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1

Peripheral modulation of worker bee responses to queen mandibular pheromone.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that young worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) are highly attracted to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Our results challenge this widely held view. We have found that unless young workers are exposed to QMP early in adult life, they, like foragers, avoid contact with this pheromone. Our data indicate that responses to QMP are regulated peripherally, at the level of the antennal sensory neurons, and that a window of opportunity exists in which QMP can alter a young bee's response to this critically important pheromone. Exposing young bees to QMP from the time of adult emergence reduces expression in the antennae of the D1-like dopamine receptor gene, Amdop1. Levels of Amdop3 transcript, on the other hand, and of the octopamine receptor gene Amoa1, are significantly higher in the antennae of bees strongly attracted to QMP than in bees showing no attraction to this pheromone. A decline in QMP attraction with age is accompanied by a fall in expression in worker antennae of the D2-like dopamine receptor, AmDOP3, a receptor that is selectively activated by QMP. Taken together, our findings suggest that QMP's actions peripherally not only suppress avoidance behavior, but also enhance attraction to QMP, thereby facilitating attendance of the queen. PMID:19934051

Vergoz, Vanina; McQuillan, H James; Geddes, Lisa H; Pullar, Kiri; Nicholson, Brad J; Paulin, Michael G; Mercer, Alison R

2009-12-01

2

Production and transmission of honey bee queen ( Apis mellifera L.) mandibular gland pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social cohesiveness of eusocial insect colonies is maintained primarily through the utilization of pheromones. In this study we quantitatively elucidated the production, secretion, and transmission of 9-keto2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), one of the components of the mandibular gland pheromone of the honey bee queen Apis mellifera; this is the only identified primer pheromone complex in the eusocial insects. Mated queens

Ken Naumann; Mark L. Winston; Keith N. Slessor; Glenn D. Prestwich; Francis X. Webster

1991-01-01

3

New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?  

PubMed Central

Background In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are accredited to the QMP, this pheromone does not trigger the full behavioral and physiological response observed in the presence of the queen, suggesting the presence of additional compounds. We tested the hypothesis of a pheromone redundancy in honey bee queens by comparing the influence of queens with and without mandibular glands on worker behavior and physiology. Results Demandibulated queens had no detectable (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), the major compound in QMP, yet they controlled worker behavior (cell construction and queen retinue) and physiology (ovary inhibition) as efficiently as intact queens. Conclusions We demonstrated that the queen uses other pheromones as powerful as QMP to control the colony. It follows that queens appear to have multiple active compounds with similar functions in the colony (pheromone redundancy). Our findings support two hypotheses in the biology of social insects: (1) that multiple semiochemicals with synonymous meaning exist in the honey bee, (2) that this extensive semiochemical vocabulary exists because it confers an evolutionary advantage to the colony. PMID:20565874

2010-01-01

4

Queen mandibular gland pheromone influences worker honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) foraging ontogeny and juvenile hormone titers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) was applied to honey bee colonies to test two hypotheses: (i) QMP acts like a primer pheromone in the regulation of age-related division of labor, and (ii) this primer effect, if present, varies in three strains of workers that show genetically-based differences in their retinue attraction response to QMP (a pheromone releaser effect). Strains

T. Pankiw; Z-. Y Huang; M. L. Winston; G. E. Robinson

1998-01-01

5

How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory—that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover ( for R) and sitter ( for s) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background ( for s2) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response.

Camiletti, Alison L.; Awde, David N.; Thompson, Graham J.

2014-01-01

6

Queen reproductive state modulates pheromone production and queen-worker interactions in honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandibular glands of queen honeybees produce a pheromone that modulates many aspects of worker honeybee physiology and behavior and is critical for colony social organization. The exact chemical blend produced by the queen differs between virgin and mated, laying queens. Here, we investigate the role of mating and reproductive state on queen pheromone production and worker responses. Virgin queens,

Sarah D. Kocher; Freddie-Jeanne Richard; David R. Tarpy; Christina M. Grozinger

2009-01-01

7

Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees’ attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP’s effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

2014-01-01

8

Queen pheromone regulates egg production in a termite  

PubMed Central

In social insects, resource allocation is a key factor that influences colony survival and growth. Optimal allocation to queens and brood is essential for maximum colony productivity, requiring colony members to have information on the total reproductive power in colonies. However, the mechanisms regulating egg production relative to the current labour force for brood care remain poorly known. Recently, a volatile chemical was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of new neotenic reproductives (secondary reproductives developed from nymphs or workers) in Reticulitermes speratus. The same volatile chemical is also emitted by eggs. This queen pheromone would therefore be expected to act as an honest message of the reproductive power about queens. In this study, we examined how the queen pheromone influences the reproductive rate of queens in R. speratus. We compared the number of eggs produced by each queen between groups with and without exposure to artificial queen pheromone. Exposure to the pheromone resulted in a significant decrease in egg production in both single-queen and multiple-queen groups. This is the first report supporting the role of queen pheromones as a signal regulating colony-level egg production, using synthetically derived compounds in a termite. PMID:21543395

Yamamoto, Yuuka; Matsuura, Kenji

2011-01-01

9

Queen pheromone regulates egg production in a termite.  

PubMed

In social insects, resource allocation is a key factor that influences colony survival and growth. Optimal allocation to queens and brood is essential for maximum colony productivity, requiring colony members to have information on the total reproductive power in colonies. However, the mechanisms regulating egg production relative to the current labour force for brood care remain poorly known. Recently, a volatile chemical was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of new neotenic reproductives (secondary reproductives developed from nymphs or workers) in Reticulitermes speratus. The same volatile chemical is also emitted by eggs. This queen pheromone would therefore be expected to act as an honest message of the reproductive power about queens. In this study, we examined how the queen pheromone influences the reproductive rate of queens in R. speratus. We compared the number of eggs produced by each queen between groups with and without exposure to artificial queen pheromone. Exposure to the pheromone resulted in a significant decrease in egg production in both single-queen and multiple-queen groups. This is the first report supporting the role of queen pheromones as a signal regulating colony-level egg production, using synthetically derived compounds in a termite. PMID:21543395

Yamamoto, Yuuka; Matsuura, Kenji

2011-10-23

10

Queen-signal modulation of worker pheromonal composition in honeybees.  

PubMed

Worker sterility in honeybees is neither absolute nor irreversible. Whether under queen or worker control, it is likely to be mediated by pheromones. Queen-specific pheromones are not exclusive to queens; workers with activated ovaries also produce them. The association between ovarian activation and queen-like pheromone occurrence suggests the latter as providing a reliable signal of reproductive ability. In this study we investigated the effect of queen pheromones on ovary development and occurrence of queen-like esters in workers' Dufour's gland. Workers separated from the queenright compartment by a double mesh behaved like queenless workers, activating their ovaries and expressing a queen-like Dufour's gland secretion, confirming that the pheromones regulating both systems are non-volatile. Workers with developed ovaries produced significantly more secretion than sterile workers, which we attribute primarily to increased ester production. Workers separated from the queenright compartment by a single mesh displayed a delayed ovarian development, which we attribute to interrupted transfer of the non-volatile pheromone between compartments. We suggest that worker expression of queen-like characters reflects a queen-worker arms race; and that Dufour's gland secretion may provide a reliable signal for ovarian activation. The associative nature between ovary development and Dufour's gland ester production remains elusive. PMID:15451697

Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Boulay, Raphaël; Soroker, Victoria; Hefetz, Abraham

2004-10-01

11

Chemical profiles of two pheromone glands are differentially regulated by distinct mating factors in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

Niño, Elina L; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2013-01-01

12

Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)  

PubMed Central

Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

Niño, Elina L.; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2013-01-01

13

Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone.  

PubMed

Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

Holman, Luke

2014-01-01

14

Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone  

PubMed Central

Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

2014-01-01

15

Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility  

PubMed Central

The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have only been definitively identified in the honeybee. Using the black garden ant Lasius niger, we isolate the first sterility-regulating ant queen pheromone. The pheromone is a cuticular hydrocarbon that comprises the majority of the chemical profile of queens and their eggs, and also affects worker behaviour, by reducing aggression towards objects bearing the pheromone. We further show that the pheromone elicits a strong response in worker antennae and that its production by queens is selectively reduced following an immune challenge. These results suggest that the pheromone has a central role in colony organization and support the hypothesis that worker sterility represents altruistic self-restraint in response to an honest quality signal. PMID:20591861

Holman, Luke; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-01-01

16

Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility.  

PubMed

The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have only been definitively identified in the honeybee. Using the black garden ant Lasius niger, we isolate the first sterility-regulating ant queen pheromone. The pheromone is a cuticular hydrocarbon that comprises the majority of the chemical profile of queens and their eggs, and also affects worker behaviour, by reducing aggression towards objects bearing the pheromone. We further show that the pheromone elicits a strong response in worker antennae and that its production by queens is selectively reduced following an immune challenge. These results suggest that the pheromone has a central role in colony organization and support the hypothesis that worker sterility represents altruistic self-restraint in response to an honest quality signal. PMID:20591861

Holman, Luke; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2010-12-22

17

Cooperation, conflict, and the evolution of queen pheromones.  

PubMed

While chemical communication regulates individual behavior in a wide variety of species, these communication systems are most elaborated in insect societies. In these complex systems, pheromones produced by the reproductive individuals (queens) are critical in establishing and maintaining dominant reproductive status over hundreds to thousands of workers. The proximate and ultimate mechanisms by which these intricate pheromone communication systems evolved are largely unknown, though there has been much debate over whether queen pheromones function as a control mechanism or as an honest signal facilitating cooperation. Here, we summarize results from recent studies in honey bees, bumble bees, wasps, ants and termites. We further discuss evolutionary mechanisms by which queen pheromone communication systems may have evolved. Overall, these studies suggest that queen-worker pheromone communication is a multi-component, labile dialog between the castes, rather than a simple, fixed signal-response system. We also discuss future approaches that can shed light on the proximate and ultimate mechanisms that underlie these complex systems by focusing on the development of increasingly sophisticated genomic tools and their potential applications to examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate pheromone production and perception. PMID:22083225

Kocher, Sarah D; Grozinger, Christina M

2011-11-01

18

Multifunctional queen pheromone and maintenance of reproductive harmony in termite colonies.  

PubMed

Pheromones are likely involved in all social activities of social insects including foraging, sexual behavior, defense, nestmate recognition, and caste regulation. Regulation of the number of fertile queens requires communication between reproductive and non-reproductive individuals. Queen-produced pheromones have long been believed to be the main factor inhibiting the differentiation of new reproductive individuals. However, since the discovery more than 50 years ago of the queen honeybee substance that inhibits the queen-rearing behavior of workers, little progress has been made in the chemical identification of inhibitory queen pheromones in other social insects. The recent identification of a termite queen pheromone and subsequent studies have elucidated the multifaceted roles of volatile pheromones, including functions such as a fertility signal, worker attractant, queen-queen communication signal, and antimicrobial agent. The proximate origin and evolutionary parsimony of the termite queen pheromone also are discussed. PMID:22623152

Matsuura, Kenji

2012-06-01

19

Selection on worker honeybee responses to queen pheromone (Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disruptive selection for responsiveness to queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) in the retinue bioassay resulted in the production of high and low QMP responding strains of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed significantly in their retinue response to QMP after one generation of selection. By the third generation the high strain was on average at least nine times more responsive than the low strain. The strains showed seasonal phenotypic plasticity such that both strains were more responsive to the pheromone in the spring than in the fall. Directional selection for low seasonal variation indicated that phenotypic plasticity was an additional genetic component to retinue response to QMP. Selection for high and low retinue responsiveness to QMP was not an artifact of the synthetic blend because both strains were equally responsive or non-responsive to whole mandibular gland extracts compared with QMP. The use of these strains clearly pointed to an extra-mandibular source of retinue pheromones (Pankiw et al. 1995; Slessor et al. 1998; Keeling et al. 1999).

Pankiw, T.; Winston, Mark L.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Slessor, Keith N.

20

Binding interaction between a queen pheromone component HOB and pheromone binding protein ASP1 of Apis cerana.  

PubMed

The honeybee's social behavior is closely related to the critical response to pheromone, while pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in binding and transferring those pheromones. Here we report one known PBP, antennal special protein 1(ASP1), which has high affinity with a queen mandibular pheromone component, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). In this study, multiple fluorescent spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking analysis were combined to clarify the binding process. Basically, fluorescence intensity of ASP1 could be considerably quenched by HOB with an appropriate interaction distance (3.1nm), indicating that a complex, which is more stable in lower temperature, was formed. The fact ?H<0, ?S<0, by thermodynamic analysis, indicated the van der Waals and hydrogen bond as main driving force. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed the change of partial hydrophilicity of ASP1 and the increase of ?-helix after HOB addition. In conclusion, ASP1 can strongly and spontaneously interact with HOB. But the binding ability decreases with the rise of temperature, which may be necessary for sufficient social stability of hives. This study provides elucidation of the detailed binding mechanism and potential physicochemical basis of thermal stability to the social behavior of honeybee. PMID:25195542

Weng, Chen; Fu, Yuxia; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Hongliang

2015-01-01

21

Queen and young larval pheromones impact nursing and reproductive physiology of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers.  

PubMed

Several insect pheromones are multifunctional and have both releaser and primer effects. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and e-beta-ocimene (e?), emitted by young worker larvae, have such dual effects. There is increasing evidence that these multifunctional pheromones profoundly shape honey bee colony dynamics by influencing cooperative brood care, a fundamental aspect of eusocial insect behavior. Both QMP and e? have been shown to affect worker physiology and behavior, but it has not yet been determined if these two key pheromones have interactive effects on hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development, actively used in caring of larvae, and ovary activation, a component of worker reproductive physiology. Experimental results demonstrate that both QMP and e? significantly suppress ovary activation compared to controls but that the larval pheromone is more effective than QMP. The underlying reproductive anatomy (total ovarioles) of workers influenced HPG development and ovary activation, so that worker bees with more ovarioles were less responsive to suppression of ovary activation by QMP. These bees were more likely to develop their HPG and have activated ovaries in the presence of e?, providing additional links between nursing and reproductive physiology in support of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. PMID:25395721

Traynor, Kirsten S; Le Conte, Yves; Page, Robert E

2014-01-01

22

Single class of queen pheromones stops worker reproduction in ants, bees and wasps  

E-print Network

Single class of queen pheromones stops worker reproduction in ants, bees and wasps A new study pheromones in wasps, ants and some bees is strikingly similar, even though these insects are separated in representative species of wasps, bees, and ants. After identifying candidate queen pheromones by analysing

Wenseleers, Tom

23

Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli. PMID:16943499

Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

2006-09-01

24

Sex pheromone of the queen butterfly: chemistry.  

PubMed

Two major components in the "hairpencil" secretion of the male of the queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus berenice) have been identified. One, a crystalline ketone (2,3-dihydro-7-methyl-1H-pyrrolizin-1-one), is known from another danaid butterfly. The other, a viscous terpenoid alcohol (trans, trans-3,7-dimethyldeca-2,6-dien-1,10-diol), is new; its structure is confirmed by an unambiguous synthesis. PMID:17810532

Meinwald, J; Meinwald, Y C; Mazzocchi, P H

1969-06-01

25

Sex pheromone of the queen butterfly: biology.  

PubMed

Males of the queen butterfly Danaus gilippus berenice, deprived of the two extrusible brushlike "hairpencils" at the rear of their abdomen, are capable of courting females but incapable of seducing them. In normal courtship, an aphrodisiac secretion associated with the hairpencils is transferred by way of tiny cuticular "dust" particles to the antennae of the females. Of the two substances identified from the secretion, one (the ketone) acts as the chemical messenger that induces the females to mate. The only known function of the other compound (the diol) is to serve as a glue that sticks the dust to the female. Males were reared under conditions in which they produced subnormal amounts of ketone and showed reduced seductive capacity. Under certain experimental circumstances, the competence of these males was restored by addition of synthetic ketone. PMID:17810530

Pliske, T E; Eisner, T

1969-06-01

26

Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

1981-04-01

27

Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing.  

PubMed

A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female fecundity in 64 species of social insects. Our results show that queen pheromones are strikingly conserved across at least three independent origins of eusociality, with wasps, ants, and some bees all appearing to use nonvolatile, saturated hydrocarbons to advertise fecundity and/or suppress worker reproduction. These results suggest that queen pheromones evolved from conserved signals of solitary ancestors. PMID:24436417

Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Romero, Carmen; Oi, Cintia A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Billen, Johan; Wäckers, Felix; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wenseleers, Tom

2014-01-17

28

Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

2000-10-01

29

Queen sex pheromone of the slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps.  

PubMed

Workers of the slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps, raid nests of Formica ants and return with Formica pupae that mature into worker ants in the slave-makers' colony. These Formica workers then tend the Polyergus brood, workers, and reproductives. During raids in the mating season, winged virgin Polyergus queens accompany the workers in the raiding columns. During the raid, the virgin queens release a pheromone that attracts males that quickly mate with the queens. We report the identification, synthesis, and bioassay of the sex attractant pheromone of the queens as an approximately 1:6 ratio of (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol and methyl 6-methylsalicylate. The ants produce exclusively the (R)-enantiomer of the alcohol, and the (S)-enantiomer has no biological activity, neither inhibiting nor increasing attraction to blends of methyl 6-methylsalicylate with the (R)-enantiomer. PMID:17393281

Greenberg, Les; Tröger, Armin G; Francke, Wittko; McElfresh, J Steven; Topoff, Howard; Aliabadi, Ali; Millar, Jocelyn G

2007-05-01

30

Sex pheromone of the queen bufferfly: electroantennogram responses.  

PubMed

Olfactory receptor responses (electroantennograms) were recorded from antennae of danaid butterflies. Antennae of male and female queen butterflies (Danaus gilippus berenice) respond equally strongly to the hairpencil of queen males, to its crude extract, and to one of its two identified secretory components (the ketone). Responses to the second component (the diol) are weak. Hairpencils of a related species, Lycorea ceres, which also contain the ketone, are equally effective in eliciting electroantennograms from both sexes of the queen. Antennae of another related species, the monarch (Danaus plexippus), respond to the same stimuli as does the queen. Monarch hairpencils, which lack the ketone, do not elicit electroantennograms in monarch or queen antennae. PMID:17810531

Schneider, D; Seibt, U

1969-06-01

31

Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds.  

PubMed

In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

Nunes, Túlio M; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P; Amaral, Mônica F Z J; von Zuben, Lucas G; Clososki, Giuliano C; Bento, José M S; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P

2014-01-01

32

A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

2002-05-01

33

Identification of queen sex pheromone components of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.  

