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1

Anarchistic queen honey bees have normal queen mandibular pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Anarchistic honey bees are a line developed by recurrent selection in which workers frequently lay eggs. In unselected colonies, workers refrain from reproduction in response to pheromonal signals that indicate the presence of brood and a queen. We show that queen type (anarchistic or wild type) has no effect on rates of ovary activation of anarchistic or wild type

S. E. R. Hoover; B. P. Oldroyd; T. C. Wossler; M. L. Winston

2005-01-01

2

Peripheral modulation of worker bee responses to queen mandibular pheromone  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that young worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) are highly attracted to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Our results challenge this widely held view. We have found that unless young workers are exposed to QMP early in adult life, they, like foragers, avoid contact with this pheromone. Our data indicate that responses to QMP are regulated peripherally, at the level of the antennal sensory neurons, and that a window of opportunity exists in which QMP can alter a young bee's response to this critically important pheromone. Exposing young bees to QMP from the time of adult emergence reduces expression in the antennae of the D1-like dopamine receptor gene, Amdop1. Levels of Amdop3 transcript, on the other hand, and of the octopamine receptor gene Amoa1, are significantly higher in the antennae of bees strongly attracted to QMP than in bees showing no attraction to this pheromone. A decline in QMP attraction with age is accompanied by a fall in expression in worker antennae of the D2-like dopamine receptor, AmDOP3, a receptor that is selectively activated by QMP. Taken together, our findings suggest that QMP's actions peripherally not only suppress avoidance behavior, but also enhance attraction to QMP, thereby facilitating attendance of the queen.

Vergoz, Vanina; McQuillan, H. James; Geddes, Lisa H.; Pullar, Kiri; Nicholson, Brad J.; Paulin, Michael G.; Mercer, Alison R.

2009-01-01

3

Influence of Age on Antennal Response of Male Honey Bees, Apis mellifera , to Queen Mandibular Pheromone and Alarm Pheromone Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a computer-controlled pheromone-puff delivery system with signal averaging, we investigated the change with age of the electroantennogram (EAG) response of drone (male) honey bees to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and an alarm pheromone component, isopentyl acetate (IPA). Drone antennae were significantly more sensitive than worker antennae to QMP, but there was no significant difference in response to IPA. Response

Richard S. Vetter; P. Kirk Visscher

1997-01-01

4

New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?  

PubMed Central

Background In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are accredited to the QMP, this pheromone does not trigger the full behavioral and physiological response observed in the presence of the queen, suggesting the presence of additional compounds. We tested the hypothesis of a pheromone redundancy in honey bee queens by comparing the influence of queens with and without mandibular glands on worker behavior and physiology. Results Demandibulated queens had no detectable (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), the major compound in QMP, yet they controlled worker behavior (cell construction and queen retinue) and physiology (ovary inhibition) as efficiently as intact queens. Conclusions We demonstrated that the queen uses other pheromones as powerful as QMP to control the colony. It follows that queens appear to have multiple active compounds with similar functions in the colony (pheromone redundancy). Our findings support two hypotheses in the biology of social insects: (1) that multiple semiochemicals with synonymous meaning exist in the honey bee, (2) that this extensive semiochemical vocabulary exists because it confers an evolutionary advantage to the colony.

2010-01-01

5

cGMP modulates responses to queen mandibular pheromone in worker honey bees  

PubMed Central

Responses to social cues, such as pheromones, can be modified by genotype, physiology, or environmental context. Honey bee queens produce a pheromone (queen mandibular pheromone; QMP) which regulates aspects of worker bee behavior and physiology. Forager bees are less responsive to QMP than young bees engaged in brood care, suggesting that physiological changes associated with behavioral maturation modulate response to this pheromone. Since 3?, 5?-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a major regulator of behavioral maturation in workers, we examined its role in modulating worker responses to QMP. Treatment with a cGMP analog resulted in significant reductions in both behavioral and physiological responses to QMP in young caged workers. Treatment significantly reduced attraction to QMP and inhibited the QMP-mediated increase in vitellogenin RNA levels in the fat bodies of worker bees. Genome-wide analysis of brain gene expression patterns demonstrated that cGMP has a larger effect on expression levels than QMP, and that QMP has specific effects in the presence of cGMP, suggesting that some responses to QMP may be dependent on an individual bees' physiological state. Our data suggest that cGMP-mediated processes play a role in modulating responses to QMP in honey bees at the behavioral, physiological, and molecular levels.

Fussnecker, Brendon L.; McKenzie, Alexander M.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2013-01-01

6

How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone.  

PubMed

In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory--that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover (for(R)) and sitter (for(s)) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background (for(s2)) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response. PMID:24323176

Camiletti, Alison L; Awde, David N; Thompson, Graham J

2014-01-01

7

Queen pheromone blocks aversive learning in young worker bees.  

PubMed

Queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) has profound effects on dopamine signaling in the brain of young worker honey bees. As dopamine in insects has been strongly implicated in aversive learning, we examined QMP's impact on associative olfactory learning in bees. We found that QMP blocks aversive learning in young workers, but leaves appetitive learning intact. We postulate that QMP's effects on aversive learning enhance the likelihood that young workers remain in close contact with their queen by preventing them from forming an aversion to their mother's pheromone bouquet. The results provide an interesting twist to a story of success and survival. PMID:17641204

Vergoz, Vanina; Schreurs, Haley A; Mercer, Alison R

2007-07-20

8

Queen bee pheromone binding protein pH-induced domain swapping favors pheromone release.  

PubMed

In honeybee (Apis mellifera) societies, the queen controls the development and the caste status of the members of the hive. Queen bees secrete pheromonal blends comprising 10 or more major and minor components, mainly hydrophobic. The major component, 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), acts on the workers and male bees (drones), eliciting social or sexual responses. 9-ODA is captured in the antennal lymph and transported to the pheromone receptor(s) in the sensory neuron membranes by pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). A key issue is to understand how the pheromone, once tightly bound to its PBP, is released to activate the receptor. We report here on the structure at physiological pH of the main antennal PBP, ASP1, identified in workers and male honeybees, in its apo or complexed form, particularly with the main component of the queen mandibular pheromonal mixture (9-ODA). Contrary to the ASP1 structure at low pH, the ASP1 structure at pH 7.0 is a domain-swapped dimer with one or two ligands per monomer. This dimerization is disrupted by a unique residue mutation since Asp35 Asn and Asp35 Ala mutants remain monomeric at pH 7.0, as does native ASP1 at pH 4.0. Asp35 is conserved in only approximately 30% of medium-chain PBPs and is replaced by other residues, such as Asn, Ala and Ser, among others, thus excluding that they may perform domain swapping. Therefore, these different medium-chain PBPs, as well as PBPs from moths, very likely exhibit different mechanisms of ligand release or receptor recognition. PMID:19481550

Pesenti, Marion E; Spinelli, Silvia; Bezirard, Valérie; Briand, Loïc; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Campanacci, Valérie; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian

2009-07-31

9

Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life.  

PubMed

Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane (3-MeC(31)) is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical. Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC(31) found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it. Production of 3-MeC(31) by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity. Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors. PMID:21331238

Holman, Luke

2010-11-01

10

Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility.  

PubMed

The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have only been definitively identified in the honeybee. Using the black garden ant Lasius niger, we isolate the first sterility-regulating ant queen pheromone. The pheromone is a cuticular hydrocarbon that comprises the majority of the chemical profile of queens and their eggs, and also affects worker behaviour, by reducing aggression towards objects bearing the pheromone. We further show that the pheromone elicits a strong response in worker antennae and that its production by queens is selectively reduced following an immune challenge. These results suggest that the pheromone has a central role in colony organization and support the hypothesis that worker sterility represents altruistic self-restraint in response to an honest quality signal. PMID:20591861

Holman, Luke; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-12-22

11

The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius.  

PubMed

Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and comparative evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen's cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Interspecific variation in the chemical profile is consistent with 3-methylalkanes evolving more slowly than other types of hydrocarbons, perhaps due to differential selection or evolutionary constraints. We argue that the sensory ecology of the worker response imposes strong stabilizing selection on queen pheromones relative to other hydrocarbons. 3-Methylalkanes are also strongly physiologically and genetically coupled with fecundity in at least one Lasius species, which may translate into evolutionary constraints. Our results highlight how honest signalling could minimize evolutionary conflict over reproduction, promoting the evolution and maintenance of eusociality. PMID:23662630

Holman, L; Lanfear, R; d'Ettorre, P

2013-07-01

12

Queen pheromones in Temnothorax ants: control or honest signal?  

PubMed Central

Background The division of reproductive labor among group members in insect societies is regulated by "queen pheromones". However, it remains controversial whether these are manipulative, i.e., actively suppress worker reproduction, or honestly signal the fertility status of the queen to which workers react in their own interest by refraining from laying eggs. Manipulative queen control is thought to lead to an evolutionary arms race between queens and workers, resulting in complex queen bouquets that diverge strongly among different populations and species. In contrast, honest signals would evolve more slowly and might therefore differ less strongly within and among species. Results We aimed at determining the tempo of the evolution of queen signals in two ways. First, we investigated whether queens of Temnothorax ants are capable of controlling egg laying by workers of their own, closely, and distantly related species. Second, we compared the species- and caste-specific patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are assumed to convey information on reproductive status. In mixed-species colonies, queens were not able to fully suppress egg-laying and male production by workers of unrelated species, while workers did not reproduce under the influence of a queen from their own species. Furthermore, the chemical profiles differed more strongly among queens of different species than among the respective workers. Conclusions Our results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbons associated with fecundity are not fully conserved in evolution and evolve slightly faster than worker-specific components in the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons. While this higher rate of evolution might reflect an arms race between queens and workers, the observation that workers still respond to the presence of a queen from another species support the honest signal hypothesis. Future studies need to examine alternative explanations for a higher rate of evolution of queen-specific substances, such as an involvement of such compounds in mating.

2011-01-01

13

Selection on worker honeybee responses to queen pheromone (Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disruptive selection for responsiveness to queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) in the retinue bioassay resulted in the production of high and low QMP responding strains of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed significantly in their retinue response to QMP after one generation of selection. By the third generation the high strain was on average at least nine times more responsive than the low strain. The strains showed seasonal phenotypic plasticity such that both strains were more responsive to the pheromone in the spring than in the fall. Directional selection for low seasonal variation indicated that phenotypic plasticity was an additional genetic component to retinue response to QMP. Selection for high and low retinue responsiveness to QMP was not an artifact of the synthetic blend because both strains were equally responsive or non-responsive to whole mandibular gland extracts compared with QMP. The use of these strains clearly pointed to an extra-mandibular source of retinue pheromones (Pankiw et al. 1995; Slessor et al. 1998; Keeling et al. 1999).

Pankiw, T.; Winston, Mark L.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Slessor, Keith N.

14

SPECIFICITY OF QUEEN AND WORKER BEE PHEROMONES IN HONEY BEE COLONY  

Microsoft Academic Search

specificity, odour discrimination. Summary. Experiments carried out to determine the individual and colony odor specificity of queen and worker bee pheromones have been described. The method of apetitive conditioned reflexes was applied for studying the ability of bees to discriminate odors of pheromones. Ethanol extracts of queens and worker bees, as well as trails of pheromones left on a Teflon

I. A. Levchenko; P. G. Moskalenko; V. V. Baranchuk

1995-01-01

15

Aggregation Response of Worker Honeybees (Apis Mellifera L.) to Queen Pheromone under Different Illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of illumination on the aggregation response of different-age worker bees to queen pheromone was investigated. Age-related responses of workers reared in isolation from the honey bee colony are dependent on illumination at the time of exposure to queen pheromone. Daylight in comparison with darkness stimulates a more rapid development and a slower reduction of the pheromone response. Under

Gražina Vaitkevi?ien?; Ernest Ancevi?

2005-01-01

16

Reproductive development and ontogeny of queen pheromone production in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Queens of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, produce several releaser and primer pheromones. Using bioassays, the ontogeny of three of these pheromones related to reproductive development was investigated. Virgin queens, in which the process of wing-shedding(dealation) serves as an indicator of the initiation of reproductive development, were studied. First, the production of two queen pheromones,produced in the poison

Edward L. Vargo

1999-01-01

17

Multiple glandular origins of queen pheromones in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poison sac of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta is the only identified glandular source of pheromones produced by a functional ant queen. This structure, which contains the poison gland, has previously been shown to be the source of a releaser pheromone that mediates queen recognition and tending by workers. The poison sac has also been demonstrated to be the

E. L. Vargo; C. D. Hulsey

2000-01-01

18

Studies on the mode of action of a queen primer pheromone of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on the physiological mode of action and mode of perception of a queen pheromone that inhibits dealation (wing-shedding) and ovary development in virgin queens of the fire ant Solenopsis inuicta. Winged virgin queens were removed from the pheromonal signal (queen) to compare the response time for dealation, a behavioral response, and ovary development, a physiologi- cal response.

EDWARD L. VARGO; MICHELE LAUREL

1994-01-01

19

The inhibitory pheromone of queen fire ants: effects of disinhibition on dealation and oviposition by virgin queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Virgin queen fire ants,Solenopsis invicta Buren, that overwintered in parental nests participated in mating flights in early spring, and some were shown to have been laying eggs in queenright colonies before leaving. Virgin queens reared in spring had immature oocytes in their ovarioles when they left on mating flights.2.When released from pheromonal queen influence by isolation, 98% of both overwintered

David J. C. Fletcher; Murray S. Blum

1983-01-01

20

Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

1981-04-01

21

Mutual pheromonal inhibition among queens in polygyne colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Decrease in individual reproductive output with increasing numbers of reproductives is a general feature of social insect colonies. The previously described negative relationship between the fecundity of individual queens and number of resident queens in polygyne (multiple-queen) colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta appears to result from mutual pheromonal inhibition. In an experimental test for the presence of

Edward L. Vargo

1992-01-01

22

Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

2000-10-01

23

Queen primer pheromone affects conspecific fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogyne fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, colony workers are territorial and are aggressive toward members of other fire ant colonies. In contrast, polygyne colony workers are not aggressive toward non-nestmates, presumably due to broader exposure to heritable and environmentally derived nestmate recognition cues (broad template). Workers from both monogyne and polygyne fire ant colonies execute newly mated queens after mating flights.

Robert K. Vander Meer; Leeanne E. Alonso

2002-01-01

24

Evidence of pheromonal queen control over the production of male and female sexuals in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses that could explain social regulation of the production of sexuals inSolenopsis invicta were investigated: (1) differences in worker\\/larva ratios; and (2) pheromonal regulation by queens. Small laboratory units (fragments of multiple-queen, i.e. polygyne, colonies) were found to be capable of producing sexuals and to be sensitive in this regard to differences in queen number; the presence of even

Edward L. Vargo; David J. C. Fletcher

1986-01-01

25

A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

2002-05-01

26

Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone  

SciTech Connect

A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

1988-03-01

27

Cloning and Expression of a Queen Pheromone-Binding Protein in the Honeybee: an Olfactory-Specific, Developmentally Regulated Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracel- lular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and\\/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first time in a social insect, a binding protein called antennal-specific

Emmanuelle Danty; Loic Briand; Christine Michard-Vanhee; Valerie Perez; Gerard Arnold; Odile Gaudemer; Dominique Huet; Jean-Claude Huet; Christian Ouali; Claudine Masson; Jean-Claude Pernollet

1999-01-01

28

Cloning and expression of a queen pheromone-binding protein in the honeybee: an olfactory-specific, developmentally regulated protein.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracellular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first time in a social insect, a binding protein called antennal-specific protein 1 (ASP1), which binds at least one of the major queen pheromone components. ASP1 was characterized by cDNA cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and pheromone binding. In situ hybridization showed that it is specifically expressed in the auxiliary cell layer of the antennal olfactory sensilla. The ASP1 sequence revealed it as a divergent member of the insect OBP family. The recombinant protein presented the exact characteristics of the native protein, as shown by mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequencing and exclusion-diffusion chromatography showed that recombinant ASP1 is dimeric. ASP1 interacts with queen pheromone major components, opposite to another putative honeybee OBP, called ASP2. ASP1 biosynthetic accumulation, followed by nondenaturing electrophoresis during development, starts at day 1 before emergence, in concomitance with the functional maturation of olfactory neurons. The isobar ASP1b isoform appears simultaneously to ASP1a in workers, but only at approximately 2 weeks after emergence in drones. Comparison of in vivo and heterologous expressions suggests that the difference between ASP1 isoforms might be because of dimerization, which might play a physiological role in relation with mate attraction. PMID:10460253

Danty, E; Briand, L; Michard-Vanhée, C; Perez, V; Arnold, G; Gaudemer, O; Huet, D; Huet, J C; Ouali, C; Masson, C; Pernollet, J C

1999-09-01

29

Electron microscopic study of the mandibular glands of Kalotermes flavicollis fabr. (isoptera; calotermitidae).  

PubMed

The mandibular glands of Kalotermes were examined in different castes. They show sexual dimorphism in the soldiers and primary reproductives, Moreover, in female soldiers and queens, mandibular gland cells contained numerous crystalline structures of mitochondrial origin. The role of these glands (secretion of saliva or pheromone) is discussed. PMID:922809

Cassier, P; Fain-Maurel, M A; Lebrun, D

1977-08-26

30

Pheromones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey of the evidence of pheromone communication in the marine environment including the first chemical characterization of a marine pheromone is presented. Evidence that the molting hormone, crustecdysone has a dual function as a sex pheromone i...

J. S. Kittredge

1971-01-01

31

Endocrine modulation of a pheromone-responsive gene in the honey bee brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromones cause dramatic changes in behavior and physiology, and are critical for honey bee colony organization. Queen mandibular\\u000a pheromone (QMP) regulates multiple behaviors in worker bees (Slessor et al. in J Chem Ecol 31(11):2731–2745, 2005). We also identified genes whose brain expression levels were altered by exposure to QMP (Grozinger et al. in Proc Natl Acad\\u000a Sci USA 100(Suppl 2):14519–14525,

Christina M. Grozinger; Gene E. Robinson

2007-01-01

32

Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

2007-05-01

33

Retinue attraction and ovary activation: responses of wild type and anarchistic honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) to queen and brood pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most social insect colonies, workers do not attempt to lay eggs in the presence of a queen. However, in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a rare phenotype occurs in which workers activate their ovaries and lay large numbers of male eggs despite the presence of a fecund queen. We examined the proximate mechanisms by which this ‘anarchistic’ behaviour is

Shelley E. R. Hoover; Mark L. Winston; Benjamin P. Oldroyd

2005-01-01

34

Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

2008-06-01

35

Production of sexuals in a fission-performing ant: dual effects of queen pheromones and colony size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models based on the kin selection theory predict that in social hymenopterans, queens may favor a lower investment in the\\u000a production of sexuals than workers. However, in perennial colonies, this conflict may be tuned down by colony-level selection\\u000a because of the trade off between colony survival and reproductive allocation. In this study, we present a survey of sexual\\u000a production in

Raphaël Boulay; Abraham Hefetz; Xim Cerdá; Séverine Devers; Wittko Francke; Robert Twele; Alain Lenoir

2007-01-01

36

Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many

Freddie-Jeanne Richard; David R. Tarpy; Christina M. Grozinger; Robert Brooks

2007-01-01

37

Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many

Physiology Freddie-Jeanne Richard; David R. Tarpy; Christina M. Grozinger

38

Differential expression of odorant-binding proteins in the mandibular glands of the honey bee according to caste and age.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) mediate both perception and release of chemical stimuli in insects. The genome of the honey bee contains 21 genes encoding OBPs and 6 encoding CSPs. Using a proteomic approach, we have investigated the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the mandibular glands of adult honey bees in relation to caste and age. OBP13 is mostly expressed in young individuals and in virgin queens, while OBP21 is abundant in older bees and is prevalent in mated queens. OBP14, which had been found in larvae, is produced in hive workers' glands. Quite unexpectedly, the mandibular glands of drones also contain OBPs, mainly OBP18 and OBP21. We have expressed three of the most represented OBPs and studied their binding properties. OBP13 binds with good specificity oleic acid and some structurally related compounds, OBP14 is better tuned to monoterpenoid structures, while OBP21 binds the main components of queen mandibular pheromone as well as farnesol, a compound used as a trail pheromone in the honey bee and other hymenopterans. The high expression of different OBPs in the mandibular glands suggests that such proteins could be involved in solubilization and release of semiochemicals. PMID:21707107

Iovinella, Immacolata; Dani, Francesca Romana; Niccolini, Alberto; Sagona, Simona; Michelucci, Elena; Gazzano, Angelo; Turillazzi, Stefano; Felicioli, Antonio; Pelosi, Paolo

2011-08-01

39

Queen signaling in social wasps.  

PubMed

Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula saxonica, queens emit reliable chemical cues of their true fertility and that these putative queen signals decrease as the colony develops and worker reproduction increases. Moreover, these putative pheromones of D. saxonica show significant conservation with those of Vespula vulgaris and other Vespinae, thereby arguing against fast evolution of signals as a result of a queen-worker arms race ensuing from queen control. Lastly, levels of worker reproduction in these species correspond well with their average colony kin structures, as predicted by the queen signaling hypothesis but not the queen control hypothesis. Altogether, this correlative yet comprehensive analysis provides compelling evidence that honest signaling explains levels of reproductive division of labor in social wasps. PMID:24219699

van Zweden, Jelle S; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2014-04-01

40

Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

2012-05-01

41

Workers do not mediate the inhibitory power of queens in a termite, Reticulitermes speratus (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social insects, the caste systems are based on reproductive division of labor; queens specialize in reproduction and workers\\u000a primarily maintain the colony. Recently, a volatile pheromone containing n-butyl-n-butyrate and 2-methyl-1-butanol was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of female neotenic\\u000a reproductives (secondary queens). Although this volatile inhibitory pheromone regulates caste differentiation directly, the\\u000a method by

K. Matsuura; Y. Yamamoto

42

Queen bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three kinds of bees in a colony: the queen, workers, and drones. The queen bee is the largest bee and her only purpose is to mate with the drone bees and lay eggs. Drones are male bees and their sole job is to mate with the queen. Workers are sterile females, meaning they can't lay eggs. Worker bees collect nectar and food for the queen and her developing larvae and protect the hive. Bees perform dances to tell other bees where and how far away food is located.

Alle Bilder (None;)

2007-05-10

43

Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits.

Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

2013-01-01

44

Pheromone Signalling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

Hart, Adam G.

2011-01-01

45

Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.  

PubMed

Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test. PMID:22081302

Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

2011-11-01

46

Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

2008-08-01

47

Drama queens.  

PubMed

Abstract Why is it that many 'lesbian playwrights' are unwilling to define themselves as such? "Drama Queens: Ruling with a Rod of Irony" attempts to answer this question and to discover what the term 'lesbian playwright' means within contemporary culture. It dissects the dominant homophobic and misogynist mythologies that have outlawed 'queer' girl writers to the underskirts of British theatre, and ultimately denied them either artistic or commercial currency. It examines the history of the label in the context of feminism, gay liberation and positive representation, and queries its aesthetic and economic viability in a climate where the 'lesbian playwright' is not even supported by her own community. Finally, it is an exploration into radical forms, working methodologies and new genres stimulated by being neither semantic Man nor Woman. It is a piece about cultural terrorism-and how to avoid capture. PMID:24785519

Taylor, J

1998-01-01

48

Mammalian pheromones.  

PubMed

Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

Liberles, Stephen D

2014-01-01

49

Caste-Selective Pheromone Biosynthesis in Honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Queen and worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) produce a caste-related blend of functionalized 8- and 10-carbon fatty acids in their mandibular glands. The biological functions of these compounds match the queen's reproductive and the worker's nonreproductive roles in the colony. Studies with deuterated substrates revealed that the biosynthesis of these acids begins with stearic acid, which is hydroxylated at the 17th or 18th position. The 18-carbon hydroxy acid chains are shortened, and the resulting 10-carbon hydroxy acids are oxidized in a caste-selective manner, thereby determining many of the functional differences between queens and workers.

Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.; Winston, Mark L.; Oliver, James E.

1996-03-01

50

The Eight Queens Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of solution methods to the Eight Queens Problem of placing eight queens on a chess board so that no one queen can capture another. Solution methods progress from empirical approaches to the use of computer algorithms. Geometric transformations are used to find other solutions. (MDH)

Olson, Alton T.

1993-01-01

51

Pheromone Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe techniques for coordinating the actions of large numbers of small-scale robots to achieve useful large-scale results in surveillance, reconnaissance, hazard detection, and path finding. We exploit the biologically inspired notion of a “virtual pheromone,” implemented using simple transceivers mounted atop each robot. Unlike the chemical markers used by insect colonies for communication and coordination, our virtual pheromones are

David Payton; Mike Daily; Regina Estowski; Mike Howard; Craig Lee

2001-01-01

52

Pheromone Robotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:We describe techniques for coordinating the actions of large numbers,of small-scale robots to achieve useful large-scale results in surveillance, reconnaissance, hazard detection, and path finding. Weexploit the biologically inspired notion of a “virtual pheromone,” implemented using simple transceivers mounted ,atop each robot. Unlike ,the chemical ,markers ,used by insect ,colonies for communication and coordination, our virtual pheromones are symbolic messages

David W. Payton; Mike Daily; Regina Estkowski; Mike Howard; Craig Lee

2001-01-01

53

Behavioral and chemical analysis of venom gland secretion of queens of the ant Solenopsis geminata.  

PubMed

Bioassays in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that workers of Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were attracted to venom gland extracts of queens. Gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis of individual glands of queens of S. geminata showed that the secretion is composed mainly of a large amount of 2-alkyl-6-methylpiperidine alkaloids and a tiny amount of a delta-lactone and a a-pyrone, which have been earlier identified as components of the queen attractant pheromone of Solenopsis invicta Buren. However, additional small amounts of a mixture of sesquiterpenes and pentadecene were found. The possible function of the sesquiterpenoid compounds is discussed. PMID:11789950

Cruz-López, L; Rojas, J C; De La Cruz-Cordero, R; Morgan, E D

2001-12-01

54

The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

55

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-01

56

Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations  

PubMed Central

Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger ‘selfishly’ adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish.

Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-01-01

57

Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations.  

PubMed

Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment. Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger 'selfishly' adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal their reproductive output or produce dishonest, manipulative signals, providing a novel test of the evolutionary significance of queen pheromones. Queens produced fewer workers when their colony contained ample brood, but only in the presence of competitors, suggesting selfish conservation of resources. Several CHCs correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution of cooperation: whenever cheaters can be reliably identified, they may incur sanctions that reduce the incentive to be selfish. PMID:20181562

Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-07-01

58

Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed. PMID:21786084

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2011-09-01

59

Pheromone receptors in mammals.  

PubMed

In most mammals, pheromone perception mediates intraspecies interactions related to reproduction, such as mate recognition, intermale aggressive behaviors, or exchanges between females and their offspring. Recent molecular findings, particularly the identification of two large pheromone receptor gene superfamilies, provide today invaluable tools to better understand the way mammals make sense of pheromonal information. PMID:15325223

Rodriguez, Ivan

2004-09-01

60

Enzymatic processing of pheromones and pheromone analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pheromone perception requires rapid enzymatic degradation of the active chemical signal in the sensory hairs. Three insects are used to illustrate chemical approaches to studying the degradation of pheromones by antennal enzymes. First, hydrolysis of acetate and haloacetate esters is examined in the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella. Second, aldehyde oxidation and the selective inhibition of the oxidase and dehydrogenase activities

G. D. Prestwich; S. McG Graham; M. Handley; B. Latli; L. Streinz; M. L. J. Tasayco

1989-01-01

61

Bifid hyperplastic mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Condylar hyperplasia is a rare non-neoplastic pathology associated with overgrowth of the mandibular condyle. Presentation of condylar hyperplasia with bifid mandibular condyle has never been reported in literature. Early management of the hyperplastic disorders of the mandibular condyle can prevent occlusal canting and developing asymmetric deformities. We report a case of 'Bifid Hyperplastic Mandibular Condyle' in a 14-year-old male with emphasis on early surgical intervention. To best of our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of bifid mandibular condyle with condylar hyperplasia and 66th reported case of bifid mandibular condyle in living human population. PMID:24431890

Neelakandan, R S; Bhargava, Darpan

2013-12-01

62

Pheromone sensing in mice.  

