pitfall trapping system in the monitoring of two saproxylic beetles, the hermit beetle Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and its predator Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), which live inside hollow trees. We performed mark-recapture studies of both species with unbaited pitfall traps in oak hollows combined with pheromone-baited funnel traps suspended from oak branches to intercept dispersing individuals. For O. eremita, the integrated trapping system showed that the population in the study sites may be considerably higher than estimates based on extrapolation from pitfall trapping alone (approximately 3400 vs. 1100 or 1800 individuals, respectively). Recaptures between odor-baited funnel traps showed that males and females had similar dispersal rates, but estimating the number of dispersing individuals was problematic due to declining recapture probability between subsequent capture events. Our conservative estimate, assuming a linear decrease in capture probability, suggested that around 1900 individuals, or at least half of the O. eremita population, may perform flights from their natal host trees, representing higher dispersal rates than previous estimates. E. ferrugineus was rarely caught in pitfall traps. One hundred thirty-nine individuals, likely almost exclusively females, were caught in odor-baited funnel traps with approximately 4% recapture probability. If recapture probability over consecutive capture events follows that of O. eremita, this would correspond to a total population size of 2500-3000 individuals of the predator; similar to its supposed prey O. eremita. Our results demonstrate that pheromone-based monitoring is a valuable tool in the study of species or life-history stages that would otherwise be inaccessible. PMID:19508672

  11. The solution NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP provides new insight into pheromone recognition by pheromone-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Smita; Zubkov, Sergey; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2004-03-19

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here, we report the NMR structure of a PBP from the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. This is the first structure of a PBP with specific acetate-binding function in vivo. The protein consists of nine alpha-helices: alpha1a (residues 2-5), alpha1b (8-12), alpha1c (16-23), alpha2 (27-34), alpha3a (46-52), alpha3b (54-59), alpha4 (70-79), alpha5 (84-100) and alpha6 (107-125), held together by three disulfide bridges: 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117. A large hydrophobic cavity is located inside the protein, lined with side-chains from all nine helices. The acetate-binding site is located at the narrow end of the cavity formed by the helices alpha3b and alpha4. The pheromone can enter this cavity through an opening between the helix alpha1a, the C-terminal end of the helix alpha6, and the loop between alpha2 and alpha3a. We suggest that Trp37 may play an important role in the initial interaction with the ligand. Our analysis also shows that Asn53 plays the key role in recognition of acetate pheromones specifically, while Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Phe76, and Phe118 are responsible for non-specific binding, and Leu8 and Ser9 may play a role in ligand chain length recognition. PMID:15003458

  12. Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Pophof, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla contains three different types of PBPs. In this study, recombinant PBPs in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor cells via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. The responses of receptor cells were shown to depend on both the pheromone component and the PBP. Pheromone components artificially bound to particular PBPs elicited nerve impulses in receptor cell types which they do not activate under natural conditions. This is the first electrophysiological study to suggest that the PBPs contribute to the activation of receptor molecules. PMID:12451455

  13. Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

    2001-01-01

    Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%. PMID:11124211

  14. Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Maida, R; Redkozubov, A; Ziegelberger, G

    2000-06-01

    Two proteins of the IP3 transduction pathway were identified by Western blots in homogenates of isolated pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. A 110 kDa protein was recognized by an antiserum raised against the Drosophila phospholipase C beta (PLC beta p121) and a 80kDa protein was labelled by an antiserum against a synthetic peptide of a conserved region of protein kinase C (PKC). Incubation of homogenized sensory hairs with the main sex pheromone component, (E,Z) 6-11 hexadecadienyl acetate, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of PKC compared to controls without pheromone. In contrast, incubation with pheromone did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKC by the membrane permeable dioctanoylglycerol led to excitation of the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. These data support the current concept that pheromone perception of moths is mediated by the IP3 transduction pathway. PMID:10852242

  15. Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pophof, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla contains three different types of PBPs. In this study, recombinant PBPs in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor cells via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. The responses of receptor cells were shown to depend on both the pheromone component and the PBP. Pheromone components artificially bound to particular PBPs elicited nerve impulses in receptor cell types which they do not activate under natural conditions. This is the first electrophysiological study to suggest that the PBPs contribute to the activation of receptor molecules.

  16. Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Bearfield, Jeremy C; Keeling, Christopher I; McCormack, Colin C; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production. PMID:17093975

  17. Structure of a bacterial quorum-sensing transcription factor complexed with pheromone and DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-guang Zhang; Terina Pappas; Jennifer L. Brace; Paula C. Miller; Tim Oulmassov; John M. Molyneaux; John C. Anderson; James K. Bashkin; Stephen C. Winans; Andrzej Joachimiak; Monsanto Co

    2002-01-01

    Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known as N-acylhomoserine lactones. At high population densities, these pheromones elicit diverse responses that include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, production of antimicrobials, DNA exchange, pathogenesis and symbiosis. Many of these regulatory systems require a pheromone-dependent transcription factor similar to the LuxR protein of Vibrio fischeri. Here we

  18. Kinetic Properties of a Sex Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme: The Sensillar Esterase of Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Vogt; Lynn M. Riddiford; Glenn D. Prestwich

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E, 11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life

  19. A photoaffinity-labelled insect sex pheromone for the moth Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iraj Ganjian; Michael J. Pettei; Koji Nakanishi; KARL-ERNST KAISSLING

    1978-01-01

    SINCE the isolation of the first insect sex pheromone, bombykol, from the female silkmoth Bombyx mori1 and its full identification by synthesis as (10E, 12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol2,3, the number of characterised pheromones has increased dramatically4-7. The basic question of pheromone-receptor interactions remain unanswered, however. To devise a method which could be used to study such problems, it was necessary to modify the

  20. Female Attacus atlas Respond to Pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a Comparative Electrophysiological and Biochemical Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Maida; Jürgen Ziesmann

    2001-01-01

    Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11- hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to

  1. Reinvestigation of Female Sex Pheromone of Processionary Moth ( Thaumetopoea pityocampa ): No Evidence for Minor Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Quero; Edi A. Malo; Gemma Fabriàs; Francisco Camps; Philippe Lucas; Michel Renou; Angel Guerrero

    1997-01-01

    The female sex pheromone of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa has been reinvestigated to look for possible minor components. Examination by GC-MS and GC-EAD of the contents of virgin female glands, after stimulation with PBAN (pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide), showed that the major component, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1), appears to be the only pheromone compound present in the gland. Comparison of female attractivity

  2. iBioSeminar: Sex and Smell: Molecular Biology of Pheromone Perception

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Dulac (Harvard University/Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2007-12-01

    Pheromones have evolved to signal the sex and the dominance status of animals and to promote social and mating rituals. In this lecture, I discuss the how pheromone sensing operates in mammals. I will discuss the molecular biology of the chemosensory receptors that are involved the first steps of pheromone sensing. At a higher level of complexity, I will discuss a distinct olfactory structure called the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and how it contributes to sex-specific behavioral responses.

  3. Pheromone gland-specific fatty-acyl reductase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken'ichi Moto; Toyoshi Yoshiga; Masanobu Yamamoto; Shunya Takahashi; Kazuhiro Okano; Tetsu Ando; Tadashi Nakata; Shogo Matsumoto

    2003-01-01

    The C10-C18 unsaturated, acyclic, aliphatic compounds that contain an oxygenated functional group (alcohol, aldehyde, or acetate ester) are a major class of sex pheromones produced by female moths. In the biosynthesis of these pheromone components, the key enzyme required to produce the oxygenated functional groups is fatty-acyl reductase (FAR). This enzyme converts fatty-acyl pheromone precursors to their corresponding alcohols, which,

  4. Specificity of male response to multicomponent pheromones in noctuid moths Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Linn; A. Hammond; J. Du; W. L. Roelofs

    1988-01-01

    The response of male cabbage looper (CL) and soybean iooper (SBL) moths was observed in the flight tunnel and measured in field tests to the six-component CL pheromone, the five-component SBL pheromone, and toZ7–12: OAc, the major component common to each pheromone. In both the flight tunnel and the field, male CL exhibited significantly greater levels of response to their

  5. Female Sex Pheromone in the Skin and Circulation of a Garter Snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstka, William R.; Crews, David

    1981-11-01

    Serums and extracts of tissues from the female garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) each act as a pheromone and elicit male courtship behavior when applied to the back of another male. Since pheromonal activity is present in yolk and liver tissue of untreated females and can be induced with estrogen treatment in the serums and livers of males, the pheromone may be associated with the circulating yolk lipoprotein, vitellogenin.

  6. Comparative studies on the sex pheromones of Ostrinia spp. in Japan: the burdock borer, Ostrinia zealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Ishikawa; Takuma Takanashi; Yongping Huang

    1999-01-01

    Summary.   To gain insight into the evolution of the sex pheromone communication system in Ostrinia (Lepidoptera Pyralidae), the sex pheromone of the burdock borer, O. zealis was analyzed by means of gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), GC-mass spectrometry and a series of\\u000a bioassays. Four EAD-active compounds were detected in the female sex pheromone gland extract, and these were identified as\\u000a tetradecyl

  7. Midgut tissue of male pine engraver , Ips pini , synthesizes monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Hall; Claus Tittiger; Gracie L. Andrews; Grant S. Mastick; Marilyn Kuenzli; Xin Luo; Steven J. Seybold; Gary J. Blomquist

    2002-01-01

    For over three decades the site and pathways of bark beetle aggregation pheromone production have remained elusive. Studies on pheromone production in Ips spp. bark beetles have recently shown de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components via the mevalonate pathway. The gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in this pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), showed high transcript levels in the anterior midgut

  8. Lifetime reproductive success and longevity of queens in an annual social insect.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vaamonde, C; Raine, N E; Koning, J W; Brown, R M; Pereboom, J J M; Ings, T C; Ramos-Rodriguez, O; Jordan, W C; Bourke, A F G

    2009-05-01

    Although central to understanding life-history evolution, the relationship between lifetime reproductive success and longevity remains uncertain in many organisms. In social insects, no studies have reported estimates of queens' lifetime reproductive success and longevity within populations, despite the importance of understanding how sociality and associated within-group conflict affect life-history traits. To address this issue, we studied two samples of colonies of the annual bumblebee, Bombus terrestris audax, reared from wild-caught queens from a single population. In both samples, queens' lifetime reproductive success, measured as either queens' inclusive fitness or as total biomass of queen-produced sexuals (new queens and males), was significantly positively associated with queen longevity, measured from the day the first worker was produced. We suggest that a positive relationship between reproductive success and longevity was inherited from nonsocial ancestors showing parental care and maintained, at least in part, because the presence of workers buffers queens against extrinsic mortality. PMID:19298495

  9. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 Advisor Center Navigation: Login #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training

  10. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...Determinations: ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following...exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  11. 78 FR 77772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “A Royal Passion: Queen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...for Exhibition Determinations: ``A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...to be included in the exhibition ``A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  12. Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

    1990-11-15

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

  13. Sexy DEG/ENaC Channels Involved in Gustatory Detection of Fruit Fly Pheromones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudio W. Pikielny (Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth; Department of Genetics and Neuroscience Center REV)

    2012-11-06

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones.

  14. Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.

    PubMed

    Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones. PMID:23131844

  15. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  16. Molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-pheromone by mass spectrometry-based peptidomics.