PubMed

We investigated the origin and chemical composition of the queen sex pheromone of the primitively eusocial bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Apidae). Physiologically and behaviorally active compounds were identified by coupled gas chromatography electro-antennography (GC-EAD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and laboratory behavioral tests. In the behavioral assays, virgin queens frozen previously at -20 degrees C were highly attractive to males. Dummies impregnated with surface and cephalic extracts obtained from virgin queens that had been frozen at -50 degrees C were more attractive to males than odorless dummies. Male mating behavior was stimulated by components of cephalic secretions that are smeared onto the cuticle surface by the queen. Overall, 21 compounds present in surface and cephalic extracts evoked electroantennographic responses in male antennae. These included saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, ethyl- and methyl esters of the fatty acids, heptacosene, 2-nonanone, and geranyl geraniol. A blend of synthetic versions of these compounds elicited typical male mating behavior. Since solvent-impregnated dummies were approached by the males, but did not release copulatory behavior, visual cues may be important in the initial step of stimulating male mating behavior. Close-range olfactory signals are more important for releasing male mating behavior as well as for species recognition. In further behavioral assays, the attractiveness of a frozen virgin queen decreased as the storage time at -20 degrees C increased from 2 hr to 1 d. Therefore, the chemical composition of the sex pheromone may change during freezing as behaviorally active compounds may decompose. PMID:16555129

Krieger, Gudrun M; Duchateau, Marie-José; Van Doorn, Adriaan; Ibarra, Fernando; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

2006-02-01

34

Reversible royalty in worker honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) under the queen influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most social insects, worker sterility is reversible, and in the absence of the queen, at least some workers develop ovaries\\u000a and lay male-destined eggs. In the honeybee, reproductive workers also produce queen-characteristic mandibular and Dufour’s\\u000a pheromones. The evolution of worker sterility is still under debate as to whether it is caused by queen manipulation (queen-control\\u000a hypothesis) or represents worker

Osnat Malka; Shiri Shnieor; Abraham Hefetz; Tamar Katzav-Gozansky

2007-01-01

35

Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone  

SciTech Connect

A short synthesis of (4,5-/sup 3/H/sub 2/) (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues.

Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

1988-03-01

36

Electron microscopic study of the mandibular glands of Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr. (Isoptera; Calotermitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandibular glands of Kalotermes were examined in different castes. They showed sexual dimorphism in the soldiers and primary reproductives. Moreover, in female soldiers and queens, mandibular gland cells contained numerous crystalline structures of mitochondrial origin. The role of these glands (secretion of saliva or pheromone) is discussed.

Pierre Cassier; M. A. Fain-Maurel; D. Lebrun

1977-01-01

37

Cloning and expression of a queen pheromone-binding protein in the honeybee: an olfactory-specific, developmentally regulated protein.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracellular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first time in a social insect, a binding protein called antennal-specific protein 1 (ASP1), which binds at least one of the major queen pheromone components. ASP1 was characterized by cDNA cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and pheromone binding. In situ hybridization showed that it is specifically expressed in the auxiliary cell layer of the antennal olfactory sensilla. The ASP1 sequence revealed it as a divergent member of the insect OBP family. The recombinant protein presented the exact characteristics of the native protein, as shown by mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequencing and exclusion-diffusion chromatography showed that recombinant ASP1 is dimeric. ASP1 interacts with queen pheromone major components, opposite to another putative honeybee OBP, called ASP2. ASP1 biosynthetic accumulation, followed by nondenaturing electrophoresis during development, starts at day 1 before emergence, in concomitance with the functional maturation of olfactory neurons. The isobar ASP1b isoform appears simultaneously to ASP1a in workers, but only at approximately 2 weeks after emergence in drones. Comparison of in vivo and heterologous expressions suggests that the difference between ASP1 isoforms might be because of dimerization, which might play a physiological role in relation with mate attraction. PMID:10460253

Danty, E; Briand, L; Michard-Vanhée, C; Perez, V; Arnold, G; Gaudemer, O; Huet, D; Huet, J C; Ouali, C; Masson, C; Pernollet, J C

1999-09-01

38

Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

2007-05-01

39

Insect pheromones.  

PubMed

The evidence for intraspecies chemical communication in insects is reviewed, with emphasis on those studies where known organic compounds have been implicated. These signal-carrying chemicals are known as pheromones. There are two distinct types of pheromones, releasers and primers. Releaser pheromones initiate immediate behavioral responses in insects upon reception, while primer pheromones cause physiological changes in an animal that ultimately result in a behavior response. Chemically identified releaser pheromones are of three basic types: those which cause sexual attraction, alarm behavior, and recruitment. Sex pheromones release the entire repertoire of sexual behavior. Thus a male insect may be attracted to and attempt to copulate with an inanimate object that has sex pheromone on it. It appears that most insects are rather sensitive and selective for the sex pheromone of their species. Insects show far less sensitivity and chemospecificity for alarm pheromones. Alarm selectivity is based more on volatility than on unique structural features. Recruiting pheromones are used primarily in marking trails to food sources. Terrestrial insects lay continuous odor trails, whereas bees and other airborne insects apply the substances at discrete intervals. It appears that a complex pheromone system is used by the queen bee in the control of worker behavior. One well-established component of this system is a fatty acid, 9-ketodecenoic acid, produced by the queen and distributed among the workers. This compound prevents the development of ovaries in the workers and inhibits their queen-rearing activities. In addition, the same compound is used by virgin queen bees as a sex attractant. PMID:4882034

Regnier, F E; Law, J H

1968-09-01

40

Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

2008-06-01

41

Pathological effects of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae on honey bee queen physiology (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite originally described in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana, has recently been found to be cross-infective and to also parasitize the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Since this discovery, many studies have attempted to characterize the impact of this parasite in A. mellifera honey bees. Nosema species can infect all colony members, workers, drones and queens, but the pathological effects of this microsporidium has been mainly investigated in workers, despite the prime importance of the queen, who monopolizes the reproduction and regulates the cohesion of the society via pheromones. We therefore analyzed the impact of N. ceranae on queen physiology. We found that infection by N. ceranae did not affect the fat body content (an indicator of energy stores) but did alter the vitellogenin titer (an indicator of fertility and longevity), the total antioxidant capacity and the queen mandibular pheromones, which surprisingly were all significantly increased in Nosema-infected queens. Thus, such physiological changes may impact queen health, leading to changes in pheromone production, that could explain Nosema-induced supersedure (queen replacement). PMID:21156180

Alaux, Cédric; Folschweiller, Morgane; McDonnell, Cynthia; Beslay, Dominique; Cousin, Marianne; Dussaubat, Claudia; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

2011-03-01

42

Differential expression of odorant-binding proteins in the mandibular glands of the honey bee according to caste and age.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) mediate both perception and release of chemical stimuli in insects. The genome of the honey bee contains 21 genes encoding OBPs and 6 encoding CSPs. Using a proteomic approach, we have investigated the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the mandibular glands of adult honey bees in relation to caste and age. OBP13 is mostly expressed in young individuals and in virgin queens, while OBP21 is abundant in older bees and is prevalent in mated queens. OBP14, which had been found in larvae, is produced in hive workers' glands. Quite unexpectedly, the mandibular glands of drones also contain OBPs, mainly OBP18 and OBP21. We have expressed three of the most represented OBPs and studied their binding properties. OBP13 binds with good specificity oleic acid and some structurally related compounds, OBP14 is better tuned to monoterpenoid structures, while OBP21 binds the main components of queen mandibular pheromone as well as farnesol, a compound used as a trail pheromone in the honey bee and other hymenopterans. The high expression of different OBPs in the mandibular glands suggests that such proteins could be involved in solubilization and release of semiochemicals. PMID:21707107

Iovinella, Immacolata; Dani, Francesca Romana; Niccolini, Alberto; Sagona, Simona; Michelucci, Elena; Gazzano, Angelo; Turillazzi, Stefano; Felicioli, Antonio; Pelosi, Paolo

2011-08-01

43

Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

2012-05-01

44

Beyond 9-ODA: sex pheromone communication in the European honey bee Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

The major component of the mandibular gland secretion of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), 9-ODA ((2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid), has been known for more than 40 yr to function as a long-range sex pheromone, attracting drones at congregation areas and drone flyways. Tests of other mandibular gland components failed to demonstrate attraction. It remained unclear whether these components served any function in mating behavior. We performed dual-choice experiments, using a rotating drone carousel, to test the attractiveness of 9-ODA compared to mixtures of 9-ODA with three other most abundant components in virgin queen mandibular gland secretions: (2E)-9-hydroxydecenoic acid (9-HDA), (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), and p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). We found no differences in the number of drones attracted to 9-ODA or the respective mixtures over a distance. However, adding 9-HDA and 10-HDA, or 9-HDA, 10-HDA, and HOB to 9-ODA increased the number of drones making contact with the baited dummy. On the basis of these results, we suggest that at least 9-HDA and 10-HDA are additional components of the sex pheromone blend of A. mellifera. PMID:16586035

Brockmann, Axel; Dietz, Daniel; Spaethe, Johannes; Tautz, Jürgen

2006-03-01

45

Volatiles in the mandibular gland of Tetraponera penzigi: A plant ant of the whistling thorn acacia  

E-print Network

Volatiles in the mandibular gland of Tetraponera penzigi: A plant ant of the whistling thorn acacia; accepted 11 January 2006 Keywords: Tetraponera penzigi; Hymenoptera; Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae; Acacia drepanolobium; Whistling thorn acacia; Mandibular gland; Alarm pheromone 1. Subject and source Workers

Palmer, Todd M.

46

Temporal decline in attractiveness of honeybee queen tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BODY or surface (such as that of a worker bee or a cage) that has been in contact with a honeybee queen becomes attractive to worker bees1-3 due to contamination with queen pheromones3,4. Little information is available about the durability of those pheromones, apart from Butler's report that 30 min after removal of the queen a cage becomes less

Alfonsas Juska

1978-01-01

47

Queen signaling in social wasps.  

PubMed

Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula saxonica, queens emit reliable chemical cues of their true fertility and that these putative queen signals decrease as the colony develops and worker reproduction increases. Moreover, these putative pheromones of D. saxonica show significant conservation with those of Vespula vulgaris and other Vespinae, thereby arguing against fast evolution of signals as a result of a queen-worker arms race ensuing from queen control. Lastly, levels of worker reproduction in these species correspond well with their average colony kin structures, as predicted by the queen signaling hypothesis but not the queen control hypothesis. Altogether, this correlative yet comprehensive analysis provides compelling evidence that honest signaling explains levels of reproductive division of labor in social wasps. PMID:24219699

van Zweden, Jelle S; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2014-04-01

48

Workers do not mediate the inhibitory power of queens in a termite, Reticulitermes speratus (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social insects, the caste systems are based on reproductive division of labor; queens specialize in reproduction and workers\\u000a primarily maintain the colony. Recently, a volatile pheromone containing n-butyl-n-butyrate and 2-methyl-1-butanol was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of female neotenic\\u000a reproductives (secondary queens). Although this volatile inhibitory pheromone regulates caste differentiation directly, the\\u000a method by

K. Matsuura; Y. Yamamoto

49

Pollination by sexual mimicry in Mormolyca ringens: a floral chemistry that remarkably matches the pheromones of virgin queens of Scaptotrigona sp.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of some volatile (2-heptanol) and nonvolatile constituents (a homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) of Mormolyca ringens flowers and Scaptotrigona sp. queen waxes (homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) and cephalic extracts (homologous series of 2-alkanols, including 2-heptanol) involved with the pseudocopulation or sexual mimicry in Orchidaceae pollination is compared. The similarity in chemical composition of flowers and insects is assigned to the chemically induced copulatory activity in Scaptotrigona males. PMID:16525870

Flach, Adriana; Marsaioli, Anita J; Singer, Rodrigo B; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Menezes, Cristiano; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Corrêa, Arlene G

2006-01-01

50

Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.  

PubMed

Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. PMID:20831960

Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

2010-01-01

51

Pheromone Signalling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

Hart, Adam G.

2011-01-01

52

Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

2008-08-01

53

Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites.  

PubMed

The hallmark of social insects is their caste system: reproduction is primarily monopolized by queens, whereas workers specialize in the other tasks required for colony growth and survival. Pheromones produced by reigning queens have long been believed to be the prime factor inhibiting the differentiation of new reproductive individuals. However, there has been very little progress in the chemical identification of such inhibitory pheromones. Here we report the identification of a volatile inhibitory pheromone produced by female neotenics (secondary queens) that acts directly on target individuals to suppress the differentiation of new female neotenics and identify n-butyl-n-butyrate and 2-methyl-1-butanol as the active components of the inhibitory pheromone. An artificial pheromone blend consisting of these two compounds had a strong inhibitory effect similar to live neotenics. Surprisingly, the same two volatiles are also emitted by eggs, playing a role both as an attractant to workers and an inhibitor of reproductive differentiation. This dual production of an inhibitory pheromone by female reproductives and eggs probably reflects the recruitment of an attractant pheromone as an inhibitory pheromone and may provide a mechanism ensuring honest signaling of reproductive status with a tight coupling between fertility and inhibitory power. Identification of a volatile pheromone regulating caste differentiation in a termite provides insights into the functioning of social insect colonies and opens important avenues for elucidating the developmental pathways leading to reproductive and nonreproductive castes. PMID:20615972

Matsuura, Kenji; Himuro, Chihiro; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Yuuka; Vargo, Edward L; Keller, Laurent

2010-07-20

54

Mammalian pheromones.  

PubMed

Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

Liberles, Stephen D

2014-01-01

55

Caste-Selective Pheromone Biosynthesis in Honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Queen and worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) produce a caste-related blend of functionalized 8- and 10-carbon fatty acids in their mandibular glands. The biological functions of these compounds match the queen's reproductive and the worker's nonreproductive roles in the colony. Studies with deuterated substrates revealed that the biosynthesis of these acids begins with stearic acid, which is hydroxylated at the 17th or 18th position. The 18-carbon hydroxy acid chains are shortened, and the resulting 10-carbon hydroxy acids are oxidized in a caste-selective manner, thereby determining many of the functional differences between queens and workers.

Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.; Winston, Mark L.; Oliver, James E.

1996-03-01

56

Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits.

Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

2013-01-01

57

Uncoupling fertility from fertility-associated pheromones in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Fertility-associated pheromones, chemical signals delineating ovarian development, were favourably selected in the course of evolution because it is in the best interest of both the signallers (in recruiting help from other colony members) and the receivers (in assisting them to reach an informed decision of how to maximize fitness). Such signals therefore should constitute honest, deception-proof indicators of ovarian development, suggesting, theoretically, that the processes of ovarian development and signal production are irreversibly coupled. Here we demonstrate that these processes can be uncoupled by treating queenless (QL) honeybee callow workers with methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog. While methoprene effectively inhibited ovarian development, it neither inhibited Dufour's fertility signal nor the mandibular glands' dominance signal. In fact, there was even a slight augmentation of both in the methoprene-treated bees. Thus, although fertility and fertility signals are tightly associated, they can be uncoupled by experimental manipulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ovarian development and fertility-associated signal production are triggered by a common event/signal (e.g. queen pheromone disappearance) but comprise different regulatory systems. The evolutionary implication is that these two traits have evolved independently and may have been co-opted to emphasize the reproductive status of workers in the competition for reproduction. PMID:19041321

Malka, Osnat; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham

2009-03-01

58

Queen Bee  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The bee marked in yellow is this hive's queen. There is usually only one queen in a hive, which the worker honeybees feed, follow, and protect. Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use changes that decrease flower abundance can affect bee health and pollination ...

59

A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid.  

PubMed

By using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a honey bee [Apis mellifera (Am)] odorant receptor (Or) for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA). Honey bees live in large eusocial colonies in which a single queen is responsible for reproduction, several thousand sterile female worker bees complete a myriad of tasks to maintain the colony, and several hundred male drones exist only to mate. The "queen substance" [also termed the queen retinue pheromone (QRP)] is an eight-component pheromone that maintains the queen's dominance in the colony. The main component, 9-ODA, acts as a releaser pheromone by attracting workers to the queen and as a primer pheromone by physiologically inhibiting worker ovary development; it also acts as a sex pheromone, attracting drones during mating flights. However, the extent to which social and sexual chemical messages are shared remains unresolved. By using a custom chemosensory-specific microarray and qPCR, we identified four candidate sex pheromone Ors (AmOr10, -11, -18, and -170) from the honey bee genome based on their biased expression in drone antennae. We assayed the pheromone responsiveness of these receptors by using Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiology. AmOr11 responded specifically to 9-ODA (EC50=280+/-31 nM) and not to any of the other seven QRP components, other social pheromones, or floral odors. We did not observe any responses of the other three Ors to any of the eight QRP pheromone components, suggesting 9-ODA is the only QRP component that also acts as a long-distance sex pheromone. PMID:17761794

Wanner, Kevin W; Nichols, Andrew S; Walden, Kimberly K O; Brockmann, Axel; Luetje, Charles W; Robertson, Hugh M

2007-09-01

60

Queen-specific volatile in a higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social insect colonies, queen-produced pheromones have important functions in social regulation. These substances influence the behavior and physiology of colony members. A queen-produced volatile that inhibits differentiation of new neotenic reproductives was recently identified in the lower termite Reticulitermes speratus. However, there are no known queen-specific volatiles of this type in any other termite species. Here, we report volatile

Chihiro Himuro; Tomoyuki Yokoi; Kenji Matsuura

2011-01-01

61

that hydrolyze royal jelly proteins from queen bee larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

that hydrolyze royal jelly proteins from queen bee larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Takuma of processed royal jelly. Apis mellifera / queen larvae / protease / royal jelly 1. INTRODUCTION Royal jelly (RJ), secreted from the hypophar- yngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees of the honeybee, Apis

62

Queen-specific volatile in a higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae).  