PubMed

Beginning with the neuroepithelium of the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory system in rodents runs parallel to the main olfactory system and is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Only a small number of vomeronasal agonists carrying pheromonal information have been identified this far. These structurally diverse classes of chemicals include peptides secreted by exocrine glands and range from small volatile molecules to proteins and fragments thereof present in urine. Most pheromones activate both vomeronasal and main olfactory sensory neurons, making the identification of functionally relevant populations of sensory neurons difficult. Analyses of gene-targeted mice selectively affecting either vomeronasal or main olfactory signaling have attempted to elucidate the functional contribution of the different chemosensory epithelia to pheromone sensing in mice. These mouse models suggest that both the main and the accessory olfactory systems can converge and synergize to express the complex array of stereotyped behaviors and hormonal changes triggered by pheromones. PMID:19083125

Rodriguez, I; Boehm, U

2009-01-01

63

Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies  

PubMed Central

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies.

Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

2006-01-01

64

The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

1986-07-01

65

Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens.  

PubMed

In 1959, P. Karlson and M. Lüscher introduced the term 'pheromone', broadly used nowadays for various chemicals involved in intraspecific communication. To demonstrate the term, they depicted the situation in termite societies, where king and queen inhibit the reproduction of nest-mates by an unknown chemical substance. Paradoxically, half a century later, neither the source nor the chemical identity of this 'royal' pheromone is known. In this study, we report for the first time the secretion of polar compounds of proteinaceous origin by functional reproductives in three termite species, Prorhinotermes simplex, Reticulitermes santonensis and Kalotermes flavicollis. Aqueous washes of functional reproductives contained sex-specific proteinaceous compounds, virtually absent in non-reproducing stages. Moreover, the presence of these compounds was clearly correlated with the age of reproductives and their reproductive status. We discuss the putative function of these substances in termite caste recognition and regulation. PMID:19939837

Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Cvacka, Josef; Sobotník, Jan

2010-04-01

66

Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens  

PubMed Central

In 1959, P. Karlson and M. Lüscher introduced the term ‘pheromone’, broadly used nowadays for various chemicals involved in intraspecific communication. To demonstrate the term, they depicted the situation in termite societies, where king and queen inhibit the reproduction of nest-mates by an unknown chemical substance. Paradoxically, half a century later, neither the source nor the chemical identity of this ‘royal’ pheromone is known. In this study, we report for the first time the secretion of polar compounds of proteinaceous origin by functional reproductives in three termite species, Prorhinotermes simplex, Reticulitermes santonensis and Kalotermes flavicollis. Aqueous washes of functional reproductives contained sex-specific proteinaceous compounds, virtually absent in non-reproducing stages. Moreover, the presence of these compounds was clearly correlated with the age of reproductives and their reproductive status. We discuss the putative function of these substances in termite caste recognition and regulation.

Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimir; Hrdy, Ivan; Cvacka, Josef; Sobotnik, Jan

2010-01-01

67

Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality.

Vander Meer, Robert K.; Preston, Catherine A.; Hefetz, Abraham

2008-12-01

68

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

69

Effects of relatedness on queen competition within honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of relatedness on the pre- and post-emergent survival of honey bee queens was investigated. Workers did not preferentially rear sisters over non-siblings under conditions of natural queen replacement. After queen emergence, however, there was a significant effect of a queen's relatedness to the workers on her survivorship during fights with rival queens. The mechanism of this bias towards

DAVID R. TARPY; DAVID J. C. FLETCHER

1998-01-01

70

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal  

PubMed Central

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

2012-01-01

71

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal.  

PubMed

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary. PMID:23814555

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

2012-12-01

72

Queen Dispersal Strategies in the Multiple?Queen Form of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly produced queens in the multiple-queen (poly- gyne) form of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta show dramatic variation in dispersal patterns, and this variation is influenced by genotypic variation at a single locus associated with the genetic marker Gp-9. Heavy, homozygous Gp-9 BB queens exhibit the highest vagility among polygyne queens and are strongly attracted to the open, disturbed-habitat patches

Christopher J. DeHeer; Michael A. D. Goodisman; Kenneth G. Ross

1999-01-01

73

Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects  

PubMed Central

Defects requiring reconstruction in the mandible are commonly encountered and may result from resection of benign or malignant lesions, trauma, or osteoradionecrosis. Mandibular defects can be classified according to location and extent, as well as involvement of mucosa, skin, and tongue. Vascularized bone flaps, in general, provide the best functional and aesthetic outcome, with the fibula flap remaining the gold standard for mandible reconstruction. In this review, we discuss classification and approach to reconstruction of mandibular defects. We also elaborate upon four commonly used free osteocutaneous flaps, inclusive of fibula, iliac crest, scapula, and radial forearm. Finally, we discuss indications and use of osseointegrated implants as well as recent advances in mandibular reconstruction.

Chim, Harvey; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir; Chen, Hung-Chi

2010-01-01

74

Mandibular gland secretions of the male beewolves Philanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus , and P. pulcher (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the territorial marking pheromones from mandibular glands of males of the beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher have been determined. The structures of the components were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The major compound ofP. crabroniformis is isopropyl tetradecanoate, with somewhat lesser amounts of 2-tridecanone, 3-methyl-3-butenyl tetradecanoate, and 92:8 (Z):(E)-11-eicosen-1-ol. The

C. A. McDaniel; J. O. Schmidt; R. W. Howard

1992-01-01

75

The Antibacterial Protein Lysozyme Identified as the Termite Egg Recognition Pheromone  

PubMed Central

Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus ‘termite-ball’ and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic microbes on the evolution of social behaviour in termites.

Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

2007-01-01

76

Is dauer pheromone of Caenorhabditis elegans really a pheromone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals respond to signals and cues in their environment. The difference between a signal (e.g. a pheromone) and a cue (e.g. a waste product) is that the information content of a signal is subject to natural selection, whereas that of a cue is not. The model free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms an alternative developmental morph (the dauer larva) in response to a so-called `dauer pheromone', produced by all worms. We suggest that the production of `dauer pheromone' has no fitness advantage for an individual worm and therefore we propose that `dauer pheromone' is not a signal, but a cue. Thus, it should not be called a pheromone.

Viney, M. E.; Franks, N. R.

77

Emergency queen cell production in the honey bee colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Emergency queen cell production was examined in honey bee colonies of mixed European races. Thirteen colonies were dequeened and followed on a daily basis until after queen emergence. Observations were made on the number of cells, the temporal sequence of queen cell construction, cell location within the nest, the age of larvæ selected for queen rearing, mortality of immature

R. D. Fell; R. A. Morse

1984-01-01

78

Worker regulation of emergency queen rearing in honey bee colonies and the resultant variation in queen quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The requeening process was investigated under emergency conditions in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). The progression of queen cell construction was closely monitored after removal of the mother queen, and the newlyemerged queens were measured for several physical traits to quantify their reproductive potential (= quality). The results suggest that workers regulate the queen rearing process by differentially

S. Hatch; D. R. Tarpy; D. J. C. Fletcher

1999-01-01

79

Colony founding by queen association and determinants of reduction in queen number in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the nuptial flight, queens ofLasius nigeroccur in very high densities on the ground. Queens in this study avoided areas frequented by workers of established colonies, leading to additional clumping of nest foundations. In the field 18% of colony foundationnests contained more than one queen (pleometrosis). Queens showed neither preference for nor avoidance of pleometrotic founding, indicating that foundress associations

K. SOMMER; B. HÖLLDOBLER

1995-01-01

80

Nonsyndromic mandibular symphysis cleft.  

PubMed

Median cleft of lower lip and mandible is a rare congenital anomaly described as cleft number 30 of Tessier's classification. In minor forms only lower lip cleft is seen. We report the case of a patient with median cleft of lower lip, severe ankyloglossia, cleft of mandibular symphysis, and residual cleft involving on right soft palate and associated with other facial clefts. These deformities were corrected in multiple stage procedure, consisting of release of the tongue from floor of the mouth and lower alveolus and fixation of the mandibular cleft done with right iliac bone graft using stainless steel miniplate. PMID:24711928

Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nadella, Koteswara Rao; Uppaluru, Vijayalakshmi; Kodali, Rama Mohan; Nallamothu, Ranganadh

2014-01-01

81

Nonsyndromic Mandibular Symphysis Cleft  

PubMed Central

Median cleft of lower lip and mandible is a rare congenital anomaly described as cleft number 30 of Tessier's classification. In minor forms only lower lip cleft is seen. We report the case of a patient with median cleft of lower lip, severe ankyloglossia, cleft of mandibular symphysis, and residual cleft involving on right soft palate and associated with other facial clefts. These deformities were corrected in multiple stage procedure, consisting of release of the tongue from floor of the mouth and lower alveolus and fixation of the mandibular cleft done with right iliac bone graft using stainless steel miniplate.

Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nadella, Koteswara Rao; Uppaluru, Vijayalakshmi; Kodali, Rama Mohan; Nallamothu, Ranganadh

2014-01-01

82

Transmigration of Mandibular Canines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present the first case of unusual reverse oblique (110 degrees to midsagittal plane) migration of mandibular right canine crossing the jaw midline and piercing the lower border of the mandible at the level of the opposite canine and also to report two more cases of transmigrated mandibular canine and one case of transmigrating mandibular canine. Mandibular canines are “cornerstone” of dental arch; their importance is manifested by their efficiency in masticatory function, stability of dental arch, and aid in maintaining natural facial expression. Early detection of this anomaly can help preserving these canines by orthodontic intervention or by surgical transplantation. This developmental anomaly is properly diagnosed by radiographic evaluation, which is primarily based on the panoramic radiograph. In patients with overretained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines, an intraoral radiograph should be supplemented with panoramic radiograph. This paper discusses the importance of early diagnosis of canine transmigration in treatment planning and reviews the various possible treatment options.

Umashree, N.; Kumar, Avinash; Nagaraj, Tejavathi

2013-01-01

83

Measuring mandibular motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

1977-01-01

84

Computing and Information Science Department: Queen's University Kingston, Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Department of Computer Science, Queen's University Kingston, Canada: a new Server for the Computing and Information Science department, including faculty and student listings, assorted labs and reports, and the Queen's electronic phone book.

85

Balancing acts: drag queens, gender and faith.  

PubMed

While engaged in research on the same-sex marriage debate in mainline denominations, I interviewed 23 LGBT Christians, four of whom were drag queens. While it is not possible to generalize from such a small sample, the drag queens in this study insist on maintaining their identity as Christians despite the hegemonic discourse that renders faith and LGBT identities mutually exclusive. They developed innovative approaches to reconciling their gender and sexual identities with their spirituality. Their innovations are potentially liberating not just for them personally, but for LGBT people generally because they challenge Christianity's rigid dichotomies of gender and sexuality. PMID:15132491

Sullivan-Blum, Constance R

2004-01-01

86

Ultrasensitive pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemoreceptive organ that is thought to transduce pheromones into electrical responses that regulate sexual, hormonal and reproductive function in mammals. The characteristics of pheromone signal detection by vomeronasal neurons remain unclear. Here we use a mouse VNO slice preparation to show that six putative pheromones evoke excitatory responses in single vomeronasal neurons, leading to

Trese Leinders-Zufall; Adam C. Puche; Weidong Ma; Milos V. Novotny; Michael T. Shipley; Frank Zufall

2000-01-01

87

Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Metropolitan Museum accompanies their retrospective exhibition of the work of couturier Alexander McQueen, who committed suicide at age 40 in 2010. McQueen was known for his lavishly staged runway shows, for example his spring 2003 collection, "Irere", featured a recreation of a shipwreck complete with pirates and amazons, and models falling overboard. "It's only a game" in 2005, was a human chess game, with models dressed as chess pieces, such a knight in a horsehairs skirt. On the exhibition's website, visitors can view selected objects including McQueen's extremely low-slung trousers, "bumsters" or the Spine Corset, a silver exoskeleton, worn over a dress. Narration is provided by Andrew Bolton, the British curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Costume Institute, Michelle Olly, who wore one of the dresses, and McQueen himself. There is also a section of online videos available here, where visitors can watch a model in a chiffon dress drop into the ocean, and see the chess pieces move.

88

Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.…

Koeppe, Tina

2007-01-01

89

De-Institutionalization: The Queens Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a review of the history of the implementation of de-institutionalization in Queens County, a borough of New York City. A number of issues confronting the mental health profession, the community, the patients, and their families are discussed. It notes that Creedmoor Psychiatric Center, the major provider of services for the…

Plotnick, Hermine D.

90

Behavioral Plasticity in Ant Queens: Environmental Manipulation Induces Aggression among Normally Peaceful Queens in the Socially Polymorphic Ant Leptothorax acervorum.  

PubMed

The behavioral traits that shape the structure of animal societies vary considerably among species but appear to be less flexible within species or at least within populations. Populations of the ant Leptothorax acervorum differ in how queens interact with other queens. Nestmate queens from extended, homogeneous habitats tolerate each other and contribute quite equally to the offspring of the colony (polygyny: low reproductive skew). In contrast, nestmate queens from patchy habitats establish social hierarchies by biting and antennal boxing, and eventually only the top-ranking queen of the colony lays eggs (functional monogyny: high reproductive skew). Here we investigate whether queen-queen behavior is fixed within populations or whether aggression and high skew can be elicited by manipulation of socio-environmental factors in colonies from low skew populations. An increase of queen/worker ratio and to a lesser extent food limitation elicited queen-queen antagonism in polygynous colonies from Nürnberger Reichswald similar to that underlying social and reproductive hierarchies in high-skew populations from Spain, Japan, and Alaska. In manipulated colonies, queens differed more in ovarian status than in control colonies. This indicates that queens are in principle capable of adapting the magnitude of reproductive skew to environmental changes in behavioral rather than evolutionary time. PMID:24743352

Trettin, Jürgen; Seyferth, Thomas; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-01-01

91

Behavioral Plasticity in Ant Queens: Environmental Manipulation Induces Aggression among Normally Peaceful Queens in the Socially Polymorphic Ant Leptothorax acervorum  

PubMed Central

The behavioral traits that shape the structure of animal societies vary considerably among species but appear to be less flexible within species or at least within populations. Populations of the ant Leptothorax acervorum differ in how queens interact with other queens. Nestmate queens from extended, homogeneous habitats tolerate each other and contribute quite equally to the offspring of the colony (polygyny: low reproductive skew). In contrast, nestmate queens from patchy habitats establish social hierarchies by biting and antennal boxing, and eventually only the top-ranking queen of the colony lays eggs (functional monogyny: high reproductive skew). Here we investigate whether queen-queen behavior is fixed within populations or whether aggression and high skew can be elicited by manipulation of socio-environmental factors in colonies from low skew populations. An increase of queen/worker ratio and to a lesser extent food limitation elicited queen-queen antagonism in polygynous colonies from Nürnberger Reichswald similar to that underlying social and reproductive hierarchies in high-skew populations from Spain, Japan, and Alaska. In manipulated colonies, queens differed more in ovarian status than in control colonies. This indicates that queens are in principle capable of adapting the magnitude of reproductive skew to environmental changes in behavioral rather than evolutionary time.

Trettin, Jurgen; Seyferth, Thomas; Heinze, Jurgen

2014-01-01

92

Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.  

PubMed

Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

2012-02-01

93

Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens  

PubMed Central

Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring.

Galvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

2014-01-01

94

Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens.  

PubMed

Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring. PMID:24963375

Gálvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

2014-05-01

95

Bifid mandibular canal in Japanese.  

PubMed

The location and configuration of mandibular canal variations are important in surgical procedures involving the mandible, such as extraction of an impacted third molar, dental implant treatment, and sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We report 3 Japanese patients with bifid mandibular canals using panoramic radiograph and multi-slice helical computed tomography (CT) images. In 2 of the 5 sides, the bifid mandibular canal was suggested on panoramic radiograph. The bifid mandibular canal had a short and narrow upper canal toward the distal area of the second molar in 4 sides, and a short and narrow lower canal toward the distal area of second molar in 1 side, as revealed on reconstructed CT images. Since the location and configuration of mandibular canal variations are important in surgical procedures involving the mandible, they should be carefully observed using reconstructed CT images. PMID:17356369

Naitoh, Munetaka; Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Aimiya, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Masakazu; Ariji, Yoshiko; Izumi, Masahiro; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

2007-03-01

96

Threshold hypothesis for pheromone perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field results have shown that male moths of some species are not always trapped by the ratio of pheromone components produced by the female moths. For cases involving a binary mixture of geometrical or positional isomers, this phenomenon may be explained by use of a threshold diagram in which the isomer ratio in the mixture is plotted against release rate

W. L. Roelofs

1978-01-01

97

Patterns of endothermy in bumblebee queens, drones and workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The thoracic temperatures (TTh) of captiveBombus edwardsii queens and drones from the current year approached ambient temperatures (TA) at night, but warm-up was frequent throughout the day.2.ABombus vosnesenskii queen which had initiated nest building maintained TTh nearly continuously between 37.4 and 38.8 °C at night and in the daytime. On the other hand, the TTh of an overwintered queen which

Bernd Heinrich

1972-01-01

98

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

99

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system.

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

100

Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues  

SciTech Connect

(9, 10-/sup 3/H/sub 2/)Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity (/sup 3/H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed.

Ding, Y.S.

1987-01-01

101

Mandibular canal variant: a case report.  

PubMed

The mandibular canal transmits the inferior alveolar artery, vein and the inferior alveolar nerve. From an embryological perspective, there might be three inferior dental nerves innervating three groups of mandibular teeth. During rapid prenatal growth and remodeling in the ramus region there is spread of intramembranous ossification that eventually forms the mandibular canal. Occurrence of bifid/trifid mandibular canals in some patients is secondary to incomplete fusion of these three nerves. Various types of bifid mandibular canals have been classified according to anatomical location and configuration. This case report highlights an unusual variant of the mandibular canal. PMID:18197857

Wadhwani, P; Mathur, R M; Kohli, M; Sahu, R

2008-02-01

102

Structural cuticular proteins in termite queens.  

PubMed

The abdominal cuticle from queens of two termite species, Cubitermes fungifaber and Macrotermes bellicosus, has been investigated with respect to changes occurring during development of physogastry. The following properties have been determined: 1. Relative content of protein and chitin and the percentage of easily extracted protein. 2. Number of proteins separated by electrophoresis and their molecular weights. 3. Amino acid compositions of the intertergal and pleural membranes and of the neosclerites in M. bellicosus. The intertergal and pleural membranes appear to be typical "soft" cuticles, and the neosclerites must also be considered "soft" cuticles, although they are rather rigid. PMID:318340

Bordereau, C; Andersen, S O

1978-01-01

103

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D. M.; Peck, R. W.; Manning, L. M.; Stringer, L. D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

104

Human mandibular prenatal growth: bivariate and multivariate growth allometry comparing different mandibular dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandibular growth was studied in 36 human fetuses (both sexes) ranging from 13 to 37 weeks of gestation by bivariate and multivariate analyses (bivariate allometry and principal components analysis, PCA). Several mandibular dimensions were measured and correlated with fetal weight. Considering the different mandibular dimensions in sequence of increasing component weights, PCA agreed with bivariate analysis. No mandibular dimension was

Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda; Maria Urania Alves

1992-01-01

105

Mandibular torus morphology.  

PubMed

The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

Sellevold, B J

1980-11-01

106

Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.  

PubMed

Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:24712289

Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

2013-01-01

107

THE RED QUEEN EFFECT: COMPETITIVE ACTIONS AND FIRM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the Red Queen effect as a contest of competitive moves or actions among rivalrous firms. The results from a multi-industry study of over 4,700 actions confirms the existence of Red Queen competition, whereby a firm's actions increase perfor- mance but also increase the number and speed of rivals' actions, which, in turn, negatively affect the initial firm's performance.

PAMELA J. DERFUS; PATRICK G. MAGGITTI; CURTIS M. GRIMM; KEN G. SMITH

2008-01-01

108

Sex Pheromone in the Lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEXUAL recognition and attraction in many insects have been shown to involve chemical communicants called pheromones1, and these results are widely applied in agriculture2. In contrast very little is known about (sex) pheromones in crustaceans, the only experimental verification being that of Ryan3 who observed that males of the Pacific crab, Portunus sanguinolentus, displayed towards water from premoult females. No

Jelle Atema; DAVID G. ENGSTROM

1971-01-01

109

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: a case report.  

PubMed

The objective of this case report is to help clinicians identify bifid mandibular canals on panoramic radiographs and subsequently use the information in the modification of dental treatment planning. A 45-year old man was referred to the service of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology. Routine panoramic radiography, suggested the presence of bilateral bifid mandibular canals (BMC). Mandibular computed tomography revealed a clear view of bilateral mandibular canals. BMC can be detected on a panoramic radiograph. PMID:19218898

Miloglu, Ozkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Berhan; Caglayan, Fatma

2009-05-01

110

Intraspecific queen parasitism in a highly eusocial bee  

PubMed Central

Insect societies are well-known for their advanced cooperation, but their colonies are also vulnerable to reproductive parasitism. Here, we present a novel example of an intraspecific social parasitism in a highly eusocial bee, the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In particular, we provide genetic evidence which shows that, upon loss of the mother queen, many colonies are invaded by unrelated queens that fly in from unrelated hives nearby. The reasons for the occurrence of this surprising form of social parasitism may be linked to the fact that unlike honeybees, Melipona bees produce new queens in great excess of colony needs, and that this exerts much greater selection on queens to seek alternative reproductive options, such as by taking over other nests. Overall, our results are the first to demonstrate that queens in highly eusocial bees can found colonies not only via supersedure or swarming, but also by infiltrating and taking over other unrelated nests.

Wenseleers, Tom; Alves, Denise A.; Francoy, Tiago M.; Billen, Johan; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.

2011-01-01

111

Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens  

PubMed Central

The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31?%) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84?%) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues.

Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

2013-01-01

112

Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens.  

PubMed

The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31?%) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 10(1) to 10(5) copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84?%) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 10(2) to 10(12)), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >10(7) copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Kryger, Per

2013-03-01

113

Abberantly placed impacted mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

Pre-eruptive migration of a tooth across the midline is termed as transmigration. It is believed that transmigration is rare and unique to the mandibular permanent canines, and even more rarely reported for others. Transmigration is a phenomenon of yet unknown etiology. It follows the direction of its long axis, with the crown leading the migration. The tendency of a canine to cross the barrier of mandibular midline suture is a more important consideration than the distance of migration after crossing the midline. Here we present one new case of aberrantly positioned right mandibular canine which has undergone migration and was accidently found on radiological examination before orthodontic treatment. Once diagnosed an aberrantly positioned impacted canine requires surgical removal.

Bahl, Rashi; Singla, Jeetinder; Gupta, Mohita; Malhotra, Ankit

2013-01-01

114

Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.  

PubMed

In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10% of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive. PMID:23666065

Kärcher, Martin H; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A; Beveridge, Oliver S; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2013-06-01

115

Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2013-06-01

116

Maxillofacial anatomy: the mandibular symphysis.  

PubMed

Placement of dental implants in the anterior mandible is considered by many clinicians to be a relatively low-risk procedure. However, hemorrhagic episodes following implant placement in the mandibular symphysis are regularly reported and can have serious consequences. The use of high-resolution focused cone beam scanners has given us the ability to visualize the intricate neurovascular network of the intraforaminal region without distortion and in greater detail. Knowledge of the arterial supply and navigated implant placement in the mandibular symphysis can help to avoid these potentially life-threatening emergencies. PMID:20932161

Miller, Robert J; Edwards, Warren C; Boudet, Carlos; Cohen, Jonathon H

2011-12-01

117

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

118

Reproductive Conflicts in Cooperative Associations of Fire Ant Queens (Solenopsis invicta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ants, unrelated queens frequently associate to initiate a colony cooperatively. The joint reproductive effort of the cofoundresses increases growth and survival of the incipient colony. However, such associations are unstable. Soon after emergence of the first workers, queen-queen and queen-worker fights lead to the death or expulsion of all but one cofoundress. Because no sexual offspring are produced in

Giorgina Bernasconi; Laurent Keller

1996-01-01

119

Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

2011-01-01

120

Histological estimates of ovariole number in honey bee queens, Apis mellifera, reveal lack of correlation with other queen quality measures.  

PubMed

Published estimates of the number of ovarioles found in the ovaries of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens range from 100 to 180 per ovary. Within the context of a large-scale study designed to assay the overall quality of queens obtained from various commercial sources, a simple histology-based method for accurate determination of ovariole number was developed and then applied to a sample of 75 queens. Although all 10 commercial sources evaluated provided queens with ovariole numbers within the expected range, ovariole number was found to vary significantly across sources. Overall, and within most of the individual samples, there was no correlation of ovariole number with other morphological attributes such as thoracic width, wing length, or wet weight. Queens from two of the sources, however, displayed a significant negative relationship between wet weight and ovariole number. This study provides baseline data on ovariole number in commercial honey bee queens in the United States at a time when honey bee populations are declining; the method described can be used in studies relating ovariole number in queens to egg production and behavior. PMID:21870968

Jackson, Jeffrey T; Tarpy, David R; Fahrbach, Susan E

2011-01-01

121

Queen replacement in orphaned colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.When field colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren were orphaned by removing the functioning queen, re-collection 8–10 weeks later showed that 61% had replacement queens that were physogastric and attractive to workers. The weight of the original colony queens increases with the colony mound volume. The weight of replacement queens is inversely related to the number of such queens in the

Walter R. Tschinkel; Dennis F. Howard

1978-01-01

122

The dissolution of cooperative groups: mechanisms of queen mortality in incipient fire ant colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several species of ants, queens often form temporary cooperative associations during colony foundation. These associations\\u000a end soon after the eclosion of the first workers with the death or expulsion of all but one of the queens. This study examined\\u000a competition between foundress queens of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Although attacks by the workers contributed to queen mortality, queens

Michael T. Balas; Eldridge S. Adams

1996-01-01

123

Terminal Investment: Individual Reproduction of Ant Queens Increases with Age  

PubMed Central

The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1]), but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens.

Heinze, Jurgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

2012-01-01

124

A Critical Look at the Queen Bee Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the popular "Queen Bee" stereotype of successful female executives, and concludes that the stereotype is too narrow in focus and fails to take into account complex psychological and experiential variables. (Author/EJT)

Berry, Jane; Kushner, Richard

1975-01-01

125

European corn borer: Pheromonal catabolism and behavioral response to sex pheromone.  

PubMed

When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds applied to antennae were hydrolyzed and, at 2 and 4 hr posttreatment, little or none of the compound applied or hydrolysis product was detectable in the antennal extracts. After 4 hr of in vivo incubation, male responsiveness to pheromone was restored among moths treated with the analogs but not among moths treated with pheromone. Esterase activity on the antennae was moderately inhibited in vivo by a pheromone analog that is a so-called transition-state esterase inhibitor, 1,1, 1-trifluoro-14-heptadecen-2-one. However, the analog did not inhibit male behavior when it was coevaporated with pheromone in a flight-tunnel assay. Therefore, in the presence of pheromone, the analog did not compete well for esterase or the pheromone receptor. Treating the antennae of intact males with tetrahydrofuran obliterated sex pheromone response capability in males, but the treatment did not significantly attenuate esterase and other catabolic activity of the antennae. Indications are that degradation of esters on the ECB antennae involves substrate-nonspecific esterase activity and other metabolic processes that in turn remove hydrolysis products from the antennae. Maintenance of a male's ability to respond to pheromone is linked to these processes. PMID:24258728

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Uebel, E G

1991-02-01

126

An airborne sex pheromone in snakes  

PubMed Central

Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones.

Shine, R.; Mason, R. T.

2012-01-01

127

Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

2012-12-01

128

Queen Control of Sex Ratio in Fire Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haplodiploid sex-determination system of ants gives rise to conflict between queens and workers over colony sex ratios, and the female-biased allocation ratios seen in many species suggest that workers often prevail in this conflict. We exchanged queens between male- and female-specialist colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. These exchanges quickly reversed the sex-ratio biases of adopting colonies. The

L. Passera; S. Aron; E. L. Vargo; L. Keller

2001-01-01

129

Do army ant queens re-mate later in life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Queens of eusocial Hymenoptera are inseminated only during a brief period before they start to lay eggs. This has probably\\u000a been kin-selected because repeated insemination of old queens would normally be against the inclusive fitness interest of\\u000a their daughter workers. Army ants have been considered to be the only possible exception to this rule due to their idiosyncratic\\u000a life-history. We

D. J. C. Kronauer; J. J. Boomsma

2007-01-01

130

LDPC Block-Coding Schedule Based on Queen-Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general coding schedule of low density parity codes (LDPC) have the problems of slow coding speed and difficult implementation in hardware. Based on the irregular Queen-matrix LDPC construction algorithm derived from n- queens problem, this paper designed an optimized block-coding schedule according to construction codes' dimension and memory's bandwidth. The block-coding schedule can reduce the intermedial size of data

Luo Xiling; Jiayi Zhang; Jun Zhang

2008-01-01

131

Social context predicts recognition systems in ant queens.  