    PubMed

    Bener Aksam, Eda; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M

    2013-05-01

    Using modern peptide analytical MS technology ('Peptidomics'), it is possible to analyze yeast ?-pheromone both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively directly from conditioned cell culture media. MS/MS analysis shows both forms of ?-pheromone (MF? and MF?') detectable and identifiable straight from WT supernatants. In addition to the mature intact ?-pheromones, also post-translationally modified ?-pheromone peptides and fragments thereof are found to be present in the culture medium. This molecular analytical technique is complementary to the recently described quantitation method by Rogers et al. (2012, FEMS Yeast Res. 12:668) based on ELISA. PMID:23368790

  17. Efficacy of tags impregnated with pheromone and acaricide for control of Amblyomma variegatum.

    PubMed

    Allan, S A; Barré, N; Sonenshine, D E; Burridge, M J

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy of tags impregnated with pheromone and acaricide for control of Amblyomma variegatum on cattle in Guadeloupe was determined for a 13-week trial. Comparisons were made between untreated cattle and cattle with tags containing either pheromones alone (o-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde), pheromones plus acaricide (cyfluthrin or deltamethrin), or acaricide alone. Tags were fastened to cattle both on collars on the neck and with adhesive to tail hairs, with over 98 and 90% of tags retained, respectively, during the trial. By the end of the trial, tick infestations increased on untreated cattle (311.7%) and cattle with pheromone tags (154.8%) but decreased on cattle with pheromone/ cyfluthrin (-45.0%), cyfluthrin (-42.8%), pheromone/deltamethrin (-68.7%) and deltamethrin tags (-87.6%). Cattle with pheromone tags had greater proportions of ticks on the hind regions (81%) compared to untreated cattle (62.5%) and on the front regions (18.2%) compared to untreated cattle (8.2%) indicating that ticks aggregated in response to pheromones. Analysis of hair samples by gas chromatography indicated that, within 2 days of placement, cyfluthrin spread rapidly over the body from the tags. Both cyfluthrin and deltamethrin were present in detectable levels on all eight body regions examined throughout the trial. Analysis of the tags indicated that they all still contained pheromone components after 13 weeks under field conditions. PMID:9622367

  18. Sex Pheromone Traps for Monitoring the Peach Twig Borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller: Effect of Pheromone Components, Pheromone Dose, Field Aging of Dispenser, and Type of Trap on Male Captures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kehat; L. Anshelevich; E. Dunkelblum; S. Greenberg

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ratio between sex pheromone components, pheromone dose in the dispenser, aging of dispenser in the field, and\\u000a trap type on trapping efficiency of males of the peach twig borer,Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), were investigated. To attract males, the optimal ratio between pheromonal components in\\u000a a binary blend containing (E)-5-decenyl acetate (E5-10:Ac): (E)-5-decenol (E5-10:OH) was 72:28 or

  19. Do sexist organizational cultures create the Queen Bee?

    PubMed

    Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; van Laar, Colette; de Groot, Kim

    2011-09-01

    'Queen Bees' are senior women in masculine organizational cultures who have fulfilled their career aspirations by dissociating themselves from their gender while simultaneously contributing to the gender stereotyping of other women. It is often assumed that this phenomenon contributes to gender discrimination in organizations, and is inherent to the personalities of successful career women. We argue for a social identity explanation and examine organizational conditions that foster the Queen Bee phenomenon. Participants were 94 women holding senior positions in diverse companies in The Netherlands who participated in an on-line survey. In line with predictions, indicators of the Queen Bee phenomenon (increased gender stereotyping and masculine self-descriptions) were found mostly among women who indicated they had started their career with low gender identification and who had subsequently experienced a high degree of gender discrimination on their way up. By contrast, the experience of gender discrimination was unrelated to signs of the Queen Bee phenomenon among women who indicated to be highly identified when they started their career. Results are discussed in light of social identity theory, interpreting the Queen Bee phenomenon as an individual mobility response of low gender identified women to the gender discrimination they encounter in their work. PMID:21884548

  20. Sexual dimorphism of the internal mandibular chamber in Fayum Pliohyracidae (Mammalia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Blieux, D.D.; Baumrind, M.R.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.; Meyer, G.E.; Attia, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    An internal mandibular fenestra and chamber are found in many fossil hyracoids. The internal mandibular fenestra is located on the lingual surface of the mandibular corpus and opens into a chamber within the mandible. The mandibular chamber is maximally developed in late Eocene Thyrohyrax meyeri and early Oligocene Thyrohyrax domorictus from the Fayum Province of Egypt. The function of this chamber is unknown as it is not found in extant hyraxes, nor is it known to occur in any other mammal. In Thyrohyrax, this feature appears to be sexually dimorphic because it is confined to roughly one half of the specimens that otherwise cannot be separated by dental characteristics or measurements. It has been suggested that the chamber is found in females based on the presumed distribution of this character in other fossil hyracoids. Fossils from Fayum Quarry L-41, preserving the sexually dimorphic anterior dentition, show that, in Thyrohyrax meyeri and Thyrohyrax domorictus, the internal mandibular chamber is found in males. In Thyrohyrax litholagus, an internal mandibular fenestra and inflated mandibular chamber occurs in males whereas females show the variable presence of an internal mandibular fossa or fenestra but lack an expanded chamber. Other genera show differing patterns of sexual variation in which some Fayum hyracoids have an internal mandibular fenestra in both sexes but with the greatest development of the mandibular chamber occurring in males. We review functions proposed for the internal mandibular chamber and suggest that it housed a laryngeal air sac that may have had a vocal function by acting as a resonating chamber. ?? 2006 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  1. Alternative Synthesis of the Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB) Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Faraldos, Juan A.; Coates, Robert M.; Giner, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    A concise preparation of the pheromone secreted by the male Colorado potato beetle [viz. (3S)-1,3-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-2-one] was accomplished in 4 steps starting from 2-fluoronerol or 2-fluorogeraniol. The key step in the synthesis involves a 6-endo epoxide ring opening with ester participation that simultaneously inverts the 3R-configuration of the (3R)-2,3-epoxy-2-fluoroprenyl acetate intermediate, and installs the ketone functionality of the semiochemical. Extensive NMR studies validate the proposed 6-endo mechanism of the featured rearrangement, which under anhydrous conditions, resulted in the formation of two bicyclic 1,3-dioxan-5-ones via an unprecedented intramolecular Prins cyclization. “In memory of Robert Milton Silverstein (1917–2007), pioneer of insect pheromone chemistry and organic spectrometry” PMID:24047429

  2. Exposure to female fertility pheromones influences men's drinking.

    PubMed

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Research has shown that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. In the current study, we investigated whether decision making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (nonalcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a nonfertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053321

  3. Exposure to Female Fertility Pheromones Influences Men’s Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. The current study investigated whether decision-making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (non-alcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a non-fertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view. PMID:26053321

  4. Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars

    2005-08-01

    When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

  5. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Estelí J; Perfecto, Ivette

    2012-01-01

    Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles – the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% – the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. PMID:23139877

  6. The pheromone system of the male danaine butterfly, Idea leuconoe.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Nishida, R

    1996-03-01

    Male Idea leuconoe butterflies release a complex mixture of volatiles from their pheromone glands (hairpencils) during courtship. The pheromone components geranyl methyl thioether (2), viridifloric beta-lactone (3) and 6-hydroxy-4-dodecanolide (10) have been synthesized for the first time. Therefore, the structural assignment of these new natural products could be proved. Related 7-hydroxy-5-alkanoides are also present in the extract. The volatiles are embedded in a lipidic, matrix with more than 150 components. This matrix consists of alkanes, alkenes, 2,5-dialkyltetrahydrofurans, secondary alkanols and alkenols as well as alkanones and alkenones. Several regioisomers of the oxidized hydrocarbons occur. The elucidation of double bond positions has been performed by MS using DMDS adducts. PMID:8733612

  7. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Freddie-Jeanne Richard1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Tarpy, David R.

    Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology Freddie-Jeanne Richard1,2,3 , David effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor

  8. Research article Population and colony structure and morphometrics in the queen dimorphic

    E-print Network

    Franz, Nico M.

    involves presence or absence of wings, i.e., winged (alate) queens versus wingless ergatoid or inter- morph of winged (alate) and wingless (intermorph) queens; both types of queens are fully reproductive represent an intraspecific wing polymorphism, and (2) an absence of assortative mating and inbreeding

  9. QUEENS COLLEGE PHOTO/VIDEO AUTHORIZATION AND RELEASE AUTHORIZATION AND RELEASE

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    , brochures, advertisements, and the World Wide Web/internet. Queens College/CUNY shall have sole and completeQUEENS COLLEGE PHOTO/VIDEO AUTHORIZATION AND RELEASE AUTHORIZATION AND RELEASE I hereby authorize Queens College and the City University of New York (CUNY) and anyone acting on their behalf including any

  10. Fight between virgin queens ( Apis mellifera )is initiated by contact to the dorsal abdominal surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Pflugfelder; Nikolaus Koeniger

    2003-01-01

    To determine the nature of the stimuli involved in queen recognition, we videotaped fighting behaviour between young virgin queens and developed a bioassay. The results of the bioassay were as follows: (1) Under illumination with red light, the queens responded with stinging behaviour (stB.); thus, lack of visual stimuli did not play an essential role in releasing stB. (2) Tethered

  11. Queen movement during colony emigration in the facultatively polygynous ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezon, Antoine; Denis, Damien; Cerdan, Philippe; Valenzuela, Jorge; Fresneau, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    In ants, nest relocations are frequent but nevertheless perilous, especially for the reproductive caste. During emigrations, queens are exposed to predation and face the risk of becoming lost. Therefore the optimal strategy should be to move the queen(s) swiftly to a better location, while maintaining maximum worker protection at all times in the new and old nests. The timing of that event is a crucial strategic issue for the colony and may depend on queen number. In monogynous colonies, the queen is vital for colony survival, whereas in polygynous colonies a queen is less essential, if not dispensable. We tested the null hypothesis that queen movement occurs at random within the sequence of emigration events in both monogynous and polygynous colonies of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis. Our study, based on 16 monogynous and 16 polygynous colony emigrations, demonstrates for the first time that regardless of the number of queens per colony, the emigration serial number of a queen occurs in the middle of all emigration events and adult ant emigration events, but not during brood transport events. It therefore appears that the number of workers in both nests plays an essential role in the timing of queen movement. Our results correspond to a robust colony-level strategy since queen emigration is related neither to colony size nor to queen number. Such an optimal strategy is characteristic of ant societies working as highly integrated units and represents a new instance of group-level adaptive behaviors in social insect colonies.

  12. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 DegreeWorks 4.09 Student Manual Degree is the same account you used when applying to Queens College. #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens

  13. Absence of nepotism toward imprisoned young queens during swarming in the honey bee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Chaline; Stephen J. Martin; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

    2004-01-01

    Nepotism is an important potential conflict in animal societies. However, clear evidence of nepotism in the rearing of queens in social insects is limited and controversial. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, multiple mating by queens leads to the presence of many patrilines within each colony. When the colonies reproduce through swarming, workers rear a number of new queens, only

  14. The influence of paternity on virgin queen success in hybrid colonies of European and African honeybees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Scott Schneider; Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman

    2003-01-01

    When African honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, migrate into an area, substantial hybridization occurs with existing European bee populations. However, over time European traits disappear until the populations become predominantly or entirely African. European patrilineal traits could be lost when hybrid colonies raise virgin queens if African-patriline queens have a survival advantage during reproductive competition. We examined queen competition in observation

  15. Queen Replacement in African and European Honey Bee Colonies with and without Afterswarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the dynamics of the queen replacement process in African and European colonies that did and did not produce afterswarms. If colonies did not produce afterswarms, the queen replacement process was completed in 24-48 hours, the first-emerging virgin queen (VQ) typically inherited the nata...

  16. SEASONAL EFFECTS ON ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF HONEYBEE QUEENS (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SEASONAL EFFECTS ON ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF HONEYBEE QUEENS (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Robin F-1983 in West Germany the success of artificial insemination of 3 440 queen honeybees was protocolled. Strong. INTRODUCTION Artificial insemination (A.I.) of honeybee queens (Apis mellifera) became an important routine

  17. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy detects queen honey bee insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the...

  18. Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Detects Honey Bee Queen Insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the ...