PubMed

In social insect colonies, queen-produced pheromones have important functions in social regulation. These substances influence the behavior and physiology of colony members. A queen-produced volatile that inhibits differentiation of new neotenic reproductives was recently identified in the lower termite Reticulitermes speratus. However, there are no known queen-specific volatiles of this type in any other termite species. Here, we report volatile compounds emitted by live queens of the higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis. We used headspace gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (HS GC-MS) to analyze volatiles emitted by live primary queens, workers, soldiers, alates, and eggs collected in a Japanese subtropical forest. Among 14 detected compounds, 7 were soldier-specific, 1 was alate-specific, 1 was egg-specific, and 1 was queen-specific. The queen-specific volatile was phenylethanol, which is different than the compound identified in R. speratus. The identification of this queen-specific volatile is the first step in determining its functions in higher termite social regulation. Comparisons of queen pheromone substances regulating caste differentiation among various termite taxa will contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of social systems in termites. PMID:21540033

Himuro, Chihiro; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Matsuura, Kenji

2011-07-01

63

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University  

E-print Network

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University Sustainability Strategic Framework #12;Sustainability Framework 2 Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Queen's Sustainability Mission

Abolmaesumi, Purang

64

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes  

E-print Network

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes viernes, 17 de. Experts suggest that insects may have been using the chemicals to signal fertility for roughly 150 million these pheromones evolved could provide a window onto how social insects developed their cooperative living system

Wenseleers, Tom

65

Workers of a Polistes Paper Wasp Detect the Presence of Their Queen by Chemical Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in long-chain hydrocarbon mixtures among reproductive and nonreproductive individuals have been often revealed in social insects. However, very few papers demonstrated that these signatures actually act as contact pheromones used by nonreproductive to recognize the presence of a related queen in the colony. Cuticular and glandular hydrocarbons of Polistes paper wasps have been extensively studied, but, until now, the

Leonardo Dapporto; Antonio Santini; Francesca R. Dani; Stefano Turillazzi

2007-01-01

66

Queen production and instrumental insemination of Apis florea queens  

E-print Network

Queen production and instrumental insemination of Apis florea queens Mananya PHIANCHAROEN 1 for new studies in genetics and selective breeding. Apis florea / queen production / instrumental of instru- mental insemination of honeybees have been directed at Apis mellifera. And, indeed, major

67

Queen Anne's Chestertown  

E-print Network

Washington Allegany Harford Frederick Howard Charles Annapolis Cecil Kent Garrett Montgomery Prince George's Calvert Baltimore Talbot Caroline Wicomico Carroll Prince Frederick Somerset Queen Anne's Anne

Hill, Wendell T.

68

Emergency Management Queen's University  

E-print Network

Emergency Management Plan Queen's University 1 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Distribution List Record of Revision Queen's Emergency Management Plan 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Aim and Objectives 3.0 Authority/Chain of Command 4.0 Initiation of the Plan/Activation Process 5.0 Communications/Notifications (Call Out

Linder, Tamás

69

Stereochemical studies on pheromonal communications.  

PubMed

Pheromonal communications are heavily dependent on the stereochemistry of pheromones. Their enantioselective syntheses could establish the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring pheromones, and clarified the unique relationships between absolute configuration and bioactivity. For example, neither the (R)- nor (S)-enantiomer of sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle, is behaviorally active, while their mixture is bioactive. Recent results as summarized in the present review further illustrate the unique and diverse relationships between stereochemistry and bioactivity of pheromones. PMID:25504227

Mori, Kenji

2014-01-01

70

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY HERITAGE STUDY Queen's University  

E-print Network

LLLLLAWNSAWNSAWNSAWNSAWNS Date: 1836-39 - Residence under construction 1860 - Botanical Gardens 1890s - Tree & shrub of the grounds of Summerhill, established in 1839, and was the site of the first botanical garden in Canada and natural history at Queen's) in 1860. The botanical garden was later neglected and in the 1890s

Abolmaesumi, Purang

71

Mandibular gland secretions of meliponine worker bees: further evidence for their role in interspecific and intraspecific defence and aggression and against their role in food source signalling.  

PubMed

Like ants and termites some species of stingless bees (Meliponini), which are very important pollinators in the tropics, use pheromone trails to communicate the location of a food source. We present data on the communicative role of mandibular gland secretions of Meliponini that resolve a recent controversy about their importance in the laying of such trails. Volatile constituents of the mandibular glands have been erroneously thought both to elicit aggressive/defensive behaviour and to signal food source location. We studied Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis ('postica'), two sympatric species to which this hypothesis was applied. Using extracts of carefully dissected glands instead of crude cephalic extracts we analysed the substances contained in the mandibular glands of worker bees. Major components of the extracts were 2-heptanol (both species), nonanal (T. spinipes), benzaldehyde and 2-tridecanone (S. aff. depilis). The effect of mandibular gland extracts and of individual components thereof on the behaviour of worker bees near their nest and at highly profitable food sources was consistent. Independent of the amount of mandibular gland extract applied, the bees overwhelmingly reacted with defensive behaviour and were never attracted to feeders scented with mandibular gland extract or any of the synthetic chemicals tested. Both bee species are capable of using mandibular gland secretions for intra- and interspecific communication of defence and aggression and share 2-heptanol as a major pheromone compound. While confirming the role of the mandibular glands in nest defence, our experiments provide strong evidence against their role in food source signalling. PMID:19329748

Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Hrncir, Michael; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Schmidt, Veronika M; Barth, Friedrich G

2009-04-01

72

The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

1986-07-01

73

Measuring mandibular motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

1977-01-01

74

Mandibular incisor extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranio-mandibular dysfunction therapy of a moderate Angle Class III malocclusion with retroclined incisors with anterior crossbite and pronounced crowding was based not on extraction of the first premolars but on protrusion of the incisors and the extraction of one lower incisor.

Hans-Jürgen Pauls

1999-01-01

75

Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

1984-01-01

76

Pheromone mimicry by Apis mellifera capensis social parasites leads to reproductive anarchyin host Apis mellifera scutellata colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen mandibular, tergal, tarsal and Dufour's gland secretions, as well as brood phero- mones regulate worker reproduction in honeybees. In South Africa two contiguous populations of honeybees exist, Apis mellifera capensisand A. m. scutellata. Queenless A. m. capensisworkers are reproductively distinct from workers of other races, in that they readily develop into pseudoqueens with rapid ovary and signal development. A.

Theresa Clair Wossler

2002-01-01

77

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

78

Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College must also apply for acceptance into the Nutrition and Dietetics Program. Please go to our webpage/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition

Engel, Robert

79

Queen's University Belfast School Offices  

E-print Network

Development and Alumni Relations 1 Disability Services 13 Drama and Film Centre at Queen's 8 Dunluce Health) Centre at 2A Airport Road Queen's Sport Upper Malone CLAREMONT STREET SANSSOUCIPARK To City Centre 1 EQ H Theological College Riddel Hall PEC Elms VillageQueen's Sport Upper Malone Ulster Museum Botanic Gardens KEY

Müller, Jens-Dominik

80

Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. They can cause a variety of complications in the develo­ping dentition. Supernumerary teeth can present in various forms and in any region of the mandible or maxilla, but have a predisposition for the anterior maxilla. Here is the presentation of a case of unusual location of supernumerary teeth located in between mandibular first and second molar region bilaterally. How to cite this article: Dhull KS, Dhull RS, Panda S, Acharya S, Yadav S, Mohanty G. Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):40-42. PMID:25206236

Dhull, Rachita Singh; Panda, Swagatika; Acharya, Sonu; Yadav, Shweta; Mohanty, Gatha

2014-01-01

81

Queen's Garden Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

82

Queen's Garden Formations  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

83

Queen's Garden Hoodoos  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

84

QUEENS COLLEGE Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

: We Learn so that We May Serve. As the great poet William Butler Yeats said, "Education an explosion of knowledge and a revolution in technology. The curriculum at Queens College is now carefully complex problems; communicate their ideas clearly; explore various cultures; and use modern technologies

Rosen, Jay

85

EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

86

'Snow Queen' Animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

87

Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?  

PubMed Central

Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

2002-01-01

88

[The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].  

PubMed

Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

Eijkman, M A J

2012-05-01

89

Is dauer pheromone of Caenorhabditis elegans really a pheromone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals respond to signals and cues in their environment. The difference between a signal (e.g. a pheromone) and a cue (e.g. a waste product) is that the information content of a signal is subject to natural selection, whereas that of a cue is not. The model free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms an alternative developmental morph (the dauer larva) in response to a so-called `dauer pheromone', produced by all worms. We suggest that the production of `dauer pheromone' has no fitness advantage for an individual worm and therefore we propose that `dauer pheromone' is not a signal, but a cue. Thus, it should not be called a pheromone.

Viney, M. E.; Franks, N. R.

90

Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

2014-01-01

91

13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

92

11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

93

12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

94

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

95

A plant factory for moth pheromone production.  

PubMed

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

96

Queen's University Belfast School Offices  

E-print Network

Building 10 David Keir Building 29 Development and Alumni Relations 1 Disability Services 13 Drama and Film and Engineering (NIACE) Centre at 2A Airport Road Queen's Sport Upper Malone CLAREMONT STREET SANSSOUCIPARK Building Union Theological College Riddel Hall PEC Elms VillageQueen's Sport Upper Malone Ulster Museum

Müller, Jens-Dominik

97

The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.  

PubMed

Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic microbes on the evolution of social behaviour in termites. PMID:17726543

Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

2007-01-01

98

Rabbit Nipple-Search Pheromone Versus Rabbit Mammary Pheromone Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among mammals, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) show unusually limited maternal care and only nurse for a few minutes once each day. Successful suckling depends on pheromonal\\u000a cues on the mother’s ventrum, which release a stereotyped and distinctive pattern of nipple-search behaviour in the young,\\u000a and which have been termed the nipple-search pheromone. The present report summarizes what is currently known about

Robyn Hudson; Carolina Rojas; Lourdes Arteaga; Margarita Martínez-Gómez; Hans Distel

99

Mandibular torus morphology.  

PubMed

The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

Sellevold, B J

1980-11-01

100

Sex and the Red Queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative frequency-dependent selection exerted by parasites and pathogens can generate a selective advantage for rare host\\u000a genotypes. This mechanism, known as the Red Queen, is currently considered to be one of the most likely explanations for the\\u000a predominance of sexual reproduction in natural populations. Even so, the extent to which the Red Queen can and does provide\\u000a an advantage to

Maurine Neiman; Britt Koskella

101

Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens.  

PubMed

In 1959, P. Karlson and M. Lüscher introduced the term 'pheromone', broadly used nowadays for various chemicals involved in intraspecific communication. To demonstrate the term, they depicted the situation in termite societies, where king and queen inhibit the reproduction of nest-mates by an unknown chemical substance. Paradoxically, half a century later, neither the source nor the chemical identity of this 'royal' pheromone is known. In this study, we report for the first time the secretion of polar compounds of proteinaceous origin by functional reproductives in three termite species, Prorhinotermes simplex, Reticulitermes santonensis and Kalotermes flavicollis. Aqueous washes of functional reproductives contained sex-specific proteinaceous compounds, virtually absent in non-reproducing stages. Moreover, the presence of these compounds was clearly correlated with the age of reproductives and their reproductive status. We discuss the putative function of these substances in termite caste recognition and regulation. PMID:19939837

Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Cvacka, Josef; Sobotník, Jan

2010-04-01

102

Overwhelming hypercalcaemia in mandibular ameloblastoma.  

PubMed

Ameloblastoma is considered to be a benign odontogenic tumour of epithelial in origin that is slow growing but recurrent and invasive in nature. Some of its features have been sources of debate among experts regarding its benign or malignant character. We report a case of a 20-year-old Filipino woman with right mandibular ameloblastoma presenting with overwhelming hypercalcaemia. Work ups for hypercalcaemia eventually revealed tumoral hypercalcaemia, which was initially controlled with intravenous bisphosphanate. The patient eventually underwent tumour excision and mandibular reconstruction, which totally corrected hypercalcaemia. This case will highlight the rare association of hypercalcaemia among patients with ameloblastoma. PMID:25326561

Lo, Tom Edward Ngo; Villafuerte, Cesar Vincent; Acampado, Laura Trajano

2014-01-01

103

Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars  

PubMed Central

Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots.

Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

2015-01-01

104

Sex Pheromone and Trail Pheromone of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the complex network of chemical signals used by termites, trail pheromones and sex pheromones are among the best known.\\u000a Numerous recent papers map the chemical identity and glandular origin of these pheromones in nearly all major isopteran taxa.\\u000a In this study, we aimed to describe the sex pheromone and the trail pheromone of a poorly known sand termite, Psammotermes

David Sillam-Dussès; Robert Hanus; Ashraf Oukasha Abd El-Latif; Pavel Jiroš; Jana Krasulová; Blanka Kalinová; Irena Valterová; Jan Šobotník

2011-01-01

105

Pheromones and Exocrine Glands in Isoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted

Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo; Ives Haifig

2010-01-01

106

Spider pheromones - a structural perspective.  

PubMed

Spiders use pheromones for sexual communication, as do other animals such as insects. Nevertheless, knowledge about their chemical structure, function, and biosynthesis is only now being unraveled. Many studies have shown the existence of spider pheromones, but the responsible compounds have been elucidated in only a few cases. This review focuses on a structural approach because we need to know the involved chemistry if we are to understand fully the function of a pheromonal communication system. Pheromones from members of the spider families Pholcidae, Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Agenelidae, and Ctenidae are currently being identified and will be discussed in this review. Some of these compounds belong to compound classes not known from other arthropod pheromones, such as citric acid derivatives or acylated amino acids, whereas others originate from more common fatty acid metabolism. Their putative biosynthesis, their function, and the identification methods used will be discussed. Furthermore, other semiochemicals and the chemistry of apolar surface lipids that potentially might be used by spiders for communication are described briefly. PMID:23269451

Schulz, Stefan

2013-01-01

107

The Status of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, History of Queen Conch Research  

E-print Network

The Status of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, History of Queen Conch Research Today there are approximately 230 published scientific papers on queen conch, Strombus gigas. Publication on this species began was made in under standing processes related to growth, mortality, and reproduction in queen conch. Third

108

Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders  

E-print Network

Queen's Civil Engineering Engineers Without Borders In January, 2013, Civil Engineering students are in the final year of their civil engineering degree. Olga and Mikhaela are the co-presidents for the Queen

Graham, Nick

109

Queen Angelfish Hides in Mangrove Prop Roots  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Queen Angelfish peers through the safety of the mangrove roots across the rich colors and textures of corals, sponges, urchins, and algae. Queen Angelfish feed almost exclusively on sponges, which are abundant in these mangroves....

110

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University  

E-print Network

Health & Safety Management System Queen's University December 2003 #12;Queen's University Health & Safety Management System 2 1. Introduction Under Provincial Health and Safety legislation Responsibility System provides the building blocks for an effective Health and Safety Management System. The key

Ellis, Randy

111

ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT Queen's University at Kingston  

E-print Network

at Queen's a learning environment second to none in Canada and among the leaders in North America of a sustainable global society ~ Queens must use its unique broader learning environment to nurture the life

Abolmaesumi, Purang

112

Analysis and evaluation of relative positions of mandibular third molar and mandibular canal impacts  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to categorize the relationships between the mandibular canal and the roots and investigated the prevalence of nerve damage. Materials and Methods Through CBCT images, contact and three-dimensional positional relationships between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were investigated. With this data, prevalence of nerve damage according to the presence of contact and three-dimensional positional relationships was studied. Other factors that affected the prevalence of nerve damage were also investigated. Results When the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were shown to have direct contact in CBCT images, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in other cases. Also, in cases where the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal was vertically at the cervical level of the mandibular third molar, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in opposite cases. The percentage of mandibular canal contact with the roots of the mandibular third molar was higher when the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar. Finally, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher when the diameter of the mandibular canal lumen suddenly decreased at the contact area between the mandibular canal and the roots, as shown in CBCT images. Conclusion The three-dimensional relationship of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal can help predict nerve damage and can guide patient expectations of the possibility and extent of nerve damage. PMID:25551092

Kim, Hang-Gul

2014-01-01

113

Reflections on the "N" + "k" Queens Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "N" queens problem is a classic puzzle. It asks for an arrangement of "N" mutually non-attacking queens on an "N" x "N" chessboard. We discuss a recent variation called the "N" + "k" queens problem, where pawns are added to the chessboard to allow a greater number of non-attacking queens to be placed on it. We describe some of what is known…

Chatham, Doug

2009-01-01

114

Advancement of mandibular symphysis with distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This case report demonstrates the effects of mandibular symphysis advancement with distraction osteogenesis (DO) in a 21-year-old man with a Class I molar relationship, protrusive maxillary incisors, crowding in both arches, and increased overjet and overbite. Treatment consisted of maxillary arch leveling, mandibular incisor repositioning through mandibular symphysis advancement with DO, and subsequent mandibular arch leveling. The osteotomy line, between the canine and the first premolar, was extended from the interdental area to the lower border of the mandibular symphysis bilaterally. The distraction device was cemented after mobilization of the mandibular symphysis. The screws were activated (0.8 mm per day) after a latent period of 1 week. The amount of activation per side was 6.4 mm. After an 8-week consolidation period, the distraction appliance was removed. At the end of treatment, increases of SNB angle, effective mandibular length, SN/GoGn, anterior facial height, mandibular incisor inclinations, and labiomental angle were observed. Decreases of ANB angle, overjet, and distance from the lower lip to the esthetic line were noted. Even though this patient's long-term results are not yet available, the results so far are encouraging. Mandibular symphysis advancement with DO seems to be an effective method for correcting mandibular anterior crowding and an increased overjet. PMID:19201331

Turk, Tamer; Cakmak, Fethiye; Sumer, Mahmut

2009-02-01

115

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Race  

E-print Network

June 2014 THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Race INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to race and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of race or ethnic background does not take place. The Queen

Capdeboscq, Yves

116

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Race  

E-print Network

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Race INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to race and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of race or ethnic background does not take place. The Queen's College welcomes

Capdeboscq, Yves

117

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2011-04-01

118

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2010-04-01

119

Pearls of Mandibular Trauma Management  

PubMed Central

Mandibular trauma is a common problem seen by plastic surgeons. When fractures occur, they have the ability to affect the patient's occlusion significantly, cause infection, and lead to considerable pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. Physicians determining how to manage these injuries should take into consideration the nature of the injury, background information regarding the patient's health, and the patient's comorbidities. Whereas general principles guide the management of the majority of injuries, special consideration must be paid to the edentulous patient, complex and comminuted fractures, and pediatric patients. These topics are discussed in this article, with a special emphasis on pearls of mandibular trauma management. PMID:22550460

Koshy, John C.; Feldman, Evan M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Bullocks, Jamal M.

2010-01-01

120

Relapse of mandibular incisor alignment is not associated with the total posttreatment mandibular rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether total posttreatment mandibular rotation is associated with mandibular incisor crowding after retention. METHODS: Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) measured on dental casts from the postretention database at the University of Washington in Seattle was used to define subjects (II >\\/=6 mm, relapse group) and controls (II

Piotr Fudalej; Anne-Marie Bollen; Isabel A. Hujoel

2010-01-01

121

The mandibular condyle in juvenile chronic arthritis patients with mandibular hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.In 12 JCA patients with severe mandibular hypoplasia, who all strongly demanded early treatment, 21 mandibular condyles were replaced by costochondral grafts. All of them had radiographic morphological changes in the mandibular condyles with varying degrees of destruction of the articular cartilages. Severe pathological changes in the lower joint compartments were consistently observed at surgery. Hence, the lower joint compartments

B. Svensson; Å. Larsson; R. Adell

2001-01-01

122

Mandibular incisor dimensions and crowding.  