PubMed

Recognition of group-members is a key feature of sociality. Ants use chemical communication to discriminate nestmates from intruders, enhancing kin cooperation and preventing parasitism. The recognition code is embedded in their cuticular chemical profile, which typically varies between colonies. We predicted that ants might be capable of accurate recognition in unusual situations when few individuals interact repeatedly, as new colonies started by two to three queens. Individual recognition would be favoured by selection when queens establish dominance hierarchies, because repeated fights for dominance are costly; but it would not evolve in absence of hierarchies. We previously showed that Pachycondyla co-founding queens, which form dominance hierarchies, have accurate individual recognition based on chemical cues. Here, we used the ant Lasius niger to test the null hypothesis that individual recognition does not occur when co-founding queens do not establish dominance hierarchies. Indeed, L. niger queens show a similar level of aggression towards both co-foundresses and intruders, indicating that they are unable of individual recognition, contrary to Pachycondyla. Additionally, the variation in chemical profiles of Lasius and Pachycondyla queens is comparable, thus informational constraints are unlikely to apply. We conclude that selection pressure from the social context is of crucial significance for the sophistication of recognition systems. PMID:19170823

Dreier, S; D'Ettorre, P

2009-03-01

132

75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Control Exemption--Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC, DeQueen and Eastern...Docket No. FD 35426, Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Columbia & Cowlitz Railway Company; (2) Docket...

2010-11-05

133

Aggregation Pheromone System: A Real-parameter Optimization Algorithm using Aggregation Pheromones as the Base Metaphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an aggregation pheromone system (APS) for solving real-parameter optimization problems using the collective behavior of individuals which communicate using aggregation pheromones. APS was tested on several test functions used in evolutionary computation. The results showed APS could solve real-parameter optimization problems fairly well. The sensitivity analysis of control parameters of APS is also studied.

Tsutsui, Shigeyosi

134

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2010-04-01

135

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device...

2009-04-01

136

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device...

2010-04-01

137

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2009-04-01

138

Mandibular development in Australopithecus robustus.  

PubMed

Australopithecus robustus has a distinct mandibular anatomy, with a broad and deep corpus and a tall, relatively upright ramus. How this anatomy arose through development is unknown, as gross mandibular size and shape change have not been thoroughly examined quantitatively in this species. Herein, I investigate A. robustus mandibular growth by comparing its ontogenetic series with a sample of recent humans, examining age-related size variation in 28 linear measurements. Resampling is used to compare the amount of proportional size change occurring between tooth eruption stages in the small and fragmentary A. robustus sample, with that of a more complete human skeletal population. Ontogenetic allometry of corpus robusticity is also assessed with least squares regression. Results show that nearly all measurements experience greater average increase in A. robustus than in humans. Most notably, A. robustus corpus breadth undergoes a spurt of growth before eruption of M1 , likely due in part to delayed resorption of the ramus root on the lateral corpus. Between the occlusion of M1 and M2 , nearly all dimensions experience greater proportional size change in A. robustus. Nested resampling analysis affirms that this pattern of growth differences between species is biologically significant, and not a mere byproduct of the fossil sample size. Some species differences are likely a function of postcanine megadontia in A. robustus, although the causes of other differences are less clear. This study demonstrates an important role of the postnatal period for mandibular shape development in this species. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:436-446, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24820665

Cofran, Zachary

2014-07-01

139

Mandibular motion after closed and open treatment of unilateral mandibular condylar process fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study compared mandibular and condylar mobility after open or closed treatment for fractures of the mandibular condylar process.Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-six patients (111 male, 25 female), 74 treated by closed and 62 by open methods, were included in this study. They underwent testing of mandibular and condyle mobility at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1, 2,

Celso Palmieri; Edward Ellis; Gaylord Throckmorton

1999-01-01

140

Green Leaf Volatiles as Synergists for Insect Pheromones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to compounds which synergize the behavioral responses of insects induced by their attractant pheromones. These compounds may be used in combination with pheromones and insect control measures such as toxicants or traps. The compounds...

J. C. Dickens

1988-01-01

141

The Evolution of Pheromone Communication in the Arthropoda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inception of pheromone communication implies the simultaneous appearance of two new capabilities, that for biosynthesis of the pheromone and for the organization of the appropriate receptor site on a chemosensory membrane. The finding that crustecdyso...

J. S. Kittredge F. T. Takahashi

1971-01-01

142

Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.  

PubMed

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

2012-01-01

143

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique.

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

144

Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta.

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

145

Pesticide Fact Sheet: (E)-9-Dodecenyl Acetate Pheromone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

9-Dodecenyl acetate is a pheromone containing the (E) and (Z) isomers. It is for use in manufacturing pheromone based products to control methods. The (Z) isomer has been already registered. The active ingredient is the (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate pheromone. ...

1999-01-01

146

Egg marking pheromones of anarchistic worker honeybees (Apis mellifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In honeybees, worker policing via egg eating enforces functional worker sterility in colonies with a queen and brood. It is thought that queens mark their eggs with a chemical signal, indicating that their eggs are queen-laid. Worker-laid eggs lack this signal and are, therefore, eaten by policing workers. Anarchistic worker honeybees have been hypothesized to circumvent worker policing by mimicking

Stephen J. Martin; Benjamin P. Oldroyd; Graeme R. Jones; Francis L. W. Ratnieksa

2004-01-01

147

Presence of Nosema ceranae associated with honeybee queen introductions.  

PubMed

Microsporidiosis caused by Nosema species is one of the factors threatening the health of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), which is an essential element in agriculture mainly due to its pollination function. The dispersion of this pathogen may be influenced by many factors, including various aspects of beekeeping management such as introduction of queens with different origin. Herein we study the relation of the presence and distribution of Nosema spp. and the replacement of queens in honeybee populations settled on the Atlantic Canary Islands. While Nosema apis has not been detected, an increase of the presence and distribution of Nosema ceranae during the last decade has been observed in parallel with a higher frequency of foreign queens. On the other hand, a reduction of the number of N. ceranae positive colonies was observed on those islands with continued replacement of queens. We suggest that such replacement could help maintaining low rates of Nosema infection, but healthy queens native to these islands should be used in order to conserve local honeybee diversity. PMID:24568841

Muñoz, Irene; Cepero, Almudena; Pinto, Maria Alice; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; De la Rúa, Pilar

2014-04-01

148

Experimental evaluation of the reproductive quality of Africanized queen bees (Apis mellifera) on the basis of body weight at emergence.  

PubMed

There has been much speculation about which phenotypic traits serve as reliable indicators of productivity in queen honeybees (Apis mellifera). To investigate the predictive value of queen body weight on colony development and quality, we compared colonies in which queens weighed less than 180 mg to those in which queens weighed more than 200 mg. Both groups contained naturally mated and instrumentally inseminated queens. Colonies were evaluated on the basis of performance quality, growth rate, and queen longevity. We found that queen body weight was significantly correlated with fecundity and colony quality. Heavy queens exhibited the most favorable performance and colony quality. In contrast, naturally mated, with the opposite trend being obtained for light-weight queens. We found no statistically significant difference between instrumentally inseminated queens and naturally mated queens. Our results support the use of queen body weight as a reliable visual (physiological) indicator of potential colony productivity in honey bees to enhance genetic lines in genetic improvement programs. PMID:24301910

De Souza, D A; Bezzera-Laure, M A F; Francoy, T M; Gonçalves, L S

2013-01-01

149

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-05-01

150

Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.  

PubMed

Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

2014-05-01

151

Mandibular posture during sleep in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether the mandible opens more during deep sleep and whether the mandibular position is affected by body position during sleep, the vertical mandibular position was recorded intraorally using a magnet sensor at the same time as a standard sleep study in seven normal healthy male adults. Measurements were recorded during the period before sleep onset (WAKE) and during

K. Miyamoto; M. M. Özbek; A. A. Lowe; T. T. Sjöholm; L. L. Love; J. A. Fleetham; C. F. Ryan

1998-01-01

152

Venom alkaloid and cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are associated with social organization, queen fertility status, and queen genotype in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers' attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype. PMID:22095515

Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G; Haight, Kevin L; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jürgen

2011-11-01

153

Venom Alkaloid and Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles Are Associated with Social Organization, Queen Fertility Status, and Queen Genotype in the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta  

PubMed Central

Queens in social insect colonies advertise their presence in the colony to: a) attract workers’ attention and care; b) gain acceptance by workers as replacement or supplemental reproductives; c) prevent reproductive development in nestmates. We analyzed the chemical content of whole body surface extracts of adult queens of different developmental and reproductive stages, and of adult workers from monogyne (single colony queen) and polygyne (multiple colony queens) forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. We found that the composition of the most abundant components, venom alkaloids, differed between queens and workers, as well as between reproductive and non-reproductive queens. Additionally, workers of the two forms could be distinguished by alkaloid composition. Finally, sexually mature, non-reproductive queens from polygyne colonies differed in their proportions of cis-piperidine alkaloids, depending on their Gp-9 genotype, although the difference disappeared once they became functional reproductives. Among the unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons characteristic of queens, there were differences in amounts of alkenes/alkadienes between non-reproductive polygyne queens of different Gp-9 genotypes, between non-reproductive and reproductive queens, and between polygyne and monogyne reproductive queens, with the amounts increasing at a relatively higher rate through reproductive ontogeny in queens bearing the Gp-9 b allele. Given that the genotype-specific piperidine differences reflect differences in rates of reproductive maturation between queens, we speculate that these abundant and unique compounds have been co-opted to serve in fertility signaling, while the cuticular hydrocarbons now play a complementary role in regulation of social organization by signaling queen Gp-9 genotype.

Eliyahu, Dorit; Ross, Kenneth G.; Haight, Kevin L.; Keller, Laurent

2013-01-01

154

A Review of Mandibular Angle Fractures  

PubMed Central

After studying this article, the reader will be able to: (1) review the incidence and etiology of mandibular angle fractures; (2) gain an understanding of patient evaluation and general management principles; and (3) discuss indications and available techniques for management of mandibular angle fractures. Angle fractures represent the highest percentage of mandibular fractures. Two of the most common causes of mandibular angle fractures are motor vehicle accidents and assaults or altercations. With any patient who has sustained facial trauma, a thorough history and comprehensive physical examination centering on the head and neck region as well as proper radiological assessment are essential. These elements are fundamental in establishing a diagnosis and developing an appropriate treatment plan for any mandibular fracture.

Perez, Ramiro; Oeltjen, John C.; Thaller, Seth R.

2011-01-01

155

Aggregation pheromone activity of the female sex pheromone, beta-acaridial, in Caloglyphus polyphyllae (Acari: Acaridae).  

PubMed

Caloglyphus (= Sancasania) polyphyllae discharges from a pair of opisthonotal glands a characteristic set of volatiles, i.e. three monoterpenes and seven hydrocarbons. Among them, beta-acaridial, which is known as the female sex pheromone of the species and has antifungal activity, was newly identified as the aggregation pheromone for unfeeding and unmating mites. Feeding mites, however, exhibited sexually aroused behavior instead of the tendency to cluster when exposed to beta-acaridial. This is the first example of the compound demonstrating two pheromone functions depending upon the circumstances faced by the mites. PMID:11577709

Shimizu, N; Mori, N; Kuwahara, Y

2001-08-01

156

Unrelated queens coexist in colonies of the termite Macrotermes michaelseni.  

PubMed

Relatedness increases the likelihood of cooperation within colonies of social insects. Polygyny, the coexistence of numerous reproductive females (queens) in a colony, is common in mature colonies of the termite Macrotermes michaelseni. In this species, polygyny results from pleometrosis and from several female alates that jointly found a new colony. To explain this phenomenon, it was suggested that only related females cooperate and survive during maturation of colonies. Using multilocus fingerprints as well as microsatellites, we showed that nestmate queens in mature colonies are unrelated. Furthermore, we found that all nestmate queens contributed to the production of steriles. Even in mature colonies, several matrilines of steriles coexist within a colony. Although genetic diversity within colonies may increase the likelihood of conflicts, high genetic diversity may be important for foraging, colony growth, and resistance to disease and parasites. PMID:15813790

Hacker, M; Kaib, M; Bagine, R K N; Epplen, J T; Brandl, R

2005-04-01

157

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

158

Characterization of Pheromone Blend for Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana by Using Flight Track Recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral responses of Lobesia botrana males to calling females, pheromone gland extracts, and synthetic sex pheromones were recorded in a wind tunnel. Gland extracts and synthetic pheromones were released from a pheromone evaporator. The numbers of males reaching the source and their flight tracks in response to calling females and pheromone gland extracts were compared to those of synthetic

Ashraf El-Sayed; Josef Gödde; Peter Witzgall; Heinrich Arn

1999-01-01

159

Genetic Evidence for the Coexistence of Pheromone Perception and Full Trichromatic Vision in Howler Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack functional genes responsible for the pheromone signal transduction and are generally insensitive to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity occurred because pheromone communication became redundant after the emergence of full

David M. Webb; Liliana Cortes-Ortiz; Jianzhi Zhang

2004-01-01

160

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship. PMID:24414963

Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

1982-02-01

161

Evolution of moth sex pheromones via ancestral genes  

PubMed Central

Mate finding in most moth species involves long-distance signaling via female-emitted sex pheromones. There is a great diversity of pheromone structures used throughout the Lepidoptera, even among closely related species. The conundrum is how signal divergence has occurred. With strong normalizing selection pressure on blend composition and response preferences, it is improbable that shifts to pheromones of diverse structures occur through adaptive changes in small steps. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that a major shift in the pheromone of an Ostrinia species occurred by activation of a nonfunctional desaturase gene transcript present in the pheromone gland. We also demonstrate the existence of rare males that respond to the new pheromone blend. Their presence would allow for asymmetric tracking of male response to the new blend and, thus, evolution of an Ostrinia species with structurally different sex pheromone components.

Roelofs, Wendell L.; Liu, Weitian; Hao, Guixia; Jiao, Hongmei; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Linn, Charles E.

2002-01-01

162

Turbidity-current channels in Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Queen Inlet is unique among Glacier Bay fjords because it alone has a branching channel system incised in the Holocene sediment fill of the fjord floor. Queen Inlet and other known channel-containing fjords are marine-outwash fjords; the tidewater glacial fjords do not have steep delta fronts on which slides are generated and may not have a sufficient reservoir of potentially unstable coarse sediment to generate channel-cutting turbidity currents. Presence or absence of channels, as revealed in the ancient rock record, may be one criterion for interpreting types of fjords. -Authors

Carlson, P. R.; Powell, R. D.; Rearic, D. M.

1989-01-01

163

Antoine Depage's relationship with Queen Elisabeth of Belgium.  

PubMed

The article describes the intimate relationship between H.M. Queen Elisabeth of Belgium and the great Belgian surgeon Dr. Antoine Depage. The brilliant academic career of Depage was followed during World War I by his prominent role in the 'Océan'-hospital in De Panne at the Flemish coast. His close connection with Queen Elisabeth, working as a nurse in the hospital, resulted in an intimate friendship, which was particularly hearty when Depage lost his wife in 1915, and during his illness in 1923-1925. The letters of Depage, present in the Archives of the Royal Palace, give an insight in this intimate relationship. PMID:22571084

Van Hee, R

2012-01-01

164

Pheromonal cross-attraction in true bugs (Heteroptera): attraction of Piezodorus hybneri (Pentatomidae) to its pheromone versus the pheromone of Riptortus pedestris (Alydidae).  

PubMed

We investigated the attractiveness of a synthetic form of the pheromone of the soybean stink bug, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), under field conditions, and compared it with that of (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, a pheromone component of a competitor, Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius). Many adult stink bugs were attracted to traps baited with 100 mg of the synthetic pheromone (1: 1: one mixture of ?-sesquiphellandrene, (R)-15-hexadecanolide, and methyl (Z)-8-hexadecenoate), but few were attracted to 1 or 10 mg. More than twice as many females as males were attracted to this male-produced pheromone. None of the individual pheromone components (30 mg) attracted conspecifics. In summer (June-July), when field P. hybneri were not in diapause, (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate was more attractive to P. hybneri than the synthetic pheromone. The sex ratio of the adults attracted to the synthetic pheromone was highly female-biased, yet almost equal numbers of both sexes were attracted to (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate. Most females attracted to both attractants were mated and had mature ovaries. However, adults attracted to (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate were likely to have less food in their stomach than those attracted to the synthetic pheromone. In late autumn (October-November), when the bugs were in reproductive diapause, both attractants attracted many sexually immature female and male adults that had well-developed fat body. The synthetic pheromone also attracted a large number of conspecific nymphs. These results suggest that P. hybneri pheromone and R. pedestris pheromone component, respectively, have different functions for P. hybneri. The male-produced pheromone system of P. hybneri seems to be sex-related but to have other roles. PMID:22182564

Endo, N; Sasaki, R; Muto, S

2010-12-01

165

Effects of foundress number on brood raids and queen survival in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several ant species, colonies are founded by small groups of queens (pleometrosis), which coexist until the first workers eclose, after which all but one queen is killed. It has been hypothesized that, by producing a larger cohort of workers, cooperating queens may increase colony success during brood raids, a form of competition in which brood and workers from losing

Eldridge S. Adams; Walter R. Tschinkel

1995-01-01

166

Queen condition and alate density affect pleometrosis in the ant Lasius pallitarsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ant queens often cooperate in starting colonies (pleometrosis), but not all foundresses are likely to achieve equal reproductive success. Therefore, joining decisions may be influenced by queens' perceptions of a partner's likelihood to be of mutualistic benefit or to be a successful competitor in eventually controlling reproduction. Large queen size (as measured by weight) was assumed to be a

P. Nonacs

1992-01-01

167

Differential reproduction in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution to maternity of workers and female sexuals over time by queens in six multiple-queen laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta was directly assessed by use of enzyme genetic markers. Queens contributed more equally to the worker pool than to the pool of sexuals in virtually all samples (Fig. 1), and individuals producing a substantial proportion of the workers often

K. G. Ross

1988-01-01

168

Energy investment and respiration in queens and males of Lasius niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry weight increase of queens and males of the ant Lasius niger after eclosion from pupa was estimated from sequential field samples of eight colonies. Queens increased from ca. 4 mg at eclosion to 15.5 mg at the time of nuptial flight, whereas males remained approximately constant at 0.9 mg (Fig. 1). Queen mesosoma and gaster increased in weight simultaneously

J. J. Boomsma; J. A. Isaaks

1985-01-01

169

Differential gene expression between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants and other social insects forming large societies are generally characterized by marked reproductive division of labour. Queens largely monopolize reproduction whereas workers have little reproductive potential. In addition, some social insect species show tremendous lifespan differences between the queen and worker caste. Remarkably, queens and workers are usually genotypically identical, meaning that any phenotypic differences between the two castes

JOHANNES GRÄFF; STEPHANIE JEMIELITY; JOEL D. PARKER; KAREN M. PARKER; LAURENT KELLER

2007-01-01

170

Extended longevity of queen honey bees compared to workers is associated with peroxidation-resistant membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), depending on what they are fed, female eggs become either workers or queens. Although queens and workers share a common genome, the maximum lifespan of queens is an order-of-magnitude longer than workers. The mechanistic basis of this longevity difference is unknown. In order to test if differences in membrane composition could be involved we

Laura Saade Haddad; Louie Kelbert; A. J. Hulbert

2007-01-01

171

Selection against Aerial Dispersal in Ants: Two Non-Flying Queen Phenotypes in Pogonomyrmex laticeps  

PubMed Central

The South American seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex laticeps has dimorphic queens: ergatoid (permanently wingless) and brachypterous (short, non-functional wings). Surveys in western Argentina indicated that colonies near Chilecito, La Rioja Province, produced only ergatoid queens, while those near Punta Balasto, Catamarca Province (263 km away), produced only brachypterous queens. Brachypterous queens were significantly larger than ergatoid queens for 10 of 11 external characters, but both phenotypes had comparable reproductive potential, i.e., a spermatheca and a similar number of ovarioles. Using normal winged queens of the closely related P. uruguayensis for comparison, we determined that both queen phenotypes in P. laticeps had a full set of dorsal thoracic sclerites, albeit each sclerite was much reduced, whereas workers had a thorax without distinct dorsal sclerites. Sclerites were fused and immobile in ergatoid queens, while they were separable and fully articulated in brachypterous queens. Both phenotypes lacked the big indirect flight muscles, but brachypterous queens retained the tiny direct flight muscles. Overall, this dimorphism across populations indicates that there are alternative solutions to selective pressures against flying queens. We lack field data about colony founding strategy (independent or dependent) for either queen phenotype, but colonies at both sites produced numerous gynes, and we infer that all foundresses initiate colonies independently and are obligate foragers.

Peeters, Christian; Keller, Roberto A.; Johnson, Robert A.

2012-01-01

172

The clinical relevance of bifid and trifid mandibular canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bifid mandibular canals (BMC) and trifid mandibular canals (TMC) are variations on the normal anatomy with incidences ranging\\u000a from 0.08% to 65.0%. Such aberrations have an important clinical impact. For example, an extra mandibular canal may explain\\u000a inadequate anesthesia, especially when two mandibular foramina are involved. Furthermore, during mandibular surgery, a second,\\u000a or even third, neurovascular bundle may be damaged

K. Mizbah; N. Gerlach; T. J. Maal; S. J. Bergé; Gert J. Meijer

173

A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

2012-07-01

174

[Oto-mandibular ligaments: disco-mallear and malleo-mandibular ligaments].  

PubMed

Phylogenesis, embryology and anatomy are emphasizing that two ligaments are found between the temporo-mandibular joint and the middle ear. These two oto-mandibular ligaments are named the disco-mallear ligament and the malleo-mandibular ligament. Originating from the first arch, these ligaments are not involved in the otologic manifestations of the temporo-mandibular joint syndrome. The disco-mallear ligament is a brake applied to the anterior excursion of the disc. When this disco-mallear ligament is stretched the disc can be displaced anteriorly breeding disc displacement, hypermobility and temporo-mandibular dislocation. The malleo-mandibular ligament is a remainder of the Meckel's cartilage: its role is not clear. When excessive forces are applying on the mandible, ossicles dislocation can be seen the forces being transmitted through it. PMID:9324731

Gola, R; Chossegros, C; Cheynet, F

1997-08-01

175

Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ? 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional tremors are triggered by the subsequent Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the near strike-parallel incidence for many triggering earthquakes, which tends to produce maximum triggering potential for vertical strike-slip faults. These results suggest a shear faulting mechanism is responsible for the triggered tremor on the QCF. The triggering threshold of dynamic stress is higher than that found at the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault (2-3 KPa). This could be due to the sparse network coverage in the QCF, which may miss weak tremor signals triggered by smaller-size events. Our observations suggest that triggered tremor could occur in many places on major strike-slip faults around the world, although the necessary conditions for tremor generation are still not clear at this stage.

Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

2012-12-01

176

Bifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

PubMed

The bifid mandibular condyle is a rare anomaly. A variety of causes are implicated with its development such as developmental origin and trauma. Because of the lack of epidemiological data, there is little information about the real incidence of this malformation. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bifid mandibular condyle in a 20-year-old woman who referred to a private radiological clinic for routine dental examination. A panoramic radiography incidentally revealed a discrete modification of the left mandibular condyle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was taken and confirmed the diagnostic proposed. PMID:16617199

Ramos, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Filho, José Osmar de Vasconcelos; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de

2006-03-01

177

Images of the Self: Chastity Figures in the Faerie Queene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since chastity, which as Spenser presents it seems to involve perception in an especially intense way, is one of the most complex virtues delineated in The Faerie Queene, the techniques which Spenser develops to define it are of particular interest. Partly because 'Diana' figures like Belphoebe and Britomart are surrounded by an aura of visual taboo, how they are seen

Marjorie Joyce Garson

1977-01-01

178

Queens Tri-School Confederation, 1991-92 Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was done of the Queens Tri-School Confederation, three high schools in the New York City Public Schools funded by a federal grant from the Magnet Schools Assistance Program. The grant provided Hillcrest, Jamaica, and Thomas A. Edison High Schools with funds to develop or expand emergency technician programs at Hillcrest; a law…

Hannah, Susan; Dworkowitz, Barbara

179

The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

Thomas, George Anthony

2009-01-01

180

Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is…

Easton, Peter

2007-01-01

181

Redemptive Journey: The Storytelling Motif in Andersen's "The Snow Queen."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how Hans Christian Andersen's "The Snow Queen" uses the motif of storytelling to describe the journey taken by the heroine Gerda. Identifies a story as that which is alive and active and which causes catharsis for those who participate in it. (MG)

Misheff, Sue

1989-01-01

182

Queens versus workers: sex-ratio conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of sex-ratio conflict in the eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps) have provided the most rigorous tests of kin selection theory. The hymenopteran haplodiploid system of sex determination generally renders workers more closely related to their sisters than to their brothers, whereas queens are equally related to their sons and daughters. Kin selection theory therefore predicts that resource allocation

Natasha J. Mehdiabadi; Hudson Kern Reeve; Ulrich G. Mueller

2003-01-01

183

Ultrastructure and formation of the physogastric termite queen cuticle.  

PubMed

The physogastric termite queen is the most striking example in insects of growth in size without cuticular moulting. This phenomenon has been studied with electron microscopy and histochemical tests in two species of higher termites, Cubitermes fungifaber and Macrotermes bellicosus. The abdominal hypertrophy (physogastry) is allowed by growth of the arthrodial membranes of the swarming imago. The growth is slow (over several years) but important: the cuticular dry weight is multiplied by 20 in C. fungifaber, by 100-150 in M. bellicosus. The termite queen cuticle arises from the transformation of the cuticle of the swarming imago or imaginal cuticle (unfolding and growing of the epicuticle, stretching of the endocuticle, resorption of the subcuticle) and from the secretion of a new endocuticle or royal endocuticle. The termite queen is the first example known in insects of epicuticular growth. In the physogastric queen, three cuticular types are observed: the rigid cuticle of the sclerites, the soft cuticle of the arthrodial membranes and the partially rigid cuticle of special structures, the neosclerites, which show both rigidity and growth. The fibrillar architecture varies according to the abdominal zones and the position within the cuticle. It appears to be determined by the forces arising from the musculature and the anisometric abdominal growth. The king does not become physogastric, although its cuticle is also modified. PMID:6214044

Bordereau, C

1982-01-01

184

Deep seismic reflection survey of Queen Charlotte basin  

SciTech Connect

One thousand kilometers of 14 sec marine seismic reflection data collected in the Queen Charlotte basin region in 1988 provide excellent images of Tertiary sedimentary basin fill as well as deep crustal structure. The Tertiary section is highly variable in thickness, with up to 6,500 m of strata occurring in the deepest depocenters in a complex array of subbasins and half-grabens. Widespread extensional deformation including normal faulting during basin development was followed later by compressional deformation in the northern half of the basin. Sediments have been compressed into open folds and flower structures; some normal faults have been reactivated as reverse faults. Seismic interpretations of structural features suggest that Tertiary extension and compression have developed in response to strike-slip tectonics. Crust under Hecate Strait is more reflective than under Queen Charlotte Sound; geological interpretation of these discontinuous and structurally variable crustal reflections requires further analysis. In some areas of the basin (e.g., near the Sockeye wells, Hecate Strait) coherent reflections occur directly beneath the Tertiary section and may be images of Mesozoic strata. Deep reflections damaged at times of 7.0 to 10.0 sec on many profiles, provide for the seismic differentiation between reflective lower crust and nonreflective upper mantle. Estimated crustal thicknesses of 18-21 km beneath Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound indicate significant coastal thinning beneath the Queen Charlotte basin.

Rohr, K.; Dietrich, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-05-01

185

Nurturer or Queen Bee? Models of Women's Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes an informal chat of about 30 students, faculty, staff, and administrators, mostly African-American women, with a couple of White and Latina sisters thrown in. One woman asked why African-American women were so mean to each other. The author retreated into a conversation about two models of women's leadership--Queen Bee or…

Malveaux, Julianne

2005-01-01

186

Investigation into the Effects of the Hangar Queen Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of this paper concerns the effects of the different command hangar queen (HQ) programs currently in place for the Combat Air Forces, These differences are based on the thresholds established to determine when an aircraft becomes a HQ. The import...

K. J. Larson

2002-01-01

187

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2010-07-01

188

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2009-07-01

189

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2009-07-01

190

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2013-07-01

191

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2013-07-01

192

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2010-07-01

193

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in §...

2010-07-01

194

40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lepidopteran pheromones that are naturally...