  19. Selection against Aerial Dispersal in Ants: Two Non-Flying Queen Phenotypes in Pogonomyrmex laticeps

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Christian; Keller, Roberto A.; Johnson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The South American seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex laticeps has dimorphic queens: ergatoid (permanently wingless) and brachypterous (short, non-functional wings). Surveys in western Argentina indicated that colonies near Chilecito, La Rioja Province, produced only ergatoid queens, while those near Punta Balasto, Catamarca Province (263 km away), produced only brachypterous queens. Brachypterous queens were significantly larger than ergatoid queens for 10 of 11 external characters, but both phenotypes had comparable reproductive potential, i.e., a spermatheca and a similar number of ovarioles. Using normal winged queens of the closely related P. uruguayensis for comparison, we determined that both queen phenotypes in P. laticeps had a full set of dorsal thoracic sclerites, albeit each sclerite was much reduced, whereas workers had a thorax without distinct dorsal sclerites. Sclerites were fused and immobile in ergatoid queens, while they were separable and fully articulated in brachypterous queens. Both phenotypes lacked the big indirect flight muscles, but brachypterous queens retained the tiny direct flight muscles. Overall, this dimorphism across populations indicates that there are alternative solutions to selective pressures against flying queens. We lack field data about colony founding strategy (independent or dependent) for either queen phenotype, but colonies at both sites produced numerous gynes, and we infer that all foundresses initiate colonies independently and are obligate foragers. PMID:23110094

  20. THE QUEENS TUNNEL COMPLEX -A GRANULITE FACIES ORTHOGNEISS TERRANE EXPOSED IN NYC WATER TUNNEL #3

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    THE QUEENS TUNNEL COMPLEX - A GRANULITE FACIES ORTHOGNEISS TERRANE EXPOSED IN NYC WATER TUNNEL #3, and 214 m deep tunnel through the subsurface of southwestern Queens. Taking almost twice as long an anhydrous, isotropic rock mass. In the case of the Queens Tunnel Complex, the primary coarse interlocking

  1. TECHNIQUES OF TBM TUNNEL MAPPING -THE QUEENS TUNNEL, NYC Charles Merguerian

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    TECHNIQUES OF TBM TUNNEL MAPPING - THE QUEENS TUNNEL, NYC Charles Merguerian Geology Department@specdata.com. Introduction The Queens Tunnel is a 23' 2" diameter circular tunnel currently being mined 655' to 763' below sea level in west-central Queens (Figure 1) by a high-performance tunnel boring machine (TBM). When

  2. THE QUEENS TUNNEL COMPLEX: A NEWLY DISCOVERED GRANULITE FACIES FORDHAM ORTHOGNEISS COMPLEX

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    THE QUEENS TUNNEL COMPLEX: A NEWLY DISCOVERED GRANULITE FACIES FORDHAM ORTHOGNEISS COMPLEX. In the last few years, however, construction of the Queens Tunnel (Stage 2 of City Water Tunnel #3) has made of the Queens Tunnel between 1998 and 2000, and paid particular attention to lithology, faults, and structural

  3. Octopamine modulates the sensitivity of silkmoth pheromone receptor neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pophof

    2000-01-01

    Effects of octopamine and its antagonist epinastine on electrophysiological responses of receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus specialised to the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal were investigated. Injections of octopamine and epinastine into the moths had no effect on the transepithelial\\u000a potential of the antennal-branch preparation nor on the spontaneous nerve impulse frequency in either type of receptor neuron.\\u000a However,

  4. Molecular cloning of an insect pheromone-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Raming, K; Krieger, J; Breer, H

    1989-10-01

    Clones coding for the pheromone binding protein precursor have been selected from a cDNA library derived from antennae of the male moth, Antheraea polyphemus. The deduced protein sequence consists of a signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues and a mature binding protein of 142 amino acid residues. RNA blot hybridization indicated that the mRNA is selectively expressed in the antennae of the male moth. PMID:2806547

  5. Field tests of synthetic Manduca sexta sex pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Tumlinson; Everett R. Mitchell; Robert E. Doolittle; D. Michael Jackson

    1994-01-01

    In field experiments traps were baited with live females or with a two-, four-, or eight-component blend of the 16-carbon aldehydes previously identified as components of the sex pheromone emitted by femaleManduca sexta moths. The blends were formulated on rubber septa. Traps baited with a blend of all eight aldehydes captured moreM. sexta males than any other treatment. Septa loaded

  6. Sex pheromone of caddisfly Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Bjostad; D. K. Jewett; D. L. Brigham

    1996-01-01

    The main component of the sex pheromone of the caddisflyHesperophylax occidentalis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) was identified as 6-methylnonan-3-one (enantiomeric composition has not yet been determined). Extracts of adult females elicited strong electroantennogram (EAG) responses from adult male antennae, but elicited significantly smaller EAG responses from adult female antennae. Extracts of adult males did not elicit appreciable EAG responses from antennae

  7. Pheromone-regulated Genes Required for Yeast Mating Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Scott; Lin, Li; Malczynski, Michael; Snyder, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Yeast cells mate by an inducible pathway that involves agglutination, mating projection formation, cell fusion, and nuclear fusion. To obtain insight into the mating differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we carried out a large-scale transposon tagging screen to identify genes whose expression is regulated by mating pheromone. 91,200 transformants containing random lacZ insertions were screened for ?-galactosidase (?-gal) expression in the presence and absence of ? factor, and 189 strains containing pheromone-regulated lacZ insertions were identified. Transposon insertion alleles corresponding to 20 genes that are novel or had not previously been known to be pheromone regulated were examined for effects on the mating process. Mutations in four novel genes, FIG1, FIG2, KAR5/ FIG3, and FIG4 were found to cause mating defects. Three of the proteins encoded by these genes, Fig1p, Fig2p, and Fig4p, are dispensible for cell polarization in uniform concentrations of mating pheromone, but are required for normal cell polarization in mating mixtures, conditions that involve cell–cell communication. Fig1p and Fig2p are also important for cell fusion and conjugation bridge shape, respectively. The fourth protein, Kar5p/Fig3p, is required for nuclear fusion. Fig1p and Fig2p are likely to act at the cell surface as Fig1:: ?-gal and Fig2::?-gal fusion proteins localize to the periphery of mating cells. Fig4p is a member of a family of eukaryotic proteins that contain a domain homologous to the yeast Sac1p. Our results indicate that a variety of novel genes are expressed specifically during mating differentiation to mediate proper cell morphogenesis, cell fusion, and other steps of the mating process. PMID:9456310

  8. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  9. Improving solution characteristics of particle swarm optimization using digital pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Kalivarapu; Jung-Leng Foo; Eliot Winer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach to particle swarm optimization (PSO) using digital pheromones to coordinate swarms within an\\u000a n-dimensional design space is presented. In a basic PSO, an initial randomly generated population swarm propagates toward the\\u000a global optimum over a series of iterations. The direction of the swarm movement in the design space is based on an individual\\u000a particle’s

  10. Sex pheromone of the female dermestid beetle Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Yarger; Robert M. Silverstein; Wendell E. Burkholder

    1975-01-01

    5 components of the sex pheromone of the female dermestid beetle,Trogoderma glabrum, have been isolated and identified: methyl (E)-14-methyl-8-hexadecenoate, (E)-14-methyl-8-hexadecen-l-ol, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate,n-hexanoic acid, and 4-hydroxyhexanoic acid lactone (?-caprolactone). A sixth weakly active compound was isolated but not identified. Each of the identified compounds independently elicited attractive and sexually excitatory responses inT.glabrum males.

  11. Pheromone-mediated behavior of the gypsy moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Richerson

    1977-01-01

    The pheromone-mediated behavior of gypsy moth males was studied in both natural and simulated populations in central Pennsylvania. Feral males released into 50-m-diam plots, each with 2 feral females around the perimeter, oriented initially to trees and not to females. Neither exposure to virgin females nor exposure to wicks baited with approx 6 mg disparlure affected the subsequent sexual activity

  12. Aggregation pheromone of driedfruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus Wind-tunnel bioassay and identification of two novel tetraene hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bartelt; Patrick F. Dowd; Ronald D. Plattner; David Weisleder

    1990-01-01

    A male-produced aggregation pheromone was demonstrated inCarpophilus hemipterus (L.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) using a wind-tunnel bioassay. Both sexes responded to the pheromone, but the beetles flew in the wind tunnel only after they had been starved for at least several hours. The attractiveness of the pheromone was greatly enhanced by volatiles from a food source, and combinations of pheromone and food

  13. How many gamergates is an ant queen worth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, Thibaud; Peeters, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Ant reproductives exhibit different morphological adaptations linked to dispersal and fertility. By reviewing the literature on taxa where workers can reproduce sexually (i.e. become gamergates) we show that (1) species with a single gamergate generally have lost the winged queen caste, whereas only half of the species with several gamergates have, and (2) single-gamergate species have smaller colonies than multiple-gamergate species. Comparison with “classical” ants without gamergates, where having one vs having several winged queens are two distinct syndromes, suggests that having one vs having several gamergates are not. Gamergate number does not affect the success of colony fission, but retention of the queen caste permits the option of independent foundation.

  14. Sex pheromone of Elater ferrugineus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Tolasch, Till; von Fragstein, Maximilian; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2007-11-01

    The rare European click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., develops exclusively in old, hollow deciduous trees. As a result of massive habitat loss caused by modern forestry, it is threatened throughout its entire distribution range and regarded as an indicator species for undamaged natural forests. As E. ferrugineus lives cryptically and its populations are frequently overlooked, we investigated its sex pheromone to develop a reliable detection tool. Pheromone gland extracts of single female E. ferrugineus were examined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All samples contained 7-methyloctyl 5-methylhexanoate, 7-methyloctyl octanoate, 7-methyloctyl 7-methyloctanoate, and 7-methyloctyl (Z)-4-decenoate in a ratio of approximately 1:1:3:3. Structures of all four esters, which have not been reported as pheromone compounds before, were confirmed by synthesis. A blend of the components was tested in the field and proved to be attractive for E. ferrugineus males, which were found to swarm exclusively during the day. This blend provides a noninvasive and effective monitoring method for this cryptic species, promising future collection records of E. ferrugineus in regions where it exists below the limit of detection by conventional collecting methods. PMID:17929095

  15. Sex Pheromone of Agriotes acuminatus (Stephens, 1830) (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Tolasch, Till; von Fragstein, Maximilian; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2010-03-01

    The click beetle species Agriotes acuminatus is distributed in open deciduous forests throughout a large area in Europe. In order to identify its sex pheromone, gland extracts of female beetles were investigated by using GC/MS. Neryl butanoate and 2,6-dimethyl-(Z,E)-2,6-octadien-1,8-diol dihexanoate, in a ratio of approximately 1:5, were the only volatile compounds present in the extracts. Structures of both esters were confirmed by synthesis. Field experiments revealed a strong attraction of A. acuminatus males towards neryl butanoate, which could be synergistically enhanced by addition of 2,6-dimethyl-(Z,E)-2,6-octadien-1,8-diol dihexanoate. The latter compound alone did not show any attractive effect. While all Agriotes spp. investigated to date use geranyl and/or (E,E)-farnesyl esters as sex pheromones, the nerol derivatives of A. acuminatus are the first (Z)-2-configurated pheromones within this genus. PMID:20195890

  16. Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindström, Per

    2005-01-01

    The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379

  17. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-?-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; ?-elemene, methyl-eugenol, ?-humulene, and ?-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  18. Biofilm growth alters regulation of conjugation by a bacterial pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura; Barnes, Aaron; Dunny, Gary; Chatterjee, Anushree; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yarwood, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, enhancing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, biofilms are likely locations for antibiotic resistance transfer events involving nosocomial pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis. Here we demonstrate that growth in biofilms alters the induction of conjugation by a sex pheromone in E. faecalis. Mathematical modeling suggested that a higher plasmid copy number in biofilm cells would enhance a switch-like behavior in the pheromone response of donor cells with a delayed, but increased response to the mating signal. Alterations in plasmid copy number, and a bimodal response to induction of conjugation in populations of plasmid-containing donor cells were both observed in biofilms, consistent with the predictions of the model. The pheromone system may have evolved such that donor cells in biofilms are only induced to transfer when they are in extremely close proximity to potential recipients in the biofilm community. These results may have important implications for development of chemotherapeutic agents to block resistance transfer and treat biofilm-related clinical infections. PMID:21843206