PubMed

Previous authors have suggested that well-aligned mandibular incisors are narrower mesiodistally than incisors which crowd and that reducing mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular incisors to fit a specific size range will prevent future malalignment. This study examined 164 cases from the records of the University of Washington Department of Orthodontics, 134 of which had been orthodontically treated and were a minimum of 10 years postretention. Measurements were made from the postretention plaster casts and from serial cephalometric head films. Statistical tests showed that there was a weak association between incisor widths or MD/FL dimensions ratio and irregular alignment over the long term. Mean dimensional differences between crowded and uncrowded incisors were small in the few pooled or segregated groups in which statistically significant differences were found. When incisor dimensions were combined with pretreatment, posttreatment, or long-term cephalometric and cast measurements, only weak and not clinically useful associations were found with long-term incisor alignment. While there was a weak tendency for narrower incisors to be associated with better alignment in some instances, narrower mesiodistal widths of mandibular incisors did not ensure long-term stability in orthodontically treated cases. PMID:6594936

Gilmore, C A; Little, R M

1984-12-01

123

Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSH–cVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

Smith, Dean P.

2013-01-01

124

Vomeronasal organ and human pheromones.  

PubMed

For many organisms, pheromonal communication is of particular importance in managing various aspects of reproduction. In tetrapods, the vomeronasal (Jacobson's) organ specializes in detecting pheromones in biological substrates of congeners. This information triggers behavioral changes associated, in the case of certain pheromones, with neuroendocrine correlates. In human embryos, the organ develops and the nerve fibers constitute a substrate for the migration of GnRH-secreting cells from the olfactory placode toward the hypothalamus. After this essential step for subsequent secretion of sex hormones by the anterior hypophysis, the organ regresses and the neural connections disappear. The vomeronasal cavities can still be observed by endoscopy in some adults, but they lack sensory neurons and nerve fibers. The genes which code for vomeronasal receptor proteins and the specific ionic channels involved in the transduction process are mutated and nonfunctional in humans. In addition, no accessory olfactory bulbs, which receive information from the vomeronasal receptor cells, are found. The vomeronasal sensory function is thus nonoperational in humans. Nevertheless, several steroids are considered to be putative human pheromones; some activate the anterior hypothalamus, but the effects observed are not comparable to those in other mammals. The signaling process (by neuronal detection and transmission to the brain or by systemic effect) remains to be clearly elucidated. PMID:21377439

Trotier, D

2011-09-01

125

Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

126

Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSH-cVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

Smith, Dean P

2012-03-01

127

Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites  

E-print Network

Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites Kenji Matsuuraa,1 power. Identification of a volatile pheromone regulating caste differentiation in a termite provides verylittleprogressinthechemicalidentificationofinhibitoryqueen pheromones. In termites, which evolved eusociality independently of Hymenoptera, the existence

Alvarez, Nadir

128

Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies  

PubMed Central

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

2006-01-01

129

Managing Jamaica's queen conch resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamaica's industrial fishery for queen conch (Strombus gigas) has produced a substantial amount of much-needed foreign exchange and for at least 10 years has been the most valuable component of all commercial marine fisheries activities. Since its inception in 1990 it has grown tremendously and may now be at some risk of collapse, due to problems including, among other factors,

Karl Aiken; Andre Kong; Stephen Smikle; Richard Appeldoorn; George Warner

2006-01-01

130

Hoodoos of the Queens Garden  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

131

Panorama of the Queen's Garden  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

132

Moon over the Queen's Garden  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

133

Queen's University The Principal's Commission  

E-print Network

the risk of harm associated with mental healthharm associated with mental health issues; and ­ What1 Queen's University The Principal's Commission M t l H lthon Mental Health Lynann Clapham, Roy · Consider national and international trends in mental health issues among post- secondary aged students

Ellis, Randy

134

QUEENS COLLEGE Undergraduate Bulletin20122013  

E-print Network

Serviamus: We Learn so that We May Serve. The great poet William Butler Yeats once noted that "Education an explosion of knowledge and a revolution in technology. The curriculum at Queens College is now carefully complex problems; communicate their ideas clearly; explore various cultures; and use modern technologies

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

135

Queens College Louis Armstrong House  

E-print Network

a National Historic Landmark in 1977, six years after Armstrong's death. Designating the house a New York Satchmo -- was a world-renowned jazz musician, singer, entertainer, and film star. This modest brick travels, the house in Queens remained Armstrong's home base for nearly thirty years until his death

Rosen, Jay

136

Jake Noveck Queens College, Biology  

E-print Network

of these biological threats would very soon kill each and every one of us if it wereJake Noveck Queens College, Biology Senior Ralph M. Steinman, MD (January becomes less robust, as we become more easily infected, and as emerging cancers

Rosen, Jay

137

WELCOMETO QUEEN'S FACULTY OF EDUCATION  

E-print Network

The Bachelor of Education degree from Queen's is widely accepted for teacher certification across Canada programs leading to teacher certification and graduate programs involving research in education prepare for teachers provide opportunities for career advancement in education. PEOPLEAn advantage of our Faculty

Abolmaesumi, Purang

138

Olfactory Attraction of the Hornet Vespa velutina to Honeybee Colony Odors and Pheromones  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets’ hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species. PMID:25549358

Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

139

Olfactory Attraction of the Hornet Vespa velutina to Honeybee Colony Odors and Pheromones.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species. PMID:25549358

Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

140

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

141

Hydroquinone: A General Phagostimulating Pheromone in Termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of termite societies depends predominantly on intraspecific chemical signals (pheromones) produced by exocrine glands, which induce and modulate individual behavioral responses. Here, the saliva-producing labial glands of termites were investigated with respect to their pheromonal role in communal food exploitation of termite colonies. From these glands, we identified for the first time hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) as a phagostimulating pheromone

Judith Reinhard; Michael J. Lacey; Fernando Ibarra; Frank C. Schroeder; Manfred Kaib; Michael Lenz

2002-01-01

142

Asymptotic Pheromone Behavior in Swarm Intelligent Manets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,An analytical justification is proposed,for the design and gl obal routing performance of three pheromone update methods proposed for use in Termite, a swarm,intelligent routing algorithm for mobile wireless ad-hoc networks. A simple model,is used in order to determine the average amount,of pheromone present on a link, as well as some basic aspects of the pheromone dynamics. This includes a

Martin Roth; Stephen Wicker

2004-01-01

143

Orthodontic treatment of mandibular anterior crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns orthodontic treatment of a 17 years old Bangladeshi female with a class I malocclusion along with anterior crowding in the mandibular arch. Orthodontic treatment carried out with preadjusted Roth type (018 slot) fixed brackets with labial flaring of the mandibular incisors to accomplish the treatment. The esthetics and occlusion were maintained after retention.

MK Alam

2009-01-01

144

Growth stimulating effect on queen bee larvae of histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Royal jelly (RJ) is a widely used natural food. It is also a major source of nutrition for queen bees and plays a key role in their development. RJ is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. The regulation of gene expression in these two glands may influence the development of queen bees by affecting the content of RJ. This study investigated the epigenetic effects in these two glands in young adult worker bees treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and NBM-HD-1, a novel compound synthesized in this laboratory. Western blot analyses indicated that the levels of acetyl-histone 3 and p21 protein expression in MCF-7 cells increased markedly after treatment with NBM-HD-1. The data proved that NBM-HD-1 was a novel and potent HDACi. Furthermore, a method of affecting epigenetic regulation of the mrjp family gene in the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees was developed by feeding young adult worker bees HDACi. Epigenetic regulation produced several important biological effects. A marked change in the protein composition of the RJ secreted from these treated bees was found. Only the ratio of specific major royal jelly protein 3 (MRJP3) was significantly altered in the treated bees versus the untreated controls. Other MRJP family proteins did not change. This alteration in the ratio of royal jelly proteins resulted in a significant increase in the body size of queen bee larvae. The data seem to suggest that HDACis may play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. They appear to change mrjp3 gene expression and alter the ratio of MRJP3 protein in RJ. This study presents the first evidence that HDACis are capable of regulating the ratio of MRJP3 proteins in RJ, which has the potential to change the body size of queen bees during their development. PMID:22642680

Huang, Chung-Yang; Chi, Li-Ling; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Chen, Wei-Jung; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Yuan, Cheng Mike; Chen, Chia-Nan

2012-06-20

145

Intraoral multistage mandibular angle ostectomy: 10 years' experience in mandibular contouring in Asians.  

PubMed

In Asia, a round face rather is more acceptable than a square face. Intraoral mandibular angle ostectomy is a common aesthetic procedure for correcting a prominent mandibular angle. However, an operation of sheer straight-lined prominent mandibular angle resection would sometimes create extramandibular angles or palpable bone steps in the margin of mandibular body and produce unnatural lower one-third facial appearance, especially for a square and disproportional mandibular angle even extending to the middle mandibular body. This article describes the method of multistage mandibular angle ostectomy to produce a natural lower one-third facial contour. This method mainly focused on the posterior area of mandibular ostectomy by intraoral approach, although it has modifications. Mandibular contouring is realized first through bone cutting from antegonial notch posteriorly upperward, reaching to the middle ramus of the mandible near the earlobe; second ostectomy followed along mandible lower part is to get rid of extramandibular angle according to the preoperative design; sometimes necessarily, third ostectomy creates a smooth mandibular contour. From January 2000 to January 2010, 379 patients were operated on, and satisfactory results were achieved. Thus, this procedure could avoid excessive bone cutting, extramandibular angles, unnatural appearance, and palpable bone steps. PMID:21233762

Ying, Binbin; Wu, Sufan; Yan, Sheng; Hu, Jing

2011-01-01

146

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

147

Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens) that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of social behavior. Post-mating changes in gene regulation in the brains and ovaries of honey bee queens appear to be triggered by different stimuli and may occur on different timescales, potentially allowing changes in the brains and the ovaries to be uncoupled. PMID:18489784

Kocher, Sarah D; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2008-01-01

148

Sex Pheromone in the Lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEXUAL recognition and attraction in many insects have been shown to involve chemical communicants called pheromones1, and these results are widely applied in agriculture2. In contrast very little is known about (sex) pheromones in crustaceans, the only experimental verification being that of Ryan3 who observed that males of the Pacific crab, Portunus sanguinolentus, displayed towards water from premoult females. No

Jelle Atema; DAVID G. ENGSTROM

1971-01-01

149

New Therapeutics in Promoting and Modulating Mandibular Growth in Cases with Mandibular Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Children with mandibular growth deficiency may develop airway obstruction. The standard treatment of severe airway obstruction involves invasive procedures such as tracheostomy. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has been proposed in neonates with mandibular deficiency as a treatment option to avoid tracheostomy procedure later in life. Both tracheostomy and distraction osteogenesis procedures suffer from substantial shortcomings including scarring, unpredictability, and surgical complications. Forward jaw positioning appliances have been also used to enhance mandible growth. However, the effectiveness of these appliances is limited and lacks predictability. Current and future approaches to enhance mandibular growth, both experimental and clinical trials, and their effectiveness are presented and discussed. PMID:23819121

Alhadlaq, Adel

2013-01-01

150

Original article Grooming behaviors and the translocation  

E-print Network

-grooming resulted in the translocation of synthetic queen mandibular gland phero- mone from the mouthparts and head for pheromone translocation. Little if any, phero- mone moved passively on the cuticle. This study provides a pseudo- queen lure, despite the fact that this phero- mone is gathered primarly with the mouth- parts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

QUEEN'S SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA AND VOCAL PERFORMANCES  

E-print Network

Featuring QUEEN'S SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA AND VOCAL PERFORMANCES BY STUDENTS AND FACULTY directed, as well as non-alcoholic beverages. for ticket information call 613.533.2558 A small fee will be charged 11-0378 Night in Vienna 11x17 28/7/2011 7:42 AM Page 1 Featuring QUEEN'S SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA AND VOCAL

Abolmaesumi, Purang

152

December 2012 Queen's University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

. The university recognizes that the misuse of alcohol can create risks, threaten individual health, compromise of the use and abuse of alcohol; Discourage high-risk alcohol-related behaviours and practices throughDecember 2012 1 Queen's University Alcohol Policy Introduction Queen's University is committed

Abolmaesumi, Purang

153

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Age  

E-print Network

as the old are protected from discrimination on the basis of their age. · The College must write to staffTHE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Age INTRODUCTION This document provides information about the specific ways in which The Queen's College is age neutral, and also provides a general overview

Capdeboscq, Yves

154

ACADEMIC DERMATOPATHOLOGIST Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada  

E-print Network

ACADEMIC DERMATOPATHOLOGIST Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada The Department in the province of Ontario and must hold postgraduate qualifications in Pathology. This is an international search of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Tel): (613) 533-2850; (Fax

Abolmaesumi, Purang

155

FOOD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT QUEEN'S HOSPITALITY SERVICES  

E-print Network

FOOD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT QUEEN'S HOSPITALITY SERVICES May 2008 #12;In recent years, a sustainability movement has taken root at Queen's. The impacts of the movement can be seen across campus sustainability position within the their student government ­The AMS, The Engineer Society open the Tea Room

Ellis, Randy

156

Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College Announcement  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College 2nd Announcement There will be an Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College sponsored by the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in the NSB Lobby, and oral presentations of research will be in room D-139. Abstracts are due on September 13

Engel, Robert

157

Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University  

E-print Network

Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University In response to the need in industrial research and development for engineers with a greater knowledge of applied mathematics and modelling techniques, Queen's Univer- sity offers a unique program in Mathematics and Engineering. This program, the only one of its

Linder, Tamás

158

Mary, Queen of Scots and Bothwell's bracelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the famous Casket Letters mentions Mary, Queen of Scots making bracelets for the Earl of Bothwell. Is this an implausible story which casts doubt on the alleged authenticity of the letters, or is it something she could have done? This articlef examines an unusual aspect of 16th-century Sco ttish jewellery. The jewellery of Mary, Queen of Scots (illus

Rosalind K Marshall

159

Rigid fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.  

PubMed

This article reviews the anatomy and surgical approaches for treating fractures of the mandibular condyle with plate and screw fixation. Advantages and disadvantages of the preauricular, submandibular, intraoral, retromandibular, and rhytidectomy approaches are presented. PMID:8351124

Ellis, E; Dean, J

1993-07-01

160

Lingual exposure during mandibular third molar surgery.  

PubMed

The necessity for surgical exposure of the lingual aspect of mandibular third molars will vary according to the severity of the impaction and the surgical technique adopted. A retractor is described for use in those cases when major lingual retraction is required. The retractor provides optimum access to the mandibular third molar area with adequate protection for the lingual nerve, tongue retraction and enhanced illumination by light reflection. It can be used under both local and general anaesthesia. PMID:415017

Stacy, G C

1977-12-01

161

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

162

Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.  

PubMed

The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

163

50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622.493 Section 622.493...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S... § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen...

2013-10-01

164

Review article Virgin queens in stingless bee (Apidae,  

E-print Network

) in the colony to ensure its perenniality if the dominant queen dies. It is assumed that stingless bee queensReview article Virgin queens in stingless bee (Apidae, Meliponinae) colonies: a review VL of gynes in the nests stimulates swarm or supersedure. In these bees, one or more virgin queens depart

Boyer, Edmond

165

Sex pheromone and trail pheromone of the sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma.  

PubMed

Within the complex network of chemical signals used by termites, trail pheromones and sex pheromones are among the best known. Numerous recent papers map the chemical identity and glandular origin of these pheromones in nearly all major isopteran taxa. In this study, we aimed to describe the sex pheromone and the trail pheromone of a poorly known sand termite, Psammotermes hybostoma. We identified (3Z,6Z,8E)-dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol (dodecatrienol) as the sex pheromone released by tergal and sternal glands of female imagos and, at the same time, as the trail pheromone secreted from the sternal gland of workers. We conclude that chemical communication in Psammotermes does not differ from that of most other Rhinotermitidae, such as Reticulitermes, despite the presence of a diterpene as a major component of the trail pheromone of Prorhinotermes to which Psammotermes is presumed to be phylogenetically close. Our findings underline once again the conservative nature of chemical communication in termites, with dodecatrienol being a frequent component of pheromonal signals in trail following and sex attraction and, at the same time, a tight evolutionary relationship between the trail following of working castes and the sex attraction of imagos. PMID:21318399

Sillam-Dussès, David; Hanus, Robert; Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha; Jiroš, Pavel; Krasulová, Jana; Kalinová, Blanka; Valterová, Irena; Sobotník, Jan

2011-02-01

166

Activation of pheromone-sensitive neurons is mediated by conformational activation of pheromone-binding protein.  

PubMed

Detection of volatile odorants by olfactory neurons is thought to result from direct activation of seven-transmembrane odorant receptors by odor molecules. Here, we show that detection of the Drosophila pheromone, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA), is instead mediated by pheromone-induced conformational shifts in the extracellular pheromone-binding protein, LUSH. We show that LUSH undergoes a pheromone-specific conformational change that triggers the firing of pheromone-sensitive neurons. Amino acid substitutions in LUSH that are predicted to reduce or enhance the conformational shift alter sensitivity to cVA as predicted in vivo. One substitution, LUSH(D118A), produces a dominant-active LUSH protein that stimulates T1 neurons through the neuronal receptor components Or67d and SNMP in the complete absence of pheromone. Structural analysis of LUSH(D118A) reveals that it closely resembles cVA-bound LUSH. Therefore, the pheromone-binding protein is an inactive, extracellular ligand converted by pheromone molecules into an activator of pheromone-sensitive neurons and reveals a distinct paradigm for detection of odorants. PMID:18585358

Laughlin, John D; Ha, Tal Soo; Jones, David N M; Smith, Dean P

2008-06-27

167

Pheromone communication in amphibians and reptiles.  

PubMed

This selective review considers herpetological papers that feature the use of chemical cues, particularly pheromones involved in reproductive interactions between potential mates. Primary examples include garter snake females that attract males, lacertid lizards and the effects of their femoral gland secretions, aquatic male newts that chemically attract females, and terrestrial salamander males that chemically persuade a female to mate. Each case study spans a number of research approaches (molecular, biochemical, behavioral) and is related to sensory processing and the physiological effects of pheromone delivery. These and related studies show that natural pheromones can be identified, validated with behavioral tests, and incorporated in research on vomeronasal functional response. PMID:18847365

Houck, Lynne D

2009-01-01

168

Postretention relapse of mandibular anterior crowding in patients treated without mandibular premolar extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment stability is one of the most important objectives in orthodontics, but, despite decades of research, it is still agreed that the stability of aligned teeth is variable and largely unpredictable. This study aimed to evaluate the relapse of mandibular anterior crowding in patients treated without mandibular premolar extraction. The sample comprised 40 patients of both sexes with Class I

Karina M. S. Freitas; Marcos Roberto de Freitas; José Fernando Castanha Henriques; Arnaldo Pinzan; Guilherme Janson

2004-01-01

169

Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

2013-01-01

170

Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.  