2009-07-01

195

40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of... § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of...pentadecatriene, and decatriene and the pheromone...

2013-07-01

196

Bidirectional, organocatalytic synthesis of lepidopteran sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Shuffling of two simple building blocks and a regioselective transfer hydrogenation allow for the rapid synthesis of a small collection of lepidopteran sex pheromones, e.g., 8E,10Z-tetradeca-8,10-dienal 5c, from the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella). PMID:17221987

de Figueiredo, Renata Marcia; Berner, Raphael; Julis, Jennifer; Liu, Ting; Türp, David; Christmann, Mathias

2007-01-19

197

Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones  

PubMed Central

This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

2011-01-01

198

Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

199

Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

Marx, Jean L.

1973-01-01

200

Moth responses to selectively fluorinated sex pheromone analogs.  

PubMed

Partially fluorinated analogs of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) female sex pheromone, 11-tetradecenyl acetate (97:3Z:E), having mono- and trifluorsubstitutions at the terminal carbon of the pheromone chain, mimicked the biological activity of the pheromone, while analogs with fluorine at either side of the double bond and a pentafluoro analog were essentially inactive. Comparison of the pheromonal activity of these analogs with the previously reported activity of similarly fluorinated pheromones in five other species of moths revealed an unpredictable relationship between fluorine substitution pattern and pheromone-mimicking activity. Fluorine substitution patterns that rendered pheromonal analogs biologically inactive in the European corn borer had no detrimental influence upon pheromonal activity in other species and the converse was also true. This is evidence that the relative importance of electronic qualities of sites within a pheromone molecule differ from species to species. Furthermore, it indicates that the biochemical components (pheromone receptor proteins, binding proteins, and enzymes) that make up moth olfactory chemosensory systems must also vary structurally from species to species, despite the fact that they are involved in olfactory sensing of compounds having very similar chemical structure. PMID:24241842

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N; Waters, R M

1994-10-01

201

New Therapeutics in Promoting and Modulating Mandibular Growth in Cases with Mandibular Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Children with mandibular growth deficiency may develop airway obstruction. The standard treatment of severe airway obstruction involves invasive procedures such as tracheostomy. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been proposed in neonates with mandibular deficiency as a treatment option to avoid tracheostomy procedure later in life. Both tracheostomy and distraction osteogenesis procedures suffer from substantial shortcomings including scarring, unpredictability, and surgical complications. Forward jaw positioning appliances have been also used to enhance mandible growth. However, the effectiveness of these appliances is limited and lacks predictability. Current and future approaches to enhance mandibular growth, both experimental and clinical trials, and their effectiveness are presented and discussed.

Alhadlaq, Adel

2013-01-01

202

Treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor with a high rate of recurrence in the long term. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with mandibular ameloblastoma in order to evaluate recurrent ameloblastoma management. The study included data from 31 patients over a period of 10 years. Data collected included age, gender, tumor location, histological findings, initial treatment, number of recurrences and year of onset, type of treatment of recurrence, reconstruction and follow-up. Recurrences were detected in nine patients (29%). Tumor recurrences appeared at 32 months on average following the initial surgical procedure. Recurrences were associated mainly to inadequate initial therapeutic approach and were treated by bone resection with a safety margin of at least 1 cm beyond the radiographically visible margins. Immediate reconstruction of bone defects was performed with grafts or free flaps.

INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; PRATS-GOLCZER, VICTORIA; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, LUIS-MIGUEL; BELMONTE-CARO, RODOLFO; MARTINEZ-DE-FUENTES, RAFAEL; TORRES-CARRANZA, EUSEBIO; GACTO-SANCHEZ, PURIFICACION; GOMEZ-CIA, TOMAS

2013-01-01

203

Calcium sulfate as a mandibular implant.  

PubMed

Mandibular reconstruction has posed significant problems, particularly when dealing with loss of mandibular substance. Various implant substances have been utilized in attempts to repair mandibular defects. These have included metals, synthetic material, and organic substances. All have posed significant problems, particularly with rejection and inability of the implant to develop a stable fusion with the surrounding bone. Recently, calcium sulfate has been successfully used as an implant in frontal sinuses, mastoid cavities, and, in one report, as a mandibular implant. The present study looks at the ability of calcium sulfate to induce osteoneogenesis in canine mandibles with and without the presence of a periosteal covering around the implant. Infection somewhat limited the success of the study, but in those animals without major infections, successful replacement of the calcium sulfate by normal bone occurred both with and without the presence of periosteum. PMID:6431365

McKee, J C; Bailey, B J

1984-06-01

204

Mandibular Bone Crafts with Surface Decalcified Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on dogs are reported, comparing autologous marrow grafts with surface decalcified allogenic grafts and surface decalcified allogenic grafts with autologous marrow fragments. Findings indicate that mandibular bone grafts composed of a ...

D. B. Osbon G. E. Lilly J. C. Jones P. B. Hackett

1972-01-01

205

Supernumerary maxillary and Mandibular Fourth Molars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five cases of patients having supernumerary teeth in the distomolar regions of the mandibular and maxillary arches are reported. Supernumerary bicuspids were also seen in three of the five cases. The patients complained of pericoronitis or had no symptoms...

P. S. Grover L. Lorton

1981-01-01

206

Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect  

PubMed Central

In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen–worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a ‘switch point’ in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen–worker conflicts over colony life history.

Holland, Jacob G.; Guidat, Florian S.; Bourke, Andrew F. G.

2013-01-01

207

Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect.  

PubMed

In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen-worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a 'switch point' in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen-worker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

Holland, Jacob G; Guidat, Florian S; Bourke, Andrew F G

2013-06-23

208

Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen’s egg-marking signal.

Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

2004-12-01

209

Photoelastic stress analysis on mandibular osteosynthesis.  

PubMed

An experimental study concerning mechanical behaviour and stability through mandibular osteosynthesis has been carried out. 3 different kinds of mandibular osteosynthesis: figure-of-8 wiring; ASIF--Swiss Association for the Study of Internal Fixation - compression plate; monocortical juxta-alveolar miniature screwed plate (Champy plate), were analysed in photoelastic model experiments. The strain distribution differs remarkably according to these 3 methods as well as stability against loading forces. PMID:3088152

Kárász, I; Köröndi, L; Szabó, G

1986-06-01

210

Isolation of the trail recruitment pheromone of Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheSolenopsis invicta trail pheromone is synthesized by the Dufour's gland and is released through the sting apparatus. The recruitment subcategory of theS. invicta trail pheromone was shown to be composed of a mixture of the orientation pheromone, (Z,E)-a-farnesene and an unidentified homosesquiterpene consisting of three rings and one double bond (C-1). C-1 is present in worker Dufour's glands at only

Robert K. Vander Meer; Francisco Alvarez; Clifford S. Lofgren

1988-01-01

211

An unusual lepidopteran sex pheromone system in the bagworm moth.  

PubMed

The female sex pheromone of the bagworm moth is (R)-1-methylbutyl decanoate. The antipode is biologically inactive and it neither enhances nor detracts from the potency of the R enantiomer. Unlike other moths for which female pheromones have been identified, the female secretes the pheromone from glands on her thorax and it is disseminated from hair that is shed from her body. PMID:17798283

Leonhardt, B A; Neal, J W; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Plimmer, J R

1983-01-21

212

Isolation of pheromone precursor genes of Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

In heterothallic ascomycetes one mating partner serves as the source of female tissue and is fertilized with spermatia from a partner of the opposite mating type. The role of pheromone signaling in mating is thought to involve recognition of cells of the opposite mating type. We have isolated two putative pheromone precursor genes of Magnaporthe grisea. The genes are present in both mating types of the fungus but they are expressed in a mating type-specific manner. The MF1-1 gene, expressed in Mat1-1 strains, is predicted to encode a 26-amino-acid polypeptide that is processed to produce a lipopeptide pheromone. The MF2-1 gene, expressed in Mat1-2 strains, is predicted to encode a precursor polypeptide that is processed by a Kex2-like protease to yield a pheromone with striking similarity to the predicted pheromone sequence of a close relative, Cryphonectria parasitica. Expression of the M. grisea putative pheromone precursor genes was observed under defined nutritional conditions and in field isolates. This suggests that the requirement for complex media for mating and the poor fertility of field isolates may not be due to limitation of pheromone precursor gene expression. Detection of putative pheromone precursor gene mRNA in conidia suggests that pheromones may be important for the fertility of conidia acting as spermatia. PMID:10441451

Shen, W C; Bobrowicz, P; Ebbole, D J

1999-01-01

213

Neural regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in Heliothis moths  

PubMed Central

Pheromone biosynthesis in females of Heliothis zea is regulated endogenously by a neuropeptide produced in the subesophageal ganglion. We have found that the ventral nerve cord must be intact for normal induction of pheromone biosynthesis and that pheromonotropic activity is associated with extracts of the abdominal nerve cord, but only during the period when pheromone is produced. We did not find evidence of pheromonotropic activity in hemolymph obtained from females that were producing pheromone. Extracts of the brain—subesophageal ganglion complex, which contain pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), induced pheromone biosynthesis when applied to the terminal abdominal ganglion only if nerves from this ganglion to the pheromone gland were intact. Brain—subesophageal ganglion extracts did not induce biosynthesis when applied directly to the pheromone glands in vitro. From our results, we conclude that the target site of PBAN is not the pheromone gland but the terminal abdominal ganglion, and we hypothesize that the abdominal nerve cord transports PBAN to the terminal abdominal ganglion.

Teal, P. E. A.; Tumlinson, J. H.; Oberlander, H.

1989-01-01

214

Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

Xu Wei [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Leal, Walter S. [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: wsleal@ucdavis.edu

2008-08-08

215

Differential treatment planning for mandibular prognathism.  

PubMed

The treatment records of thirty-eight cases of mandibular prognathism treated by orthodontics means only (ORTHO) were evaluated. The pretreatment records of twenty cases of mandibular subapical esteotomy (SUB) and twenty cases of mandibular setback (SET) were evaluated for comparison and contrast with the pretreatment ORTHO records and with each other. Dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue parameters in the vertical and horizontal planes of space were recorded. Statistical analysis of means of parameters of the pretreatment records provided documentation of the discriminant variables in each of the following paired groups: ORTHO-SUB, ORTHO-SET, and SUB-SET. Analysis of the data as indicated above led to the following conclusions: 1. Three discriminant groups of mandibular prognathism of various degrees of severity were discernible when comparisons of treatment categories simulating clinical decisions were made. The ORTHO group was distinguished from the SUB group in the horizontal plane and, more strongly, in the vertical plane. The ORTHO group was distinguished from the SET group in the vertical plane and, more strongly, in the horizontal plane. The SUB group was distinguished from the SET group in the horizontal plane. 2. The physiologic developmental status of the patient should be carefully evaluated. 3. Anteroposterior dysplasias should be assessed relative to the cant of the mandibular plane. True denture base discrepancies can be noted relative to the occlusal plane. 4. Documentation of vertical dysplasias should include measurements of craniofacial divergence (SN-MP, FH-MP, and OP-MP). 5. In assessing the profile evaluation of the patient with mandibular prognathism, particular attention should be focused on facial contour angle (FCA), nasolabial angle (NLA), and relative lower lip protrusion (LLP). 6. Any numerical values obtained in the evaluation of the dental, skeletal, or soft-tissue characteristics of mandibular prognathism should be considered only as descriptive, diagnostic guides and not as components of a diagnostic formula. PMID:266365

Sperry, T P; Speidel, T M; Isaacson, R J; Worms, F W

1977-05-01

216

Lethal sibling rivalry for nest inheritance among virgin ant queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fights among conspecific animals are normally restricted to ritualized interactions. They may escalate to serious injury and\\u000a death when the contested resource has a very high value and the chances of finding alternative resources later in life are\\u000a low. This appears to be the case in young queens of the ant Cardiocondyla “latifrons”, a species that builds its nests in

Jürgen Heinze; Matthias Weber

2011-01-01

217

Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling?  

PubMed Central

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted.

Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

2010-01-01

218

Social behavior and pheromonal communication in reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of pheromones in orchestrating social behaviors in reptiles is reviewed. Although all reptile orders are examined,\\u000a the vast majority of the literature has dealt only with squamates, primarily snakes and lizards. The literature is surprisingly\\u000a large, but most studies have explored relatively few behaviors. The evolution of chemical signaling in reptiles is discussed\\u000a along with behaviors governed by

Robert T. MasonM; M. Rockwell Parker

2010-01-01

219

Asexual queen succession in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes virginicus  

PubMed Central

Termite colonies are founded by a pair of primary reproductives. In many species, including subterranean termites (family Rhinotermitidae), the primary king and queen can be succeeded by neotenic reproductives that are produced from workers or nymphs within the colony. It is generally believed that these neotenics inbreed within the colony, sometimes for many generations. Here, we show that primary queens of the North American subterranean termite, Reticulitermes virginicus, are replaced by numerous parthenogenetically produced female neotenics. We collected functional female neotenics from five colonies of R. virginicus in North Carolina and Texas, USA. Genetic analysis at eight microsatellite loci showed that 91–100% of the neotenics present within a colony were homozygous at all loci, indicating that they were produced through automictic parthenogenesis with terminal fusion. In contrast, workers, soldiers and alates were almost exclusively sexually produced by mating between the female neotenics and a single king. This is the second termite species shown to undergo asexual queen succession, a system first described in the Japanese species, Reticulitermes speratus. Thus, the conditional use of sexual and asexual reproduction to produce members of different castes may be widespread within Reticulitermes and possibly other subterranean termites.

Vargo, Edward L.; Labadie, Paul E.; Matsuura, Kenji

2012-01-01

220

Dolichodial: a new aphid sex pheromone component?  

PubMed

The sex pheromones of many aphid species from the subfamily Aphididae comprise a mixture of the iridoids (cyclopentanoids) (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol and (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone. In this paper, we investigate whether other chemicals, in addition to nepetalactol and nepetalactone, are released from Dysaphis plantaginea (rosy apple aphid) oviparae as part of their sex pheromone. Four compounds present in an air entrainment sample collected from D. plantaginea oviparae feeding on apple (Malus silvestris c.v. Braburn) elicited electrophysiological responses from male D. plantaginea. Active peaks were tentatively identified by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry, with identification confirmed by peak enhancement with authentic compounds on GC columns of different polarities. The electroantennography-active chemicals were (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, (1S,2R,3S)-dolichodial, and phenylacetonitrile. (1S,2R,3S)-Dolichodial elicited a behavioral response from male D. plantaginea and naïve-mated female parasitoids, Aphidius ervi. This is the first report of electrophysiological and behavioral responses from any aphid morph to (1S,2R,3S)-dolichodial. Whether or not (1S,2R,3S)-dolichodial is a third component of the aphid sex pheromone is discussed. PMID:19023626

Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Fitzgerald, Jean D; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Wadhams, Lester J; Woodcock, Christine M; Hardie, Jim; Pickett, John A

2008-12-01

221

Sex Pheromone of Apple Blotch Leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella , and Its Effect on P. mespilella Pheromone Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Z)-10,(Z)-12-Tetradecadienyl acetate (Z10,Z12–14:OAc) and (E)-10,(E)-12-tetradecadienyl acetate (E10,E12–14:OAc) are sex pheromone components of the apple blotch leafminer (ABLM), Phyllonorycter crataegella. Compounds extracted from female pheromone glands were identified by coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses, retention index calculations of EAD-active compounds, and by comparative GC-EAD analyses of female ABLM-produced and authentic (synthetic) compounds. In field experiments in apple Malus domestica orchards

Patricia Ferrao; Gerhard Gries; Priyantha D. C. Wimalaratne; Chris T. Maier; Regine Gries; Keith N. Slessor; Jianxiong Li

1998-01-01

222

Biomechanical scaling of the hominoid mandibular symphysis.  

PubMed

Experimental investigation of mandibular bone strain in cercopithecine primates has established that the mandible is bent in the transverse plane during the power stroke of mastication. Additional comparative work also supports the assumption that the morphology of the mandibular symphysis is functionally linked to the biomechanics of lateral transverse bending, or "wishboning" of the mandibular corpus. There are currently no experimental data to verify that lateral transverse bending constitutes an important loading regime among hominoid primates. There are, however, allometric models from cercopithecoid primates that allow prediction of scaling patterns in hominoid mandibular dimensions that would be consistent with a mechanical environment that includes wishboning as a significant component. This study uses computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize cortical bone distribution in the anterior corpus of a sample of four genera of extant hominoids. From the cortical bone contours, area properties of the mandibular symphysis are calculated, and these variables are subjected to an allometric analysis to detect whether scaling of jaw dimensions are consistent with a wishboning loading regime. Scaling of the hominoid symphysis recalls patterns observed in cercopithecoid monkeys, which lends indirect support for the hypothesis that wishboning is an integral part of the masticatory loading environment in living apes. Inclination of the symphysis, rather than changes in cross-sectional shape or development of the superior transverse torus, represents a morphological solution for minimizing the potentially harmful effects of wishboning in the jaws of these primates. PMID:11599012

Daegling, D J

2001-10-01

223

Mandibular angle reduction versus mandible reduction.  

PubMed

The terms "mandibular angle reduction" and "reduction angleplasty" refer to operations to reduce the width of the lower face and change a square face to an oval one. Because the terms emphasize the word angle, however, they imply that the operations apply to the mandibular angle. The most frequent complaint after these operations is that the change in the lateral appearance is clear but that the change in the frontal appearance is not noticeable. Such a result is related to the fact that bone resection is performed mainly in the mandibular angle area and is focused particularly on resection of the posterior projection through curved ostectomy. That is, because operations limited to the mandibular angle area cannot properly satisfy patients' requirements, the operation must be applied to a larger area. Therefore, it seems reasonable to change the terms "mandibular angle reduction" and "reduction angleplasty" to "mandible reduction" and "reduction mandibuloplasty." In addition, the most important technique in the operation is the resection of the outer cortex of the mandible. In particular, the corticectomy technique using a reciprocating saw is quite safe and effective for the maximum resection of lateral flaring within a very short time. PMID:15457047

Jin, Hoon; Kim, Byung Gun

2004-10-01

224

A gene affecting production of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer-inducing pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nematode mutant lacking pheromone activity does not enter the developmentally arrested dispersal stage called the dauer larva unless exogenous pheromone is added to the growth medium, indicating that the pheromone is required for wild-type dauer larva formation. In contrast, a class of temperature-sensitive mutant forms dauer larvae even in the absence of detectable pheromone, indicating that such mutants bypass

James W. Golden; Donald L. Riddle

1985-01-01

225

Modification of Streptococcus faecalis Sex Pheromones after Acquisition of Plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recipient strains of Streptococcus faecalis excrete multiple, peptide sex pheromones that induce mating responses in donors harboring certain conjugative plasmids. Acquisition of plasmid DNA leads to a ``shutting off'' of pheromone excretion, and such cells become responsive to exogenous pheromone. Data are presented showing that donors excrete low levels of a modified, inactive form of the pheromone. This substance, when

Yasuyoshi Ike; Ronald A. Craig; Bryan A. White; Yoshihiko Yagi; Don B. Clewell

1983-01-01

226

Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

2005-07-01

227

Mandibular posture during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical mandibular posture is thought to be related to narrowing of the upper airway, because mouth opening is associated with an inferior–posterior movement of the mandible and the tongue which influences pharyngeal airway patency. To test whether the mandibular posture is related to the occurrence and\\/or termination of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the vertical mandibular position was recorded intraorally using

Keisuke Miyamoto; M. M. Özbek; Alan A. Lowe; Tommy T. Sjöholm; Leslie L. Love; John A. Fleetham; C. Frank Ryan

1999-01-01

228

Bite Forces with Mandibular Implant-retained Overdentures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity or pain of the mucoperiosteum covering the mandibular edentulous ridge is often thought to limit bite forces in complete-denture wearers. Therefore, bite forces with mandibular implant-retained overdentures may depend on the degree of implant support. This study analyzed the effects of different degrees of support for the mandibular denture on bite forces measured four years after denture treatment as

EA Fontijn-Tekampl; A. P. Slagter; M. A. van't Hof; M. E. Geertman; W. Kalk

1998-01-01

229

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies.

Karpati, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Carde, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

230

The mode of pheromone evolution: evidence from bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Sex and aggregation pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. The way in which different species' blends have evolved has been the subject of some debate. Theoretical predictions suggest that differences between species have arisen not through the accruing of small changes, but through major shifts in chemical composition. Using data on the aggregation pheromones of 34 species of bark beetle from two genera, Dendroctonus and Ips, we investigated how the distributions of the chemical components of their pheromone blends mirror their phylogenetic relationships. We tested whether there were consistent patterns that could be used to help elucidate the mode of pheromone evolution. Although there were obvious differences in pheromone blends between the two genera, the differences between species within each genus followed a less clear phylogenetic pattern. In both genera, closely related species are just as different as more distantly related species. Within Dendroctonus, particularly, most chemical components were distributed randomly across the phylogeny. Indeed, for some chemicals, closely related species may actually be more different than would be expected from a random distribution of chemical components. This argues strongly against the idea of minor shifts in pheromone evolution. Instead, we suggest that, within certain phylogenetic constraints, pheromone evolution in bark beetles is characterized by large saltational shifts, resulting in sibling species being substantially phenotypically (i.e. pheromonally) different from one another, thus agreeing with theoretical predictions.

Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

2004-01-01

231

Insect pheromones—an overview of biosynthesis and endocrine regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview describes, compares, and attempts to unify major themes related to the biosynthetic pathways and endocrine regulation of insect pheromone production. Rather than developing and dedicating an entirely unique set of enzymes for pheromone biosynthesis, insects appear to have evolved to add one or a few tissue-specific auxiliary or modified enzymes that transform the products of “normal” metabolism to

Julie A Tillman; Steven J Seybold; Russell A Jurenka; Gary J Blomquist

1999-01-01

232

Queen number in a supercolony of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have analysed the distribution of queens under stones at the core and at the periphery of a supercolony of Lasius neglectus that occupies 14 ha at Seva (NE Spain). Queens were not found alone, but rather within worker groups. Density at the center (mean ± s.d.: 1.38 ± 2.87 queens\\/stone; n = 100 stones; range 0–14) was not

X. Espadaler; S. Rey; V. Bernal

2004-01-01

233

Mating strategies of queens in Lasius niger ants—is environment type important?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High relatedness among society members is believed important for the evolution of highly cooperative behaviours, yet queens\\u000a of many social insects mate with multiple males which reduces nestmate relatedness and imposes also direct costs on queens.\\u000a While theoretical models have suggested explanations for this puzzling queen behaviour, empirical studies fail to provide\\u000a consistent answers especially for species with moderate levels

Margaret Corley; Else J. Fjerdingstad

2011-01-01

234

Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels  

PubMed Central

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops.

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

235

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

236

Natural transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from infected queen to kitten  

PubMed Central

Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring lentivirus that infects cats. The primary mode of transmission occurs through bite wounds, and other routes are difficult to observe in nature. Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate FIV transmission from queen to kitten in a colony of naturally infected stray cats. With this aim, a queen was monitored over a period of three years. A blood sample was taken to amplify and sequence gag, pol and env regions of the virus from the queen, two kittens and other cats from the colony. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis showed evidence of queen to kitten transmission.

2012-01-01

237

Relationships between phenotype, mating behavior, and fitness of queens in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has focused on why females of many species mate with several males. For social hymenopteran insects, efforts have primarily concentrated on determining whether multiple mating increases colony performance due to the increased genetic diversity. Most of these studies are correlative because it is difficult or impossible to experimentally mate queens in most species. Thus, the positive associations found between multiple paternity and colony fitness in some cases may not be due to direct effects of genetic diversity but could, in theory, arise from high-quality queens having more mates. Here we show that in the ant Lasius niger variation in the number of matings covaries with queen phenotype. Young queens that were heavier at the time of the mating flight were significantly more likely to mate with several males. As a result, heavier queens stored more sperm. The initial weight of queens was significantly associated with the probability of surviving mating flights during the two years of the study, with queens of intermediate weight having the highest across-year survival. Queen initial weight was also significantly and positively associated with the quantity of brood at the time of the first worker eclosion as well as colony productivity at the time of hibernation. By contrast, there was little evidence for a positive effect of the number of matings on colony performance when the effect of mate number and queen initial weight were considered simultaneously. PMID:15212386

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Keller, Laurent

2004-05-01

238

Genetic components to caste allocation in a multiple-queen ant species.  

PubMed

Reproductive division of labor and the coexistence of distinct castes are hallmarks of insect societies. In social insect species with multiple queens per colony, the fitness of nestmate queens directly depends on the process of caste allocation (i.e., the relative investment in queen, sterile worker and male production). The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic components to the process of caste allocation in a multiple-queen ant species. We conducted controlled crosses in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and established single-queen colonies to identify maternal and paternal family effects on the relative production of new queens, workers, and males. There were significant effects of parental genetic backgrounds on various aspects of caste allocation: the paternal lineage affected the proportion of queens and workers produced whereas the proportions of queens and males, and females and males were influenced by the interaction between parental lineages. In addition to revealing nonadditive genetic effects on female caste determination in a multiple-queen ant species, this study reveals strong genetic compatibility effects between parental genomes on caste allocation components. PMID:21967431

Libbrecht, Romain; Schwander, Tanja; Keller, Laurent

2011-10-01

239

Bifid mandibular condyle: a rare disorder.  

PubMed

Bifid mandibular condyle is a rare disorder and little is known about the etiology and pathogenesis. We reported a patient with left bifid mandibular condyle with a history of trauma. There was no limitation of mouth opening but the patient was complaining of pain while chewing. Underdeveloped lateral head of the bifid condyle was excised at the level of condylar neck under general anesthesia. The patient healed without any problem. Microscopic evaluation of the excised condyle supported a congenital etiology. Although most cases of the bifid condyle discovered by chance it should be recognized and treated by plastic surgeons interested in craniomaxillofacial surgery. PMID:17119433

Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Cavdar, Günay; Mavili, M Emin

2006-11-01

240

Sex Pheromone Production and Perception in European Corn Borer Moths is Determined by Both Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as

Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson

1987-01-01

241

Mating pheromones of Saccharomyces kluyveri: pheromone interactions between Saccharomyces kluyveri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces kluyveri is a heterothallic yeast with two allelic mating types denoted as a-k and alpha-k by analogy with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from the work described here. S. kluyveri produces mating pheromones analogous to those of S. cerevisiae, but which appear to have different specificity. S. kluyveri thus differs from S. cerevisiae, Hansenula wingei, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in that it exhibits both strong constitutive agglutination and mating pheromones. alpha-k cells produce a pheromone ("alpha-k-factor") which causes a-k cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and to undergo a morphological change. After a period of time dependent on the concentration of alpha-k-factor, cells exposed to the factor resume cell division. alpha-k-factor has no effect on a-k/alpha-k diploids or on alpha-k cells, but at high concentration does induce G1 arrest of S. cerevisiaea cells (a-c). a-k cells produce a pheromone ("a-k-factor") which causes alpha-k cells to exhibit a morphological change. In addition, a-k cells exhibit the Bar phenotype with respect to alpha-k-factor. Partially purified preparations of S. cerevisiae alpha-factor are more active in inducing G1 arrest of a-k cells than of a-c cells. A more purified preparation of alpha-c-factor is less active against a-k cells than a-c cells, suggesting that an additional factor (KRE, kluyveri response enhancer) may be lost during purification. Attempts to mate S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae cells by prototroph selection and by cell-to-cell mating have been unsuccessful with all combinations of mating types. Thus, S. cerevisiae and S. kluyveri are incompatible for mating even though their pheromones exhibit some physiological cross-reaction. PMID:374360

McCullough, J; Herskowitz, I

1979-04-01

242

Magnetic resonance imaging findings of true bifid mandibular condyle with duplicated mandibular fossa.  

PubMed

Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of anteroposterior bifid condyle in a 39-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation and a deviation of the mandible to the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed a bifid condyle on the left side and duplicated mandibular fossa, with the articular disc over the anterior head. The MRI images in the open-mouth position revealed minimal movement of the condyle. Despite the increased number of mediolateral bifid mandibular condyle cases described in the literature, none of previously reported cases of BMC included an anteroposterior bifid condyle case with two distinct mandibular fossa. PMID:22674644

Melo, S L S; Melo, D P; Oenning, A C C; Haiter-Neto, F; Almeida, S M; Campos, P S F

2012-07-01

243

[Bifid and trifid mandibular canal. A coincidental finding].  