  19. Do Aphid Colonies Amplify their Emission of Alarm Pheromone?

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

  20. Influence of cervical preflaring on determinationof apical file size in mandibular molars: SEM analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia da Silva Schmitz; Roberto Santos; Alexandre Capelli; Marcos Jacobovitz; Júlio César Emboava Spanó; Jesus Djalma Pécora

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cervical preflaring with different rotary instruments on determination of the initial apical file (IAF) in mesiobuccal roots of mandibular molars. Fifty human mandibular molars whose mesial roots presented two clearly separated apical foramens (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual) were used. After standard access opening and removal of pulp tissue, the working length (WL) was determined at

  1. Tissue-engineered Neogenesis of Human-shaped Mandibular Condyle from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alhadlaq; J. J. Mao

    2003-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint is susceptible to diseases and trauma that may ultimately lead to structural degeneration. Current approaches for replacing degenerated mandibular condyles suffer from deficiencies such as donor site morbidity, immunorejection, implant wear and tear, and pathogen transmission. The hypothesis of this study was that a human-shaped mandibular condyle can be tissue-engineered from rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated

  2. Orthognathic surgery versus orthodontic camouflage in the treatment of mandibular deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myron R. Tucker

    1995-01-01

    Surgical correction of Class II malocclusions, when associated with mandibular deficiency, often has improved results with combined orthodontic and surgical correction compared with orthodontic treatment alone. Strong consideration of surgical correction of mandibular deficiency should be based on the following questions: 1.1) Do the patient's goals for treatment place a high priority on improvement in facial esthetics? As a corollary,

  3. A rare report of mandibular facial talon cusp and its management

    PubMed Central

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gaddam, Kumar Raja; Jayachandra, Bhumireddy; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Talon cusp is an uncommon dental anomaly showing morphologically well delineated, accessory cusp-like structure projecting from cingulum to the incisal edge of anterior teeth. This anomaly is rare in the mandibular dentition and rarer on the facial aspect. A case of this infrequent entity of mandibular facial talon cusp and its management is reported here. PMID:25298658

  4. A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maike Forstner; Heinz Breer; Jürgen Krieger

    2009-01-01

    Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In An- theraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding pro- teins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide

  5. Re-evaluation of the PBAN receptor molecule: characterization of PBANR variants expressed in the pheromone glands of moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is initiated following pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) activation. PBANR was initially cloned from pheromone glands (PGs) of Helicoverpa zea and Bombyx mori. The B. mori PBANR is characterized by a relatively long C-terminus that...

  6. Studies on Sex Pheromones of the Helmet Crab, Telmessus cheiragonus 1. An Assay Based on Precopulatory Mate-Guarding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiya Kamio; Shigeki Matsunaga; Nobuhiro Fusetani

    2000-01-01

    A new reliable bioassay method has been developed for detection of female sex pheromone(s) of the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus using artificial sponges based on the grasping behavior of male crabs. The seawater, male urine, and pre- and postmolt female urine were tested for pheromonal activity which resulted in the detection of activity only in urine from pre- and postmolt

  7. Specialization of midgut cells for synthesis of male isoprenoid pheromone components in two scolytid beetles, Dendroctonus jeffreyi and Ips pini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Nardi; A. Gilg Young; E. Ujhelyi; C. Tittiger; M. J. Lehane; G. J. Blomquist

    2002-01-01

    Endodermal or midgut cells have only recently been recognized as the site of pheromone synthesis in bark beetles. Midgut cells are not only specialized for digestion, but they have also been recruited to form isoprenoid compounds that function as pheromone components in Ips pini and Dendroctonus jeffreyi. Male bark beetle midgut cells are competent to produce isoprenoid pheromones after feeding

  8. Docile sitters and active fighters in paper wasps: a tale of two queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardile, Sujata; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2002-02-01

    Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis are sympatric, primitively eusocial paper wasps widely distributed in peninsular India. We compare the two species, especially their queens, in an attempt to begin to understand the role of the power of queens over their workers, in social organisation and evolution. Queens of R. marginata have lower levels of activity, rates of interactions and dominance behaviour, compared with queens of R. cyathiformis. For the same variables, R. marginata queens are either indistinguishable from or have lower values than their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens have higher values than their workers. R. marginata queens never occupy the top rank while R. cyathiformis queens are always at the top of the behavioural dominance hierarchies of their colonies. R. marginata queens thus do not appear to use dominance behaviour to suppress reproduction by their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens appear to do so. These different mechanisms used by the two queens to regulate worker reproduction give them different powers over their workers, because R. marginata queens are completely successful in suppressing reproduction by their nestmates while in R. cyathiformis colonies, other individuals also sometimes lay eggs. There is also some evidence that the different powers of the queens result in different mechanisms of regulation of worker foraging in the two species - decentralised, self-regulation in R. marginata and relatively more centralised regulation by the queen in R. cyathiformis. Thus we show here, perhaps for the first time, that the power of the queens over their workers can have important consequences for social organisation and evolution.

  9. Attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Bryant, S. Ross

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review was to address treatment outcome according to attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures in terms of implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and hand searching of relevant journals considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were selected if more than one type of overdenture attachment was reported. Twenty four studies from 1098 studies were finally included and the data on implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, patient satisfaction were analyzed relative to attachment systems. RESULTS Four studies presented implant survival rates (95.8 - 97.5% for bar, 96.2 - 100% for ball, 91.7% for magnet) according to attachment system. Ten other studies presented an implant survival rate ranging from 93.3% to 100% without respect to the attachment groups. Common prosthetic maintenance and complications were replacement of an assay for magnet attachments, and activation of a matrix or clip for ball or bar attachments. Prosthetic maintenance and complications most commonly occurred in the magnet groups. Conflicting findings were found on the rate of prosthetic maintenance and complications comparing ball and bar attachments. Most studies showed no significant differences in patient satisfaction depending upon attachment systems. CONCLUSION The implant survival rate of mandibular overdentures seemed to be high regardless attachment systems. The prosthetic maintenance and complications may be influenced by attachment systems. However patient satisfaction may be independent of the attachment system. PMID:23236571

  10. Asymmetric muscle function in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Wang, X M; Wang, M Q; Widmalm, S E

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that developmental mandibular asymmetry is associated with increased asymmetry in muscle activity. Patients with mandibular condylar and/or ramus hyperplasia having unilateral cross-bite were compared with healthy subjects with normal occlusion. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electrodes in the masseter, suprahyoid, sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and upper trapezius areas during jaw opening-closing-clenching, head-neck flexion-extension, and elevation-lowering of shoulders. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values were calculated and analysed using anova and t-tests with P < 0.05 chosen as significance level. The SCM and masseter muscles showed co-activation during jaw and head movements, significantly more asymmetric in the patients than in the healthy subjects. The RMS and MPF values were higher in the patients than in the controls in the SCM and suprahyoid areas on both sides during jaw opening-closing movement. The results indicate that the ability to perform symmetric jaw and neck muscle activities is disturbed in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. This is of clinical interest because asymmetric activity may be an etiologic factor in temporomandibular joint and cervical pain. The results support that co-activation occurs between jaw and neck muscles during voluntary jaw opening and indicate that postural antigravity reflex activity occurs in the masseter area during head extension. Further studies, where EMG recordings are made from the DMA patients at early stages are motivated to verify activity sources and test if the asymmetric activity is associated with muscle and joint pain in the jaw and cervical areas. PMID:18190358

  11. Turbidity-current channels in Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Powell, R.D.; Rearic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Queen Inlet is unique among Glacier Bay fjords because it alone has a branching channel system incised in the Holocene sediment fill of the fjord floor. Queen Inlet and other known channel-containing fjords are marine-outwash fjords; the tidewater glacial fjords do not have steep delta fronts on which slides are generated and may not have a sufficient reservoir of potentially unstable coarse sediment to generate channel-cutting turbidity currents. Presence or absence of channels, as revealed in the ancient rock record, may be one criterion for interpreting types of fjords. -Authors

  12. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Type IV Wiene's Root Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chalil, Noushad Matavan; Kini, Shravan; Jose, Sunil; Narayanan, Arun; Salahudeen, Shahnas; Peedikayil, Faizal C.

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes an endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with type IV root canal. A 26-year-old male patient reported pain in right mandibular second premolar. Clinical examination showed a large carious lesion with pulp exposure. Radiographs showed minimal periapical changes and slight widening of periodontal ligament space. Mandibular second premolars usually have one canal. The mandibular second premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. This case presents the diagnosis and clinical management of a mandibular second premolar with two distinct canals in the apical third of root (Type IV Wiene's canal configuration), drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls and obturating it with calamus 3D obturation system. PMID:24711930

  13. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Type IV Wiene's Root Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Noushad Matavan; Kini, Shravan; Jose, Sunil; Narayanan, Arun; Salahudeen, Shahnas; Peedikayil, Faizal C

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes an endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with type IV root canal. A 26-year-old male patient reported pain in right mandibular second premolar. Clinical examination showed a large carious lesion with pulp exposure. Radiographs showed minimal periapical changes and slight widening of periodontal ligament space. Mandibular second premolars usually have one canal. The mandibular second premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. This case presents the diagnosis and clinical management of a mandibular second premolar with two distinct canals in the apical third of root (Type IV Wiene's canal configuration), drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls and obturating it with calamus 3D obturation system. PMID:24711930

  14. Octopamine and cooperation: octopamine regulates the disappearance of cooperative behaviours between genetically unrelated founding queens in the ant.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Satoshi; Matsui, Shingo; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether octopamine (OA) is associated with the disappearance of cooperation in Polyrhachis moesta ant queens. Queens of P. moesta facultatively found the colony with genetically unrelated queens. The founding queens perform frequent food exchange with these non-related queens and partake in cooperative brood rearing, whereas single colony queens exclude non-related queens via aggressive behaviour. Thus, aggression is a factor that reduces cooperation. Given that aggression is generally associated with brain OA in insects, we hypothesized that OA controls the behavioural change in cooperation in the ant queen, via an increase in aggression. To test this hypothesis, we compared the amounts of OA and related substances in the brain between founding and colony queens, and observed the interaction of founding queens following oral OA administration. The brain OA levels in colony queens were significantly higher than those in founding queens. Oral administration of OA to founding queens caused significantly less trophallaxis and allogrooming behaviour than in the control founding queens, but with no significant increase in aggression. These results suggest that OA promotes the disappearance of cooperation in founding queens of P. moesta. This is the first study to reveal the neuroendocrine mechanism of cooperation in ant queens. PMID:26085498

  15. Summary. Young queens start a new colony either without (independently) or with the help of workers (dependently).

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Summary. Young queens start a new colony either without (independently) or with the help of workers (dependently). When colony reproduction is dependent and young queens are produced in excess, conflicts among leaves with a "prime swarm" before daughter queens reach adulthood. Several young queens are produced

  16. Treatment of Ectopic Mandibular Second Permanent Molar with Elastic Separators

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Naveen, V.; Amit, S.; Baroudi, Kusai; Sampath Reddy, C.; Namineni, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. The condition was corrected with surgical exposure and placement of elastic separators. This case report lays emphasis on the practice of basic methods to obtain acceptable results rather than extensive surgical or orthodontic corrections. It is advised that ectopic teeth should not be neglected especially when it concerns developing caries and malocclusion. PMID:25050182

  17. Unilateral single-rooted primary mandibular first molar.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Purva; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Swadas, Milan; Dave, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy reported food lodgement and pain in the lower left back tooth region. On examination, a deeply carious tooth with food lodgement was seen. On oral examination, numbers of teeth were found to be carious and required restorations and endodontic treatments according to radiographic evaluation. Radiograph of mandibular left first deciduous molar revealed an unusual morphology of root. It was single-rooted and presented with Vertucci's class I canal. The tooth was treated by pulpectomy followed by a stainless steel crown. All other carious teeth were treated as planned. PMID:23893279

  18. Unilateral single-rooted primary mandibular first molar

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Purva; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Swadas, Milan; Dave, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy reported food lodgement and pain in the lower left back tooth region. On examination, a deeply carious tooth with food lodgement was seen. On oral examination, numbers of teeth were found to be carious and required restorations and endodontic treatments according to radiographic evaluation. Radiograph of mandibular left first deciduous molar revealed an unusual morphology of root. It was single-rooted and presented with Vertucci's class I canal. The tooth was treated by pulpectomy followed by a stainless steel crown. All other carious teeth were treated as planned. PMID:23893279

  19. Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Mohl, Claudia; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2002-10-01

    We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac was less effective and 6E,11Z-16:Al showed only a small effect. In contrast, in subtype PBP2 pronounced structural changes were only induced by the 6E,11Z-16:Al, and the subtype PBP3 did not show any considerable changes in response to the pheromonal compounds. The UV-spectroscopic data suggest that histidine residues are likely to be involved in the ligand-induced structural changes of the proteins, and this notion was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. These results demonstrate that appropriate ligands induce structural changes in PBPs and provide evidence for ligand specificity of these proteins. PMID:12488967

  20. Queens and major workers of Acanthomyrmex ferox redistribute nutrients with trophic eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, B.; Ito, Fuminori

    In Acanthomyrmex ferox, two distinct egg-types are produced: reproductive eggs that give rise to offspring and trophic eggs that serve to distribute nutrients. Queens lay both reproductive and trophic eggs, while major and minor workers lay only trophic eggs in the presence of the queen. The queen lays on average 17% of the trophic eggs in a colony, while majors and minors produce 42% and 41%, respectively. The large proportion of trophic egg production by the queen and soldiers is quite remarkable, since ant queens are expected to focus entirely on reproduction and majors, which have a defensive function in many species, to be sterile.