PubMed

Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

2015-01-19

171

An airborne sex pheromone in snakes.  

PubMed

Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

Shine, R; Mason, R T

2012-04-23

172

An airborne sex pheromone in snakes  

PubMed Central

Most reptile sex pheromones so far described are lipid molecules too large to diffuse through the air; instead, they are detected via direct contact (tongue-flicking) with another animal's body or substrate-deposited trails, using the vomeronasal system. The only non-lipid pheromone reported in snakes involves courtship termination in red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis): males that encounter copulatory fluids cease courtship, presumably reflecting the futility of courting an already-mating female. Our field experiments at a communal den in Manitoba show that this pheromone can work via olfaction: courtship is terminated by exposure to airborne scents from mating conspecifics, and does not require direct contact (tongue-flicking). Hence, the sexual behaviour of reptiles can be affected by airborne as well as substrate-bound pheromones. PMID:21992822

Shine, R.; Mason, R. T.

2012-01-01

173

Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monocyclic 14-membered ring diterpene, cembrene-A, previously identified as a nasutitermitine trail pheromone, was tested for its effectiveness as a trail pheromone inNasutitermes costalis. Artificial trails prepared from serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A over a concentration range of 10-1–10-6 mg\\/ml were ineffective in recruiting termites. Serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A ranging in concentration from 10-1 to 10-5 mg\\/ml produced an

Pamela Hall; James F. A. Traniello

1985-01-01

174

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

175

Sex pheromone source location by garter snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male plains garter snakes,Thamnophis radix, tested in a 240-cm-long arena can detect directional information from a female pheromone trail only when the female is allowed to push against pegs while laying the trail. The female's normal locomotor activity apparently deposits pheromone on the anterolateral surfaces of vertical structures in her environment. The male sensorily assays the sides of these objects

Neil B. Ford; James R. Low

1984-01-01

176

Long Term Stability and Relapse Following Mandibular Advancement and Mandibular Setback Surgeries: A Cephalometric Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim was to evaluate the long-term hard and soft tissue changes following mandibular advancement and setback surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 subjects each were selected who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy mandibular advancement and mandibular setback groups. Pre-surgical (T1), immediate post-surgical (T2) and long-term post-surgical (T3) cephalograms were compared for hard and soft tissue changes. After cephalometric measurements, the quantity of changes between T1-T2 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2 and T1-T3 was compared with assess the long-term changes and stability. Results: In mandibular advancement the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long term post-surgical is 7%, which accounts for a relapse of 7%. In mandibular setback, the mean difference between immediate post-surgical and long-term post-surgical is 29%, which accounts for a relapse of 29%. Conclusion: Mandibular advancement remained stable over the long period when compared to mandibular setback. PMID:25395792

Darshan, S Vinay; Ronad, Yusuf Ahammed; Kishore, M S V; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Rajesh, M; Suman, S D

2014-01-01

177

Resorption of mandibular canal wall in the edentulous aged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. The mandibular canal wall may be affected by the progress of residual ridge resorption after tooth extraction. Little knowledge is available regarding the relationship of specific systemic factors and the resorption of the mandibular canal wall.Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of the mandibular canal in the edentulous mandible and to determine

Qiufei Xie; Juhani Wolf; Reijo Tilvis; Anja Ainamo

1997-01-01

178

Mandibular fracture repair in a harbor seal.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old captive female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) bit down upon a metal ring within a hoop-net normally used to assist in securing the seal for routine physical examination. Radiographic examination performed under general anesthesia revealed a unilateral closed fracture of the rostral left mandible between the first and second premolar teeth. The rostral fragment was displaced ventrally and slight laxity of the mandibular symphysis was noted. The fracture was repaired surgically using an oral dental acrylic splint incorporating circumferential mandibular cerclage wire. The mandibular symphysis was stabilized using interdental wire between the right and left canine teeth. The fixation device was removed following evaluation of radiographs that showed signs of bony union 12-months postoperatively. PMID:17691533

Lewer, Daniel; Gustafson, Scott B; Rist, Paul M; Brown, Steven

2007-06-01

179

[Chronic cutaneous fistula secondary to mandibular osteomyelitis].  

PubMed

Cutaneous fistulas and sinuses in the maxillofacial region secondary to osteomyelitis rarely appear in clinical practice. The most frequent cause of mandibular osteomyelitis is a dental infection, but it may also be hematogenic in origin. The diagnostic criteria for bacterial osteomyelitis are suppuration and osteolytic changes in the radiological study. The differential diagnosis of an ulcerative lesion in the mandibular area includes several pathologies, such as a fistula of dental origin, a reaction to a foreign body, a deep mycotic infection, a pyogenic granuloma or a congenital malformation. PMID:16796969

Roche, Elena; García-Melgares, María L; Laguna, Cecilia; Martín-González, Blanca; Fortea, José M

2006-04-01

180

Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

2014-01-01

181

Seasonal variation in the titers and biosynthesis of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate in honey bees.  

PubMed

Honey bees allocate tasks along reproductive and non-reproductive lines: the queen mates and lays eggs, whereas the workers nurse the brood and forage for food. Among workers, tasks are distributed according to age: young workers nurse and old workers fly out and forage. This task distribution in the colony is further regulated by an increase in juvenile hormone III as workers age and by pheromones. One such compound is ethyl oleate (EO), a primer pheromone that delays the onset of foraging in young workers. EO is produced by foragers when they are exposed to ethanol (from fermented nectar) while gathering food. EO is perceived by younger bees via olfaction. We describe here the seasonal variation of EO production and the effects of Methoprene, a juvenile hormone analog. We found that honey bee workers biosynthesize more EO during the growing season than during the fall and winter months, reaching peak levels at late spring or summer. When caged workers were fed with syrup+d(6)-ethanol, labeled EO accumulated in the honey crop and large amounts exuded to the exoskeleton. Exuded levels were high for several hours after exposure to ethanol. Treatment with Methoprene increased the production of EO in worker bees, by speeding up its movement from biosynthetic sites to the exoskeleton, where EO evaporates. Crop fluid from bees collected monthly during the growing season showed a modest seasonal variation of in vitro EO biosynthetic activity that correlated with the dry and sunny periods during which bees could forage. PMID:22634045

Castillo, Carlos; Maisonnasse, Alban; Conte, Yves Le; Plettner, Erika

2012-08-01

182

Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

183

Sex Pheromone Specificity: Taxonomic and Evolutionary Aspects in Lepidoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromone specificity is the only obvious reproduction isolating mechanism for two tortricid species and two gelechiid species. Pheromones of the gelechiid species are cis-9-tetradecenyl acetate and trans-9-tetradecenyl acetate. Male response of one gelechiid species is inhibited by the pheromone of the other species. This could be important for sympatric evolutionary saltation.

Wendell L. Roelofs; Andre Comeau

1969-01-01

184

Surgical treatment of comminuted mandibular fractures using a low-profile locking mandibular reconstruction plate system  

PubMed Central

Objective: The treatment of comminuted mandibular fractures is challenging due to the severity of associated injuries and the need for a careful diagnosis with adequate treatment planning. Recently, open reduction and stable internal fixation (OR-IF) with a load-bearing reconstruction plate have been advocated for reliable clinical outcomes with minimal complications. This clinical prospective study evaluated OR-IF in the surgical management of comminuted mandibular fractures with a new low-profile, thin, mandibular locking reconstruction plate. Materials and Methods: We prospectively assessed OR-IF of comminuted mandibular fractures with a low-profile locking mandibular reconstruction plate in 12 patients (nine men, three women; mean age 32.2 [range 16-71] years) between April 2010 and December 2011. The clinical characteristics and associated clinical parameters of patients were evaluated over a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Results: Traffic accidents caused 50% of the fractures, followed by falls (25%). Four patients (33.3%) had associated midfacial maxillofacial fractures, while five patients had other mandibular fractures. Seven patients (58.3%) needed emergency surgery, mostly for airway management. Anatomical reduction of the comminuted segments re-established the mandibular skeleton in stable occlusion with rigid IF via extraoral (33.3%), intraoral (50%), or combined (16.7%) approaches. Immediate functional recovery was achieved. Sound bone healing was confirmed in all patients, with no complications such as malocclusion, surgical site infection, or malunion with a mean follow-up of 16.3 (range 12-24) months. Conclusions: OR-IF using a low-profile reconstruction plate system is a reliable treatment for comminuted mandibular fractures, enabling immediate functional recovery with good clinical results.

Kanno, Takahiro; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Sekine, Joji

2014-01-01

185

Maternal influence on the acceptance of virgin queens introduced into Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oviposition potential of honey bee queens decreases with age, therefore it is important to replace old queens with younger ones on a periodic basis. However, queen replacement is problematic, especially in Africanized honey bee colonies, since many introduced queens are not accepted, and virgin queens are less easily accepted than are mated queens. We assessed the influence of genetic

G. Moretto; J. C. V. Guerra; H. Kalvelage; E. Espindola

186

How is pheromone specificity encoded in proteins?  

PubMed

Pheromone specificity in the Lepidoptera is encoded in protein components of the antennal sensillum lymph and dendritic membrane. In this paper, we highlight recent work on the molecular determinants of pheromone binding affinity of pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) of three genera. First, we describe new cDNA sequences for Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae) and Agrotis segetum (Noctuidae). These data enrich the conclusions derived from our functional studies. Secondly, we indicate how preparation of multimilligram quantities of the recombinant PBP 'Apol-3' (originally from Antheraea polyphemus) has provided a platform (i) to determine the ligand binding sites using photoaffinity labeling, (ii) to conduct structural analysis by CD and NMR, and (iii) to measure binding affinities using a new binding assay. Thirdly, we describe the use of expression-cassette PCR technology to prepare two related PBPs from Antheraea perneyi to test binding affinities of naturally-occurring homologous PBPs. Our results support a model in which ligand specificity for chain length, double bond position, and terminal functionality is partially encoded in the PBPs. We propose that the final decoding is accomplished when the PBP-pheromone complex activates a G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane domain receptor that contains recognition sites for both the presented pheromone and the presenting PBP. PMID:8590031

Prestwich, G D; Du, G; LaForest, S

1995-08-01

187

Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus  

PubMed Central

Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

2014-01-01

188

Stabilization of mobile mandibular segments in mandibular reconstruction: use of spanning reconstruction plate.  

PubMed

The fibular free flap is the gold standard for mandibular reconstruction. Accurate 3-dimensional contouring and precise alignment of the fibula is critical for reestablishing native occlusion and facial symmetry. Following segmental mandibulectomy, the remaining mandibular fragments become freely mobile. Various stabilization methods including external fixation, intermaxillary fixation, and preplating with reconstruction plate have been used. We describe a modification to the preplating technique. After wide resection of buccal squamous cell carcinoma, our patient had an 11-cm mandibular defect from the angle of the left mandible to the right midparasymphyseal region. A single 2.0-mm Unilock® (Synthes, Singapore) plate was used to span the defect. This was placed on the vestibular aspect of the superior border of the mandibular remnants before resection. Segmental mandibulectomy was then performed with the plate removed. The spanning plate was then reattached to provide rigid fixation. The fibular bone was contoured with a single osteotomy and reattached. The conventional technique involves molding of the plate at the inferior border of the mandible. This is time-consuming and not possible in patients with distorted mandibular contour. It is also difficult to fit the osteotomized fibula to the contoured plate. In comparison, the superiorly positioned spanning plate achieve rigid fixation of the mandible while leaving the defect completely free and unhampered by hardware, allowing space for planning osteotomies and easier fixation of the neomandible. Using this modified technique, we are able to recreate the original mandibular profile with ease. PMID:23997856

Yap, Yan Lin; Lim, Jane; Ong, Wei Chen; Yeo, Matthew; Lee, Hanjing; Lim, Thiam Chye

2012-09-01

189

Effect of surgical treatment of mandibular fracture: electromyographic analysis, bite force, and mandibular mobility.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine individuals undergoing surgery for the treatment of the fractured mandibular angle, using bite force, mandibular mobility, and electromyographic (EMG) analysis in many different clinical conditions, after 2 months postoperatively. Bite force was recorded with a digital dynamometer, model IDDK. The EMG activity (Myosystem-Br1) included the analysis of the masseter and temporal muscles. Mandibular mobility was measured using a digital pachymeter. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: G1, mandibular angle fracture (n = 7); G2, condylar process fracture (n = 5); and G3, control (n = 12). Data were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the repeated-measure test carried out over time and the Student's t-test (P < 0.05), using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 19 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). G1 and G2 had an increase in bite force. In G1, there was a regular decrease in the EMG activity in the second postoperative month. G2 presented an irregular pattern in EMG data during the period tested. Regarding the mandibular mobility, both groups obtained amplitude of all mandibular movements with a high percentage, when compared with control. A good functional recovery was achieved by the individuals who had a mandible angle fracture or condylar process fracture, after 2 postoperative months. PMID:25203573

Pepato, André Oliveira; Palinkas, Marcelo; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; de Vasconcelos, Paulo Batista; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Siéssere, Selma; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

2014-09-01

190

Mandibular advancement devices and seep disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been nearly 90 years since a dentist first fabricated a dental appliance for a patient with snoring. Since then, mandibular advancement devices or MADs have become a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and are used to increase the caliber of the airway during sleep. Their primary use is for the patient who has snoring or mild to

Glenn T. Clark

1998-01-01

191

Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity  

PubMed Central

Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity. PMID:22114424

Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

2010-01-01

192

Bilateral Mandibular Supernumerary Canines: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth. PMID:23346342

Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

193

REGULAR ARTICLE Queen-worker differences in spermatheca reservoir  

E-print Network

poneromorph species exhibiting various degrees of queen-worker dimorphism. The spermathecae of both castes only a brief time- window to obtain the required amount of sperm. If a queen's sperm supply depletes

Danchin, Etienne

194

Computing and Information Science Department: Queen's University Kingston, Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Department of Computer Science, Queen's University Kingston, Canada: a new Server for the Computing and Information Science department, including faculty and student listings, assorted labs and reports, and the Queen's electronic phone book.

195

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

196

Treatment of a patient with a crowded Class I malocclusion and a congenitally missing mandibular incisor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes the management of maxillary and mandibular crowding in a patient with facial esthetic concerns and a tooth-size discrepancy due to a missing mandibular central incisor. The treatment included extracting the remaining mandibular central incisor and the 2 maxillary first premolars. The mandibular canines were repositioned to substitute for lateral incisors, and the mandibular premolars were used

Patrick Curiel; Margherita Santoro

2002-01-01

197

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship. PMID:24414963

Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

1982-02-01

198

Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

1995-03-01

199

QUEEN'S COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS 2015 Entry Please note that highlighted scholarship are administered centrally, rather than through The Queen's College  

E-print Network

QUEEN'S COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS 2015 Entry Please note that highlighted scholarship are administered centrally, rather than through The Queen's College Title of Scholarship Criteria Value Duration Nationality Number Closing date for applications

Capdeboscq, Yves

200

The number of queens: An important trait in ant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive social and ecological differences between ant colonies that have a single queen and those that have multiple queens are defined. The evolutionary tendencies which lead to polygyny and the adaptive significance of multiple queens are examined. The discussion of the ecological consequences of polygyny and monogyny leads to a deeper understanding of territoriality, spacing and species packing in

Bert Hölldobler; Edward O. Wilson

1977-01-01

201

Ontogenetic shift in habitat by early juvenile queen conch,  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic shift in habitat by early juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas:. patterns and potential of young-of-the-year juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas L., in the southern Exuma Cays, Bahamas. during (80-140mml conch were observed in adjacent, deeper seagrass beds, suggesting that queen conch make

202

5. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING BROOKLYNQUEENS EXPRESSWAY. QUEENS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. NEW YORK CONNECTING RR VIADUCT CROSSING BROOKLYN-QUEENS EXPRESSWAY. QUEENS, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 5.99. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

203

Discrimination of pheromone enantiomers by two pheromone binding proteins from the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, uses (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, as a sex pheromone. The (-) enantiomer of the pheromone is a strong behavioral antagonist. Specialized sensory hairs, sensillae, on the antennae of male moths detect the pheromone. Once the pheromone enters a sensillum, the very abundant pheromone binding protein (PBP) transports the odorant to the sensory neuron. We have expressed the two PBPs found in gypsy moth antennae, PBP1 and PBP2, and we have studied the affinity of these recombinant PBPs for the enantiomers of disparlure. To study pheromone binding under equilibrium conditions, we developed and validated a binding assay. We have addressed the two major problems with hydrophobic ligands in aqueous solution: (1) concentration-dependent adsorption of the ligand on vial surfaces and (2) separation of the protein-bound ligand from the material remaining free in solution. We used this assay to demonstrate for the first time that pheromone binding to PBP is reversible and that the two PBPs from L. dispar differ in their enantiomer binding preference. PBP1 has a higher affinity for the (-) enantiomer, while PBP2 has a higher affinity for the (+) enantiomer. The PBP from the wild silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Apol-3) bound the disparlure enantiomers more weakly than either of the L. dispar PBPs, but Apol-3 was also able to discriminate the enantiomers. We have observed extensive aggregation of both L. dispar PBPs and an increase in pheromone binding at high (>2 microM) PBP concentrations. We present a model of disparlure binding to the two PBPs. PMID:10913308

Plettner, E; Lazar, J; Prestwich, E G; Prestwich, G D

2000-08-01

204

A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

2012-07-01

205

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Old Members' Office The Queen's College Oxford OX1 4AW  

E-print Network

Hymne à la Vierge Wood Hail, gladdening light Whitacre Lux aurumque The Queen's College Choir of the Virtual Choir, Eric Whitacre's hauntingly beautiful Lux aurumque. www.nottinghillmayfest.org.uk #12;

Capdeboscq, Yves

206

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.  

PubMed

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2005-09-27

207

Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

208

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2013-07-01

209

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2011-07-01

210

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2010-07-01

211

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2012-07-01

212

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2014-07-01

213

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2011-07-01

214

40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described...

2010-07-01

215

Pheromone deactivation catalyzed by receptor molecules: a quantitative kinetic model.  