PubMed

A 26-year-old man was suffering from pericoronitis of his mandibular third molars. To determine the position of the mandibular canal in relation to the roots of the third molars, a panoramic radiograph was made. The radiograph revealed at the right side a bifid mandibular canal and the upper part of the canal seemed to be related to the third molar. Additionally, a cone beam CT was made, which revealed a bifid mandibular canal at the left side and a trifid mandibular canal at the right side. Anatomical anomalies of the mandibular canal may have clinical implications, such as an increased risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in case of removing a mandibular third molar and inadequate local anesthetics. PMID:21298889

Mizbah, K; Gerlach, N; Maal, T J; Bergé, S J; Meijer, G J

2010-12-01

244

The red queen reigns in the kingdom of RNA viruses.  

PubMed

Two clonal populations of vesicular stomatitis virus of approximately equal relative fitness were mixed together and allowed to compete during many transfers in vitro as large virus populations. Eventually, one or the other population suddenly excluded its competitor population, yet both the winners and losers exhibited absolute gains in fitness. Our results agree with the predictions of two major theories of classical population biology; the Competitive Exclusion Principle and the Red Queen's Hypothesis, where (in Lewis Carroll's words) "it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place." PMID:8197141

Clarke, D K; Duarte, E A; Elena, S F; Moya, A; Domingo, E; Holland, J

1994-05-24

245

Longitudinal trends in speech tempo: the case of Queen Beatrix.  

PubMed

Older talkers speak slower than young ones, but speech tempo has increased in the last decades. Have present-day older talkers slowed down with age or have they sped up with their community? This study investigates longitudinal patterns in articulation rate in formal speeches presented annually by Queen Beatrix between her ages 42 and 74. Her tempo decreased first and then increased in the last decade. Within a speech, acceleration and shortening increased longitudinally. These results suggest that this talker's preferred tempo has not decreased but increased longitudinally, presumably in accommodation to an increasing tempo in the Dutch language community. PMID:23742439

Quené, Hugo

2013-06-01

246

Etiological factors in second mandibular molar impaction  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The impaction of the second mandibular molar (MM2) has recently become more prevalent. Several etiological hypothesis have been proposed to investigate the association between skeletal features and impaction of MM2. The aims of this study were to analyze the skeletal features in patients with MM2 impaction and the association between arrested eruption of MM2 and the presence of the third mandibular molar (MM3). Study Design: In this retrospective study 48 subjects from 3,530 Caucasian orthodontic patients with MM2 impaction were included in a study group (SG) and compared to a control group (CG) of 200 subjects without MM2 impaction. Panoramic radiographs evaluated the presence or absence of the MM3 germ. Cephalometric analysis was performed to evaluate linear and angular skeletal values. For the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test, ?2 test and odds ratio (OR) were used. Results: The paired comparisons between SG and CG showed in cephalometric analysis both a reduced mandibular gonial angle (ArGoMe) and lowered Jarabak’s polygon value with a statistically significant difference (P? 0.05). MM3 was statistically significant associated (P? 0.05) with MM2 impaction but it is not a risk factor (OR 0.817). Conclusions: Subjects with MM2 impaction show a vertical condylar growth direction. MM3 is not a risk factor for MM2 impaction. Key words:Impacted mandibular second molar, skeletal features, orthodontic.

Altieri, Federica; Calasso, Sabrina

2014-01-01

247

Five mandibular incisors: an autosomal recessive trait?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fifth mandibular incisor is a eumorphic supernumerary tooth and has rarely been described in the medical literature. We report here a large Lebanese consanguineous family where four individuals displayed five incisors in the anterior mandible. Such familial observation has not been previously described. The possibility of an autosomal recessive inheritance for this nonsyndromic trait is discussed.

A Cassia; A Feki; A Megarbane; S El-Toum

2004-01-01

248

Mandibular contouring surgery for purely aesthetic reasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandible's contour determines the shape of the lower part of the face and thus influences the appearance of the face and neck. There are two types of operative procedures that can be used on mandibular contour and they do not require orthodontic treatment: mandible angle reduction and genioplasty. We divided the mandible angle reduction group into Types A, B,

Doo Byung Yang; Chul Gyoo Park

1991-01-01

249

Mandibular advancement devices and seep disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been nearly 90 years since a dentist first fabricated a dental appliance for a patient with snoring. Since then, mandibular advancement devices or MADs have become a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and are used to increase the caliber of the airway during sleep. Their primary use is for the patient who has snoring or mild to

Glenn T. Clark

1998-01-01

250

Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

251

Pheromone-inducible conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-inducible transfer of the plasmid pCF10 in Enterococcus faecalis is regulated using a complicated network of proteins and RNAs. The plasmid itself has been assembled from parts garnered from a variety of sources, and many aspects of the system resemble a biological kluge. Recently several new functions of various pCF10 gene products that participate in regulation of plasmid transfer have been identified. The results indicate that selective pressures controlling the evolution of the plasmid have produced a highly complex regulatory network with multiple biological functions that may serve well as a model for the evolution of biological complexity.

Kozlowicz, Briana K.; Dworkin, Martin; Dunny, Gary M.

2009-01-01

252

Analysis of Male Pheromones That Accelerate Female Reproductive Organ Development  

PubMed Central

Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

Flanagan, Kelly A.; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

2011-01-01

253

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures. PMID:22038287

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

254

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

255

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and systems biology. Results Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates.

Kohl, James Vaughn

2013-01-01

256

76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Resources, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch, and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...framework procedures for spiny lobster and coral and reef associated plants and...

2011-09-26

257

The tooting and quacking vibration signals of honeybee queens: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of young honeybee queens and of worker bees was studied in an observation hive. Tooting and quacking signals emitted by the queens were recorded as airborne sound and as substrate vibrations of the combs by means of a microphone and a laser vibrometer, respectively. The fundamental frequency component is larger than the harmonics when the signals are measured

Axel Michelsen; Wolfgang H. Kirchner; Bent Bach Andersen; Martin Lindauer

1986-01-01

258

Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of

Yu Fang; Feifei Song; Lan Zhang; Dereje Woltedji Aleku; Bin Han; Mao Feng; Jianke Li

259

Queen control over reproductive decisions--no sexual deception in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Queen-worker conflicts in social insect societies have received much attention in the past decade. In many species workers modify the colony sex ratio to their own advantage or produce their own male offspring. In some other species, however, queens seem to be able to prevent workers from making selfish reproductive decisions. So far, little effort has been made to find out how queens may keep control over sex ratio and male parentage. In this study we use a Lasius niger population under apparent queen control to show that sexual deception cannot explain queen dominance in this population. The sexual deception hypothesis postulates that queens should prevent workers from discriminating against males by disguising male brood as females. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, we found that workers are able to distinguish male and female larvae early in their development: in early spring workers generally placed only either female or male larvae in the uppermost chambers of the nest, although both types of larvae must have been present. At this time males were only at 11% of their final dry weight, a developmental stage at which (according to two models) workers would still have benefited from replacing queen-produced males by females or worker-produced males. This study thus demonstrates that sexual deception cannot account for the apparent queen control over colony sex ratio and male parentage in L. niger. PMID:12755886

Jemielity, Stephanie; Keller, Laurent

2003-06-01

260

Queen control over reproductive decisions - no sexual deception in the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen-worker conflicts in social insect societies have received much attention in the past decade. In many species workers modify the colony sex ratio to their own advantage or pro- duce their own male offspring. In some other species, however, queens seem to be able to prevent workers from making selfish reproductive decisions. So far, little effort has been made to

Stephanie Jemielity; Laurent Keller

2003-01-01

261

Killing and replacing queen-laid eggs: low cost of worker policing in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Abstract Worker honeybees, Apis mellifera, police each other's reproduction by killing worker-laid eggs. Previous experiments demonstrated that worker policing is effective, killing most (?98%) worker-laid eggs. However, many queen-laid eggs were also killed (?50%) suggesting that effective policing may have high costs. In these previous experiments, eggs were transferred using forceps into test cells, mostly into unrelated discriminator colonies. We measured both the survival of unmanipulated queen-laid eggs and the proportion of removal errors that were rectified by the queen laying a new egg. Across 2 days of the 3-day egg stage, only 9.6% of the queen-laid eggs in drone cells and 4.1% in worker cells were removed in error. When queen-laid eggs were removed from cells, 85% from drone cells and 61% from worker cells were replaced within 3 days. Worker policing in the honeybee has a high benefit to policing workers because workers are more related to the queen's sons (brothers, r = 0.25) than sister workers' sons (0.15). This study shows that worker policing also has a low cost in terms of the killing of queen-laid eggs, as only a small proportion of queen-laid eggs are killed, most of which are rapidly replaced. PMID:24921604

Kärcher, Martin H; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2014-07-01

262

Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.  

PubMed

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

2012-12-01

263

Depositional systems and oil-gas reservoirs in the Queen City Formation (Eocene), Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional surface and subsurface studies indicate that thick deltaic (Queen City Formation) and thin shelf (Reklaw and Weches Formations) sequences compose the stratigraphic interval between the top of the Carrizo Sand and the bae of the Sparta Formation. In East Texas, the Queen City Formation accumulated as part of a high-constructive, lobate delta system; and in South Texas, as part

E. H. Guevara; R. Garcia

1972-01-01

264

Worker honey bee pheromone regulation of foraging ontogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of sociality has configured communication chemicals, called primer pheromones, which play key roles in regulating the organization of social life. Primer pheromones exert relatively slow effects that fundamentally alter developmental, physiological, and neural systems. Here, I demonstrate how substances extracted from the surface of foraging and young pre-foraging worker bees regulated age at onset of foraging, a developmental process. Hexane-extractable compounds washed from foraging workers increased foraging age compared with controls, whereas extracts of young pre-foraging workers decreased foraging age. This represents the first known direct demonstration of primer pheromone activity derived from adult worker bees.

Pankiw, Tanya

265

Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar in pterygomandibular space: a case report  

PubMed Central

Impacted mandibular third molars are located between the second mandibular molar and mandibular ramus. However, ectopic mandibular third molars with heterotopic positions are reported in the subcondylar or pterygomandibular space. The usual cause of malposition is a cyst or tumor, and malposition without a pathology is rare. This case report described an impacted mandibular third molar in the pterygomandibular space without any associated pathology.

Lee, Young-Kyu; Park, Sung-Soo

2013-01-01

266

European corn borer sex pheromone : Inhibition and elicitation of behavioral response by analogs.  

PubMed

The male sexual behavior-stimulating and inhibiting properties of a series of analogs of the European corn borer sex pheromone were determined in a flight tunnel. The structural requirements for inhibition of pheromonal response were far less restrictive than those for elicitation of that response. Analogs that by themselves elicited upwind flight response from males at a low dose were generally less inhibitory to male response than many of the analogs that had no pheromonal activity. These findings suggest that many pheromone analogs bind to pheromone receptors without provoking behavioral response and possibly undergo slower degradation on the antenna than pheromonally active compounds. The disparity of response to analogs by two pheromonal types of the European corn borer indicates that the pheromone receptor and pheromone catabolic systems are biochemically very different in the two types. PMID:24263829

Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Uebel, E C

1990-05-01

267

Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?  

PubMed Central

Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing that olfaction is perfectly functional in birds and birds use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts. Although the existence of pheromones has never been formally demonstrated in this vertebrate class, different groups of birds, such as petrels, auklets and ducks have been shown to produce specific scents that could play a significant role in within-species social interactions. Behavioral experiments have indeed demonstrated that these odors influence the behavior of conspecifics. Additionally, in quail, deprivation of olfactory inputs decreases neuronal activation induced by sexual interactions with a female. It seems therefore well established that birds enjoy a functional sense of smell and a fast growing body of experimental evidence suggests that they use this channel of olfactory communication to control their social life. The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds.

Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

268

Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

2009-06-01

269

Identification of bacterial species in the hemolymph of queen Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Evidence that symbiotic microorganisms can impact the development and fitness of insects has been shown in many species. Hemolymph-associated symbiotic bacteria have been identified in larvae of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant; however, their association with adult red imported fire ants and the mode by which these organisms are transmitted from queens to offspring are not well known. In this study, Bacillus spp. bacteria were routinely recovered in the hemolymph of queen S. invicta. Genetic analysis of the 16S gene confirmed the most common bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp.; several Staphylococcus species were also collected. Ovaries from reproductive and nonreproductive queens, freshly laid eggs, first-instar larvae, and hemolymph were collected from queens and analyzed for the presence of specific Bacillus spp. bacteria. It was indicated that these bacteria may be transmitted vertically from queen to progeny. PMID:19825289

Tufts, Danielle M; Bextine, Blake

2009-10-01

270

Effect of mating delay on the ovary of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens.  

PubMed

The effect of mating delay on the ovary structure of virgin queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was investigated. Virgin queens 15, 20, 25 and 30 days old were dissected to analyze their degree of ovary degeneration. To verify whether the degeneration would cause permanent sterility, virgin queens of the same ages (15, 20, 25 and 30 days) were mated and accompanied for at least 14 days to verify whether there was physogastry and then dissected. The ovaries were analyzed by histology, histochemical tests and TUNEL to verify programmed cell death. The results showed that mating delay interrupted oogenesis preventing vitellogenesis. Mating delay results in ovary degeneration which increased with queen age. However, even when there was ovariole degeneration, 25-day-old virgin queens after mating presented normal ovariole activation. PMID:17010626

de Souza, Edmilson Amaral; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

2007-01-01

271

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

272

Patriline composition of worker populationsin honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) colonies headedby queens inseminated with semen from Africanand European drones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybee queens with either European or African maternity were mated to African and European drones to determine rates of sperm utilization. The first month after the queens were inseminated, they produced equal proportions of workers with African and European paternity. However, for the next 3-4 months, more than 70% of the workers produced by queens of either matriline had African

Gloria DeGrandi-hoffman; David R. Tarpy; Stanley S. Schneider

2003-01-01

273

WHY DO SOME SOCIAL INSECT QUEENS MATE WITH SEVERAL MALES? TESTING THE SEX-RATIO MANIPULATION HYPOTHESIS IN LASIUS NIGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers,

Else J. Fjerdingstad; Pia J. Gertsch; Laurent Keller

2002-01-01

274

New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

2005-12-01

275

Directional Bias and Pheromone for Discovery and Coverage on Networks  

SciTech Connect

Natural multi-agent systems often rely on “correlated random walks” (random walks that are biased toward a current heading) to distribute their agents over a space (e.g., for foraging, search, etc.). Our contribution involves creation of a new movement and pheromone model that applies the concept of heading bias in random walks to a multi-agent, digital-ants system designed for cyber-security monitoring. We examine the relative performance effects of both pheromone and heading bias on speed of discovery of a target and search-area coverage in a two-dimensional network layout. We found that heading bias was unexpectedly helpful in reducing search time and that it was more influential than pheromone for improving coverage. We conclude that while pheromone is very important for rapid discovery, heading bias can also greatly improve both performance metrics.

Fink, Glenn A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

2012-09-11

276

Finite grade pheromone ant colony optimization for image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the decision process of ant colony optimization (ACO) with the multistage decision process of image segmentation based on active contour model (ACM), an algorithm called finite grade ACO (FACO) for image segmentation is proposed. This algorithm classifies pheromone into finite grades and updating of the pheromone is achieved by changing the grades and the updated quantity of pheromone is independent from the objective function. The algorithm that provides a new approach to obtain precise contour is proved to converge to the global optimal solutions linearly by means of finite Markov chains. The segmentation experiments with ultrasound heart image show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Comparing the results for segmentation of left ventricle images shows that the ACO for image segmentation is more effective than the GA approach and the new pheromone updating strategy appears good time performance in optimization process.

Yuanjing, F.; Li, Y.; Liangjun, K.

2008-06-01

277

Alarm pheromone production by two honeybee (Apis mellifera) types.  

PubMed

Of 12 alarm pheromones assayed in European and Africanized honeybees, nine were found in larger quantities in the Africanized population. Isopentyl and 2-heptanone levels were similar in both; 2-methylbutanol-1 was greater in European workers. These differences were not due to age or geographical location. Significant positive correlations between alarm pheromone levels and defensive behavior, especially numbers of stings, were observed. PMID:24272178

Collins, A M; Rinderer, T E; Daly, H V; Harbo, J R; Pesante, D

1989-06-01

278

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

279

European corn borer sex pheromone : Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The biological activity of analogs of the pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen1-ol acetate, in which modifications were made in the terminal alkyl portion were studied in the three pheromonal types of the insect. European corn borer males respond to pheromonal stimuli at three levels of behavioral activity, i.e., short-range sexual stimulation, activation in the flight tunnel, and response in the field. Structural requirements for elicitation of response at these levels were found to be increasingly restrictive, respectively. Flighttunnel activity was induced only by compounds that had a total chain length of 13 or 14 carbons and in which branching at carbon 13 was limited to one methyl group or a cyclopropyl group. Three new analogs were active in the flight tunnel, viz., (E and (Z)-13-methyl-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-cyclopropyl-11-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The cyclopropyl analog was the most active analog against theZZ type of the European corn borer. TheE isomer, however, was pheromonally inactive in theEE type and was shown to be a pheromone antagonist. This dissimilarity is most likely due to differences in structure of the receptors in the European corn borer strains. Analogs that were biologically active against the European corn borer were tested against the redbanded leafroller,Argyrotaenia velutinana, which also uses (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate as part of its pheromone. Results showed that the redbanded leafroller pheromone acceptor system is different from that of the European com borer; marginal behavioral response was elicited by only one of the new analogs. Thus, although both species use 11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate isomers as their pheromone, the mechanisms by which they are perceived are different. PMID:24271802

Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Fritz, G L; Uebel, E C; Raina, A K

1989-02-01

280

Activity of Male Pheromone of Melanesian Rhinoceros Beetle Scapanes australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w\\/w) mixture of 2-butanol

Didier Rochat; Jean-Paul Morin; Titus Kakul; Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier; Robert Prior; Michel Renou; Isabelle Malosse; Tanya Stathers; Sebastian Embupa; Samson Laup

2002-01-01

281

A New Multigene Family of Putative Pheromone Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) mediates detection of pheromones related to social and reproductive behavior in most terrestrial vertebrates. We have identified a new multigene family of G protein–linked receptors (V2Rs) that are specifically expressed in the VNO. V2Rs have no significant homology to other putative pheromone receptors (V1Rs) or to olfactory receptors but are related to the Ca2+-sensing receptor and

Nicholas J. P Ryba; Roberto Tirindelli

1997-01-01

282

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D. M.; Peck, R. W.; Stringer, L. D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P. C.

2010-01-01

283

A novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in ascomycetous fungi  

PubMed Central

Recently, sexual development in the heterothallic ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) has been achieved and thus initiated attempts to elucidate regulation and determinants of this process. While the ?-type pheromone of this fungus fits the consensus known from other fungi, the assumed a-type peptide pheromone precursor shows remarkably unusual characteristics: it comprises three copies of the motif (LI)GC(TS)VM thus constituting a CAAX domain at the C-terminus and two Kex2-protease sites. This structure shares characteristics of both a- and ?-type peptide pheromone precursors. Presence of hybrid-type peptide pheromone precursor 1 (hpp1) is essential for male fertility, thus indicating its functionality as a peptide pheromone precursor, while its phosphorylation site is not relevant for this process. However, sexual development in a female fertile background is not perturbed in the absence of hpp1, which rules out a higher order function in this process. Open reading frames encoding proteins with similar characteristics to HPP1 were also found in Fusarium spp., of which Fusarium solani still retains a putative a-factor-like protein, but so far in no other fungal genome available. We therefore propose the novel class of h-type (hybrid) peptide pheromone precursors with H. jecorina HPP1 as the first member of this class.

Schmoll, Monika; Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Dorrer, Marcel; Kubicek, Christian P

2010-01-01

284

Computed tomographic features of mandibular osteochondroma.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle is fairly rare. We describe a case of this lesion in a 52-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Although a panoramic radiograph demonstrated the bony exostosis, a pre-operative CT examination showed the relationship of the tumour to the condyle and also depicted soft-tissue changes secondary to the growth. PMID:17881606

Avinash, K R; Rajagopal, K V; Ramakrishnaiah, R H; Carnelio, S; Mahmood, N S

2007-10-01

285

Bifid mandibular condyle: CT and MRI appearance.  

PubMed

Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of bilateral mediolateral bifid condyle in a 24-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation. MRI and CT findings revealed bilateral bifid condyle. PMID:22922936

Tutar, Onur; Bas, Ahmet; Gülsen, Gökçe; Bayraktarov, Elmar

2012-01-01

286

Titanium mesh fracture in mandibular reconstruction.  

PubMed

Mandibular reconstruction is important for providing good functional and cosmetic results after the resection of a mandibulary segment. Reconstruction plates and titanium meshes are usually used to reconstruct the bony defects in mandible. Although their complications are well known there is not a report on the fractures of a titanium mesh after mandible reconstruction in the literature. We reported a case of a broken titanium mesh after mandible reconstruction. PMID:16327566

Aytaç, Selçuk; Ozbek, Serhat; Kahveci, Ramazan; Ozgenel, Ye?im; Akin, Selçuk; Ozcan, Mesut

2005-11-01

287

[Socket healing after rat mandibular incisor extraction].  

PubMed

Prosthodontic treatment is difficult if the alveolar ridge is low or thin. To develop a method for alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, we need an experimental model of a small animal, in which we can analyze the socket healing easily and quantitatively. The purpose of the present study was to establish such an experimental model. Ten weeks old male rats of Wistar strain were used. The edge of the right mandibular incisor was cut every three days three times and the incisor was extracted at three days after the final cut. The animals were sacrificed 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after the extraction and the mandibles were dissected out. The length of the alveolar bone was measured on soft X-ray photographs and bone mineral content was measured with a dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). Then, transverse sections of the alveolar bone were prepared. Periodic three-times cutting of the edge of the mandibular incisor made the extraction easy. Quantitative analyses of new bone formation in the socket and the resorption of the alveolar bone were possible with soft X-ray photography and DEXA. The histological findings corresponded well with the data from the soft X-ray photos and DEXA measurements. The present results demonstrated the possibility of simple and quantitative analyses of socket healing after the extraction of rat mandibular incisors. This experimental model would be useful for developing a method to prevent atrophy of the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. PMID:15856778

Sato, Daisuke

2005-03-01

288

Unilateral Mydriasis After Mandibular Fracture Fixation Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Unilateral mydriasis is a seriously significant finding in neurologic examinations indicating life-threatening conditions such as cerebral vascular injuries. Case Presentation: A 24 year old woman with mandibular trauma was referred to our center after five days for a reduction of the right mandibular angle fracture. The patient had no history of any loss of consciousness after the accident. Her physical examination showed no abnormalities, except those related to her mandibular fracture. The laboratory results were normal as well. At 8:30 am a general anesthesia was induced. The patient’s eyes were kept shut throughout the surgical procedure. The operation included an intraoral open reduction and fixation using two miniplates without any complications. After the operation, it was noticed that the left eye was completely dilated with no reaction to light, while the right eye was normal. The management and outcomes in this patient were described in the present case report. Conclusions: Evaluating the size of the patient’s pupils before, during and after the operation, careful history, consult, CT scan and MRI would help to diagnosis. Although no probable cause was found to explain the transient mydriasis in our patient.

Nesioonpour, Sholeh; Khiabani, Kazem; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh

2014-01-01

289

Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.  

PubMed

Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

2012-04-20

290

Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.  

PubMed

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-02-01

291

Mandibular hypo-hyperdontia: A report of three cases.  

PubMed

Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition, however, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia (CHH) in three patients (one girl and two boys) with missing mandibular central incisor and an erupted mandibular mesiodens. Three rare cases of mandibular CHH were observed during routine examination, where the two anomalies manifested in the anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, these are the only cases exhibited taurodontism in association with mandibular CHH. PMID:24778987

Nirmala, S V S G; Sandeep, C; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

2013-07-01

292

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Bifid mandibular canal is a rare anatomical variation that can be of considerable interest to a dentist. This condition can lead to complications when performing mandibular anesthesia or during surgery of the lower third molar, orthognatic or reconstructive mandibular surgery, or placement of dental implants and prosthesis; bleeding and traumatic neuroma are possible complications. Therefore, awareness of this condition is important. We report two cases of bilateral bifid mandibular canal: one in a 22-year-old male and the other in a 24-year-old female. PMID:19553729

Karamifar, Kasra; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Tondari, Afsoon

2009-01-01

293

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

294

Postmating changes in cuticular chemistry and visual appearance in Ectatomma tuberculatum queens (Formicidae: Ectatomminae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ectatommine ant Ectatomma tuberculatum, the visual appearance of queens changes after mating and ovarian development in that their cuticle turns from shiny to matte. In this study, we have shown that this change seems to be caused by 15-fold accumulation of hydrocarbons, in particular heptacosane that covers the multiple grooves present on the cuticular surface creating a wax coat in mated fully fertile queens. Analyses of the scrapped wax revealed that it is composed largely of heptacosane. Peak-by-peak comparison of the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition of mated, virgin with developed ovaries and virgin with nondeveloped ovaries revealed significant differences between the queen groups. Although the total amount of the CHC of virgin queens with developed ovaries was not higher than virgin queens that did not have developed ovaries, the composition showed a shift toward the mated queen. While it is possible that the large accumulation of hydrocarbons may give extra physical and chemical protection to queens, we propose that the switch in the relative abundance of heptacosane and nonacosane and perhaps of other components is indicative of being a mating and fertility cue. This is the first report in social insects where external chemical changes are accompanied by changes in visual appearance.

Hora, Riviane R.; Ionescu-Hirsh, Armin; Simon, Tovit; Delabie, Jacques; Robert, Jacques; Fresneau, Dominique; Hefetz, Abraham

2008-01-01

295

Caenorhabditis elegans Pheromones Regulate Multiple Complex Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances A family of small molecules called ascarosides act as pheromones to control multiple behaviors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. At picomolar concentrations, a synergistic mixture of at least three ascarosides produced by hermaphrodites causes male-specific attraction. At higher concentrations, the same ascarosides, perhaps in a different mixture, induce the developmentally arrested stage known as dauer. The production of ascarosides is strongly dependent on environmental conditions, although relatively little is known about the major variables and mechanisms of their regulation. Thus, male mating and dauer formation are linked through a common set of small molecules whose expression is sensitive to a given microenvironment, suggesting a model by which ascarosides regulate the overall life cycle of C. elegans.

Edison, Arthur S.

2009-01-01

296

Unequal partitioning of reproduction and investment between cooperating queens in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, as revealed by microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Social insects provide ideal systems for investigating how kinship and ecological factors affect cooperation and conflict. In many ant species, unrelated queens cooperate to initiate new colonies. However, fights between queens break out after the eclosion of the first workers, leading to the death of all but one queen. Queens within associations potentially face a trade-off. On one hand, a queen should restrain her investment in brood production and care if this helps her to maintain fighting ability. On the other hand, a queen may benefit by increasing her contribution to brood production if having more daughter workers than her cofoundresses enhances her chances of taking over the colony. Increased investment is also beneficial because a large brood enhances colony survival. Using microsatellites, we determined the maternity of workers (adults and larvae) at the time of queen execution in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Differential mass loss by initially equal nestmates affected survival, with the queen losing less body mass being more likely to survive. Surprisingly, the queen which lost less body mass, that is the one which provided the lowest energy investment, was the one which achieved higher maternity. A control experiment indicated that interactions among queens are responsible for this differential partitioning of reproductive and investment tasks between nestmates. The finding that the queen most likely to win the fights is the one with above-average maternity may explain why workers apparently do not attempt to influence the outcome of fights.

Bernasconi, G.; Krieger, M. J. B.; Keller, L.

1997-01-01

297

Substitutions in the pheromone-responsive Gbeta protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer a defect in recovery from pheromone treatment.  

PubMed Central

The pheromone-responsive Galpha protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gpa1p, stimulates an adaptive mechanism that downregulates the mating signal. In a genetic screen designed to identify signaling elements required for Gpa1p-mediated adaptation, a large collection of adaptive-defective (Adp-) mutants were recovered. Of the 49 mutants characterized thus far, approximately three-quarters exhibit a dominant defect in the negative regulation of the pheromone response. Eight of the dominant Adp- mutations showed tight linkage to the gene encoding the pheromone-responsive Gbeta, STE4. Sequence analysis of the STE4 locus in the relevant mutant strains revealed seven novel STE4 alleles, each of which was shown to disrupt proper regulation of the pheromone response. Although the STE4 mutations had only minor effects on basal mating pathway activity, the mutant forms of Gbeta dramatically affected the ability of the cell to turn off the mating response after exposure to pheromone. Moreover, the signaling activity of the aberrant Gbetagamma subunits was suppressed by G322E, a mutant form of Gpa1p that blocks the pheromone response by sequestering Gbetagamma, but not by E364K, a hyperadaptive form of Gpa1p. On the basis of these observations, we propose that Gpa1p-mediated adaptation involves the binding of an unknown negative regulator to Gbetagamma.