  1. Disruptionof SexPheromone Communicationin the BlackheadedFirewormin WisconsinCranberry

    E-print Network

    Disruptionof SexPheromone Communicationin the BlackheadedFirewormin WisconsinCranberry Marshesby of the blackheaded fireworm,Rhopobota naevana (Hiibner), are described During the first flight, disruption (trap on larval populations. KEYWORDS Sex pheromone, Rhopobota naevana, blackheaded fireworm, Tortricidae, mating

  2. Pheromone-based mating disruption to control the historical top three insect pests of Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2012, the first 3-species pheromone mating disruption program was tested in Wisconsin cranberries. Preliminary data suggest that there was substantial disruption of blackheaded fireworm and Sparganothis fruitworm mating. The pheromone of cranberry fruitworm only contained a single component, and ...

  3. The volatilization of SPLAT® for use in pheromone mating disruption of cranberry pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paraffin-based pheromone carrier, SPLAT, was tested for its volatilization rate. A multi-factorial study was initiated to examine the interactive effects of point-source size, shape, and duration. The study showed that tremendous amounts of the pheromone were released early, followed by a gradua...

  4. Inhibitors of sensillar esterase block reversibly the responses of moth pheromone receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Pophof, B

    1998-11-30

    The pheromone of Antherae polyphemus is slowly (within min) degraded by a sensillum lymph specific esterase. The effects of two volatile alkyl-thio-trifluoro-methyl-ketones with alkyl chain length of six (HTFP) and ten carbons (DTFP), which selectively inhibit the activity of the sensillar esterase, were tested. Single sensillum recordings from sensilla trichodea were performed on isolated antennae either held in a continuous stream of clean air, or exposed to an airstream containing one of the esterase inhibitors. Afterwards the antennae were stimulated with the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Both esterase inhibitors caused a reduction of electrophysiological responses to each of the two pheromone compounds. The DTFP was slightly more effective than HTFP. An almost complete block of the receptor potential amplitude and nerve impulse response was achieved within seconds of exposure to the inhibitors. Responses of both pheromone receptor cells were reduced to the same extent. The half-times of rise and decline of the receptor potential remained unaffected in most cells. The responses to pheromone partially recovered to approximately 50-70% within several min in clean air. An inhibition of the sensillar esterase cannot explain the observed effects. The inhibitors could either react directly with the receptor molecules, thereby inhibiting the action of the pheromone, or bind to the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and prevent the formation of the pheromone-PBP complex stimulating the receptor. PMID:10049224

  5. Decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, a competitive inhibitor of moth pheromone receptors.

    PubMed

    Pophof, B; Gebauer, T; Ziegelberger, G

    2000-03-01

    An earlier study (Pophof 1998) showed that the esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone inhibited the responses of two receptor neurons of the moth Antheraea tuned to straight-chain pheromone components, an acetate and an aldehyde, respectively. Here we report that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone also inhibited the responses of two pheromone receptor neurons of Bombyx mori to bombykol and bombykal. In contrast, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone activated receptor neurons of the moth Imbrasia cyrtherea tuned to the pheromone component (Z)-5-decenyl 3-methyl-butanoate. However, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone did not affect the responses of two receptor neurons of B. mori females specialized to the plant volatiles benzoic acid and linalool, respectively. These results indicate that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, besides inhibiting the sensillar esterase, interferes with proteins involved specifically in the excitation of pheromone receptor neurons. In binding studies with radiolabelled decyl-thio-trifuoroproparopnone, the inhibitor was bound by the pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus. However, the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone causing response inhibition was 300 times lower than the amount of pheromone-binding protein present in the sensilla. Since the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone adsorbed corresponded to about the maximum number of receptor molecules calculated per sensillum, we expect that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, probably in complex with pheromone-binding protein, competitively inhibits the pheromone receptor molecules. PMID:10757247

  6. Pheromone modulates plant odor responses in the antennal lobe of a moth.

    PubMed

    Chaffiol, Antoine; Dupuy, Fabienne; Barrozo, Romina B; Kropf, Jan; Renou, Michel; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    In nature, male moths are exposed to a complex plant odorant environment when they fly upwind to a sex pheromone source in their search for mates. Plant odors have been shown to affect responses to pheromone at various levels but how does pheromone affects plant odor perception? We recorded responses from neurons within the non-pheromonal "ordinary glome ruli" of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to single and pulsed stimulations with the plant odorant heptanal, the pheromone, and their mixture in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon. We identified 3 physiological types of neurons according to their activity patterns combining excitatory and inhibitory phases. Both local and projection neurons were identified in each physiological type. Neurons with excitatory responses to heptanal responded also frequently to the pheromone and showed additive responses to the mixture. Moreover, the neuron's ability of resolving successive pulses generally improved with the mixture. Only some neurons with combined excitatory/inhibitory, or purely inhibitory responses to heptanal, also responded to the pheromone. Although individual mixture responses were not significantly different from heptanal responses in these neurons, pulse resolution was improved with the mixture as compared with heptanal alone. These results demonstrate that the pheromone and the general odorant subsystems interact more intensely in the moth AL than previously thought. PMID:24798893

  7. Innervation and neural regulation of the sex pheromone gland in female Heliothis moths.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, T A; Itagaki, H; Teal, P E; Jasensky, R D; Tumlinson, J H; Hildebrand, J G

    1991-01-01

    Female Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during scotophase, and this production is stimulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), presumably carried in the hemolymph. Several lines of evidence indicate that the central nervous system plays another critical role in this regulation. Pheromone biosynthesis was induced during photophase by electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord or the peripheral nerves projecting from the terminal abdominal ganglion to the pheromone gland in the tip of the abdomen. Electron microscopy further revealed that axonal branches innervate the gland tissue. Nerve branches associated with pheromone gland cells are enwrapped in glia and contain dense-core vesicles, suggesting that the innervation of the gland might be neurosecretory. Finally, the biogenic monoamine octopamine was nearly as effective as purified Heliothis zea PBAN in stimulating pheromone biosynthesis when injected into intact females during mid-photophase. Furthermore, both octopamine and PBAN stimulated significant increases in the pheromone content of the glands in isolated abdomens lacking a ventral nerve cord but only when abdomens were treated at the onset of scotophase. These data suggest that the regulation of sex pheromone production in Heliothis is more complex than previously thought. Activation of the gland appears to be governed by both neural and hormonal mechanisms, and these control mechanisms depend on photoperiodic cues. Images PMID:2052579

  8. Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Mealworm Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a widespread, serious pest in poultry production facilities and is difficult to control by conventional means. Although pheromone-based tools have become useful in the management of other beetle pests, no pheromone was known for A. diape...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NASONOV PHEROMONE ON THE RECOGNITION OF HOUSE BEES AND FORAGERS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE INFLUENCE OF THE NASONOV PHEROMONE ON THE RECOGNITION OF HOUSE BEES AND FORAGERS BY VARROA) SUMMARY Simultaneous choice tests proved that Varroa jacobsoni is able to distinguish house bees and foragers by means of the age-dependent Nasonov pheromone production of the bees. The secretion of one or 10

  10. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

  11. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Pankiw; Roman Roman; Ramesh R. Sagili; Keyan Zhu-Salzman

    2004-01-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important

  12. A protecting group-free synthesis of the Colorado potato beetle pheromone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongtao; Jäger, Manuel; Buter, Jeffrey; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has been developed based on a Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in combination with a chemoselective alcohol oxidation using catalytic [(neocuproine)PdOAc]2OTf2. Employing this approach, the pheromone was synthesized in 3 steps, 80% yield and 86% ee from geraniol. PMID:24367402

  13. Individual variation in the pheromone of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Löfstedt; Boel S. Lanne; Jan Löfqvist; Monica Appelgren; Gunnar Bergström

    1985-01-01

    Female turnip moths (Agrotis segetum) from a laboratory culture inbred for more than 30 generations, and the offspring (first and third generation) from field-collected insects were analyzed individually for acetates and alcohols in the pheromone gland. Quantitative analysis of individual components was performed at the subnanogram level by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring). The titer of the pheromone, i.e.,

  14. SEX PHEROMONE OF THE PLANT BUG, PHYTOCORTIS conspurcatus Knight (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Phytocoris sp. produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA) and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of ...

  15. Attractiveness of a Four-Component Pheromone Blend to Male Navel Orangeworm Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attractiveness of the various combinations of the four component pheromone of the female navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella, was measured in a wind-tunnel bioassay. Upwind flight along the pheromone plume and landing on the odor source required the simultaneous presence of two componen...

  16. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 ?g/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 ?g/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  17. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH PHEROMONE BINDING PROTEINS OF THE GYPSY MOTH, LYMANTRIA DISPAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone olfaction in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, involves accurate distinction of compounds with similar structure and polarity. The identified pheromone is (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, 1a, and a known antagonist is (7Z) 2-methyloctadec-7-ene, 4a. The first step in olfaction...

  18. Evaluation of time-average dispersion models for estimating pheromone concentration in a deciduous forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Elkinton; R. T. Cardé; C. J. Mason

    1984-01-01

    The Sutton and more recent Gaussian plume models of atmospheric dispersion were used to estimate downwind concentrations of pheromone in a deciduous forest. Wind measurements from two bivane anemometers were recorded every 12 sec and the pheromone was emitted from a point source 1.6 m above ground level at known rates. The wingfanning response of individually caged male gypsy moths

  19. Sex Pheromone of the Leaf-Miner Phyllonorycter Platani : ( Z 10)-Tetradecenyl Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitko Subchev; Albena Mircheva; John Pickett; Lester Wadhams; Christine Woodcock; Alcindo dos Santos; Stephan Franke; Wittko Francke

    2003-01-01

    A female produced sex pheromone of the leaf-miner pest Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was identified as (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate. Field trapping trials confirmed activity of this compound. The presence of the geometrical isomer (E10)-tetradecenyl acetate, a pheromone component of other Phyllonorycter species, reduced trap efficacy.

  20. A potent dauer pheromone component in Caenorhabditis elegans that acts synergistically with other components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Butcher; Justin R. Ragains; Edward Kim; Jon Clardy

    2008-01-01

    In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone is the primary cue for entry into the developmentally arrested, dauer larval stage. The dauer is specialized for survival under harsh environmental conditions and is considered ``nonaging'' because larvae that exit dauer have a normal life span. C. elegans constitutively secretes the dauer pheromone into its environment, enabling it to sense

  1. From release to absorption: Elucidating the effects of a desert locust pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a glass-vial bioassay to test the contact effect of the desert locust pheromone phenylacetonitrile (PAN) on nymphs and adults after 2 hand 4 h respectively, and quantified the amount of the pheromone absorbed and released by the nymphs after 2 h and 12 h. We also monitored the knockdown effe...