PubMed

A quantitative model of pheromone-receptor interaction and pheromone deactivation, the supposed rate-limiting processes underlying the receptor potential kinetics, is worked out for the moth Antheraea polyphemus. In this model, the pheromone interacts with the receptor molecule while bound to the reduced form of the pheromone binding protein. The receptor molecules--besides their receptor function--catalyze the observed shift of the pheromone-binding protein from the reduced to the oxidized form (Ziegelberger, G., Eur. J. Biochem., 232, 706-711, 1995), which deactivates the pheromone bound to pheromone binding protein. With the following parameters, the model fits morphological, radiometric, electrophysiological and biochemical data: a maximum estimate of 1.7 x 10(7) receptor molecules/cell (with 40,000 units/micron 2 of receptor cell membrane), rate constants k1 = 0.2/(s.microM) for the association, k2 = 10/s for the dissociation of the ternary complex of binding protein, pheromone and receptor, and k3 = 10/s for the deactivation via the redox shift. With these parameters, the duration of elementary receptor potentials elicited by single pheromone molecules (approximately 50 ms) reflects the lifetime of the ternary complex, tau = 1/(k2 + k3). The receptor occupancy produced by the model for threshold stimuli fits the sensitivity of the receptor cell to single pheromone molecules. PMID:9759524

Kaissling, K E

1998-08-01

216

The efficacy of supplemental intraosseous anesthesia after insufficient mandibular block.  

PubMed

It is a well-known scientific fact that only a small percentage of infiltration of inferior alveolar nerve is clinically proven to be efficient. The objective of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of supplemental intraosseous injection, used after the insufficient classical mandibular block that didn't provide deep pulp anesthesia of mandibular molar planed for extraction. The experimental teeth consisted of 98 mandibular molars with clinical indication for extraction. Based on the history of disease, we indicated the extraction of the tooth. After that each tooth was tested with a electric pulp tester P1. We tested the pulp vitality and precisely determined the level of vitality. After that, each patient received classical mandibular block, and the pulp vitality was tested again. If the pulp tester indicated negative vitality for the certain mandibular molar, and the patient didn't complain about pain or discomfort during the extraction, the molar was extracted and the result was added to anesthetic success rate for the classical mandibular block. If, five minutes after receiving the mandibular block, the pulp tester indicated positive vitality (parameters of vitality) or the patient complained about pain or discomfort (parameters of pain and discomfort), we used the Stabident intraosseous anesthesia system. Three minutes after the application of supplemental intraosseous injection the molar was tested with the pulp tester again. The anesthetic solution used in both anesthetic techniques is lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine. The results of this study indicate that the anesthetic efficacy of the mandibular block is 74.5%, and that supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, provides pulpal anesthesia in 94.9% of mandibular molars. The difference between anesthetic efficacy of the classical mandibular block and anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, is obvious. PMID:15771604

Prohi?, Samir; Sulejmanagi?, Halid; Seci?, Sadeta

2005-02-01

217

Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens  

PubMed Central

Growing empirical evidence indicates that invertebrates become more resistant to a pathogen following initial exposure to a nonlethal dose; yet the generality, mechanisms, and adaptive value of such immune priming are still under debate. Because life-history theory predicts that immune priming and large investment in immunity should be more frequent in long-lived species, we here tested for immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span. We exposed virgin and mated queens of Lasius niger and Formica selysi to a low dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, before challenging them with a high dose of the same pathogen. We found evidence for immune priming in naturally mated queens of L. niger. In contrast, we found no sign of priming in virgin queens of L. niger, nor in virgin or experimentally mated queens of F. selysi, which indicates that immune priming in ant queens varies according to mating status and mating conditions or species. In both ant species, mated queens showed higher pathogen resistance than virgin queens, which suggests that mating triggers an up-regulation of the immune system. Overall, mated ant queens combine high reproductive output, very long life span, and elevated investment in immune defense. Hence, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance, which can be explained by the fact that mature queens will be protected and nourished by their worker offspring. PMID:24963375

Gálvez, Dumas; Chapuisat, Michel

2014-01-01

218

Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.  

PubMed

Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

2012-02-01

219

2009 2013 QUEEN'S SCHOOL OF BUSINESS  

E-print Network

and influential business schools. OUR VALUES · Excellence and innovation · Respect for self and others · Ethics2009 ­ 2013 QUEEN'S SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK #12;HOW WE DO IT: Our programs and centres create and disseminate business knowledge through: · The work of our nationally acclaimed faculty

Graham, Nick

220

100 years of history Queen's University Belfast  

E-print Network

which grew to significant proportions in the 1920s-50s. Strength of Materials and Internal Combustion in Birmingham in 1847, but a fully fledged Institution of Electrical Engineers did not materialize until 1889100 years of history Queen's University Belfast School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

Martin, Ralph R.

221

Marine Fisheries On the cover: The queen  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: The queen conch, Strombus gigas. Il- lustration by Harold L, Albacore Landings, Marine Anglers, and Sea Turtle Protection 25 Peru's Fisheries, New Zealand Fisheries, Administrator National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-0ROl is pub

222

Mathematics at Queen's Mathematics (BSc and MSci)  

E-print Network

, students may to tailor their programmes to reflect their individual strengths and interests from second) Mathematics is the universal language of science, and a beautiful subject in itself. Mathematics, Statistics Mathematics at Queen's University there is the opportunity to learn new skills and to take advantage

Paxton, Anthony T.

223

January 11, 2011 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON  

E-print Network

: Anastasia Zaytseva, Queen's University Title: The Euler-Mascheroni constant and generalizations Abstract Seminar Speaker: Anastasia Zaytseva Title: The Euler-Mascheroni constant and generalizations Abstract: The arithmetic nature of the Euler-Mascheroni constant is a long-lasting open question. Recently, M.Ram Murty

Offin, Dan

224

The artificial insemination of bumblebee queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Artificial insemination (AI) is a technique to transfer instrumentally sperm from the male into the female's reproductive system. AI is widespread in vertebrates for economical animal breeding and for conservation biology. However, in invertebrates only a few cases of successful AI have been reported. In this paper we describe a new technique to artificially inseminate bumblebee queens (Bombus spp.).

B. Baer; P. Schmid-Hempel

2000-01-01

225

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reconstruction of mandibular deficits. The device is made of materials such as stainless steel, tantalum, titanium, cobalt-chromium based alloy, polytetrafluoroethylene, silicone elastomer, polyethylene, polyurethane, or...

2010-04-01

226

Reconstruction of Beagle Hemi-Mandibular Defects with Allogenic Mandibular Scaffolds and Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible) in a large animal model. Methods Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at4 (n?=?4), 12 (n?=?4), 24 (n?=?4) or 48 weeks (n?=?3) postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD) of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes. Results Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth factors. PMID:25153673

Luo, JinChao; Liu, HuaWei; Hu, Min; Yue, Wen

2014-01-01

227

Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case  

PubMed Central

Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:22010071

2011-01-01

228

Management of severe mandibular deviation following partial mandibular resection: a case report.  

PubMed

Extensive mandibular resection commonly leads to a deviation of the mandible, facial disfigurement, and difficulty with speech and mastication. The rehabilitation of these patients is a prosthodontic challenge. This article presents the case of a 60-year-old man who sought prosthetic rehabilitation after a right segmental mandibulectomy. The prosthetic rehabilitation was planned in 2 phases. A palatal ramp was constructed, followed by a mandibular guiding flange. After 4 months, the patient's chewing ability, tongue movement, and facial esthetics were improved. PMID:25574730

Harianawala, Husain; Kheur, Mohit; Kheur, Supriya; Matani, Jay

2015-01-01

229

Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.  

PubMed

Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. PMID:25623339

Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

2015-01-01

230

Pheromones in a superorganism: from gene to social regulation.  

PubMed

Analogous to the importance of hormones in controlling organism homoeostasis, pheromones play a major role in the regulation of group homoeostasis at the social level. In social insects, pheromones coordinate the association of "unitary" organisms into a coherent social unit or so called "superorganism." For many years, honey bees have been a convincing model for studying pheromone regulation of social life. In addition, with the recent sequencing of its genome, a global view of pheromone communication is starting to emerge, and it is now possible to decipher this complex chemical language from the molecular to the social level. We review here the different pheromones regulating the main biological functions of the superorganism and detail their respective action on the genome, physiology and behavior of nestmates. Finally, we suggest some future research that may improve our understanding of the remarkably rich syntax of pheromone communication at the social level. PMID:20831956

Alaux, C; Maisonnasse, A; Le Conte, Y

2010-01-01

231

Pheromones and Chemical Ecology of Dispersal and Foraging in Termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pheromones play a crucial role in the ecology of dispersal and foraging in termites. Sex-pairing pheromones possess a double\\u000a role of long-range attraction to unite sexual partners and a short-range or contact attraction to maintain the pair during\\u000a the tandem behaviour. Sex-pairing pheromones most often comprise a single compound capable of eliciting both behavioural effects.\\u000a They appear very conservative in

Christian Bordereau; Jacques M. Pasteels

232

Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new {alpha}-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket.

Xu Wei [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Leal, Walter S. [Maeda-Duffey Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: wsleal@ucdavis.edu

2008-08-08

233

A yeast pheromone-based inter-species communication system.  

PubMed

We report on a pheromone-based inter-species communication system, allowing for a controlled cell-cell communication between the two species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a proof of principle. It exploits the mating response pathways of the two yeast species employing the pheromones, ?- or P-factor, as signaling molecules. The authentic and chimeric pheromone-encoding genes were engineered to code for the P-factor in S. cerevisiae and the ?-factor in S. pombe. Upon transformation of the respective constructs, cells were enabled to express the mating pheromone of the opposite species. The supernatant of cultures of S. pombe cells expressing ?-factor were able to induce a G1 arrest in the cell cycle, a change in morphology to the typical shmoo effect and expression driven by the pheromone-responsive FIG1 promoter in S. cerevisiae. The supernatant of cultures of S. cerevisiae cells expressing P-factor similarly induced cell cycle arrest in G1, an alteration in morphology typical for mating as well as the activation of the pheromone-responsive promoters of the rep1 and sxa2 genes in a pheromone-hypersensitive reporter strain of S. pombe. Apparently, both heterologous pheromones were correctly processed and secreted in an active form by the cells of the other species. Our data clearly show that the species-specific pheromone systems of yeast species can be exploited for a controlled inter-species communication. PMID:25331280

Hennig, Stefan; Clemens, André; Rödel, Gerhard; Ostermann, Kai

2015-02-01

234

Neural regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in Heliothis moths  

PubMed Central

Pheromone biosynthesis in females of Heliothis zea is regulated endogenously by a neuropeptide produced in the subesophageal ganglion. We have found that the ventral nerve cord must be intact for normal induction of pheromone biosynthesis and that pheromonotropic activity is associated with extracts of the abdominal nerve cord, but only during the period when pheromone is produced. We did not find evidence of pheromonotropic activity in hemolymph obtained from females that were producing pheromone. Extracts of the brain—subesophageal ganglion complex, which contain pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), induced pheromone biosynthesis when applied to the terminal abdominal ganglion only if nerves from this ganglion to the pheromone gland were intact. Brain—subesophageal ganglion extracts did not induce biosynthesis when applied directly to the pheromone glands in vitro. From our results, we conclude that the target site of PBAN is not the pheromone gland but the terminal abdominal ganglion, and we hypothesize that the abdominal nerve cord transports PBAN to the terminal abdominal ganglion. PMID:16594023

Teal, P. E. A.; Tumlinson, J. H.; Oberlander, H.

1989-01-01

235

Pheromone inhibitors for Pandemis pyrusana males (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) .  

E-print Network

??A grease matrix was loaded with pheromone components for Pandenmis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), two synchronic and sympatric species affecting apple orchards in… (more)

Curkovic, Tomislav

2007-01-01

236

Analysis of head and mandibular tapping movements in patients with mandibular protrusion.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate whether there was a functional coupling between the head and mandibular movements in ten patients with mandibular protrusion (MP) and ten control subjects with normal occlusion (Normal), using a six degrees-of-freedom measuring device. Single-peak waveforms were predominantly seen in both MP (98.2%) and Normal (99.3%). However, vertical displacements of the upper and lower incisor points (VD(UIP) and VD(LIP)) were all significantly larger in MP than those in Normal. The ratio VD(UIP)/VD(LIP) also increased more sharply with an increase in VD(LIP) in MP, compared to that in Normal. Mandibular rotation in MP was also significantly larger than that in Normal. The results showed that, in MP, the head moves more vertically in rhythmical coordination with mandibular movement during tapping. Finally, it may be that this larger vertical head movement is related to the greater condylar rotation in MP subjects. PMID:16541840

Nibe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Tadao; Kohno, Shoji; Hanada, Kooji

2006-01-01

237

Effect of electrical stimulation on mandibular distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine whether the use of electrical stimulation during mandibular lengthening accelerates new bone formation.Twenty adult female rabbits weighing between 2800 g and 3200 g underwent left mandibular body osteotomy. After a 3 day latency period, an external fixation device was activated at a rate of 0.7 mm per day for 10 days. Direct current electrical

Toshiyuki Hagiwara; William H. Bell

2000-01-01

238

Unusual complication of repair of fractured mandibular angle.  

PubMed

Internal fixation with miniplates remains an accepted and reliable approach to the management of mandibular fractures, and erosion through the oral mucosa is a well-recognised long-term complication. We report a case of erosion of a miniplate through the skin 5 years after internal fixation of a fracture of the left mandibular angle. PMID:25532968

Delpachitra, S; Rahmel, B; Ramalingam, L

2015-02-01

239

Correlation between mandibular incisor crown morphologic index and postretention stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Considering postretention stability as a result of successful orthodontic treatment, we aimed to verify the influence of mandibular-incisor-crown morphology in the relapse of mandibular anterior crowding. Methods: The sample comprised 56 white subjects of both sexes with Class I and Class II malocclusions at pretreatment, treated with extraction of 4 first premolars and edgewise mechanics. No patient underwent interproximal

Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro de Castro; Guilherme Janson; Karina Maria Salvatore Freitas; José Fernando Castanha Henriquesa

2006-01-01

240

Stability of transverse expansion in the mandibular arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a retrospective, longitudinal cephalometric and cast study of 29 white patients at pretreatment, posttreatment, and an average of 6 years 3 months postretention. The goal was to assess changes with treatment and retention with the expanding mandibular lingual arch appliance in conjunction with fixed edgewise treatment. Seven mandibular cast measurements were assessed, including arch crowding, arch perimeter, arch

Jeffrey A Housley; Ram S Nanda; G. Fräns Currier; Dale E McCune

2003-01-01

241

Postretention changes in mandibular crowding: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttreatment stability is one of the challenges facing orthodontists today. Relapse of the mandibular anterior segment during the postretention period is perhaps the most predictable and frustrating of all orthodontic relapses. This type of relapse is sometimes erroneously construed as a sign of inappropriate treatment or evidence of misdiagnosis or incorrect mechanics. This article reviews mandibular incisor postretention stability outcomes

Anwar Ali Shah

2003-01-01

242

Quantitative GC analysis of secondary alcohol pheromones: determination of release rate of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pheromone from lures.  

PubMed

Aliphatic secondary alcohols are components of several aggregation pheromones of important beetle and weevil pests. Some of these pheromones are used frequently for the monitoring and mass trapping of the relevant insects. We encountered severe difficulties in direct GC quantitative analysis of these compounds. Therefore, we developed a simple GC analysis of secondary alcohols convening them to trifluoroacetyl derivatives and using secondary alcohol acetates as internal standards. This method was applied for the quantitative analysis of several secondary alcohols, including the aggregation pheromone components of the almond bark beetle and the red palm weevil. The release rate of the latter pheromone from commercial lures was also determined. PMID:12523569

Zada, A; Soroker, V; Harel, M; Nakache, J; Dunkelblum, E

2002-11-01

243

Unilateral craniofacial microsomia. Part I. Mandibular analysis.  

PubMed

Various attempts to describe the skeletal characteristics of unilateral craniofacial microsomia have been made with the use of cephalometric and panoramic roentgenograms. Previous studies have been only descriptive in nature. To date, a detailed (quantitative) cephalometric analysis of the mandibular deformity has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe the skeletal jaw deformity by means of cephalometric landmarks in the lateral view. The patient population consisted of sixteen boys and eight girls who ranged in age from 6 to 16 years. They were compared to the University of Michigan normal control population for the following measures: gonial angle, mandibular plane angle, overall oblique length of the mandible, ramal height, and body length. The affected side showed a larger gonial angle and mandibular plane angle. The oblique length of the mandible (Cd-Gn) was decreased on both sides, as were ramal height and body length. Paradoxically, body length appeared shorter on the unaffected side than on the affected side. This paradoxical observation could be attributed to a shift of the mandible in relation to the midsagittal plane of the cranial base, the film cassette, and the path of the x-ray beam. Observation of the mandible in the basilar cephalogram explained the geometry of the projection error found in the lateral view. Similar projection errors exist for patients with other types of craniofacial asymmetry. It is suggested that two radiographic views, orthogonal to each other, should be used to define the x, y, and z planes for studies of craniofacial abnormality. PMID:6577795

Grayson, B H; Boral, S; Eisig, S; Kolber, A; McCarthy, J G

1983-09-01

244

Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.  

PubMed

Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models. PMID:22399397

Ma, Minghong

2012-01-01

245

Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling?  

PubMed Central

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

2010-01-01

246

Distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178

Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra

2013-01-01

247

Mandibular Plasmacytoma of Jaw – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The plasma cell neoplasm may present as Extramedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) in soft tissues in bone as a Solitary Plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) or as a part of multi focal disseminated disease Multiple Myeloma (MM). The majority of 80% occurs in head and neck region. In our case, a 62-year-old male patient presented with a non tender swelling of short duration. The swelling was noted obliterating the vestibular depth in right lower mandibular region. The radiological features were non specific. PMID:25302275

Kaur, Parwinder; Gupta, Rakhi; Gupta, Shally; Singh, Simranjit

2014-01-01

248

Late development of a mandibular second premolar  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present the case of a girl with delayed odontogenesis of a lower second premolar for which she was followed up for 8.5 years. Congenital absence of permanent mandibular second premolars was observed at the initial radiographic examination at 8 years and 1 month. One year later, during the treatment period, an unexpected odontogenesis of a right second premolar was diagnosed on follow-up radiography. The original treatment plan was revised and a new plan was successfully implemented. Th is unusual case showed that the orthodontist's clinical philosophy must be flexible because unexpected situations can arise, especially when treating growing patients. PMID:23112938

Doruk, Cenk; Babacan, Hasan

2012-01-01

249

Ovarian remnant syndrome and uterine stump pyometra in three queens.  

PubMed

Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is the presence of functional ovarian tissue with signs of oestrus as a complication after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) or ovariectomy. Stump pyometra is another complication that can be observed after OHE. However, there are few reports about ORS and stump pyometra in queens. In this report, three queens with recurrent oestrous behaviours after OHE are described. In two queens, ORS with stump pyometra was diagnosed and in one queen ORS alone was diagnosed by physical examination, medical history, vaginal cytology and ultrasonography. Remnant ovarian and uterine tissues were removed by laparotomy. Two queens recovered without any complications; however, one queen died 2 days after surgery. This study reveals that ORS and stump pyometra can result in severe disease and can be fatal. PMID:22706446

Demirel, Murside Ayse; Acar, Duygu Baki

2012-12-01

250

Hydroquinone: a general phagostimulating pheromone in termites.  