Li, E; Meldrum, E; Stratton, H F; Stone, D E

1998-01-01

298

Conditional Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase in the Nervous System Impairs Pheromone Information Processing and Pheromone-Evoked Behaviors  

PubMed Central

ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice.

Zou, Junhui; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

2013-01-01

299

A new gene, SRP16, differentially expressed in the spermathecae of honeybee queens (Apis mellifera) related with reproduction status.  

PubMed

Honey bee queens have the ability to store sperm in spermathecae for fertilizing eggs throughout their life. To investigate mechanisms for sperm storage in Apis mellifera, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to find differentially expressed fragments in spermathecae between virgin queens and newly mated queens. A new gene, named SRP16, was obtained by joining the SSH products with 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE. SRP16 is predicted to encode a 41 kDa protein with 363 amino acid residues. Its expression was found in the spermathecae dominantly in honey bee queens but not in honey bee workers, with the highest expression found in spermathecae of virgin and newly mated queens. SRP16 expression was weak in other tissues of queens other than in the spermathecae and showed no obvious change with reproductive status of queens. The results suggest that SRP16 may play important roles in sperm storage and honey bee reproduction. PMID:23070904

Wu, Liming; Wuxiang, Danping; Zheng, Huoqing; Li, Jilian; Pan, Gang

2012-12-01

300

Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.  

PubMed

Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days. PMID:21957113

Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

2011-10-15

301

Clathrin facilitates the internalization of seven transmembrane segment receptors for mating pheromones in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of clathrin in endocytosis of the yeast pheromone receptors was examined using strains expressing a temperature-sensitive clathrin heavy chain. The yeast pheromone receptors belong to the family of seven transmembrane segment, G-protein- coupled receptors. A rapid and reversible defect in up- take of radiolabeled a-factor pheromone occurred when the cells were transferred to the nonpermissive temperature. Constitutive, pheromone-independent

Philip K. Tan; Nicholas G. Davis; George E Sprague; Gregory S. Payne

1993-01-01

302

Female-produced sex pheromone in Brachymeria lasus and B. intermedia [Hym.: Chalcididae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A female-produced sex pheromone in these chalcid parasitoids serves to aid mate recognition by the male. InBrachymeria lasus (Walker) male response to the pheromone remains constant with increasing male age, but pheromone activity declines with age in females.\\u000a The active space of the pheromone is approximately 3 cm; at greater distances males do not respond and continue random movements.\\u000a The

D. H. Simser; H. C. Coppel

1980-01-01

303

Courtship behavior in relation to the female sex pheromone in the parasitoid, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Mating in the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, is mediated by sex pheromones. Virgin females produce pheromones that stimulate both upwind flight and elicit close-range courtship behavior by males. Field studies and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that time of day and adult age affect both the emission of, and receptivity to, the sex pheromones. In contrast, mating affected female pheromone production, but not male responsiveness. PMID:17882489

McClure, Melanie; Whistlecraft, Jay; McNeil, Jeremy N

2007-10-01

304

Courtship Behavior in Relation to the Female Sex Pheromone in the Parasitoid, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating in the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, is mediated by sex pheromones. Virgin females produce pheromones that stimulate both upwind flight and elicit close-range\\u000a courtship behavior by males. Field studies and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that time of day and adult age affect both\\u000a the emission of, and receptivity to, the sex pheromones. In contrast, mating affected female pheromone production, but

Melanie McClure; Jay Whistlecraft; Jeremy N. McNeil

2007-01-01

305

Molecular detection of pheromone signals in mammals: from genes to behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instinctive and species-specific behavioural response of animals to pheromones has intrigued biologists for a long time. Recent molecular and electrophysiological approaches have provided new insights into the mechanisms of pheromone detection in rodents and into the sensory coding of pheromone signals that lead to gender discrimination and aggressive behaviour.

A. Thomas Torello; Catherine Dulac

2003-01-01

306

Barrier Activity in Candida albicans Mediates Pheromone Degradation and Promotes Mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the secretion of peptide pheromones that initiate the mating process. An important regulator of pheromone activity in S. cerevisiae is barrier activity, involving an extracellular aspartyl protease encoded by the BAR1 gene that degrades the alpha pheromone. We have characterized an equivalent barrier activity in C. albicans and demonstrate that

Dana Schaefer; Pierre Cote; Malcolm Whiteway; Richard J. Bennett

2007-01-01

307

Variables Affecting Pheromone Concentration in Vineyards Treated for Mating Disruption of Grape Vine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne pheromone concentration in a field is one of the most important variables for the successful application of mating disruption in pest control. In the present paper, we estimated the pheromone concentration with field EAG recordings in vineyards and investigated parameters affecting concentration. Pheromone concentration showed a positive correlation with number of dispensers per hectare (= number of point sources).

Arne E. Sauer; Gerhard Karg

1998-01-01

308

Identification of aggregation substances of Enterococcus faecalis cells after induction by sex pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone system of Enterococcus faecalis is responsible for the clumping response of a plasmid carrying donor strain with a corresponding plasmid free recipient strain due to the production of sex pheromones by the recipient strain. The clumping response is mediated by a surface material (called aggregation substance) which is synthesized upon addition of sex pheromones to the cultures.

Dominique Galli; Reinhard Wirth; Gerhard Wanner

1989-01-01

309

Fecundity-Reducing Pheromone in Argas(Periscargas) arboreus(Ixodoidea:Argaside).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fed tick adult Argas (persicargas) arboreus produce a fecundity-reducing pheromone which affects all or most females in crowded conditions. Unfed adults and unfed and fed nymphs do not produce this pheromone. The effect of this pheromone is probably addit...

G. M. Khalil

1984-01-01

310

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2010-07-01

312

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2009-07-01

313

Anterior mandibular subapical osteotomy: a useful treatment for patients with severely worn mandibular anterior teeth.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation of patients with severe dental wear is a complex diagnostic and restorative problem. As wear occurs, space for restorative materials is lost, and unique treatment techniques are needed to provide good esthetics and function. Use of orthognathic surgery to reposition mandibular anterior teeth and supporting alveolar bone can create a more ideal environment for restorative procedures. PMID:1507127

Schmitt, S M; Cronin, R J; Berg, S

1992-04-01

314

Analysis of head and mandibular tapping movements in patients with mandibular protrusion.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate whether there was a functional coupling between the head and mandibular movements in ten patients with mandibular protrusion (MP) and ten control subjects with normal occlusion (Normal), using a six degrees-of-freedom measuring device. Single-peak waveforms were predominantly seen in both MP (98.2%) and Normal (99.3%). However, vertical displacements of the upper and lower incisor points (VD(UIP) and VD(LIP)) were all significantly larger in MP than those in Normal. The ratio VD(UIP)/VD(LIP) also increased more sharply with an increase in VD(LIP) in MP, compared to that in Normal. Mandibular rotation in MP was also significantly larger than that in Normal. The results showed that, in MP, the head moves more vertically in rhythmical coordination with mandibular movement during tapping. Finally, it may be that this larger vertical head movement is related to the greater condylar rotation in MP subjects. PMID:16541840

Nibe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Tadao; Kohno, Shoji; Hanada, Kooji

2006-01-01

315

78 FR 36426 - Safety Zone; Queen's Cup; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee, WI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Queen's Cup; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Milwaukee Harbor in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This safety zone is intended to...

2013-06-18

316

Sublimation of Exposed Snow Queen Surface Water Ice as Observed by the Phoenix Mars Lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rate of sublimation of Snow Queen as imaged by the RAC we infer that the soil grain size is of the order of 1 micron which is consistent with atmospheric dust and Phoenix imaging at all scales.

Markiewicz, W. J.; Kossacki, K. J.; Keller, H. U.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; El Maarry, M. R.; Bos, B. J.; Woida, R.; Drube, L.; Leer, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Mellon, M. T.; Smith, P.

2009-03-01

317

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

318

Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-01-01

319

78 FR 77772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “A Royal Passion: Queen...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``A Royal Passion...that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria...imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of...

2013-12-24

320

76 FR 10936 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Bust of a Ptolemaic Queen  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bust of a...the object to be included in the exhibition ``Bust of a Ptolemaic Queen,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

2011-02-28

321

Epidemiology of a Daphnia-Multiparasite System and Its Implications for the Red Queen  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis can explain the maintenance of host and parasite diversity. However, the Red Queen requires genetic specificity for infection risk (i.e., that infection depends on the exact combination of host and parasite genotypes) and strongly virulent effects of infection on host fitness. A European crustacean (Daphnia magna) – bacterium (Pasteuria ramosa) system typifies such specificity and high virulence. We studied the North American host Daphnia dentifera and its natural parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and also found strong genetic specificity for infection success and high virulence. These results suggest that Pasteuria could promote Red Queen dynamics with D. dentifera populations as well. However, the Red Queen might be undermined in this system by selection from a more common yeast parasite (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Resistance to the yeast did not correlate with resistance to Pasteuria among host genotypes, suggesting that selection by Metschnikowia should proceed relatively independently of selection by Pasteuria.

Auld, Stuart K. J. R.; Hall, Spencer R.; Duffy, Meghan A.

2012-01-01

322

Epidemiology of a Daphnia-multiparasite system and its implications for the red queen.  

PubMed

The Red Queen hypothesis can explain the maintenance of host and parasite diversity. However, the Red Queen requires genetic specificity for infection risk (i.e., that infection depends on the exact combination of host and parasite genotypes) and strongly virulent effects of infection on host fitness. A European crustacean (Daphnia magna)--bacterium (Pasteuria ramosa) system typifies such specificity and high virulence. We studied the North American host Daphnia dentifera and its natural parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and also found strong genetic specificity for infection success and high virulence. These results suggest that Pasteuria could promote Red Queen dynamics with D. dentifera populations as well. However, the Red Queen might be undermined in this system by selection from a more common yeast parasite (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Resistance to the yeast did not correlate with resistance to Pasteuria among host genotypes, suggesting that selection by Metschnikowia should proceed relatively independently of selection by Pasteuria. PMID:22761826

Auld, Stuart K J R; Hall, Spencer R; Duffy, Meghan A

2012-01-01

323

Mandibular fracture osteosynthesis: a comparison of three techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on a retrospective study of 205 consecutive patients at the Maxillofacial Unit of The Royal Melbourne Hospital to assess if adherence to Champy's principles in placement of miniplates in mandibular fractures minimises morbidity. 205 well documented cases of mandibular fractures treated with internal fixation, January 1985 to April 1990 were studied. The patients were assigned into three

T. F. Renton; D. Wiesenfeld

1996-01-01

324

Maxillary and mandibular width changes studied using metallic implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this implant study was to evaluate the transverse stability of the basal maxillary and mandibular structures. The sample included 25 subjects between 12 and 18 years of age who were followed for approximately 2.6 years. Metallic implants were placed bilaterally into the maxillary and mandibular corpora before treatment. Once implant stability had been confirmed, treatment (4 first

Luiz G. Gandini; Peter H. Buschang

2000-01-01

325

Mandibular First Molar with a Single Root and Single Canal  

PubMed Central

Successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal is diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. In addition all the mandibular molars and premolars were single rooted on either side.

Sooriaprakas, Chandrasekaran; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

2014-01-01

326

Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal.  

PubMed

Successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal is diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. In addition all the mandibular molars and premolars were single rooted on either side. PMID:24715990

Sooriaprakas, Chandrasekaran; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

2014-01-01

327

Stability of transverse expansion in the mandibular arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a retrospective, longitudinal cephalometric and cast study of 29 white patients at pretreatment, posttreatment, and an average of 6 years 3 months postretention. The goal was to assess changes with treatment and retention with the expanding mandibular lingual arch appliance in conjunction with fixed edgewise treatment. Seven mandibular cast measurements were assessed, including arch crowding, arch perimeter, arch

Jeffrey A Housley; Ram S Nanda; G. Fräns Currier; Dale E McCune

2003-01-01

328

Removal of the Vomeronasal Organ Blocks the Stress-Induced Hyperthermia Response to Alarm Pheromone in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that male Wistar rats release alarm pheromone from their perianal region, which aggravates stress- induced hyperthermia (SIH) in pheromone-recipient rats. The subsequent discovery that this pheromone could be trapped in water enabled us to expose recipients to the pheromone in their home cages. Despite its apparent influence on autonomic and behavioral functions, we still had no clear

Yasushi Kiyokawa; Takefumi Kikusui; Yukari Takeuchi; Yuji Mori

2007-01-01

329

The Red Queen Principle and the Emergence of Efficient Financial Markets: An Agent Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In competitive coevolution, the Red Queen principle entails constraints on performance enhancement of all individuals if each\\u000a is to maintain status quo in relative fitness measured by an index relating to aggregate performance. This is encapsulated in Lewis Caroll's Red Queen\\u000a who says ”in this place it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place”.

Sheri Markose; Edward Tsang; Serafin Martinez Jaramillo

330

Gravity Study of the Queen Valley Pull-Apart Basin, Western Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen Valley is a pull-apart basin located at the northern end of the White Mountains in western Nevada. It is bounded to the south by the NE-trending Queen Valley fault (QVF) zone and to the north by the EW-trending Coaldale fault (CF) zone. The QVF is a curvilinear feature which transfers strain from the northern termination of the Owens Valley\\/White

R. A. Black; D. F. Stockli; M. Christie; J. Desmond; A. Kueker; M. Hadley; C. Tincher; J. Casteel

2005-01-01

331

Make It New: The Queens Library for Teens and Dallas's Bookmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each weekday when school let out, the Queens Library at Far Rockaway--a branch of the Queens Library in New York City--would fill with nearly 100 teens. Drawn by the public-use computers, many others, who had dropped out of school, would also crowd in. To invoke a cliche, the situation was both an opportunity and a challenge. The popularity of the…

O'Connor, Maureen; Kenney, Brian

2008-01-01

332

Tracking the Red Queen: Measurements of Adaptive Progress in Co-Evolutionary Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Co-evolution can give rise to the "Red Queen effect", where interacting populations alter each other's fitness landscapes. The Red Queen effect significantly complicates any measurement of co-evolutionary progress, introducing fitness ambiguities where improvements in performance of co-evolved individuals can appear as a decline or stasis in the usual measures of evolutionary progress. Unfortunately, no appropriate measures of fitness given

Dave Cliff; Geoffrey F. Miller

1995-01-01

333

Mandibular condylar aplasia treated with a functional approach.  

PubMed

Mandibular condyle aplasia is a congenital or acquired malformation, which can be or not associated to some head and neck syndromes. Its treatment involves either a surgical approach or a more conservative treatment with orthopedic functional appliances. This clinical report presents a case of mandibular condyle aplasia treated with a modified KLAMT functional appliance, after a surgical procedure failed to stimulate mandibular condyle remodelling. The successful results presented here, with an orthopedic functional approach, support treatment with functional appliances as an alternative, producing similar results to those reported with surgery. Therefore, functional appliances are proposed as a valid alternative to stimulate mandibular condyle remodelling in patients with mandibular condyle aplasia. Treatment provided at an early age appears to be relevant for a successful result. PMID:24683785

Mauricio, Mejia-Gomez Carlos; Omar, Ramirez-Yanez German

2013-01-01

334

Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity.  

PubMed

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins, using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila odorant-binding protein that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in Escherichia?coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ?100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ?200?nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ?90?nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the Laughlin, Ha, Jones and Smith model of pheromone reception are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S; Lokhande, N; González, D; Cassill, A; Renthal, R

2013-02-01

335

[Study on trace component in sex pheromones of Dendrolimus spp].  

PubMed

Two compounds were isolated, as sex pheromone components, from the abdominal tips of the female pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii. The major component was identified as (Z,E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There are some difficulties to elucidate the structure of the minor component due to its trace and coelution with other components. The derivatives of alkaline methanolysis and reacetylation of pheromone gland extracts of D. kikuchii were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography, which was performed to verify the functional group and stereo isomers of the trace component in the pheromone gland extracts. The trace component was characterized as (Z,E) -5,7-dodecadienol via microchemical reaction. The advantages of the conversion of acetates to corresponding alcohols or of alcohols to the corresponding acetates in identifying the trace component of pheromone gland extracts of D. kikuchii were discussed. The importance of identifying the trace component in pheromone chemical communication system of insects is emphasized. PMID:16250445

Kong, Xiangbo; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Zhao, Chenghua

2005-07-01

336

Noncompression unicortical miniplate osteosynthesis of mandibular fractures.  

PubMed

The use of transoral noncompression unicortical miniplates in treating 42 consecutive patients with 64 displaced mandibular fractures (excluding subcondylar) was reviewed. Titanium miniplates (Wurzburg) were used for fixation. The principles set forth by Champy and colleagues, with two plates for body and symphyseal fracture fixation and one plate superiorly along the oblique ridge for angle fractures, were performed. Intermaxillary fixation was not used postoperatively. Results compared favorably with other forms of treatment with no evidence of postoperative malocclusion, with an overall complication rate of 3%. The advantage of no external incision, avoidance of intermaxillary fixation, and normal postoperative incisal opening and occlusion make this technique our treatment of choice. PMID:1622016

Davies, B W; Cederna, J P; Guyuron, B

1992-05-01

337

Intracoronal bleaching of nonvital discolored mandibular incisors.  

PubMed

Intracoronal bleaching of pulpless discolored mandibular incisors is a valuable treatment modality currently disregarded by many clinicians because of the potentially disastrous consequence of cervical resorption. A patient-administered, intracoronal carbamide peroxide bleaching technique is described. This modified, walking bleaching method minimizes the risks because treatment time is reduced to days, as opposed to weeks with the original walking bleaching protocol, the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is markedly reduced, and residual hydrogen peroxide is completely eliminated with the use of catalase prior to the definitive restoration. PMID:17402632

Liebenberg, William H

2007-01-01

338

Mandibular distraction osteogenesis for endosseous dental implants.  

PubMed

Patients with complete or partial edentulism who have insufficient bone for endosseous dental implant treatment present a challenge for the dental practitioner. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis is a technique for creating bone and soft tissue, without the need for bone grafting and its potential complications. In this article, alveolar distraction osteogenesis is compared with traditional bone grafting techniques. A case is presented to illustrate successful bilateral mandibular vertical distraction osteogenesis with creation of adequate bone volume for endosseous implant-supported dental restoration. PMID:15763035

Walker, David A

2005-03-01

339

Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results  

PubMed Central

Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate). Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO). All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%). Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old) the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old) a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the endpoint was obtained: symptoms and signs of airway obstruction were resolved, PAS and maxillomandibular relationship improved, and tracheotomy, when present, removed. During the follow-up, no injury to the inferior alveolar nerve was noted and scarring was significant in only the two cases treated with external devices. Conclusion Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis is a good solution in solving respiratory distress when other procedures are failed in paediatric patients with severe micrognatia.

2012-01-01

340

Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens  

PubMed Central

The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Goncalves; Serrao, Jose Eduardo

2010-01-01

341

Intragenomic conflict over queen determination favours genomic imprinting in eusocial Hymenoptera  

PubMed Central

Colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera, such as ants, bees and wasps, have long been recognized as candidates for the study of genomic imprinting on the grounds of evolutionary conflicts that arise from close interactions among colony members and relatedness asymmetry owing to haplodiploidy. Although a general kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts its occurrence under various circumstances of the colony life cycle, new theoretical approaches are required to account for the specifics of real colonies based on recent advances in molecular-level understanding of ants and honeybees. Using a multivariate quantitative genetic model, we examined the potential impact of genomic imprinting on genes that determine the carrier female's propensity to develop into the queen caste. When queen overproduction owing to the increased propensity comes at a colony-level cost, the conflict between maternally and paternally inherited genes in polyandrous (queen multiple mating) colonies favours genomic imprinting. Moreover, we show that the genomic imprinting can occur even under monandry (queen single mating), once incorporating the costs differentially experienced by new males and new queens. Our model predicts the existence of imprinted ‘genetic royal cheats’ with patriline-specific expression in polyandrous colonies, and seems consistent with the paternal effect on queen determination in monandrous Argentine ants.

Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

2012-01-01

342

Growing out of a caste--reproduction and the making of the queen mole-rat.  

PubMed

Naked mole-rats have a eusocial colony structure consisting of non-reproductive workers and a reproductively active caste where a single, dominant queen and 1-3 males produce all of the offspring. Well-established queens have elongated bodies that characterize their caste. Worker females retain the ability to transform into queens, however the trigger and time course for this physical transformation remain a mystery. Here, we show a direct link between periods of pregnancy and vertebral lengthening in nascent queens. Adult female mole-rats were paired with a male and radiographed weekly for two and a half years to track the growth of the lumbar vertebrae as the mole-rats became sexually mature and experienced pregnancies. The lumbar vertebrae of breeding females grew at an increased rate during each pregnancy but growth rates returned to normal between pregnancies and during extended periods without reproduction. The rate of lumbar lengthening was reduced to normal rates in older, established queens experiencing pregnancies. Our results imply that the length of a new queen mole-rat is proportional to the number of pregnancies experienced and suggest that hormones related to pregnancy may play the critical role in bone growth associated with caste transformation. PMID:17210962

Henry, Erin C; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

2007-01-01

343

Differential gene expression between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Ants and other social insects forming large societies are generally characterized by marked reproductive division of labour. Queens largely monopolize reproduction whereas workers have little reproductive potential. In addition, some social insect species show tremendous lifespan differences between the queen and worker caste. Remarkably, queens and workers are usually genotypically identical, meaning that any phenotypic differences between the two castes arise from caste-specific gene expression. Using a combination of differential display, microarrays and reverse Northern blots, we found 16 genes that were differentially expressed between adult queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger, a species with highly pronounced reproductive division of labour and a several-fold lifespan difference between queens and workers. RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) and gene walking were used to further characterize these genes. On the basis of the molecular function of their nearest homologues, three genes appear to be involved in reproductive division of labour. Another three genes, which were exclusively overexpressed in queens, are possibly involved in the maintenance and repair of the soma, a candidate mechanism for lifespan determination. In-depth functional analyses of these genes are now needed to reveal their exact role. PMID:17257122

Gräff, Johannes; Jemielity, Stephanie; Parker, Joel D; Parker, Karen M; Keller, Laurent

2007-02-01

344

Maternity-related plasticity in circadian rhythms of bumble-bee queens  

PubMed Central

Unlike most animals studied so far in which the activity with no circadian rhythms is pathological or linked to deteriorating performance, worker bees and ants naturally care for their sibling brood around the clock with no apparent ill effects. Here, we tested whether bumble-bee queens that care alone for their first batch of offspring are also capable of a similar chronobiological plasticity. We monitored locomotor activity of Bombus terrestris queens at various life cycle stages, and queens for which we manipulated the presence of brood or removed the ovaries. We found that gynes typically emerged from the pupae with no circadian rhythms, but after several days showed robust rhythms that were not affected by mating or diapauses. Colony-founding queens with brood showed attenuated circadian rhythms, irrespective of the presence of ovaries. By contrast, queens that lost their brood switched again to activity with strong circadian rhythms. The discovery that circadian rhythms in bumble-bee queens are regulated by the life cycle and the presence of brood suggests that plasticity in the circadian clock of bees is ancient and related to maternal behaviour or physiology, and is not a derived trait that evolved with the evolution of the worker caste.

Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Belluci, Selma; Bloch, Guy

2011-01-01

345

No Linkage between Genes Controlling Female Pheromone Production and Male Pheromone Response in the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)  

PubMed Central

The E and Z pheromonal strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are characterized by female production of and male preference for opposite blends of (E)-11-and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate. It is known that the pheromone production is controlled by an autosomal gene and that the males' behavior is determined by a sex-linked gene. A third gene, autosomally inherited, has been shown to determine the organization of the male pheromone receptors. In the present study the linkage relationship between the autosomal genes controlling sex pheromone production and male olfactory sensilla was investigated. A recombination experiment showed unequivocally that the genes determining the variation in pheromone production and male pheromone receptors are not closely linked and are most likely inherited independently.

Lofstedt, C.; Hansson, B. S.; Roelofs, W.; Bengtsson, B. O.

1989-01-01

346

Tetrafid mandibular condyle: a unique case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Morphological changes such as bifid and trifid mandibular condyle are rare entities. The aim of the present report is to describe a unique morphological variation of the mandibular condyle which has four separate condylar heads (tetrafid mandibular condyle) and to discuss clinical and radiological differential diagnosis of tetrafid mandibular condyle with advanced imaging techniques. PMID:22065803

Sahman, H; Etöz, O A; Sekerci, A E; Etöz, M; Sisman, Y

2011-12-01

347

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog  

SciTech Connect

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

1988-03-15

348

Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment.

Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, V. P.; Singh, Gyan P.

2012-01-01

349

Transmigration of mandibular canine - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation.

Gruszka, Katarzyna; Rozylo, T. Katarzyna; Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Maslowska, Klaudia

2014-01-01

350

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

PubMed

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle is a rarely seen malformation. The aetiology of bifid condyle is not completely understood, although developmental anomaly, traumas, condylar fracture, teratogenic embryopathy and surgical condylectomy may all be causative factors. Although a few studies on human dried skulls tried to shed light on this entity it remains obscure. As most bifid condyle subjects have no complaint related to temporamandibular joint(TMJ), the cases are generally diagnosed through incidental radiographic findings. The case of a 54-year-old female is presented. In a panoramic radiograph obtained after a clinical examination, bilateral bifid mandibular condyle was observed. The open-closed lateral radiograph of the TMJ (obtained using the TMJ-specific program of the panoramic device) demonstrated duplication of the right and left condyles. In order to better evaluate the TMJ morphology and to eliminate pathologies such as fractures that might be missed with conventional radiographs, a computed tomography scan was also obtained. The joint head orientation was observed in the mediolateral direction. The case is discussed in the context of the relevant literature. Until large population-based studies are undertaken and further experimental studies are performed, bifid condyle will remain an incidental finding of anatomic variation rather than a clinically informative observation. PMID:16938108

Açikgöz, A

2006-10-01

351

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs.

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-01-01

352

Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

Hsieh, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

2013-08-01

353

Oxidative Stress and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in the Trophocytes and Fat Cells of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees.

Hsieh, Yu-Shan

2013-01-01

354

Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.  

PubMed

The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees. PMID:19529971

Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

2009-06-01

355

Structure-activity relationship observations for the bagworm moth pheromone.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for the bagworm moth pheromone, (R)-2-pentyl decanoate, and a series of analogs with modifications in the alcohol portion of the molecule. Observed attractiveness of these analogs was related to molecular structure and their physical attributes using computational chemistry. Electrostatic potential and Van der Waals (VdW) electrostatic coded surface three-dimensional (3D) maps of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation of the pheromone show that size, shape, charge distribution, and chirality of the molecule are related to attractiveness. PMID:24226087

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Devilbiss, E D

1996-07-01

356

Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication  

PubMed Central

Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning.

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2009-01-01

357

Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport  

PubMed Central

Background One of the challenges in insect chemical ecology is to understand how insect pheromones are synthesised, detected and degraded. Genome wide survey by comparative sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for this challenge. A. ipsilon is a destructive pest of many crops and further characterization of the genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and transport could offer potential targets for disruption of their chemical communication and for crop protection. Results Here we report 454 next-generation sequencing of the A. ipsilon pheromone gland transcriptome, identification and expression profiling of genes putatively involved in pheromone production, transport and degradation. A total of 23473 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis, 86% of which were A. ipsilon specific. 42 transcripts encoded enzymes putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, of which 15 were specifically, or mainly, expressed in the pheromone glands at 5 to 120-fold higher levels than in the body. Two transcripts encoding for a fatty acid synthase and a desaturase were highly abundant in the transcriptome and expressed more than 40-fold higher in the glands than in the body. The transcripts encoding for 2 acetyl-CoA carboxylases, 1 fatty acid synthase, 2 desaturases, 3 acyl-CoA reductases, 2 alcohol oxidases, 2 aldehyde reductases and 3 acetyltransferases were expressed at a significantly higher level in the pheromone glands than in the body. 17 esterase transcripts were not gland-specific and 7 of these were expressed highly in the antennae. Seven transcripts encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 8 encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified. Two CSP transcripts (AipsCSP2, AipsCSP8) were highly abundant in the pheromone gland transcriptome and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. One OBP (AipsOBP6) were pheromone gland-enriched and three OBPs (AipsOBP1, AipsOBP2 and AipsOBP4) were antennal-enriched. Based on these studies we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects.