  2. Vancomycin resistance is encoded on a pheromone response plasmid in Enterococcus faecium 228.

    PubMed Central

    Handwerger, S; Pucci, M J; Kolokathis, A

    1990-01-01

    In Enterococcus faecium 228, vancomycin resistance is encoded on a 55-kilobase conjugative plasmid, pHKK100. This plasmid was transferred with high frequency into susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis and conferred responses to pheromones produced by E. faecalis and Streptococcus sanguis. pHKK100 is the first plasmid described that mediates both vancomycin resistance and pheromone response. PMID:2327781

  3. Surface glycoproteins are not the contact pheromones in the Lysmata shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong ZhangJing; Jing Zhu; Junda Lin; Jörg D. Hardege

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that some male caridean shrimp, such as those of Lysmata species, identify conspecific females via contact pheromones that coat the cuticle surface of the females. In this study,\\u000a we attempted to determine whether the contact pheromones in three Lysmata species, Lysmata ankeri, Lysmata boggessi, and Lysmata wurdemanni, are glycoproteins as hypothesized previously in a diverse group of

  4. FIRE ANT, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA, WORKER ALARM PHEROMONES ATTRACT PSEUDACTEON PHORID FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis was found to be attracted to the volatile compounds released by shaken fire ant workers. Among the compounds released were alarm pheromones, venom alkaloids, and recruitment pheromones. In subsequent bioassays we eliminated poison sac contents and recr...

  5. Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

    2002-06-01

    Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

  6. Pheromone traps for monitoring Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-dose pheromone lures have proved useful for monitoring some lepidopteran pests in the presence of mating disruption, but not others. We performed experiments in commercial and pilot scale facilities to examine the effect of pheromone dose on detection of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (...

  7. Influence of temperature on the rate of grandlure released from boll weevil pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although pheromone lures dosed with grandlure are effective in attracting boll weevils to traps, ambient temperatures may influence the rate of pheromone released from lures and subsequently affect the detection efficiency of traps. We examined the rate of grandlure released from three commercial l...

  8. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans. PMID:25564662

  9. Sex pheromone of the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter platani: (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Subchev, Mitko; Mircheva, Albena; Pickett, John; Wadhams, Lester; Woodcock, Christine; dos Santos, Alcindo; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    2003-10-01

    A female produced sex pheromone of the leaf-miner pest Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was identified as (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate. Field trapping trials confirmed activity of this compound. The presence of the geometrical isomer (E10)-tetradecenyl acetate, a pheromone component of other Phyllonorycter species, reduced trap efficacy. PMID:14682521

  10. Evaluation of Pheromone-Based Strategies for the Dogwood Borer on Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone based management strategies for th...

  11. Interaction and behavior of virgin and physogastric queens in three Meliponini species (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Ferreira, F H; Silva-Matos, E V; Zucchi, R

    2009-01-01

    We studied the behavior of virgin queens of the stingless bee species Schwarziana quadripunctata, Paratrigona lineata and Tetragona clavipes, investigating internal nest activities, including the cell provisioning and oviposition process. We made direct observation of queen behavior, with the aid of video filming. Forty-four virgin queens of S. quadripunctata were observed; one was larger and more attractive than the others. Miniature queens were more abundant than normal-size queens; both were found in prison chambers. Agonistic behavior between virgin and physogastric queens of P. lineata was observed during attempts at queen supersedure. After the disappearance of the physogastric queen and the appearance of a virgin queen in T. clavipes nests, the brood cells were sealed with pollen alone, but no egg. In all three species, the presence of one or more virgin queens appeared to make the colonies nervous, even though constant production of virgin queens is vital to the survival of the colony and is part of the colony cycle in these bees. PMID:19554769

  12. The multiple role of the pheromone-binding protein in olfactory transduction.

    PubMed

    Ziegelberger, G

    1996-01-01

    Before airborne odorant molecules can stimulate the olfactory receptor cells of animals that live on land, they have to pass through an aqueous solution that contains high concentrations of soluble odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). In insect sensilla the role of these OBPs for signal transduction is becoming multifaceted. Sensillum lymph perfusion experiments in the moth Antheraea polyphemus implied a solubilizer and carrier function of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and led to the conclusion that it is the pheromone-PBP complex which activates the postulated receptors. Recent results have shown the presence of two redox states of the PBP and a shift in pheromone binding from the reduced to the oxidized form, depending on the presence of sensory hair material. Thus, PBP oxidation might occur simultaneously with receptor cell activation and might lead to deactivation of the pheromone-PBP complex terminating the pheromone stimulation. PMID:8894303

  13. Bone resection, extra-corporal cryotherapy and immediate re-implantation in the treatment of mandibular tumours.

    PubMed

    Popescu, V; Spirescu, I E

    1980-02-01

    Two aspects have to be considered in the treatment of mandibular tumours: The eradication of the disease, and the maintenance of mandibular continuity to obtain a good functional and aesthetic result. The authors experimented with a cryo-surgical method which consists of mandibular hemiresection, extra corporal immersion of the specimen in liquid nitrogen at - 180 degrees C, followed by re-implantation of the mandibular body in its bed. In this way we achieved the eradication of the tumour and produced an auto-transplant for immediate bone grafting. The clinical and radiological progress of four patients with various mandibular tumours, followed-up for three years, is presented. PMID:6929866

  14. The retromandibular transparotid approach to mandibular subcondylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Patil, P M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, utility and morbidity associated with the treatment of mandibular subcondylar fractures using the retromandibular transparotid approach and to evaluate the stability of a single 2mm miniplate fixation system for such fractures. Forty-two cases with 48 mandibular subcondylar fractures were analysed prospectively for 12 months and evaluated for functional results, scar, postoperative complications and stability of fixation. There were three cases of suboptimal occlusal status, two cases of haematoma that were drained and resolved, eight patients with facial nerve weakness which resolved in a few weeks, and three cases of salivary fistulae that resolved after treatment. All cases showed stable osteosyntheses. Maximal postoperative interincisal distance was 32-61 mm (mean 44 mm). Four patients had deflection on opening, while clicking on opening or chewing was observed in five patients. The postoperative scars were well accepted by all patients. The results of this study suggest that a retromandibular approach will facilitate accurate reduction and fixation of subcondylar fragments with a good cosmetic result and minimal complications. A single 2 mm miniplate fixation provides stable results. PMID:22169168

  15. The use of mandibular body distraction in hemifacial microsomia

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Hideo; Ogata, Hisao; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goals of treatment for hemifacial microsomia include horizontalization of occlusal plane and acquisition of facial symmetry. Although horizontalization of occlusal plane can be easily achieved, facial symmetry, particularly in relation to mandibular contour, can be difficult to attain. Soft tissue is generally reconstructed to correct facial asymmetry, and no studies have described correction of facial asymmetry through skeletal reconstruction. Case: A 12-year-old girl presented with grade IIb right-sided hemifacial microsomia. She was treated using Nakajima's angle-variable internal distraction (NAVID) system for mandibular body distraction. Results: Following treatment, appropriate facial symmetry was achieved, and the patient was extremely satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Thus, we successfully treated the present patient by our novel method involving distraction osteogenesis. This method was effective and useful for several reasons including; the changes were not accompanied by postoperative tissue absorption, donor sites were not involved, and the treatment outcome could be reevaluated by adjusting distraction while the patient's appearance was being remodeled. PMID:24205479

  16. Mandibular fossa morphology in the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2008-10-01

    There has been debate in recent years concerning the significance of the mandibular fossa morphology in the Ngandong and Sambungmacan hominids. These fossils lack a postglenoid process and their squamotympanic fissure runs along the apex of the fossa for its entire length. This configuration differs from that seen in other fossil and modern humans, which have a prominent postglenoid process and a squamotympanic fissure that takes a more posterior course that does not lie in the apex of the fossa. Some recent studies have suggested that the Ngandong and Sambungmacan hominids are not unique in their expression of these characteristics, and that they can also be found in other fossil crania from Africa and Indonesia. The present study reexamines these morphologies in an effort to better understand their distribution in the hominid fossil record. The results confirm that the lack of a prominent postglenoid process in combination with a squamotympanic fissure that lies wholly in the apex of the mandibular fossa along its entire length is indeed autapomorphic for the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils. This finding, in conjunction with work on other nonmetric features in these hominids, suggests that at least two hominid morphs, possibly representing separate species, were present on Java during the Pleistocene. In addition, if this apparent autapomorphy is confirmed, then it is also unlikely that the Ngandong hominids contributed to the gene pool of modern humans. PMID:18521904

  17. Mandibular fractures treated with maxillomandibular fixation screws (MMFS method).

    PubMed

    Imazawa, Takashi; Komuro, Yuzo; Inoue, Masahiro; Yanai, Akira

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the treatment of mandibular fractures is to restore proper dental occlusion and stable temporomandibular joint movement, as well as the reduction of the displaced fracture. Consideration must be given to the selection of the most appropriate surgical and rehabilitation methods in such patients. Typical surgical methods for the treatment of mandibular fractures include the arch bar method or plating at the location of the fracture combined with fixing the mandible to the maxilla using the arch bar method. However arch bars and circumdental wires, which require teeth for fixation, damage teeth and periodontal tissue, and tend to be uncomfortable for patients during the fixation period. Moreover, daily maintenance of oral hygiene is difficult for patients with an arch bar. Surgeons are also exposed to the risk of blood-transmitted diseases through skin punctures by wires when affixing these devices. For these reasons, we chose to study the potential of the MMFS method, which is thought to lessen all of the following problems: tissue damage, operating time, patient discomfort, and possible exposure to percutaneous infectious disease due to puncture of gloves and skin by the wires. We demonstrated the utility of the MMFS method in the present study. PMID:16770195

  18. Primary B-lymphoblastic lymphoma of gallbladder involving mandibular bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Tae Jin; Choi, Yoo Shin

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented for evaluation of painless hematuria persisting for more than 1 month. At the time of presentation, the patient did not report any systemic symptoms and had no fever, weight loss, or dysuria. Computed tomography showed several enhancing, sessile polyps in the gall bladder (1.5 cm or smaller). There was no associated stone or biliary dilation. Since no other abnormality was evident, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He was diagnosed as having B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) after surgical resection of the gall bladder (GB). As the left mandibular swelling was developed after the diagnosis of the B-LBL involving GB, facial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added to the imaging scan. Facial MRI revealed mass formation in the left mandible, left medial pterygoid, masticator, and buccinator muscles. The biopsy samples from the mandibular bone were also diagnosed as B-LBL. The definitive pathological diagnosis was B-LBL, stage IV. Systemic chemotherapy was done with subsequent response in size of the left mandible mass. PMID:24789124

  19. Incidence of mandibular fractures in Eastern part of Libya.

    PubMed

    Elgehani, Rafa-Abdelsalam; Orafi, Maraai-Idris

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate the incidence of mandibular fractures in the eastern part of Libya and to present our experience in treating this type of facial fracture. We analyzed factors such as the incidence of age, sex, time distribution, cause and site of the fracture and the associated injuries in 493 patients presenting a total of 666 mandibular fractures. These patients were treated at Al-Jala Trauma Hospital, Benghazi-Libya between 2000 and 2006. The results were obtained from 432 males and 61 females, for which the ages ranged from 8 months to 72 years. The maximum number of the patients was recorded in 2004, and the busiest month was May. The most common cause of fracture was road traffic accidents and the most common site was the parasymphysis. Among those treated with closed reduction were 241 patients, whereas 201 patients were treated with open reduction. In conclusion, we found that the results were similar to most studies from developing countries and were in contrast to other studies. This may be due factors such as geography, socioeconomic trends, religion, road traffic legislation and seasons, which differ from one country to another. The period during which there was an embargo in Libya also appears to have affected the results. PMID:19680213

  20. Ant foraging on complex trails: route learning and the role of trail pheromones in Lasius niger.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ellis, Laura; Wood, Elizabeth; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-01-15