PubMed

The organization of termite societies depends predominantly on intraspecific chemical signals (pheromones) produced by exocrine glands, which induce and modulate individual behavioral responses. Here, the saliva-producing labial glands of termites were investigated with respect to their pheromonal role in communal food exploitation of termite colonies. From these glands, we identified for the first time hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) as a phagostimulating pheromone in the Australian termite species Mastotermes darwiniensis. Hydroquinone is released from the labial glands of termite workers and applied onto the food. It stimulates nestmates to feed at the spot of application and is, thus, employed to mark feeding sites. No synergistic effect with other identified labial gland compounds, such as glucose, inositol, and arbutin, was evident. Significantly, we show that termite species from all over the world, irrespective of taxonomic position and biological traits, produce and employ hydroquinone as phagostimulating signal. The use of the same chemical signal throughout an order is a unique phenomenon, not reported before in animals. Its possible biosynthetic pathway, ecological significance, and evolution are discussed. PMID:11868667

Reinhard, Judith; Lacey, Michael J; Ibarra, Fernando; Schroeder, Frank C; Kaib, Manfred; Lenz, Michael

2002-01-01

251

Tetrafid mandibular condyle: a unique case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Morphological changes such as bifid and trifid mandibular condyle are rare entities. The aim of the present report is to describe a unique morphological variation of the mandibular condyle which has four separate condylar heads (tetrafid mandibular condyle) and to discuss clinical and radiological differential diagnosis of tetrafid mandibular condyle with advanced imaging techniques. PMID:22065803

?ahman, H; Etöz, OA; ?ekerci, AE; Etöz, M; ?i?man, Y

2011-01-01

252

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS  

E-print Network

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AT KINGSTON DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Master's Thesis Examining and Statistics Co-Supervisor Mathematics and Statistics Examiner from the department Mathematics and Statistics

Linder, Tamás

253

Mandibular distraction of the body and ramus.  

PubMed

With the ever increasing interest in the field of osteodistraction techniques, the mandible is certainly the most studied anatomical site, both experimentally and clinically. Currently, the methods of mandibular distraction can be classified by position (intra- or extraoral), by the direction of distraction and by the site of application (toothborn, boneborn or hybrid fixation). To guarantee good results from the osteodistraction procedure, it is fundamental to have an accurate preoperative plan considering the correct classification and evaluation of the patient combined with a valid project regarding the direction of the distraction vector. One of the most important aspects to consider is the orientation of the distractor, especially if the defect to be corrected is three-dimensional. Regarding the correct planning of the operation, knowing the secondary effects of the distraction on the soft tissues, muscles and nerves, the temporomandibular joint and velopharyngeal functioning is of fundamental importance. It is worth considering particular situations in which osteodistraction is extremely helpful in maxillofacial surgery, for example in the construction of a neocondyle, in bone replacement during oncologic interventions, in obstructive sleep apnea correction and in hemi-mandibular reconstruction. PMID:16971880

Albanese, M; Mercanti, M; Bertelè, G; Stella, F; Trevisiol, L

2006-06-01

254

Condylar Mineralization Following Mandibular Distraction in Rats  

PubMed Central

The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868

Liu, Z.J.; King, G.J.; Herring, S.W.

2008-01-01

255

Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

Gruszka, Katarzyna; Ró?y?o, T. Katarzyna; Ró?y?o-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mas?owska, Klaudia

2014-01-01

256

Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment. PMID:24987621

Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, V. P.; Singh, Gyan P.

2012-01-01

257

Condylar mineralization following mandibular distraction in rats.  

PubMed

The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868

Liu, Z J; King, G J; Herring, S W

2006-07-01

258

Trail-following pheromones of the rhinotermitidae: Approaches to their authentication and specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the authenticity of subterranean termite trail pheromones is suggested and utilized to verify the presence of trail pheromones inReticulitermes virginicus, R. flavipes, andR. tibialis. In addition, a possible trail pheromone has been demonstrated forCoptotermes formosanus. A choice bioassay method shows that the above trail pheromones are species specific.

R. Howard; F. Matsumura; H. C. Coppel

1976-01-01

259

Modification of Streptococcus faecalis Sex Pheromones after Acquisition of Plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recipient strains of Streptococcus faecalis excrete multiple, peptide sex pheromones that induce mating responses in donors harboring certain conjugative plasmids. Acquisition of plasmid DNA leads to a ``shutting off'' of pheromone excretion, and such cells become responsive to exogenous pheromone. Data are presented showing that donors excrete low levels of a modified, inactive form of the pheromone. This substance, when

Yasuyoshi Ike; Ronald A. Craig; Bryan A. White; Yoshihiko Yagi; Don B. Clewell

1983-01-01

260

Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

261

The mode of pheromone evolution: evidence from bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Sex and aggregation pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. The way in which different species' blends have evolved has been the subject of some debate. Theoretical predictions suggest that differences between species have arisen not through the accruing of small changes, but through major shifts in chemical composition. Using data on the aggregation pheromones of 34 species of bark beetle from two genera, Dendroctonus and Ips, we investigated how the distributions of the chemical components of their pheromone blends mirror their phylogenetic relationships. We tested whether there were consistent patterns that could be used to help elucidate the mode of pheromone evolution. Although there were obvious differences in pheromone blends between the two genera, the differences between species within each genus followed a less clear phylogenetic pattern. In both genera, closely related species are just as different as more distantly related species. Within Dendroctonus, particularly, most chemical components were distributed randomly across the phylogeny. Indeed, for some chemicals, closely related species may actually be more different than would be expected from a random distribution of chemical components. This argues strongly against the idea of minor shifts in pheromone evolution. Instead, we suggest that, within certain phylogenetic constraints, pheromone evolution in bark beetles is characterized by large saltational shifts, resulting in sibling species being substantially phenotypically (i.e. pheromonally) different from one another, thus agreeing with theoretical predictions. PMID:15255103

Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

2004-01-01

262

Sex pheromone of the plant bug, Phytocoris calli knight.  

PubMed

Female Phytocoris calli Knight produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA), and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of the pheromone, since deletion of either ester from the blend resulted in a total suppression of conspecific male trap catches. However, the binary blend of HA and E2OA was only slightly attractive to males, and was significantly less active than the four-component blend. The two ternary blends, HA/OA/E2OA and HA/E2HA/E2OA, were each as attractive as the full four-component blend. Evidence from previous research on the pheromones of Phytocoris species suggests that the apparent chemical redundancy in the pheromone of P. calli may actually be involved in maintaining reproductive isolation from other sympatric species. The patterns observed for pheromones of the five Phytocoris species whose pheromones have been directly (P. californicus, P. relativus, P. difficilis, and P. calli) or indirectly (P. breviusculus) studied are discussed vis-à-vis the pheromone intractable species of Lygus and Lygocoris plant bugs. PMID:18465171

Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

2008-06-01

263

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

264

Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors in both adult and immature stages. Multiple pheromones and neural pathways that underlie adult social behavior have been described in the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, but there is no...

265

Rhythms in Pheromone Production of the Male Boll Weevil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, held in a light regimen of 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness released pheromone rhythmically during the 24 hours. The amount released during peaks was typically 20 times the amount released in valleys. The ratio of the two alcohol components of the pheromone also showed a daily rhythm. Under continuous light, both

R. C. Gueldner; Glenn Wiygul

1978-01-01

266

3 TRPC2 and the Molecular Biology of Pheromone  

E-print Network

of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and is detected at lower levels in few other tissues. The characteristics of TRPC2 to significant advances in under- standing the biology of the vomeronasal organ and pheromone detection) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PHEROMONE SENSING IN MAMMALS Surgical removal of olfactory

Liman, Emily

267

Sex pheromone communication in the lepidoptera: New research progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Significant progress has been made recently in research on lepidopterous sex pheromones. Advances in understanding the biochemical, neurobiological, and behavioral events that results in both successful and unsuccessful pheromone communication have allowed researchers to gain new insights into the genetic control and evolution of phermone systems.

T. C. Baker

1989-01-01

268

Predicted taxonomic patterns in pheromone production by longhorned beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of five species of three tribes in the longhorned beetle subfamily Cerambycinae produce volatile pheromones that share a structural motif (hydroxyl or carbonyl groups at carbons two and three in straight-chains of six, eight, or ten carbons). Pheromone gland pores are present on the prothoraces of males, but are absent in females, suggesting that male-specific gland pores could provide

Ann M. Ray; Emerson S. Lacey; Lawrence M. Hanks

2006-01-01

269

Spider sex pheromones: emission, reception, structures, and functions.  

PubMed

Spiders and their mating systems are useful study subjects with which to investigate questions of widespread interest about sexual selection, pre- and post-copulatory mate choice, sperm competition, mating strategies, and sexual conflict. Conclusions drawn from such studies are broadly applicable to a range of taxa, but rely on accurate understanding of spider sexual interactions. Extensive behavioural experimentation demonstrates the presence of sex pheromones in many spider species, and recent major advances in the identification of spider sex pheromones merit review. Synthesised here are the emission, transmission, structures, and functions of spider sex pheromones, with emphasis on the crucial and dynamic role of sex pheromones in female and male mating strategies generally. Techniques for behavioural, chemical and electrophysiological study are summarised, and I aim to provide guidelines for incorporating sex pheromones into future studies of spider mating. In the spiders, pheromones are generally emitted by females and received by males, but this pattern is not universal. Female spiders emit cuticular and/or silk-based sex pheromones, which can be airborne or received via contact with chemoreceptors on male pedipalps. Airborne pheromones primarily attract males or elicit male searching behaviour. Contact pheromones stimulate male courtship behaviour and provide specific information about the emitter's identity. Male spiders are generally choosy and are often most attracted to adult virgin females and juvenile females prior to their final moult. This suggests the first male to mate with a female has significant advantages, perhaps due to sperm priority patterns, or mated female disinterest. Both sexes may attempt to control female pheromone emission, and thus dictate the frequency and timing of female mating, reflecting the potentially different costs of female signalling and/or polyandry to both sexes. Spider sex pheromones are likely to be lipids or lipid soluble, may be closely related to primary metabolites, and are not necessarily species specific, although they can still assist with species recognition. Newer electrophysiological techniques coupled with chemical analyses assist with the identification of sex pheromone compounds. This provides opportunities for more targeted behavioural experimentation, perhaps with synthetic pheromones, and for theorising about the biosynthesis and evolution of chemical signals generally. Given the intriguing biology of spiders, and the critical role of chemical signals for spiders and many other animal taxa, a deeper understanding of spider sex pheromones should prove productive. PMID:17313523

Gaskett, A C

2007-02-01

270

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

271

Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels  

PubMed Central

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

272

Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.  

PubMed

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

273

Mandibular trauma treatment: A comparison of two protocols.  

PubMed

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of mandibular fractures treated in two European centre in 10 years. Study Design: This study is based on 2 systematic computer-assisted databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two centers in Turin, Italy and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands for ten years. Only patients who were admitted for mandibular fractures were considered for this study. Results: Between 2001 and 2010, a total of 752 patients were admitted at Turin hospital with a total of 1167 mandibular fractures not associated with further maxillofacial fractures, whereas 245 patients were admitted at Amsterdam hospital with a total of 434 mandibular fractures. At Amsterdam center, a total of 457 plates (1.5 - 2.7 mm) were used for the 434 mandibular fracture lines, whereas at Turin center 1232 plates (1.5 - 2.5 mm) were used for the management of the 1167 mandibular fracture lines. At Turin center, 190 patients were treated primarily with IMF, whereas 35 patients were treated with such treatment option at Amsterdam center. Conclusions: Current protocols for the management of mandibular fractures are quite efficient. It is difficult to obtain a uniform protocol, because of the difference of course of each occurring fracture and because of surgeons' experiences and preferences. Several techniques can still be used for each peculiar fracture of the mandible. PMID:25475782

Boffano, P; Kommers, S-C; Roccia, F; Forouzanfar, T

2014-12-01

274

Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar in pterygomandibular space: a case report.  

PubMed

Impacted mandibular third molars are located between the second mandibular molar and mandibular ramus. However, ectopic mandibular third molars with heterotopic positions are reported in the subcondylar or pterygomandibular space. The usual cause of malposition is a cyst or tumor, and malposition without a pathology is rare. This case report described an impacted mandibular third molar in the pterygomandibular space without any associated pathology. PMID:24471052

Lee, Young-Kyu; Park, Sung-Soo; Myoung, Hoon

2013-10-01

275

(6R,10S)-Pallantione: the first ketone identified as sex pheromone in stink bugs.  

PubMed

This work describes the structural elucidation of the sex pheromone of the soybean stink bug, Pallantia macunaima. The biological activity of the synthetic pheromone was demonstrated by behavioral and EAD experiments. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of the natural pheromone was determined as (6R,10S)-6,10,13-trimethyltetradecan-2-one. This is the first ketone identified as a male-produced sex pheromone in Pentatomidae, and the trivial name, pallantione, was assigned to this novel pheromone molecule. PMID:23545064

Fávaro, Carla F; Soldi, Rafael A; Ando, Tetsu; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Zarbin, Paulo H G

2013-04-19

276

Bone Suture in Management of Mandibular Degloving Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic degloving injuries of the mandible are rare intraoral soft tissue traumas. A simple review of the medical literature shows that no article up to this date has reported the prevalence of the degloving injuries of the mandible. Moreover, the highest incidence of mandibular degloving injuries is reported in children and young adults. In this article, the author describes the mandibular degloving injury, characterized by the separation of periosteum and soft tissues of the anterior buccal side of the mandible, and the bone suture technique. This article outlines that a correct diagnostic assessment and appropriate treatment plan can reduce the complications after mandibular degloving injuries. PMID:24470849

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajeahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

277

Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in Relation with Dental Implantology  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives It is critical to determine the location and configuration of the mandibular canal and related vital structures during the implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature concerning the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle anatomical variations related to the implant surgery. Material and Methods Literature was selected through the search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1973 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, prosthetic and periodontal journals and books were performed. Results In total, 46 literature sources were obtained and morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to implant treatment in posterior mandible were presented as two entities: intraosseous mandibular canal and associated inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Conclusions A review of morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to mandibular canal and mandibular vital structures are very important especially in implant therapy since inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that osteotomies in implant dentistry should not be developed in the posterior mandible until the position of the mandibular canal is established. PMID:24421958

Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

2010-01-01

278

Deferoxamine Expedites Consolidation during Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background A limitation of mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is the length of time required for consolidation. This drawback subjects patients to possible pin-site infections, as well as a prolonged return to activities of normal daily living. Developing innovative techniques to abridge consolidation periods could be immensely effective in preventing these problematic morbidities. Deferoxamine (DFO) is an angiogenic activator that triggers the HIF-1? pathway through localized iron depletion. We previously established the effectiveness of DFO in enhancing regenerate vascularity at a full consolidation period (28 days) in a murine mandibular DO model. To investigate whether this augmentation in vascularity would function to accelerate consolidation, we progressively shortened consolidation periods prior to ?CT imaging and biomechanical testing (BMT). Materials and Methods Three time points (14d, 21d and 28d) were selected and six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were equally divided into control (C) and experimental (E) groups for each time period. Each group underwent external fixator placement, mandibular osteotomy, and a 5.1mm distraction. During distraction, the experimental groups were treated with DFO injections into the regenerate gap. After consolidation, mandibles were imaged and tension tested to failure. ANOVA was conducted between groups, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results At 14 days of consolidation the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in Bone Volume Fraction (BVF), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Ultimate Load (UL) in comparison to non-treated controls. The benefit of treatment was further substantiated by a striking 100% increase in the number of bony unions at this early time-period (C:4/10 vs. E:8/10). Furthermore, metrics of BVF, BMD, Yield and UL at 14 days with treatment demonstrated comparable metrics to those of the fully consolidated 28d control group. Conclusion Based on these findings, we contend that augmentation of vascular density through localized DFO injection delivers an efficient means for accelerating bone regeneration without significantly impacting bone quality or strength. PMID:23598047

Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Johnson, Kelsey L.; Blough, Jordan T.; Perosky, Joseph E.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Felice, Peter A.; Nelson, Noah S.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Levi, Benjamin; Buchman, Steven R.

2014-01-01

279

Sex Pheromone Production and Perception in European Corn Borer Moths is Determined by Both Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as

Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson

1987-01-01

280

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ants/queen.html BEING QUEEN BY PETER TYSON  

E-print Network

, escorted by a mass of soldier ants that completely surround her and will Dwarfing her attendant daughters the nest. She can live 30 years. To protect its queen, a soldier of the army ant E. burchelli will attack, Lasius niger, for example, live for an astonishing 20 to 30 years. L. niger workers, which are all female

Wenseleers, Tom

281

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Religion and Belief  

E-print Network

THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Religion and Belief INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to religion and belief and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief does not take place. CURRENT

Capdeboscq, Yves

282

Distribution and Behavior of Queen Conch Strombus gigas  

E-print Network

Distribution and Behavior of Queen Conch Strombus gigas Relative to Seagrass Standing Crop Allan W Stocking Island, Bahamas, to deter- mine habitat associations of queen conch Strombus gigas L. within sea- grass meadows of Thalassia testudi- num. Transect data showed that conch density and biomass increased

283

The Queen Mary Magazine Winter 2004/05  

E-print Network

and graduate starting salaries Volunteering Students swap time for hands on experience New pathways Alternative to the workplace 12 Alternative routes for higher education students Queen Mary students swap time for experience is transforming the Union into a more authentic and diverse representative body of Queen Mary's students

Chittka, Lars

284

Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University SingleUse Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution of singleuse bottled water shall not be permitted on campus. DEFINITION SingleUse Bottled Water A water

Abolmaesumi, Purang

285

Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy POLICY STATEMENT The Queen's University Single-Use Bottled Water Policy requires that, subject to certain exceptions, the purchase, sale, or distribution of single-use bottled water shall not be permitted on campus. DEFINITION Single-Use Bottled Water - A water

Abolmaesumi, Purang

286

SURVIVAL AND FUNCTION OF QUEENS REARED IN BEESWAX CONTAINING COUMAPHOS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Young honey bee larvae were transferred into wax queen cups containing known concentrations (0 to 1000 ppm) of the organophosphate coumaphos. These larvae were placed in queenless colonies and examined ten days later to determine the rate of acceptance as indicated by a mature sealed queen cell. A...