2013-01-01

358

Straight forward to the queen: pursuing honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera L.) adjust their body axis to the direction of the queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a natural drone congregation area freeflying drones were attracted by a fast-moving queen dummy and the pursuits of drones were stereoscopically recorded (Fig. 1). The reconstruction of 192 flight paths from successfully approaching drones in chronological three dimensional sequences (Fig. 4) lead to the following results: 1. The alignment of the drone's longitudinal body axis coincides fairly well with

M. Gries; N. Koeniger

1996-01-01

359

Lack of detectable nepotism in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies of the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta present a paradox for kin selection theory. Egg-laying queens within these societies are, on average, unrelated to one another,\\u000a and the numbers of queens per colony are high, so that workers appear to raise new sexuals that are no more closely related\\u000a to them than are random individuals in the

Christopher J. DeHeer; Kenneth G. Ross

1997-01-01

360

‘An Amazonian Heroickess’: The Military Leadership of Queen Henrietta Maria in Margaret Cavendish's Bell in Campo (1662)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the English Civil War, Queen Henrietta Maria’s (1609-1669) active involvement in her husband’s, and therefore her own, political party’s defense served as both a model and mirror for Royalist women across the country. Some women were left alone to take defensive measures on the home front, while other women participated in more organized offensive fronts. The queen’s public example

Kamille Stone Stanton

2007-01-01

361

A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.  

PubMed

We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species. PMID:22957085

Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Inada, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Okanoya, Kazuo

2012-01-01

362

A Distinct Role of the Queen in Coordinated Workload and Soil Distribution in Eusocial Naked Mole-Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals’ workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Inada, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H.; Okanoya, Kazuo

2012-01-01

363

Bone suture in management of mandibular degloving injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic degloving injuries of the mandible are rare intraoral soft tissue traumas. A simple review of the medical literature shows that no article up to this date has reported the prevalence of the degloving injuries of the mandible. Moreover, the highest incidence of mandibular degloving injuries is reported in children and young adults. In this article, the author describes the mandibular degloving injury, characterized by the separation of periosteum and soft tissues of the anterior buccal side of the mandible, and the bone suture technique. This article outlines that a correct diagnostic assessment and appropriate treatment plan can reduce the complications after mandibular degloving injuries. PMID:24470849

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajeahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

364

Bone Suture in Management of Mandibular Degloving Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic degloving injuries of the mandible are rare intraoral soft tissue traumas. A simple review of the medical literature shows that no article up to this date has reported the prevalence of the degloving injuries of the mandible. Moreover, the highest incidence of mandibular degloving injuries is reported in children and young adults. In this article, the author describes the mandibular degloving injury, characterized by the separation of periosteum and soft tissues of the anterior buccal side of the mandible, and the bone suture technique. This article outlines that a correct diagnostic assessment and appropriate treatment plan can reduce the complications after mandibular degloving injuries.

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajeahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

365

Endodontic management of four rooted mandibular first premolar  

PubMed Central

Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The literature is replete with reports of extra canals in mandibular first premolars, but reports about the incidence of extra roots in these teeth are quite rare. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of a four-rooted mandibular first premolar with diagnostic, interoperative and postoperative radiographic records along with a substantial data on the incidence of extra roots in these teeth. The standard method of radiographic appraisal was maintained as the criteria for determining the presence of extra roots.

Vaghela, Dakshita Joy; Sinha, Ashish Amit

2013-01-01

366

The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in queenless worker honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In honeybees, workers under queenless condition compete for reproduction and establish reproductive dominance hierarchy. Ovary activation is generally accompanied by the expression of queen-like pheromones. Biogenic amines (BAs), in particular dopamine, are believed to be involved in this process by regulating ovarian development. However, the role of BAs in establishing reproductive dominance or their effect on queen-like pheromone production was not investigated. Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. One bee in a pair was treated with either OA or TA while the other was fed sugar solution. TA was found to enhance ovary development and the production of esters in the Dufour's gland and 9HDA (queen component) in the mandibular glands, thus facilitating worker reproductive dominance. OA, on the other hand, did not enhance ovarian development or ester production, but increased the production of 10HDA (worker major component) in the mandibular glands of their sugar-paired mates. OA is known to induce foraging behavior by workers, while increased production of 10HDA characterizes nursing workers. Therefore, we suggest that TA induces reproductive division of labor, while OA treatment results in caste differentiation of workers to foragers and nurses.

Salomon, Mor; Malka, Osnat; Meer, Robert K. Vander; Hefetz, Abraham

2012-02-01

367

Maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts ® total joint prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

47 end-stage TMJ patients with high occlusal plane angulation, treated with TMJ custom-fitted total joint prostheses and simultaneous maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation were evaluated for pain and dysfunction presurgery (T1) and at the longest follow-up (T2). Patients subjectively rated their facial pain\\/headache, TMJ pain, jaw function, diet and disability. Objective functional changes were determined by measuring maximum interincisal opening (MIO) and

L. P. Pinto; L. M. Wolford; P. H. Buschang; F. H. Bernardi; J. R. Gonçalves; D. S. Cassano

2009-01-01

368

Mycosis fungoides: disease evolution of the "lion queen" revisited.  

PubMed

Mycosis fungoides (MF), which represents the most common subtype of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is an epidermotropic lymphoma included as an indolent form in the recent WHO/EORTC classification. From a clinical point of view, the classic disease progression usually is slow and takes over years or even decades, and characterized by the evolution from patches to more infiltrated plaques and eventually to tumours or erythroderma. However, the analysis of the MF disease course has been greatly impaired by the rarity of the disease, thus data about the time course of disease progression and pattern of relapse during time are not well known. In this review, a summary of published data on MF large patients cohorts will be presented, together with the results obtained by a retrospective analysis of clinical features and follow-up data of 1,422 MF patients diagnosed and followed-up from 1975 to 2010 in 27 Italian Centres (Italian Study Group for Cutaneous Lymphoma). From a clinical perspective, the amount of data support the relevance of a stage-tailored, differentiated follow-up strategy, in as much as the TNMB staging appears not only to be associated with different progression rates, but also shows as a new finding a relationship with different patterns of disease progression. From a biological point of view, there is the need to understand the molecular basis of the different clinical pathways of disease progression, to be able to potentially identify at an earlier phase of disease evolution, the patients who are more likely to develop erythroderma or tumour-stage progression. In conclusion, if MF is indeed a true "lion queen", as dermatologists we need to be expert and wise tamers to keep it under control. PMID:23149698

Quaglino, P; Pimpinelli, N; Berti, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Lombardo, G A; Rupoli, S; Alaibac, M; Arcaini, L; Bagnato, S; Baldo, A; Bottoni, U; Carbone, A; Cestari R Clerico, R; De Renzo, A; Fava, P; Fierro, M T; Filotico, R; Fimiani, M; Frontani M Girgenti, V; Goteri, G; Leali, C; Mamusa, A M; Mariotti, G; Mastrandrea, V; Pellegrini, C; Pennese, E; Pileri, A; Savoia, P; Stelitano, C; Titli, S; Virgili, A; Zichichi, L; Zinzani, P L; Bernengo, M G

2012-12-01

369

Putative Pathway of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Degradation by Expression Patterns of Genes Identified from Female Pheromone Gland and Adult Antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).  

PubMed

The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes. PMID:24817326

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2014-05-01

370

Extrusion of the C-terminal Helix in Navel Orangeworm Moth Pheromone-Binding Protein (AtraPBP1) Controls Pheromone Binding†  

PubMed Central

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present a mutational analysis on a PBP from Amyelois transitella (AtraPBP1) to evaluate how the C-terminal helix in this protein controls pheromone binding as a function of pH. Pheromone binds tightly to AtraPBP1 at neutral pH, but the binding is much weaker at pH below 5. Deletion of the entire C-terminal helix (residues 129–142) causes more than 100-fold increase in pheromone binding affinity at pH 5 and only a 1.5-fold increase at pH 7. A similar pH-dependent increase in pheromone binding is also seen for the H80A/H95A double mutant that promotes extrusion of the C-terminal helix by disabling salt bridges at each end of the helix. The single mutants (H80A and H95A) also exhibit pheromone binding at pH below 5, but with ~2-fold weaker affinity. NMR and circular dichroism data demonstrate a large overall structural change in each of these mutants at pH 4.5, indicating an extrusion of the C-terminal helix that profoundly affects the overall structure of the low pH form. Our results confirm that sequestration of the C-terminal helix at low pH as seen in the recent NMR structure may serve to block pheromone binding. We propose that extrusion of these C-terminal residues at neutral pH (or by the mutations in this study) exposes a hydrophobic cleft that promotes high affinity pheromone binding.

Xu, Wei; Xu, Xianzhong; Leal, Walter S.; Ames, James B.

2011-01-01

371

Characteristics of the spermathecal contents of old and young honeybee queens.  

PubMed

Sperm are often stored, for a long time after mating, in females of various animal species. In case of the queen honeybee (Apis mellifera), sperm remain fertile for several years in the spermatheca. Little information is available regarding the effect of long-term storage of sperm on its fertility. To evaluate this, enzymes and/or sperm have been analysed from the spermatheca of 75 queens of various ages (0 year Y0, n=14; one year Y1, n=14; two years Y2, n=7; virgin queen VQ, n=40) and semen samples have been taken from 46 drones. The sperm from the spermatheca of older queens move more slowly (F=11.45, P < 0.0001) and show different movement patterns (Chi2=90.0, P < 0.0001) from those of the other groups. The spermatheca content of differently aged mated queens differ significantly with respect to the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (F=3.37, P < 0.05), citrate synthase (F=6.24, P < 0.005) and arginine kinase (F=9.44, P < 0.0006). Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (F=0.10, P=0.91) does not differ significantly. The results suggest considerable changes in the energy metabolic profile of the spermatheca tissue, of the sperm or of both during sperm storage. PMID:19027748

Al-Lawati, H; Kamp, G; Bienefeld, K

2009-02-01

372

Mandibular reconstruction. Current state of the art.  

PubMed

At the present time several techniques of bone grafting for restoration of mandibular defects are being employed. These methods are well established by clinical trials and animal research. Other methods are in the experimental stage. Regardless of the technique utilized it remains paramount that the surgeon plan the initial procedure with great care as each failure results in diminished blood supply to the graft bed and makes subsequent procedures less likely to succeed. The well known principles of bone grafting involve establishing good nutritional status of the patient, proper preparation of the graft bed by insuring adequate soft tissue and adequate blood supply, elimination of infection from the graft bed, provision of adequate fixation and immobilization of the graft, and careful closure of soft tissues to prevent hematoma formation. These principles remain inviolable if the procedure is to succeed. PMID:1098836

Morgan, L R; Thompson, C W

1975-10-01

373

Surgical complications of mandibular condylar fractures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the complications of 58 patients who underwent surgery for mandibular condylar process fractures. Data were collected from patients during a 10-year period (1999-2009). The data recorded included demographic data, etiology, diagnosis, type of condylar fracture, surgical approaches, and postoperative complications. A total of 58 underwent surgery for reduction of the condylar fractures. There were 22 patients with bilateral condyle fractures and 36 patients with unilateral condyle fractures, accounting for 65 surgeries. In 8 fractures, a preauricular approach was performed to access the fractures condyle, whereas the retromandibular approach was performed in 57 fractures. There were 2 temporary facial palsies, 1 permanent facial palsy, and 1 sialocele. There were no cases of hypertrophic scar, Frey syndrome, or salivary fistula. In conclusion, permanent deformities after surgical complications were unusual, and the results are acceptably safe. PMID:21778851

Lima, Sergio Monteiro; Asprino, Luciana; Moreira, Roger Willian Fernandes; de Moraes, Márcio

2011-07-01

374

Pheromones and Novel Male-Induced Pregnancy Disruptions in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates a role of pheromones in novel male-induced early pregnancy disruptions. Although some reports suggest that urine alone is sufficient to produce this effect, others raise procedural concerns and fail to replicate such effects. On Days 1 to 5 after insemination, female CF-1 mice had their nasal regions repeatedly painted with water, urine from males housed in isolation,

Denys De Catanzaro; Cameron Muir; Christine Sullivan; Alain Boissy

1999-01-01

375

DIGITAL PHEROMONES FOR AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION OF SWARMING UAV'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern UAV's reduce the threat to human operators, but do not decrease the manpower requirements. Each aircraft requires a flight crew of one to three, so deploying large numbers of UAV's requires committing and coordinating many human warfighters. Insects perform impressive feats of coordination without direct inter-agent coordination, by sensing and depositing pheromones (chemical scent markers) in the environment (14).

H. Van Dyke Parunak; LCDR Michael Purcell; Robert O'Connell

2002-01-01

376

Parallel evolution of domesticated Caenorhabditis species targets pheromone receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories1, indicating that discrete environmental shifts can select for reproducible genetic changes2-4. Conspecific individuals are an important feature of an animal's environment, and a potential source of selective pressures. We show here that adaptation of two Caenorhabditis species to growth at high density, a feature common to domestic environments, occurs by reproducible genetic changes to pheromone receptor genes. Chemical communication through pheromones that accumulate during high-density growth causes young nematode larvae to enter the long-lived but non-reproductive dauer stage. Two strains of Caenorhabditis elegans grown at high density have independently acquired multigenic resistance to pheromone-induced dauer formation. In each strain, resistance to the pheromone ascaroside C3 results from a deletion that disrupts the adjacent chemoreceptor genes serpentine receptor class g (srg)-36 and -37. Through misexpression experiments, we show that these genes encode redundant G protein-coupled receptors for ascaroside C3. Multigenic resistance to dauer formation has also arisen in high-density cultures of a different nematode species, Caenorhabditis briggsae, resulting in part from deletion of an srg gene paralogous to srg-36 and srg-37. These results demonstrate rapid remodeling of the chemoreceptor repertoire as an adaptation to specific environments, and indicate that parallel changes to a common genetic substrate can affect life history traits across species.

McGrath, Patrick T.; Xu, Yifan; Ailion, Michael; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

2011-01-01

377

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

378

Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.  

PubMed

The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

2007-10-01

379

Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.  

PubMed

A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. PMID:21644949

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

2011-06-01

380

Pheromonic Representation of User Quests by Digital Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the "Ant World" project, items to be retrieved are "quests" represented by entire collections of judged documents. To save space and time, methods were developed for representing these complex entities in a short string of about 1,000 bytes, called a Digital Information Pheromone (DIP). Principles are presented for determining the DIP for a…

Boros, Endre; Kantor, Paul B.; Neu, Dave J.

1999-01-01

381

Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths  

PubMed Central

The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae.

Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

2012-01-01

382

Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer  

SciTech Connect

Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-10-01

383

Transcriptional activation upon pheromone stimulation mediated by a small domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12p.  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste12p induces transcription of pheromone-responsive genes by binding to a DNA sequence designated the pheromone response element. We generated a series of hybrid proteins of Ste12p with the DNA-binding and activation domains of the transcriptional activator Gal4p to define a pheromone induction domain of Ste12p sufficient to mediate pheromone-induced transcription by these hybrid proteins. A minimal pheromone induction domain, delineated as residues 301 to 335 of Ste12p, is dependent on the pheromone mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway for induction activity. Mutation of the three serine and threonine residues within the minimal pheromone induction domain did not affect transcriptional induction, indicating that the activity of this domain is not directly regulated by MAP kinase phosphorylation. By contrast, mutation of the two tyrosines or their preceding acidic residues led to a high level of transcriptional activity in the absence of pheromone and consequently to the loss of pheromone induction. This constitutively high activity was not affected by mutations in the MAP kinase cascade, suggesting that the function of the pheromone induction domain is normally repressed in the absence of pheromone. By two-hybrid analysis, this minimal domain interacts with two negative regulators, Dig1p and Dig2p (also designated Rst1p and Rst2p), and the interaction is abolished by mutation of the tyrosines. The pheromone induction domain itself has weak and inducible transcriptional activity, and its ability to potentiate transcription depends on the activity of an adjacent activation domain. These results suggest that the pheromone induction domain of Ste12p mediates transcriptional induction via a two-step process: the relief of repression and synergistic transcriptional activation with another activation domain.

Pi, H; Chien, C T; Fields, S

1997-01-01

384

The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)  

PubMed Central

Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor–pheromone receptor pair (hpr1–hpp1 or hpr2–ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a.

Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

2012-01-01

385

Changes in the Content of Brain Biogenic Amine Associated with Early Colony Establishment in the Queen of the Ant, Formica japonica  

PubMed Central

We examined changes in the content of biogenic amines in the brains of ant queen associated with early colony establishment. In ants, including Formica japonica, winged virgin queens lose their wings following copulation, and then start establishing a colony. Significant changes in brain biogenic amine content in the queen are associated with transition from winged virgin queen to wingless mated queen. The levels of serotonin (5HT), octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) decreased significantly in the brain of the queen after starting a colony. On the other hand, tyramine (TA) increased significantly in the brain following colony establishment. Catabolized substances of the biogenic amines in the brain were also measured. The levels of N-acetyloctopamine (Nac-OA) and N-acetyltyramine (Nac-TA) in the brain did not show a significant change after the queen established a colony. However, the levels of N-acetylserotonin (Nac-5HT) in the brain were significantly higher in wingless mated queens than in winged virgin queens, whereas levels of N-acetyldopamine (Nac-DA) in the brain were significantly lower in wingless mated queens than winged virgin queens. These results suggest that serotonergic and octopaminergic systems in the brain of the queen change when the mated queen starts to establish a new colony.

Aonuma, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Takayuki

2012-01-01

386

Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block.  

PubMed

Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days. PMID:22442616

Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

2011-01-01

387

Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block  

PubMed Central

Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days.

Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

2011-01-01

388

Intra-mandibular canalicular adenoma: report of a rare case.  

PubMed

Canalicular adenomas are uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasms of the oral cavity. They are typically located on the upper lip, buccal mucosa and infrequently found on the palate and derived from minor salivary glands. Intra-mandibular localization of canalicular adenoma is extremely rare. Due to benign character of the tumour, canalicular adenomas rarely present with bone erosion. Histologically, trabecular type of basal cell adenoma, pleomorphic adenoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma should be discriminated from canalicular adenomas. A-56- year old female patient with asymptomatic intra-mandibular canalicular adenoma was presented. The lesion was managed surgically under local anesthesia and 2 year's follow up was uneventful. Only two other intra-mandibular canalicular adenoma cases have been reported up till now. This case report describes the third intra-mandibular canalicular adenoma, and reviews the literature. PMID:23866420

Dayisoylu, Ezher Hamza; Pampu, Ali Alper; Mungan, Sevdegul; Taskesen, Fatih

2012-11-01

389

Mandibular First Molar with a Radix Entomolaris: An Endodontic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

It is known that the mandibular first molar can display significant anatomical variations namely the number of root canals, the number of roots and morphology. Mandibular molars may sometimes have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris). If encountered, an awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its canal morphology can contribute to the successful outcome of root canal treatment. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris, which is a rare entity and poses as an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome.

Sarangi, Priyanka; Uppin, Veerendra M

2014-01-01

390

Mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: an endodontic dilemma.  

PubMed

It is known that the mandibular first molar can display significant anatomical variations namely the number of root canals, the number of roots and morphology. Mandibular molars may sometimes have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris). If encountered, an awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its canal morphology can contribute to the successful outcome of root canal treatment. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris, which is a rare entity and poses as an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome. PMID:24910685

Sarangi, Priyanka; Uppin, Veerendra M

2014-01-01

391

Tolerating an infection: an indirect benefit of co-founding queen associations in the ant Lasius niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathogens exert a strong selection pressure on organisms to evolve effective immune defences. In addition to individual immunity, social organisms can act cooperatively to produce collective defences. In many ant species, queens have the option to found a colony alone or in groups with other, often unrelated, conspecifics. These associations are transient, usually lasting only as long as each queen benefits from the presence of others. In fact, once the first workers emerge, queens fight to the death for dominance. One potential advantage of co-founding may be that queens benefit from collective disease defences, such as mutual grooming, that act against common soil pathogens. We test this hypothesis by exposing single and co-founding queens to a fungal parasite, in order to assess whether queens in co-founding associations have improved survival. Surprisingly, co-foundresses exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium did not engage in cooperative disease defences, and consequently, we find no direct benefit of multiple queens on survival. However, an indirect benefit was observed, with parasite-exposed queens producing more brood when they co-founded, than when they were alone. We suggest this is due to a trade-off between reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we report an extraordinary ability of the queens to tolerate an infection for long periods after parasite exposure. Our study suggests that there are no social immunity benefits for co-founding ant queens, but that in parasite-rich environments, the presence of additional queens may nevertheless improve the chances of colony founding success.

Pull, Christopher D.; Hughes, William O. H.; Brown, Mark J. F.

2013-12-01

392

Tongue and Lateral Upper Airway Movement with Mandibular Advancement  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Design: Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Setting: Not-for-profit research institute. Participants: 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m2). Interventions: Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Measurements and Results: Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement—(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Conclusions: Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404.

Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

2013-01-01

393

Ecological Adaptations of Mandibular Form in Fissiped Carnivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among mammals, Carnivora presents an ideal group for investigating the complex interplay between functional adaptation and\\u000a phylogenetic history. Here we explore mandibular form and its relationship to ecology and phylogeny using geometric morphometrics\\u000a applied to mandibles of extant Carnivora. Both mandibular size and shape discriminate carnivoran ecological adaptations (diet,\\u000a membership to small or large predatory guilds), but the interplay of

C. Meloro; P. O’Higgins

394

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells  

PubMed Central

Projecting or moving up a chemical gradient is a universal behavior of living organisms. We tested the ability of S. cerevisiae a-cells to sense and respond to spatial gradients of the mating pheromone ?-factor produced in a microfluidics chamber; the focus was on bar1? strains, which do not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically pointing in the correct direction up the gradient (?80% under certain conditions), excellent sensitivity to shallow gradients, and broad dynamic range so that gradient-sensing was relatively robust over a 1000-fold range of average ?-factor concentrations. Optimal directional sensing occurred at lower concentrations (5 nM) close to the Kd of the receptor and with steeper gradient slopes. Pheromone supersensitive mutations (sst2? and ste2300?) that disrupt the down-regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms to increase the robustness of the process including filamentous growth (i.e. directional distal budding) up the gradient at low pheromone concentrations, bending of the projection to be more aligned with the gradient, and forming a more accurate second projection when the first projection was in the wrong direction. Finally, the cells were able to amplify a shallow external gradient signal of ?-factor to produce a dramatic polarization of signaling proteins at the front of the cell. Mathematical modeling revealed insights into the mechanism of this amplification and how the supersensitive mutants can disrupt accurate polarization. Together, these data help to specify and elucidate the abilities of yeast cells to sense and respond to spatial gradients of pheromone.

Moore, Travis I.; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing; Jeon, Noo Li; Yi, Tau-Mu

2008-01-01

395

Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of the sexual communication signals of female moths is thought to be under strong stabilizing selection, because females that produce atypical pheromone blends suffer lower success in finding mates. This intraspecific selection pressure cannot explain the high diversity of moth pheromone blends found in nature. We conducted experiments to determine whether communication interference from males of closely related species could exert strong enough directional selection to cause evolution of these signals. Attraction and mating success of Heliothis subflexa (Hs) females with a normal quantitative trait locus for production of acetate pheromone components (norm-OAc) were compared with Hs females with an introgressed quantitative trait locus from Heliothis virescens (Hv) that dramatically decreased the amount of acetate esters in their pheromone glands (low-OAc). In field experiments with natural Hv and Hs populations, 10 times more Hv males were captured in traps baited with live low-OAc Hs females than in traps with norm-OAc Hs females. This pattern was confirmed in mate-choice assays in cages. Hybrids resulting from Hv–Hs matings have effectively zero fitness in the field. Combining our results with the extensive data set gathered in the past 40 years on the reproductive biology of Hv, we can quantitatively estimate that the directional selection exerted by Hv males on Hs females to produce relatively high amounts (>5%) of acetates can range from 0.135 to 0.231. Such intense interspecific selection may counteract intraspecific stabilizing selection that impedes evolutionary changes in pheromone blends and could lead to diversification of sexual signals.

Groot, Astrid T.; Horovitz, Joy L.; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G.; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

2006-01-01

396

Anatomical localization and stereoisomeric composition of Tribolium castaneum aggregation pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the average amount of DMD released daily by single feeding males of T. castaneum was 878 ± 72 ng (SE). Analysis of different body parts identified the abdominal epidermis as the major source of aggregation pheromone; the thorax was a minor source, while no DMD was detectable in the head. No internal organs or obvious male-specific glands were associated with pheromone deposition. Complete separation of all four stereoisomers of DMD was achieved following oxidation to the corresponding acid, derivatization with (1 R, 2 R)- and (1 S, 2 S)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)cyclohexanol to diastereomeric esters, and their separation on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at -54°C. Analysis of the hexane eluate from Porapak-Q-collected volatiles from feeding males revealed the presence of all four isomers (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S)/(4 S,8 R)/(4 S,8 S) at a ratio of approximately 4:4:1:1. A walking orientation bioassay in a wind tunnel with various blends of the four synthetic isomers further indicated that the attractive potency of the reconstituted natural blend of 4:4:1:1 was equivalent to that of the natural pheromone and greater than that of the 1:1 blend of (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S) used in commercial lures.

Lu, Yujie; Beeman, Richard W.; Campbell, James F.; Park, Yoonseong; Aikins, Michael J.; Mori, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Phillips, Thomas W.

2011-09-01

397

Stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in the moth Helicoverpa zea: action of a brain hormone on pheromone glands involves Ca2+ and cAMP as second messengers.  

PubMed Central

Isolated abdomen and pheromone gland bioassays were utilized to determine the physiological action of the pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in the corn earworm moth Helicoverpa (= Heliothis) zea. An isolated pheromone gland bioassay showed that synthetic PBAN was active at 0.02 pmol, with maximal activity occurring at 0.5 pmol and 60 min of incubation. Second-messenger studies demonstrated that extracellular Ca2+ is necessary for PBAN activity on isolated pheromone glands. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 stimulated pheromone biosynthesis alone, whereas the Ca2+ channel blockers La3+ and Mn2+ inhibited PBAN activity. However, the organic Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine did not inhibit PBAN activity. Both forskolin and two cAMP analogues stimulated pheromone biosynthesis in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, indicating that Ca2+ may activate an adenylate cyclase. The biogenic amine octopamine did not elicit pheromone production in isolated gland or abdomen bioassays or when injected into intact female moths. Removal of the ventral nerve chord, including the terminal abdominal ganglia in isolated abdomens, did not affect PBAN stimulation of pheromone production. Similar levels of stimulation were found when isolated abdomens were treated with PBAN in scotophase or photophase. Images

Jurenka, R A; Jacquin, E; Roelofs, W L

1991-01-01

398

When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.  

PubMed Central

The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control. Images

Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

1990-01-01

399

Masseter Myosin Heavy Chain Composition Varies With Mandibular Asymmetry  

PubMed Central

Human jaw dysmorphologies are frequent and often affect young patients, resulting in malocclusion of teeth and inappropriate jaw relationships. Treatment is performed by means of orthodontics with orthognathic surgery as required. Mandibular asymmetry is one of the most frequent dysmorphologies, but in many cases, the specific cause is unknown. In healthy patients who were undergoing orthognathic surgery for correction of malocclusion, we tested the hypothesis that masseter muscle phenotype composition, which determines contractile properties, was different between sides in patients with mandibular asymmetry but not in those without mandibular asymmetry. After cephalometric analysis, 50 patients from whom we obtained samples of both right and left masseter muscles were separated into 2 groups: with or without mandibular lateral deviation. Samples were immunostained with myosin-isoform–specific antibodies to identify 4 skeletal muscle fiber types, and their fiber areas and proportions were measured. Two-tailed Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used to compare the 4 fiber-type compositions by means of percent occupancy and mean fiber area on both sides. Patients with mandibular asymmetry were associated with a significant increase of type II fiber occupancy (P = 0.0035) on the same side as the deviation. This finding that masseter muscle phenotype is significantly linked to mandibular asymmetry is of relevance to physiotherapeutic and surgical managements of jaw discrepancies and merits further investigation in the light of its possible role in the etiology of this condition.