    Ants are central place foragers and use multiple information sources to navigate between the nest and feeding sites. Individual ants rapidly learn a route, and often prioritize memory over pheromone trails when tested on a simple trail with a single bifurcation. However, in nature, ants often forage at locations that are reached via more complex routes with multiple trail bifurcations. Such routes may be more difficult to learn, and thus ants would benefit from additional information. We hypothesized that trail pheromones play a more significant role in ant foraging on complex routes, either by assisting in navigation or route learning or both. We studied Lasius niger workers foraging on a doubly bifurcating trail with four end points. Route learning was slower and errors greater on alternating (e.g. left-right) versus repeating routes (e.g. left-left), with error rates of 32 and 3%, respectively. However, errors on alternating routes decreased by 30% when trail pheromone was present. Trail pheromones also aid route learning, leading to reduced errors in subsequent journeys without pheromone. If an experienced forager makes an error when returning to a food source, it reacts by increasing pheromone deposition on the return journey. In addition, high levels of trail pheromone suppress further pheromone deposition. This negative feedback mechanism may act to conserve pheromone or to regulate recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate further complexity and sophistication in the foraging system of ant colonies, especially in the role of trail pheromones and their relationship with learning and the use of private information (memory) in a complex environment. PMID:22972897

  1. Two regulatory mechanisms of monoterpenoid pheromone production in Ips spp. of bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Bearfield, Jeremy C; Henry, Anastasia G; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2009-06-01

    Bark beetles use aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These monoterpenoid chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production is induced when an adult beetle feeds on phloem of a host tree. In Ips pini, juvenile hormone (JH) III influences key regulatory enzymes along the mevalonate pathway that leads to pheromone production. In fact, topically applied JH III is sufficient to stimulate pheromone production in unfed males. In this study, we explore the influence of feeding and JH III treatment on pheromone production in male Ips confusus, the pinyon Ips. We also characterize the influence of feeding and JH III treatment on transcript levels and activity of three key enzymes involved in pheromone biosynthesis: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG) synthase (HMGS), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). We also extend the current understanding of the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in I. pini, by measuring the influence of feeding and JHIII treatment on enzymatic activity of HMGS and GPPS. Feeding on host phloem alone strongly induces pheromone production in male I. confusus, while JH III treatment has no effect. However, feeding and JH III both significantly up-regulate mRNA levels of key mevalonate pathway genes. Feeding up-regulates these genes to a maximum at 32 h, whereas with JH III-treatment, they are up-regulated at 4, 8, and 16 h, but return near to non-treatment levels at 32 h. Feeding, but not JH III treatment, also increases the activity of all three enzymes in I. confusus, while both feeding or treatment with JH III increase HMGS and GPPS activity in I. pini. Our data suggest that pheromone production in Ips is not uniformly controlled by JH III and feeding may stimulate the release of some other regulatory factor, perhaps a brain hormone, required for pheromone production. PMID:19554371

  2. Inhibitory pheromonal activity promoted by sulfur analogs of the sex pheromone of the female processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and schiff)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Camps; Vicens Gasol; Angel Guerrero

    1990-01-01

    New sulfur analogs of the sex pheromone of the female processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa have been found to be effective inhibitors of the natural pheromone activity both in EAG bioassays and field tests. The structures of these analogs have been derived from replacement of the oxygen atom(s) of the acetate group by sulfur (compounds 3-5) and the olefinic moiety of the

  3. Queens versus workers: sex-ratio conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha J. Mehdiabadi; Hudson Kern Reeve; Ulrich G. Mueller

    2003-01-01

    Studies of sex-ratio conflict in the eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps) have provided the most rigorous tests of kin selection theory. The hymenopteran haplodiploid system of sex determination generally renders workers more closely related to their sisters than to their brothers, whereas queens are equally related to their sons and daughters. Kin selection theory therefore predicts that resource allocation

  4. 65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of the Fleet," serving as the oldest Coast Guard Cutter in active service when U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Ingham was decommissioned on May 27, 1988. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter FIR, Puget Sound Area, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. QUEEN POLYMORPHISM IN AN AUSTRALIAN WEAVER ANT, POLYRHACHIS CF. DODDI

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    1992), but it has also stimulated several studies on the evolu- tionary significance of wing reduction of P. cf. doddi in our sample is slightly bimodal, though large and small morphs were not com- pletely of the mesonotum and wing development. In all queens, a complete set of thoracic sclerites was retained

  6. Artificial diets for juvenile queen conch: Studies examine algae content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University found juvenile queen conch fed diets containing added macroalgae had higher survival than a control given catfish feed only, but saw no significant difference in overall growth rates among the treatments. In a secon...

  7. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

  8. Health Services Queen's University Policy on Verification of Illness

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Health Services Queen's University Policy on Verification of Illness Health Counselling and Disability Services (HCDS) first developed a policy on issuing Verification of Illness (VOI) documentation Verification of Illness ("sick notes") 1. A "Verification of Illness" should only be required in situations

  9. Asian/American Center, Queens College, CUNY CAMPUS COMMUNITY

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Announces Asian/American Center, Queens College, CUNY CAMPUS COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: A NEW CHAPTER The Asian/American Center is developing a new Asian American Pacific Islander Community Studies Program between AAPICS and local community based organizations serving the needs of Asian American populations

  10. Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    . A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must be consulted to obtain any necessary information pertaining. MSDS sheets can be obtained by following a link on the Health and Safety website at http://www.safetyQueen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.: 1 Document No.: SOP-CHEM-05

  11. Original article Simultaneous queen raising and egg laying

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cells. A low number of worker-laid eggs was found in 7 colonies. In the other colonies, the level that the occurrence of egg-laying workers in colonies that still contain young brood is not a rare phe- nomenon in Africanized bees. No worker-laid eggs were found in any of the colonies once a queen had emerged

  12. September 2009 Issue 52 The Queen Mary newsletter

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Education Awards, including the prestigious University of the Year Award. The Times Higher Awards are higher education's 'Oscars', rewarding outstanding achievement and ground-breaking work undertaken by higher of Posts and Telecommunications in China. Queen Mary has also been shortlisted for the `Most Improved

  13. QUEENS COLLEGE OF 1993-94 COLLEGE CATALOG

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    18 CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK 20 ADMISSIONS 22 TUITION AND FEES 26 MEETING COLLEGE EXPENSES 38 Day-college Closed 13--Monday Last day to drop courses with 50% tuition liability 14--Tuesday FollowQUEENS COLLEGE OF CUNY 1993-94 COLLEGE CATALOG · Catalog conversion notes CollegeSource® by Career

  14. Constitution of the Middle Common Room of The Queen's

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    Constitution of the Middle Common Room of The Queen's College, Oxford Preamble: This Constitution repeals the existing constitution and shall come into force from the date it is passed. All acts validly undertaken under the previous constitution shall remain valid and cannot be called into question as being

  15. Impending Trade Suspensions of Caribbean Queen Conch under CITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Acosta

    2006-01-01

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Authority issued injunctions in 2003 and 2004 to halt export trade of Caribbean queen conch (Strombus gigas) from several countries and initiated reviews of a number of other conch-producing countries. The current regulatory framework for regional conch fisheries has obviously failed to protect stocks. I present a case study of the

  16. Professor Yuri G. Levin1 Queen's School of Business,

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    : Supplier reluctance to openly advertise highly discounted or dynamically priced products on the internet Management at Queen's School of Business. He teaches business decision modeling, operations management's in 2002. He has developed innovative approaches and published widely in the general area of revenue

  17. QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments

    E-print Network

    Bailey, R. A.

    QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments Reading List Spring 2007 [1] G. E. P. CLARKE & R. E. KEMPSON: Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments, Arnold, London, 1997. [3] G. W. COBB: Design and Analysis of Experiments, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998. [4] W. G. COCHRAN

  18. School of Mathematical Sciences Queen Mary University of London

    E-print Network

    Wright, Francis

    starting at 7:30 pm (see Reception below). Please try to arrive in time for this reception, but if you can below refer to numbered locations on this map. The course will run mainly in rooms in the Mathematical. Information on travelling in London and prices can be found at www.tfl.gov.uk. Queen Mary is located in zone 2

  19. Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is…

  20. Connecting Math & Children's Literature @ Queen's U Education Library

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    course Google & Google Scholar Search: Intitle:math "children's literature" libguide math "children's literature" [add uoit to this search to find the libguide that links to Ann LeSage's book list] UseConnecting Math & Children's Literature @ Queen's U Education Library Find books: http

  1. How to Comment like a King--or Queen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Blogging, if you truly inhale its essence, will give you a calling, renewal, and purpose as you have never seen before. Here, the author shows how to blog like a king or a queen. These techniques include: (1) Write a meaningful comment; (2) If you have written about it, hyperlink to your post; (3) If you have a blog, share some information about…

  2. Queen's Parking Regulations for Motor Vehicles Message from the Manager

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    Queen's Parking Regulations for Motor Vehicles Contents Message from the Manager Section 1 Definitions Section 2 Jurisdiction Section 3 Parking Permit Information Section 4 - Parking Areas and Parking Restrictions Section 5: Parking for Visitors and Guests to Campus Section 6 Motorcycle Parking Regulations

  3. QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY BELFAST Belfast, N. Ireland United Kingdom

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY BELFAST Belfast, N. Ireland United Kingdom College of Charleston Bilateral with a heritage da- ting back over 150 years. Belfast, the capital and larg- est city of Northern Ireland, is an exciting, dynamic city which embraces culture and economic development. It has one of the lowest costs

  4. RNA interference of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor suppresses mating behavior by inhibiting sex pheromone production in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, A Young; Park, Seok Joo; Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Yonggyun; Koh, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Sex pheromone production is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in many lepidopteran species. We cloned a PBAN receptor (Plx-PBANr) gene from the female pheromone gland of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Plx-PBANr encodes 338 amino acids and has conserved structural motifs implicating in promoting G protein coupling and tyrosine-based sorting signaling along with seven transmembrane domains, indicating a typical G protein-coupled receptor. The expression of Plx-PBANr was found only in the pheromone gland of female adults among examined tissues and developmental stages. Heterologous expression in human uterus cervical cancer cells revealed that Plx-PBANr induced significant calcium elevation when challenged with Plx-PBAN. Female P. xylostella injected with double-stranded RNA specific to Plx-PBANr showed suppression of the receptor gene expression and exhibited significant reduction in pheromone biosynthesis, which resulted in loss of male attractiveness. Taken together, the identified PBAN receptor is functional in PBAN signaling via calcium secondary messenger, which leads to activation of pheromone biosynthesis and male attraction. PMID:21220012

  5. Pheromones and signature mixtures: defining species-wide signals and variable cues for identity in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Tristram D

    2010-10-01

    Pheromones have been found in species in almost every part of the animal kingdom, including mammals. Pheromones (a molecule or defined combination of molecules) are species-wide signals which elicit innate responses (though responses can be conditional on development as well as context, experience, and internal state). In contrast, signature mixtures, in invertebrates and vertebrates, are variable subsets of molecules of an animal's chemical profile which are learnt by other animals, allowing them to distinguish individuals or colonies. All signature mixtures, and almost all pheromones, whatever the size of molecules, are detected by olfaction (as defined by receptor families and glomerular processing), in mammals by the main olfactory system or vomeronasal system or both. There is convergence on a glomerular organization of olfaction. The processing of all signature mixtures, and most pheromones, is combinatorial across a number of glomeruli, even for some sex pheromones which appear to have 'labeled lines'. Narrowly specific pheromone receptors are found, but are not a prerequisite for a molecule to be a pheromone. A small minority of pheromones act directly on target tissues (allohormone pheromones) or are detected by non-glomerular chemoreceptors, such as taste. The proposed definitions for pheromone and signature mixture are based on the heuristic value of separating these kinds of chemical information. In contrast to a species-wide pheromone, there is no single signature mixture to find, as signature mixtures are a 'receiver-side' phenomenon and it is the differences in signature mixtures which allow animals to distinguish each other. PMID:20680632

  6. Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex determination - A digital radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy; Markande, Archana; David, Maria P

    2012-01-01

    Background: The identification of skeletal remains is of paramount importance in medico-legal investigations. The skeletal components most often investigated for gender determination are the pelvis and skull, with the mandible being a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in the fragmented bones. Presence of a dense layer of compact bone makes it very durable and well preserved than many other bones. Mandibular ramus can be used to differentiate between sexes and it also expresses strong univariate sexual dimorphism. When skeleton sex determination is considered, metric analyses on the radiographs are often found to be of superior value owing to their objectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Aims and Objectives: (1) To measure, compare, and evaluate the various measurements of mandibular ramus as observed on orthopantomographs. (2) To assess the usefulness of mandibular ramus as an aid in sex determination. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using orthopantomographs of 50 males and 50 females, which were taken using Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric System (73 kVp, 12 mA, 13.9 s). Mandibular ramus measurements were carried out using Master View 3.0 software. The measurements of the mandibular ramus were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Results: We observed each variable of the mandibular ramus to be a significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study on mandibular ramus measurements using orthopantomograph shows strong evidence suggesting that the ramus can be used for gender determination for forensic analysis. PMID:23741142

  7. Semi–Selective Fatty Acyl Reductases from Four Heliothine Moths Influence the Specific Pheromone Composition

    PubMed Central

    Hagström, Åsa K.; Liénard, Marjorie A.; Groot, Astrid T.; Hedenström, Erik; Löfstedt, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)–11–hexadecenal as the major component in combination with minor fatty aldehydes and alcohols. In this study we focus on four closely related species, Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, which use (Z)–11–hexadecenal, (Z)–9–tetradecanal, and (Z)–9–hexadecenal in different ratios in their pheromone blend. The components are produced from saturated fatty acid precursors by desaturation, ?–oxidation, reduction and oxidation. Results We analyzed the composition of fatty acyl pheromone precursors and correlated it to the pheromone composition. Next, we investigated whether the downstream fatty–acyl reduction step modulates the ratio of alcohol intermediates before the final oxidation step. By isolating and functionally characterizing the Fatty Acyl Reductase (pgFAR) from each species we found that the pgFARs were active on a broad set of C8 to C16 fatty acyl substrates including the key pheromone precursors, Z9–14, Z9–16 and Z11–16:acyls. When presenting the three precursors in equal ratios to yeast cultures expressing any of the four pgFARs, all reduced (Z)–9–tetradecenoate preferentially over (Z)–11–hexadecenoate, and the latter over (Z)–9–hexadecenoate. Finally, when manipulating the precursor ratios in vitro, we found that the pgFARs display small differences in the biochemical activity on various substrates. Conclusions We conclude that a pgFAR with broad specificity is involved in heliothine moth pheromone biosynthesis, functioning as a semi–selective funnel that produces species–specific alcohol product ratios depending on the fatty–acyl precursor ratio in the pheromone gland. This study further supports the key role of these in pheromone biosynthesis and emphasizes the interplay between the pheromone fatty acyl precursors and the Lepidoptera specific pgFARs in shaping the pheromone composition. PMID:22615947

  8. Does the queen win it all? Queen-worker conflict over male production in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaux, Cédric; Savarit, Fabrice; Jaisson, Pierre; Hefetz, Abraham

    Social insects provide a useful model for studying the evolutionary balance between cooperation and conflict linked to genetic structure. We investigated the outcome of this conflict in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, whose annual colony life cycle is characterized by overt competition over male production. We established artificial colonies composed of a queen and unrelated workers by daily exchange of callow workers between colony pairs of distinct genetic make-up. Using microsatellite analysis, this procedure allowed an exact calculation of the proportion of worker-derived males. The development and social behavior of these artificial colonies were similar to those of normal colonies. Despite a high worker reproduction attempt (63.8% of workers had developed ovaries and 38.4% were egg-layers), we found that on average 95% of the males produced during the competition phase (CPh) were queen-derived. However, in four colonies, queen death resulted in a considerable amount of worker-derived male production. The different putative ultimate causes of this efficient control by the queen are discussed, and we suggest a possible scenario of an evolutionary arms race that may occur between these two female castes.

  9. Comparisons of the queen volatile compounds of instrumentally inseminated versus naturally mated honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Instrumental insemination is an attractive alternative to natural mating because specific genetic crosses can be made, thus producing colonies with desired traits. However, there are conflicting reports on the quality and acceptance of instrumentally inseminated (II) queens compared to naturally ma...

  10. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gislana Braga

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26154463

  11. The effect of human amniotic fluid on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gokce, S M; Karacayli, U; Nalcaci, R; Avunduk, M C; Özgöçmen, M; Karasahin, E; Gokce, H S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local administration of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on newly formed bone obtained by mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) with histomorphometry. A unilateral mandibular osteotomy at the left corpus was performed in 32 adult male rabbits. After a 5-day latency period, the left mandibles were lengthened by mandibular DO over 5 days, at a rate of 1mm/day, via a custom-made distractor. After the distraction, the rabbits were divided randomly into four groups: 0.3 ml HAF was injected into the distraction gap followed by 21 (group 1) or 45 (group 2) days of consolidation; or 0.3 ml normal saline (NS) was administered followed by 21 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) days of consolidation. Mandibles were removed at the end of the consolidation period and investigated histomorphometrically. The newly formed bone area (NFBA) and number of fibroblasts increased significantly in the HAF groups compared to the NS groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 3, P<0.05; group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.01; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 3, and group 2 vs. group 4, P<0.05), and also in both 45-day consolidation groups compared to the 21-day consolidation groups (NFBA: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.001; fibroblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Additionally, the numbers of osteoblasts and capillaries were increased significantly at 45 days of consolidation compared to 21 days in both the HAF and NS groups (osteoblasts: group 1 vs. group 2, P<0.01; group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.05; capillaries: group 1 vs. group 2, and group 3 vs. group 4, P<0.01). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that local HAF administration effectively accelerated bone formation. Thus, a HAF injection procedure could improve new bone formation around the bone in maxillofacial operations such as DO. PMID:25457823

  12. The Role of Pheromonal Responses in Rodent Behavior: Future Directions for the Development of Laboratory Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones—chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific—are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam–pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094

  13. Fungal lipopeptide mating pheromones: a model system for the study of protein prenylation.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, G A; Naider, F; Becker, J M

    1995-01-01

    In a variety of fungal species, mating between haploid cells is initiated by the action of peptide pheromones. The identification and characterization of several fungal pheromones has revealed that they have common structural features classifying them as lipopeptides. In the course of biosynthesis, these pheromones undergo a series of posttranslational processing events prior to export. One common modification is the attachment of an isoprenoid group to the C terminus of the pheromone precursor. Genetic and biochemical investigations of this biosynthetic pathway have led to the elucidation of genes and enzymes which are responsible for isoprenylation of other polypeptides including the nuclear lamins, several vesicular transport proteins, and the oncogene product Ras. The alpha-factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as a model for studying the biosynthesis, export, and bioactivity of lipopeptide pheromones. In addition to being isoprenylated with a farnesyl group, the alpha-factor is secreted by a novel peptide export pathway utilizing a yeast homolog of the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. The identification of putative lipopeptide-encoding loci within other fungi, including the human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, has stimulated much interest in understanding possible roles for pheromones in fungal proliferation and pathogenicity. Knowledge of variations within the processing, export, and receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways associated with different fungal lipopeptide pheromones will continue to provide insights into similar mechanisms which exist in higher eukaryotes. PMID:7565412

  14. The trail pheromone of a stingless bee, Trigona corvina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), varies between populations.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Dambacher, Jochen; Twele, Robert; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Stingless bees, like honeybees, live in highly organized, perennial colonies. Their eusocial way of life, which includes division of labor, implies that only a fraction of the workers leave the nest to forage for food. To ensure a sufficient food supply for all colony members, stingless bees have evolved different mechanisms to recruit workers to foraging or even to communicate the location of particular food sites. In some species, foragers deposit pheromone marks between food sources and their nest, which are used by recruited workers to locate the food. To date, pheromone compounds have only been described for 3 species. We have identified the trail pheromone of a further species by means of chemical and electrophysiological analyses and with bioassays testing natural gland extracts and synthetic compounds. The pheromone is a blend of wax type and terpene esters. The relative proportions of the single components showed significant differences in the pheromones of foragers form 3 different colonies. This is the first report on a trail pheromone comprised of esters of 2 different biogenetic origins proving variability of the system. Pheromone specificity may serve to avoid confusions between the trails deposited by foragers of different nests and, thus, to decrease competition at food sources. PMID:20534775

  15. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load-key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research. PMID:26180067

  16. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species. PMID:25344681

  17. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

  18. Mandibular osteomyelitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, S; Tanteri, L; Brutto, D; Marescalco, M; Carlino, V; Consolo, G; Mauro, M; Cappello, V

    2008-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a relatively frequent bacterial infection of the jaw bones. This report describes a case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a surgical site after enucleation of a follicular cyst and extraction of the associated tooth. This case is unusual because maxillary osteomyelitis generally results from polymicrobial infection. In our patient, however, laboratory analysis identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the etiologic agent, an opportunistic pathogen normally found on moist surfaces and vegetation. Notorious for its antibiotic multiresistance, P. aeruginosa is increasingly recognized as a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Isolation of the responsible microbe permitted specific antibiotic treatment with a 10-day course of ciprofloxacin (250 mg/12 h), which fully cleared the infection. PMID:18617880

  19. [Orthognathic mandibular osteotomy and condyle positioning: update and innovation].

    PubMed

    Laurentjoye, Mathieu; Charton, Jérôme; Boileau, Marie-José

    2015-03-01

    The temporomandibular joints function in synergy with the dental occlusion within the manducatory system. Orthodontists and surgeons must take into account the condylar position since any problem related to positioning of the condyle could result in occlusal disorders including relapse and the risk of occurrence, decompensation or worsening of temporomandibular dysfunction. We wanted to answer three questions: What is the position of the condyle following orthognathic surgery? What benefit is there in repositioning the condyle? What means are available to check condylar position? Finally, in the light of the answers, we describe an innovative occlusal and condylar positioning device for mandibular osteotomies based on computer-assisted surgical planning techniques. It consists of a three-dimensional, printed guide enabling surgeons to position the condyles as desired. It is accurate, simple, reproducible, independent of operator experience as well as rapid and economical. PMID:25888044

  20. MultiModality Surgical and Hyperbaric Management of Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Freiberger, John J., E-mail: freib002@mc.duke.ed [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yoo, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Lisle Dear, Guy de [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); McGraw, Thomas A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Blakey, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Padilla Burgos, Rebecca; Kraft, Kevin [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Nelson, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moon, Richard E. [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Piantadosi, Claude A. [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate long-term outcomes in 65 consecutive patients meeting a uniform definition of mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) treated with multimodality therapy including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment, post-treatment and long-term follow-up of mandibular lesions with exposed bone were ranked by a systematic review of medical records and patient telephone calls. The ranking system was based on lesion diameter and number plus disease progression. Changes from pretreatment to post-treatment and follow-up were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Improved wound survival, measured by time to relapse, defined as any less favorable rank after HBO treatment, was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: In all, 57 cases (88%) resolved or improved by lesion grade or progression and evolution criteria after HBO (p < 0.001). Four patients healed before surgery after HBO alone. Of 57 patients who experienced improvement, 41 had failed previous nonmultimodality therapy for 3 months and 26 for 6 months or more. A total of 43 patients were eligible for time-to-relapse survival analysis. Healing or improvement lasted a mean duration of 86.1 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 64.0-108.2) in nonsmokers (n = 20) vs. 15.8 months (95% CI, 8.4-23.2) in smokers (n = 14) versus 24.2 months (95% CI, 15.2-33.2) in patients with recurrent cancer (n = 9) (p = 0.002 by the log-rank method). Conclusions: Multimodality therapy using HBO is effective for ORN when less intensive therapies have failed. Although the healing rate in similarly affected patients not treated with HBO is unknown, the improvements seen with peri-operative HBO were durable provided that the patients remained cancer free and abstained from smoking.