Raoul, Gwenael; Rowlerson, Anthea; Sciote, James; Codaccioni, Emmanuel; Stevens, Laurence; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Duhamel, Alain; Ferri, Joel

2014-01-01

400

Finite Element Reconstruction of a Mandibular First Molar  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mandibular first molar is the most important tooth with complicated morphology. In finite element (FE) studies, investigators usually prefer to model anterior teeth with a simple and single straight root; it makes the results deviate from the actual case. The most complicated and time-consuming step in FE studies is modeling of the desired tooth, thus this study was performed to establish a finite element method (FEM) of reconstructing a mandibular first molar with the greatest precision. Materials and Methods An extracted mandibular first molar was digitized, and then radiographed from different aspects to achieve its outer and inner morphology. The solid model of tooth and root canals were constructed according to this data as well as the anatomy of mandibular first molar described in the literature. Result A three-dimensional model of mandibular first molar was created, giving special consideration to shape and root canal system dimensions. Conclusion This model may constitute a basis for investigating the effect of different clinical situations on mandibular first molars in vitro, especially on its root canal system. The method described here seems feasible and reasonably precise foundation for investigations.

Ehsani, Sara; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Asgary, Saeed

2013-01-01

401

Transcriptome profiling of female alates and egg-laying queens of the Formosan subterranean termite.  

PubMed

Termites are known to have an extraordinary reproductive plasticity and capacity, but the underlying genetic patterns of termite reproductive biology are relatively understudied. The goal of this study was to identify genes for which expression levels differ between dealated precopulatory females (virgins) and egg-laying queens of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. We constructed a normalized polyphenic expressed sequence tag (EST) library that represents genomic material from most of the castes and life stages of the Formosan subterranean termite. Microarrays were designed using probes from this EST library and public genomic resources. Virgin females and queens were competitively hybridized to these microarrays and differentially expressed candidate genes were identified. Differential expression of eight genes was subsequently confirmed via reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR). When compared to virgins, queens had higher expression of genes coding for proteins related to immunity (gram negative binding protein), nutrition (e.g., termite-derived endo-beta-1,4-glucanase), protein storage, regulation of caste differentiation and reproduction (hexamerin, juvenile hormone binding protein). Queens also had higher transcript levels for genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, fat, and juvenile hormone (glutathione-S-transferase-like proteins, and cytochrome P450), among others. In particular, hexamerin, juvenile hormone binding protein, and a cytochrome P450 from the 4C subfamily are likely to be involved in initiating the inactive period during the reproductive cycle of the queen. Vice versa, virgins had higher expression than queens of genes related to respiration, probably due to recent flight activity, and several genes of unknown function. PMID:22079412

Husseneder, Claudia; McGregor, Cecilia; Lang, R Paul; Collier, Rachael; Delatte, Jennifer

2012-03-01

402

Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tom...

C. Lindh

1996-01-01

403

76 FR 30554 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY03 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures Correction In rule document 2011-10446 appearing on pages 23907-23909 in the...

2011-05-26

404

Why do some social insect queens mate with several males? Testing the sex-ratio manipulation hypothesis in Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers, selecting for workers to invest more in males. In populations with female-biased sex ratios, queens heading such male-producing colonies would achieve a higher fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a Swiss and a Swedish population of the ant Lasius niger. There was substantial and consistent variation in queen mating frequency and colony sex allocation within and among populations, but no evidence that workers regulated sex allocation in response to queen mating frequency; the investment in females did not differ among paternity classes. Moreover, population-mean sex ratios were consistently less female biased than expected under worker control and were close to the queen optimum. Queens therefore had no incentive to manipulate sex ratios because their fitness did not depend on the sex ratio of their colony. Thus, we found no evidence that the sex-ratio manipulation theory can explain the evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in L. niger. PMID:11989685

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Gertsch, Pia J; Keller, Laurent

2002-03-01

405

Evaluation of Innovative Monitoring Systems for the Queen Isabella Causeway to Assist in the Preservation of Endangered Brown Pelicans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Queen Isabella Causeway, also known as Park Road 100, is a 3.86 kilometer (2.4 mile) bridge that crosses the Intracoastal Waterway and connects Port Isabel with South Padre Island. The Queen Isabella Causeway presents several unique challenges which i...

M. Shafer D. Jasek

1997-01-01

406

76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...FMP), and Amendment 3 to the FMP for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and...

2011-12-30

407

Growth and Survival of Juvenile Queen Conch Strombus gigas Fed Artificial Diets Containing Varying Levels of Digestible Protein and Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture methods for queen conch Strombus gigas have been established for several decades. However, there is a need to improve husbandry techniques for the grow out of juveniles. The purpose of this study was to determine the growth and survival of juvenile queen conchs fed artificial diets with increasing levels of a red alga Agardhiella sp. Agardhiella, soy protein isolate,

Amber L. Garr; Héctor Acosta-Salmón; Marty Riche; Megan Davis; Thomas R. Capo; David Haley; Patrick Tracy

2011-01-01

408

Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production.

Ginzel, Matthew D.; Bearfield, Jeremy C.; Keeling, Christopher I.; McCormack, Colin C.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

2007-01-01

409

Counting solutions for the N -queens and Latin-square problems by Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply Monte Carlo simulations to count the numbers of solutions of two well-known combinatorial problems: the N -queens problem and Latin-square problem. The original system is first converted to a general thermodynamic system, from which the number of solutions of the original system is obtained by using the method of computing the partition function. Collective moves are used to further accelerate sampling: swap moves are used in the N -queens problem and a cluster algorithm is developed for the Latin squares. The method can handle systems of 104degrees of freedom with more than 1010000 solutions.

Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng

2009-01-01

410

Mandibular landmarks as an aid in minimizing injury to the marginal mandibular branch: A metric and geometric anatomical study.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic injury to the marginal mandibular branch is an important reason for medicolegal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the distance of the marginal mandibular branch to the inferior border of the mandible as well as variation of nerve position in relation to this border. The marginal mandibular branch was dissected carefully in a number of 36 facial halves. Three points were identified on the inferior border of the mandibular ramus: Point A at the angle of the mandible, Point B just anterior to the facial artery, and Point C, 2 cm anterior to Point B. A metric and geometric morphometric analysis, including thin-plate spline and relative warp analysis was done to determine the variation of nerve position in relation to these three bony landmarks. The metric study indicated a median distance from Point A to the nerve 2.3 mm inferior to Point A, 2.4 mm superior to Point B, and 10.7 mm superior to Point C. The shape analysis indicated that variation in the position of the nerve occurs most commonly at Points A and B. We conclude that these mandibular landmarks may assist surgeons in minimizing marginal mandibular branch injury and patient discomfort. PMID:15768421

Potgieter, W; Meiring, J H; Boon, J M; Pretorius, E; Pretorius, J P; Becker, P J

2005-04-01

411

The relationship between multiple mating by queens, within-colony genetic variability and fitness in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Multiple mating has been suggested to benefit social insect queens because high genetic variation within colonies might decrease the load imposed by sterile diploid males, enhance resistance to parasites and pathogens, and lead to a more effective division of labour and/or a wider range of tolerable environmental conditions. We tested these hypotheses in the ant Lasius niger with three population samples from Switzerland and Sweden. We found no diploid males in young or mature colonies suggesting a lack of diploid male load. Colonies with multiply-mated queens were not larger nor did they produce more sexuals than colonies with singly-mated queens. We did find a significantly lower frequency of multiple mating among newly mated queens than among the queens heading mature colonies in one population sample (Switzerland 1997). However, this result was not repeated in the other study population, or in the following year in the Swiss population. PMID:14635899

Fjerdingstad, E J; Gertsch, P J; Keller, L

2003-09-01

412

Behavioral observations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, in orchards permeated with synthetic pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was studied in apple orchards treated with the main pheromone compound codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol, and a blend of codlemone and codlemone acetate, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate, a strong pheromone antagonist. Codlemone alone and the pheromone\\/antagonist-blend had a similar effect on the behavior of males emerging into air-permeated orchards. Male flights within tree canopy and upwind orientation

Peter Witzgall; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Mats Svensson; Uwe Koch; Franco Rama; Ashraf El-Sayed; Julia Brauchli; Heinrich Arn; Marie Bengtsson; Jan Löfqvist

1999-01-01

413

Rapid Evolution of Plethodontid Modulating Factor, a Hypervariable Salamander Courtship Pheromone, is Driven by Positive Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual communication in plethodontid salamanders is mediated by a proteinaceous pheromone that a male delivers to a female\\u000a during courtship, boosting her receptivity. The pheromone consists of three proteins from three unrelated protein families.\\u000a These proteins are among a small group of pheromones known to affect female receptivity in vertebrates. Previously, we showed\\u000a that the genes of two of these

Catherine A. Palmer; Richard A. Watts; Amy P. Hastings; Lynne D. Houck; Stevan J. Arnold

2010-01-01

414

Melanocortin-5 Receptor Deficiency Reduces a Pheromonal Signal for Aggression in Male Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice lacking the melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5R) exhibit decreased sensitivity to the stimulatory effects of systemic melano- cortin injections on aggressive behavior. Because the pheromone-producing preputial gland expresses the MC5R, we tested the hypothesis that decreases in preputial pheromones underlie the behavioral deficit. Here we show that MC5R deficiency decreases preputial and urine levels of the sex pheromones, alpha- and beta-farnesene,

Caurnel Morgan; Ruth E. Thomas; Weidong Ma; Milos V. Novotny; Roger D. Cone

2004-01-01

415

Allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene causes divergence in moth sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Pheromone-based behaviours are crucial in animals from insects to mammals, and reproductive isolation is often based on pheromone differences. However, the genetic mechanisms by which pheromone signals change during the evolution of new species are largely unknown. In the sexual communication system of moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera), females emit a species-specific pheromone blend that attracts males over long distances. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, consists of two sex pheromone races, Z and E, that use different ratios of the cis and trans isomers of acetate pheromone components. This subtle difference leads to strong reproductive isolation in the field between the two races, which could represent a first step in speciation. Female sex pheromone production and male behavioural response are under the control of different major genes, but the identity of these genes is unknown. Here we show that allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene essential for pheromone biosynthesis accounts for the phenotypic variation in female pheromone production, leading to race-specific signals. Both the cis and trans isomers of the pheromone precursors are produced by both races, but the precursors are differentially reduced to yield opposite ratios in the final pheromone blend as a result of the substrate specificity of the enzymes encoded by the Z and E alleles. This is the first functional characterization of a gene contributing to intraspecific behavioural reproductive isolation in moths, highlighting the importance of evolutionary diversification in a lepidopteran-specific family of reductases. Accumulation of substitutions in the coding region of a single biosynthetic enzyme can produce pheromone differences resulting in reproductive isolation, with speciation as a potential end result. PMID:20592730

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Groot, Astrid T; Liénard, Marjorie A; Antony, Binu; Borgwardt, Christin; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Heckel, David G; Löfstedt, Christer

2010-07-22

416

iBioSeminar: Sex and Smell: Molecular Biology of Pheromone Perception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pheromones have evolved to signal the sex and the dominance status of animals and to promote social and mating rituals. In this lecture, I discuss the how pheromone sensing operates in mammals. I will discuss the molecular biology of the chemosensory receptors that are involved the first steps of pheromone sensing. At a higher level of complexity, I will discuss a distinct olfactory structure called the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and how it contributes to sex-specific behavioral responses.

Catherine Dulac (Harvard University/Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-12-01

417

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

418

[Mandibular synthesis. Placement of the synthesis as a function of mandibular stress].  

PubMed

After recalling Michelet's principles of mandibular osteosynthesis, the authors relate their experiences after 18 months of biomechanical analysis. They define the best locations for osteosyntheses according to calculations of when flexion and torsion occur, taking anatomical conditions into account. Details are given of the position of the plate or plates according to the location of the fracture or osteotomy (horizontal branch, symphysal and para-symphysal region and angle). Analysis of stresses within the osteosynthesized mandible has resulted in the development of what seems to be a reliable medium. One hundred anf forty facial osteosyntheses they have carried out confirm their faith in the safety of the method. PMID:1071237

Champy, M; Lodde, J P

1976-12-01

419

Functional consequences of sequence variation in the pheromone biosynthetic gene pgFAR for Ostrinia moths  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are central to the mating systems of a wide range of organisms, and reproductive isolation between closely related species is often achieved by subtle differences in pheromone composition. In insects and moths in particular, the use of structurally similar components in different blend ratios is usually sufficient to impede gene flow between taxa. To date, the genetic changes associated with variation and divergence in pheromone signals remain largely unknown. Using the emerging model system Ostrinia, we show the functional consequences of mutations in the protein-coding region of the pheromone biosynthetic fatty-acyl reductase gene pgFAR. Heterologous expression confirmed that pgFAR orthologs encode enzymes exhibiting different substrate specificities that are the direct consequences of extensive nonsynonymous substitutions. When taking natural ratios of pheromone precursors into account, our data reveal that pgFAR substrate preference provides a good explanation of how species-specific ratios of pheromone components are obtained among Ostrinia species. Moreover, our data indicate that positive selection may have promoted the observed accumulation of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments substantiate the idea that amino acid polymorphisms underlie subtle or drastic changes in pgFAR substrate preference. Altogether, this study identifies the reduction step as a potential source of variation in pheromone signals in the moth genus Ostrinia and suggests that selection acting on particular mutations provides a mechanism allowing pheromone reductases to evolve new functional properties that may contribute to variation in the composition of pheromone signals.

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lienard, Marjorie A.; Antony, Binu; Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Lofstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

420

Expression of a pheromone-binding protein in insect cells using a baculovirus vector.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a pheromone-binding protein from the male silkmoth Antheraea pernyi has been integrated into the genome of the Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhydrosis virus such that the transcription was under the control of the strong polyhedrin promoter. Recombinant pheromone-binding protein was expressed in a baculovirus-infected insect cell line (Sf9) and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Using a two-step protocol, recombinant pheromone-binding protein has been isolated and purified to homogeneity. Pheromone binding of recombinant protein has been demonstrated using a tritiated analog of (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. PMID:1730221

Krieger, J; Raming, K; Prestwich, G D; Frith, D; Stabel, S; Breer, H

1992-01-15

421

Functional consequences of sequence variation in the pheromone biosynthetic gene pgFAR for Ostrinia moths.  

PubMed

Pheromones are central to the mating systems of a wide range of organisms, and reproductive isolation between closely related species is often achieved by subtle differences in pheromone composition. In insects and moths in particular, the use of structurally similar components in different blend ratios is usually sufficient to impede gene flow between taxa. To date, the genetic changes associated with variation and divergence in pheromone signals remain largely unknown. Using the emerging model system Ostrinia, we show the functional consequences of mutations in the protein-coding region of the pheromone biosynthetic fatty-acyl reductase gene pgFAR. Heterologous expression confirmed that pgFAR orthologs encode enzymes exhibiting different substrate specificities that are the direct consequences of extensive nonsynonymous substitutions. When taking natural ratios of pheromone precursors into account, our data reveal that pgFAR substrate preference provides a good explanation of how species-specific ratios of pheromone components are obtained among Ostrinia species. Moreover, our data indicate that positive selection may have promoted the observed accumulation of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments substantiate the idea that amino acid polymorphisms underlie subtle or drastic changes in pgFAR substrate preference. Altogether, this study identifies the reduction step as a potential source of variation in pheromone signals in the moth genus Ostrinia and suggests that selection acting on particular mutations provides a mechanism allowing pheromone reductases to evolve new functional properties that may contribute to variation in the composition of pheromone signals. PMID:23407169

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Liénard, Marjorie A; Antony, Binu; Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Löfstedt, Christer

2013-03-01

422

Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

2005-01-01

423

Flight Behaviour of Males of Two Moths, Cadra Cautella and Pectinophora Gossypiella, in Homogeneous Clouds of Pheromone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstract. It is thought that orientation by male moths along pheromone plumes is guided by interception of filaments of pheromone along that plume and that clean air gaps are required for upwind progress. Given that several investigations have determined ...

K. A. Justus R. T. Carde

2002-01-01

424

Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report  

PubMed Central

Background Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications. Case presentation An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated. Conclusion The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation.

Oredugba, Folakemi A

2005-01-01

425

Mandibular nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic treatment.  

PubMed

The paresthesias of the inferior dental nerve consists of a complication that can occur after performing various dental procedures such as cystectomies, extraction of impacted teeth, apicoectomies, endodontic treatments, local anesthetic deposition, preprosthetic or implantologic surgery. The possible mechanisms of nervous lesions are mechanical, chemical and thermal. Mechanical injury includes compression, stretching, partial or total resection and laceration. The lesion can cause a discontinuity to the nerve with Wallerian degeneration of the distal and integrated fibers of the covering (axonotmesis) or can cause the total sectioning of the nerve (neurotmesis). Chemical trauma can be due to certain toxic components of the endodontic filling materials (paraformaldehyde, corticoids or eugenol) and irrigating solutions (sodium hypochlorite) or local anesthetics. Thermal injury is a consequence of bone overheating during the execution of surgical techniques. We present a clinical case of paresthesia of the inferior dental nerve after the introduction of a gutta-percha point in the mandibular canal during the performance of a root canal therapy of the inferior first molar. The etiology and the treatment of this endodontic complication are described. PMID:12937392

Gallas-Torreira, M Mercedes; Reboiras-López, M Dolores; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José

2003-01-01

426

God Save the Red Queen! Competition in Co-Evolutionary Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the simplest scenario of two coevolvingpopulations in competitionwith each other, fitness progressis achieved at disadvantage of theother population's fitness. The everchangingfitness landscape causedby the competing species (namedthe "Red Queen effect") makes thesystem dynamics more complex, butit also provides a set of advantageswith respect to single-populationevolution. Here we present resultsfrom an experiment with two mobilerobots, a predator equipped with visionand

Dario Floreano; Stefano Nolfi

1997-01-01

427

Voltage profile enhancement through optimal placement of FACTS devices using Queen-Bee-Assisted GA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of optimal locations for 3 Static VAr Compensators (SVCs) in an IEEE 30 bus system is considered in this paper. The problem is drafted as an optimization task and the solution is achieved through a novel optimization method termed as Queen Bee Assisted GA. The proposed algorithm is a suitable modification of a standard GA incorporating the evolution

K. Sundareswaran; P. Bharathram; M. Siddharth; G. Vaishnavi; N. A. Shrivastava; H. Sarma

2009-01-01

428

Queen number and the production of sexuals in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possibility of queen control over the production of sexuals in polygyne colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, large colonies were divided into polygyne (P) and monogyne (M) or queenless (Q-) halves. Sexual larvae were evident in the M and Q- halves 3 to 4 days after colony division, whereas sexual forms failed to develop in all

Edward L. Vargo; David J. C. Fletcher

1986-01-01

429

Sequential generations of honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens produced using cryopreserved semen.  

PubMed

Much of the world's food production is dependent on honey bees for pollination, and expanding food production will further increase the demand for managed pollination services. Apiculturists outside the native range of the honey bee, in the Americas, Australia and eastern Asia, have used only a few of the 27 described subspecies of honey bees (Apis mellifera) for beekeeping purposes. Within the endemic ranges of a particular subspecies, hybridisation can threaten native subspecies when local beekeepers import and propagate non-native honey bees. For many threatened species, cryopreserved germplasm can provide a resource for the preservation of diversity and recovery of endangered populations. However, although instrumental insemination of queen honey bees is well established, the absence of an effective means to cryopreserve honey bee semen has limited the success of efforts to preserve genetic diversity within the species or to develop repositories of honey bee germplasm for breeding purposes. Herein we report that some queens inseminated with cryopreserved semen were capable of producing a substantial number of fertilised offspring. These diploid female larvae were used to produce two additional sequential generations of new queens, which were then back-crossed to the same stock of frozen semen. Our results demonstrate the ability to produce queens using cryopreserved honey bee spermatozoa and the potential for the establishment of a honey bee genetic repository. PMID:22951091

Hopkins, Brandon K; Herr, Charles; Sheppard, Walter S

2012-01-01

430

THE EVOLUTION OF MULTIPLE MATING BEHAVIOR BY HONEY BEE QUEENS (APIS MELLIFERA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented showing that natural selection operating at the in- dividual level can adequately explain the evolution of multiple mating be- havior by honey bee queens. Group selection need not be invoked. The fitness of a given female genotype is a function of the number of sex alleles in the population, the number of matings by an individual

ROBERT E. PAGE

1980-01-01

431

Colony fusion and worker reproduction after queen loss in army ants  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that altruism is only evolutionarily stable if it is preferentially directed towards relatives, so that any such behaviour towards seemingly unrelated individuals requires scrutiny. Queenless army ant colonies, which have anecdotally been reported to fuse with queenright foreign colonies, are such an enigmatic case. Here we combine experimental queen removal with population genetics and cuticular chemistry analyses to show that colonies of the African army ant Dorylus molestus frequently merge with neighbouring colonies after queen loss. Merging colonies often have no direct co-ancestry, but are on average probably distantly related because of overall population viscosity. The alternative of male production by orphaned workers appears to be so inefficient that residual inclusive fitness of orphaned workers might be maximized by indiscriminately merging with neighbouring colonies to increase their reproductive success. We show that worker chemical recognition profiles remain similar after queen loss, but rapidly change into a mixed colony Gestalt odour after fusion, consistent with indiscriminate acceptance of alien workers that are no longer aggressive. We hypothesize that colony fusion after queen loss might be more widespread, especially in spatially structured populations of social insects where worker reproduction is not profitable.

Kronauer, Daniel J. C.; Schoning, Caspar; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2010-01-01

432

Black Power and Education: The SEEK Experience at Queens College. Community Issues, May 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During six months of the 1969-70 school year, Queens College was besieged by demonstrations by the black and Puerto Rican Student-Faculty-Counselor Coalition. While the situation was similar to that at other campuses in that drastic polarization and racial animosities were exacerbated, it was unique in one crucial aspect. Demonstrations at other…

Resnick, Solomon

433

West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For

Bruce Phillip Engler; Scott Patrick Cooper; Neill Phillip Symons; Lewis Clark Bartel; Charles Byrer; Gregory Jay Elbring; Andrea McNemar; David Franklin Aldridge; John Clay Lorenz

2008-01-01

434

Sex pheromone catabolism in the redbanded leafroller moth.  

PubMed

Tritium-labeled components of the red-banded leaf-roller female sex pheromone, (Z)- and (E)-[11,12-(3)H2]-11-tetradecenyl acetate (57 Ci/mmol), applied to antennae of males and females were degraded causing formation of tritiated 11-tetradecenol, 11-tetradecenoic acid, and water. Results indicate that the catabolic pathway involves acetate hydrolysis, oxidation of alcohol to fatty acid, and degradation of the acid via?-oxidation. Both geometric isomers were degraded equally well by males but degradation proceeded comparatively less rapidly with female antennae. It is surmised that under natural conditions of olfactory sensing, sex pheromone impinging upon the moth's antennae is probably subject to a similar catabolic fate. PMID:24249015

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M

1993-04-01

435

Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars

2005-08-01

436

Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths.  

PubMed

We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2014-01-01

437

Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones  

PubMed Central

Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles – the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% – the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade.

Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Esteli J; Perfecto, Ivette

2012-01-01

438

Pheromone routing protocol on a scale-free network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a routing strategy for network systems based on the local information of “pheromone.” The overall traffic capacity of a network system can be evaluated by the critical packet generating rate Rc . Under this critical generating rate, the total packet number in the system first increases and then decreases to reach a balance state. The system behaves differently from that with a local routing strategy based on the node degree or shortest path routing strategy. Moreover, the pheromone routing strategy performs much better than the local routing strategy, which is demonstrated by a larger value of the critical generating rate. This protocol can be an alternation for superlarge networks, in which the global topology may not be available.

Ling, Xiang; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Ruili; Cao, Xian-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

2009-12-01

439

Genetic regulation of sex pheromone production and response : Interaction of sympatric pheromonal types of European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone communication system of the European corn borer moth varies intraspecifically. Analyses of pheromonal extracts of wild females, collected in a region where the types (each producing a different isomeric proportion ofZ- andE-11-tetradecenyl acetate) are sympatric, showed that theZ pheromone-production allele frequency was ca. 4 times greater than theE allele. The paucity ofE production and response alleles in the population indicates that moths inheriting those alleles concomitantly inherit some undefined disadvantage. The types interbreed, but the frequency of heterozygous pheromone-production types among wild females was less than predicted by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and was evidence of positive assortative mating. Rates of male captures in field traps baited with females of the three pheromonal types also evidenced assortative mating in the population. Progeny tests with males captured in the traps provided circumstantial evidence that pheromone response and production functions in the species are regulated by separate genetic loci and that the loci are not always complementary; i.e., a male can carry an allele coding for production of one pheromonal isomer ratio but can be genetically predisposed to respond to another. PMID:24277143

Klun, J A; Huettel, M D

1988-11-01

440

Interspecific pheromone cross-attraction among soybean bugs (Heteroptera): does Piezodorus hybneri (Pentatomidae) utilize the pheromone of Riptortus clavatus (Alydidae) as a kairomone?  

PubMed

The chemical and ecological function of cross-attraction of Piezodorus hybneri (Pentatomidae) to the Riptortus clavatus (Alydidae) pheromone (a mixture of three components) was studied. In a field attraction test using traps with synthetic pheromone components, P. hybneri was attracted to (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, a component of the R. clavatus pheromone. Other components had neither an additive nor a synergistic effect on the attraction of P. hybneri. Neither (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate nor other components of the R. clavatus pheromone were detected in volatiles or whole-body extracts of P. hybneri adults by gas chromatographic analysis. In addition, (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate could not be found in volatiles of soybean plants. Therefore, it appears that P. hybneri responds to a component of the R. clavatus pheromone that is not emitted by P. hybneri itself. We discuss this interspecific pheromone cross-attraction of the soybean bug and hypothesize that P. hybneri utilizes the pheromone of its competitor as a kairomone for host location. PMID:16705488

Endo, Nobuyuki; Wada, Takashi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Sasaki, Rikiya

2006-07-01

441

Aggregation pheromone of driedfruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus Wind-tunnel bioassay and identification of two novel tetraene hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male-produced aggregation pheromone was demonstrated inCarpophilus hemipterus (L.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) using a wind-tunnel bioassay. Both sexes responded to the pheromone, but the beetles flew in the wind tunnel only after they had been starved for at least several hours. The attractiveness of the pheromone was greatly enhanced by volatiles from a food source, and combinations of pheromone and food

Robert J. Bartelt; Patrick F. Dowd; Ronald D. Plattner; David Weisleder

1990-01-01

442

[Maxillary and mandibular fractures. Treatment concepts in maxillofacial surgery].  

PubMed

Maxillary and mandibular fractures are a relatively frequent occurrence due to the exposed location of the jaws and are caused mainly by acts of violence, traffic and recreational accidents. Mandibular fractures can be treated conservatively with dental splints and intermaxillary fixation. Since Michelet, miniplate osteosynthesis via intraoral access has become the method of choice. Champy showed that the monocortical fixation of miniplates at the level of the linea obliqua results in stable osteosynthesis, despite postoperative micro-movements in the fracture gap, and postulated the principle of dynamic compression. Dislocated fractures of the mandibular collum are treated with stable osteosynthesis via an intra- or extraoral approach, while fractures of the mandibular joint are usually treated conservatively and early functional rehabilitation is favored. For mandibular fractures, the principle of load-bearing and load-sharing should be considered, i.e. in the case of sufficient bone and uncomplicated fractures, the bone can bear most of the force, such that miniplates are sufficient (load-sharing). If bones are weakened by atrophy or in the case of infected, comminuted or defect fractures osteosynthesis plates must bear the load alone (load-bearing). PMID:22012486

Waiss, W; Gosau, M; Koyama, K; Reichert, T E

2011-11-01

443

Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.  

PubMed

The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 12 ± 2 cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation. PMID:22884679

Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

2012-12-01

444

Position of mandibular joint surface in cenrric relation.  

PubMed

The position of mandible in centric relation is the initial position in prosthodontic rehabilitation. This fact is especially significant today when, due to development of implantology, the use of osseointegrated prostheses is increasingly discussed. The aim of the study is to define if the peak of the articulating surface of mandible in centric relation position is directed towards the zenith of madibular fossa, or is in the retroposition. The research was conducted on macerated human sculls in anthropometric system, based on objective measuring techniques and methods. The results showed that if the zenith of mandibular fossa is determined according to the vertical line of the Frankfurt horizontal, the peak of the mandibular caput articulating surface is in retroposition. The relation of the lower joint surface to the mandibular fossa zenith is the same on both right and left side. The correlation coefficient demonstrates a high correlation between the sides, highly significant with probability level of p<0,01. If the peak of mandibular fossa is determined according to the vertical line of the Frankfurt horizontal, the peak of the articulating surface of mandibular caput is in retroposition in relation to the peak of the upper jaw surface. This original scientific work will help better understanding of x-ray analysis and understanding of relationship of TMJ surfaces, what is necessary for treatme