287

Queen's University Undergraduate Student Summer Research Fellowship (USSRF)  

E-print Network

Queen's University Undergraduate Student Summer Research Fellowship (USSRF) APPLICATION FORM Last Undergraduate Student Summer Research Fellowship (USSRF) APPLICATION FORM cont'd To be completed by student) Queen's University Undergraduate Student Summer Research Fellowship (USSRF) APPLICATION FORM cont'd Page

Ellis, Randy

288

Original article Heritability of the queen brood post-capping  

E-print Network

Original article Heritability of the queen brood post-capping stage duration in Apis mellifera regression and intra-class correlation in a population of Apis mellifera mellifera colonies in France; and (2 is discussed. Apis mellifera mellifera / Varroa jacobsoni/ queens post-capping stage / development / selection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

School of Nursing Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University  

E-print Network

School of Nursing Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University MARCH OPEN HOUSE The School of Nursing is pleased to welcome all prospective students and their families to the March Break Open House on Saturday, March 15, 2014. We have planned a variety of events designed to introduce you to Nursing at Queen

Ellis, Randy

290

Translation Program A partnership of Queens Borough President's Office  

E-print Network

Translation Program A partnership of Queens Borough President's Office and the Asian/American Center at Queens College Translation Request Form All information must be provided for request: Distribution Plan: The Population that the translated document will serve: Needed by (Date): Expected

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

291

Queen's University Belfast Undergraduate Prospectus 2011 Entry AboutthisProspectus  

E-print Network

Sciences 28 Disability Services 29 Student Guidance Centre 30 Meet the Students - Profile 33 International Technology (ICT) 56 Faculty Profile - Engineering and Physical Sciences 57 Queen's Students' Union 58 Non-Sporting Clubs and Societies 63 Queen's Sport 64 Sporting Spotlight 67 The Science Shop 68 Meet the Students

Paxton, Anthony T.

292

Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2013-06-01

293

Use of a Mandibular Plate to Maintain Intergonial Width in a Partially Edentulous Patient Undergoing Mandibular Symphysis Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging and essential aspects of management of patients with traumatic or ablative deformities involving the mandibular symphysis is maintenance of intergonial width. Classically, the use of occlusal splints has been a simple and cost-effective solution to this problem. Patients who are edentulous, the use of Gunning splints with circummandibular wires is an alternative strategy. In the present report, we describe the use of a mandibular fixation plate for maintenance of intergonial width in an edentulous patient with a postablative mandibular symphysis defect. PMID:24436775

Susarla, Srinivas; Gordon, Paul E.; Attarpour, Ali R.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Peacock, Zachary S.

2013-01-01

294

Biphasic synovial sarcoma in mandibular region  

PubMed Central

The term synovioma was coined by Smith in 1927, and later in 1936 Knox suggested the name synovial sarcoma. It occurs primarily in the paraarticular regions, usually in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules. On rare occasions it may be seen in areas without any apparent relationship to synovial structures as in parapharyngeal region or the abdominal cavity. The first description of synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region was by Pack and Ariel in 1950. The majority of these tumors seem to take origin from paravertebral connective tissue spaces and manifest as solitary retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal masses near the carotid bifurcation. Synovial sarcoma has been reported in soft palate, tongue, maxillofacial region, angle of mandible, sternoclavicular region, scapular region, and the esophagus. We report a case of 28-year-old male patient with synovial sarcoma in mandibular region with biphasic pattern. PMID:22529590

Wadhwan, Vijay; Malik, Sangeeta; Bhola, Nitin; Chaudhary, Minal

2011-01-01

295

Extra corporeal fixation of fractured mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Kannadasan, Kamal; Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-09-01

296

Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle  

PubMed Central

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-01-01

297

Pheromone-inducible conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-inducible transfer of the plasmid pCF10 in Enterococcus faecalis is regulated using a complicated network of proteins and RNAs. The plasmid itself has been assembled from parts garnered from a variety of sources, and many aspects of the system resemble a biological kluge. Recently several new functions of various pCF10 gene products that participate in regulation of plasmid transfer have been identified. The results indicate that selective pressures controlling the evolution of the plasmid have produced a highly complex regulatory network with multiple biological functions that may serve well as a model for the evolution of biological complexity. PMID:16503196

Kozlowicz, Briana K.; Dworkin, Martin; Dunny, Gary M.

2009-01-01

298

Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer  

SciTech Connect

Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-10-01

299

Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens  

PubMed Central

The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31?%) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84?%) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

2013-01-01

300

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and systems biology. Results Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates. PMID:24693353

Kohl, James Vaughn

2013-01-01

301

True chondroma of the mandibular condyle: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Chondroma of the mandibular condyle is a rare benign tumor, with just a handful of cases reported in the literature. Chondromas are rare in the maxillofacial region, but are quite common in the bones of the hands and feet. So far only eight cases of true chondroma have been reported. Here, we present a case of true chondroma of the mandibular condyle of the right side, for which condylectomy was done. No signs of recurrence are noted at 2 years follow-up.

Dhirawani, Rajesh B.; Anand, Kavneet; Lalwani, Gaurav; Pathak, Sanyog; Thakkar, Bhushan

2014-01-01

302

Finite Element Reconstruction of a Mandibular First Molar  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mandibular first molar is the most important tooth with complicated morphology. In finite element (FE) studies, investigators usually prefer to model anterior teeth with a simple and single straight root; it makes the results deviate from the actual case. The most complicated and time-consuming step in FE studies is modeling of the desired tooth, thus this study was performed to establish a finite element method (FEM) of reconstructing a mandibular first molar with the greatest precision. Materials and Methods An extracted mandibular first molar was digitized, and then radiographed from different aspects to achieve its outer and inner morphology. The solid model of tooth and root canals were constructed according to this data as well as the anatomy of mandibular first molar described in the literature. Result A three-dimensional model of mandibular first molar was created, giving special consideration to shape and root canal system dimensions. Conclusion This model may constitute a basis for investigating the effect of different clinical situations on mandibular first molars in vitro, especially on its root canal system. The method described here seems feasible and reasonably precise foundation for investigations. PMID:23717327

Ehsani, Sara; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Asgary, Saeed

2013-01-01

303

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-07-01

304

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

305

Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana (horn).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana was characterized as valine methyl ester, tentatively the L-enantiomer. This is the first sex pheromone identified from the Phyllophaga subgenus Phytalus. The pheromone was extracted from female glands, the active component isolated by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analysis, characterized by mass spectrometry, and shown to be active in field tests. The seasonal flight pattern was determined for P. georgiana as well as for three other species, P. anxia (both northern and southern genitalic forms), P. gracilis, and P. postrema. The latter three species were captured in traps baited with L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19247715

Robbins, Paul S; Nojima, Satoshi; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert J; Consolie, Nancy H; Peck, Daniel C; Roelofs, Wendell L

2009-03-01

306

Evaluation of mandibular reconstruction with particulate cancellous bone marrow and titanium mesh after mandibular resection due to tumor surgery.  

PubMed

There are numerous treatment modalities for mandibular defects after tumor surgery. Autogenous particulate cancellous bone marrow graft combined with titanium mesh (PCBM-MESH) is an alternative procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PCBM-MESH for mandibular reconstruction. There were a total of 10 cases from 2000 to 2011. Mandibles were successfully reconstructed in 9 cases; however, reconstruction failed in 1 case. Overall, the recovery of facial contours was excellent; conversely, the evaluation of prosthetic treatment varied widely. Thus, we suggest 3 steps for mandibular reconstruction: (1) recover the continuity of bone segments; (2) simulate optimum facial contours and dental occlusion; and (3) perform the occlusion with dental prostheses. PCBM-MESH is a valuable method for mandibular defects-particularly for restoring facial contours and a favorable alveolar ridge. PMID:24637525

Miyamoto, Ikuya; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yoshiga, Daigo; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tetsu

2014-04-01

307

Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

2009-06-01

308

Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?  

PubMed Central

Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing that olfaction is perfectly functional in birds and birds use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts. Although the existence of pheromones has never been formally demonstrated in this vertebrate class, different groups of birds, such as petrels, auklets and ducks have been shown to produce specific scents that could play a significant role in within-species social interactions. Behavioral experiments have indeed demonstrated that these odors influence the behavior of conspecifics. Additionally, in quail, deprivation of olfactory inputs decreases neuronal activation induced by sexual interactions with a female. It seems therefore well established that birds enjoy a functional sense of smell and a fast growing body of experimental evidence suggests that they use this channel of olfactory communication to control their social life. The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds. PMID:20490809

Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

309

Yeast pheromone pathway modeling using Petri nets  

PubMed Central

Background Our environment is composed of biological components of varying magnitude. The relationships between the different biological elements can be represented as a biological network. The process of mating in S. cerevisiae is initiated by secretion of pheromone by one of the cells. Our interest lies in one particular question: how does a cell dynamically adapt the pathway to continue mating under severe environmental changes or under mutation (which might result in the loss of functionality of some proteins known to participate in the pheromone pathway). Our work attempts to answer this question. To achieve this, we first propose a model to simulate the pheromone pathway using Petri nets. Petri nets are directed graphs that can be used for describing and modeling systems characterized as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, non-deterministic, and/or stochastic. We then analyze our Petri net-based model of the pathway to investigate the following: 1) Given the model of the pheromone response pathway, under what conditions does the cell respond positively, i.e., mate? 2) What kinds of perturbations in the cell would result in changing a negative response to a positive one? Method In our model, we classify proteins into two categories: core component proteins (set ?) and additional proteins (set ?). We randomly generate our model's parameters in repeated simulations. To simulate the pathway, we carry out three different experiments. In the experiments, we simply change the concentration of the additional proteins (?) available to the cell. The concentration of proteins in ? is varied consistently from 300 to 400. In Experiment 1, the range of values for ? is set to be 100 to 150. In Experiment 2, it is set to be 151 to 200. In Experiment 3, the set ? is further split into ? and ?, with the idea that proteins in ? are more important than those in ?. The range of values for ? is set to be between 151 to 200 while that of ? is 100 to 150. Decision trees were derived from each of the first two experiments to allow us to more easily analyze the conditions under which the pheromone is expressed. Conclusion The simulation results reveal that a cell can overcome the detrimental effects of the conditions by using more concentration of additional proteins in ?. The first two experiments provide evidence that employing more concentration of proteins might be one of the ways that the cell uses to adapt itself in inhibiting conditions to facilitate mating. The results of the third experiment reveal that in some case the protein set ? is sufficient in regulating the response of the cell. Results of Experiments 4 and 5 reveal that there are certain conditions (parameters) in the model that are more important in determining whether a cell will respond positively or not. PMID:25080237

2014-01-01

310

Maxillary anterior and mandibular posterior residual ridge resorption in patients wearing a mandibular implant-retained overdenture.  

PubMed

The mandibular implant-retained overdenture could improve masticatory function compared to the conventional complete denture. However, increased forces exerted by the overdenture could increase residual ridge resorption of the maxillary anterior and mandibular posterior areas. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the mandibular implant-retained overdenture using two or four dental implants, or the conventional complete denture on resorption of the residual ridge of the maxillary anterior and mandibular posterior areas over a period of 10 years. In total, 120 patients, 30 patients treated with an overdenture on two implants (two-implant group), 30 patients with an overdenture on four implants (four-implant group) and 60 patients treated with a conventional full denture (conventional group), participated in this study. On panoramic radiographs, made before and 10 years after treatment, proportional area measurements were applied to determine changes in bone height. After 10 years, a statistically significant amount of bone resorption had occurred in the anterior maxilla in the two-implant group and in the four-implant group. A significant amount of bone resorption had occurred in the posterior mandible in all three groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in both areas. Patients presented large individual differences. It is concluded that patients rehabilitated with implant-retained mandibular overdentures are not subjected to more residual ridge resorption in the anterior maxilla when compared to patients wearing a conventional full denture. Regarding the mandibular posterior residual ridge, resorption was irrespective of wearing an implant-retained mandibular overdenture or a conventional mandibular denture. PMID:21092056

Tymstra, N; Raghoebar, G M; Vissink, A; Meijer, H J A

2011-07-01

311

Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths  

PubMed Central

Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

2011-01-01

312

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Species-specific attraction to pheromonal analogues  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Species-specific attraction to pheromonal analogues in orchid bees Yvonne 2006 / Published online: 19 July 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 Abstract Male orchid bees (Euglossini . Euglossini . Fragrance Introduction Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) have enlarged hind tibiae

Eltz, Thomas

313

Automated selection of appropriate pheromone representations in ant colony optimization.  

PubMed

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a constructive metaheuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the pheromone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by following any systematic process. In some representations, distinct solutions appear multiple times, increasing the effective size of the search space and potentially misleading ants as to the true learned value of those solutions. In this article, we present a novel system for automatically generating appropriate pheromone representations, based on the characteristics of the problem model that ensures unique pheromone representation of solutions. This is the first stage in the development of a generalized ACO system that could be applied to a wide range of problems with little or no modification. However, the system we propose may be used in the development of any problem-specific ACO algorithm. PMID:16053571

Montgomery, James; Randall, Marcus; Hendtlass, Tim

2005-01-01

314

Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed. PMID:17394050

Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

2007-05-01

315

New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

2005-12-01

316

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

317

Acp70A regulates Drosophila pheromones through juvenile hormone induction.  

PubMed

Mated Drosophila melanogaster females show a decrease in mating receptivity, enhanced ovogenesis, egg-laying and activation of juvenile hormone (JH) production. Components in the male seminal fluid, especially the sex peptide ACP70A stimulate these responses in females. Here we demonstrate that ACP70A is involved in the down-regulation of female sex pheromones and hydrocarbon (CHC) production. Drosophila G10 females which express Acp70A under the control of the vitellogenin gene yp1, produced fewer pheromones and CHCs. There was a dose-dependent relationship between the number of yp1-Acp70A alleles and the reduction of these compounds. Similarly, a decrease in CHCs and diene pheromones was observed in da > Acp70A flies that ubiquitously overexpress Acp70A. Quantitative-PCR experiments showed that the expression of Acp70A in G10 females was the same as in control males and 5 times lower than in da > Acp70A females. Three to four days after injection with 4.8 pmol ACP70A, females from two different strains, exhibited a significant decrease in CHC and pheromone levels. Similar phenotypes were observed in ACP70A injected flies whose ACP70A receptor expression was knocked-down by RNAi and in flies which overexpress ACP70A N-terminal domain. These results suggest that the action of ACP70A on CHCs could be a consequence of JH activation. Female flies exposed to a JH analog had reduced amounts of pheromones, whereas genetic ablation of the corpora allata or knock-down of the JH receptor Met, resulted in higher amounts of both CHCs and pheromonal dienes. Mating had negligible effects on CHC levels, however pheromone amounts were slightly reduced 3 and 4 days post copulation. The physiological significance of ACP70A on female pheromone synthesis is discussed. PMID:25484200

Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Shaik, Haq Abdul; Denis, Béatrice; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

2015-01-01

318

Isolation and Identification of Termite Trail-following Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

INSECT pheromones that control chemically the behaviour of highly specialized social insect species have been well documented1. One of these pheromones, termite trail-following substance, is secreted by the sternal glands of various species of termite workers apparently to mark the source of suitable wood for other workers of the same species2,3. When the secretion is streaked across the surface of

F. Matsumura; H. C. Coppel; Akira Tai

1968-01-01

319

Histological Estimates of Ovariole Number in Honey Bee Queens, Apis mellifera, Reveal Lack of Correlation with other Queen Quality Measures  

PubMed Central

Published estimates of the number of ovarioles found in the ovaries of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens range from 100 to 180 per ovary. Within the context of a large-scale study designed to assay the overall quality of queens obtained from various commercial sources, a simple histology-based method for accurate determination of ovariole number was developed and then applied to a sample of 75 queens. Although all 10 commercial sources evaluated provided queens with ovariole numbers within the expected range, ovariole number was found to vary significantly across sources. Overall, and within most of the individual samples, there was no correlation of ovariole number with other morphological attributes such as thoracic width, wing length, or wet weight. Queens from two of the sources, however, displayed a significant negative relationship between wet weight and ovariole number. This study provides baseline data on ovariole number in commercial honey bee queens in the United States at a time when honey bee populations are declining; the method described can be used in studies relating ovariole number in queens to egg production and behavior. PMID:21870968

Jackson, Jeffrey T.; Tarpy, David R.; Fahrbach, Susan E.

2011-01-01

320

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

2010-01-01

321

Pheromones and their effect on women's mood and sexuality.  

PubMed

Pheromones are substances which are secreted to the outside by an individual and received by a second individual of the same species. Many examples exist in animals but their role in humans remains uncertain since adults have no functioning vomeronasal organ, which processes pheromone signals in animals. Yet pheromones can be detected by the olfactory system although humans under develop and underrate their smelling sense. Pheromones may be present in all bodily secretions but most attention has been geared toward axillary sweat which contains the odorous 16-androstenes. One of these steroidal compounds, androstadienone, is present at much higher concentrations in male sweat and can be detected by women, albeit with wide variation in sensitivity. Upper-lip application of a pharmacological dose of androstadienonein women results in improved mood and heightened focus - particularly to capture emotional information. A positive mood is known to facilitate women's sexual response, and -increased focus improves sexual satisfaction. Indeed, some studies showed a beneficial effect of androstadienone on sexual desire and arousal. However, these effects were dependent on the context of the experiment, for example, on the presence of a male attendant. Pheromones may also play a role in mate selection which is "disassortative" regarding the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-genotype. Preliminary evidence suggests that exposure to androstadienone in women promotes attractiveness ratings of potential mates. In conclusion, some data indicate that 16-androstene pheromones, in particular androstadienone, play a beneficial role in women's mood, focus and sexual response, and perhaps also in mate selection. PMID:24753944

Verhaeghe, J; Gheysen, R; Enzlin, P

2013-01-01

322

Correlation between symphyseal morphology and mandibular growth  

PubMed Central

Background: This study sought to assess symphyseal morphology in adolescents with different mandibular growth patterns (MGPs) in order to see if a relation exists. Materials and Methods: In this study the symphyseal parameters (height, depth, and ratio) of normal subjects were compared with four groups with malocclusion (cl III vertical, cl II vertical, cl III horizontal, and cl II horizontal). These groups (15 samples each) were matched (for sex and cervical maturation stage [CVMS]) based on their cephalograms and patient charts. Growth patterns were differentiated by seven vertical parameters and the Wylie analysis. After confirmation of normality of the groups and similarity of their variances the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of data assessed by adjusted chi-square (P < 0.001). The comparison of cases with the normal group was performed by the Dunnett method. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used for evaluation of intraobserver reliability. Results: We found the symphyseal ratio to have a significant correlation with the MGP (P < 0.001). The symphyseal ratio (Height/Depth) was small in a mandible with vertical growth pattern Cl II or Cl III. Conversely, a horizontal growth pattern of a Cl II or Cl III mandible was associated with a larger ratio of the symphysis in comparison with the normal group. The symphyseal ratio was also found to be greater in females. Conclusion: The symphyseal ratio was found to be strongly associated with the MGP. PMID:25097649

Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Nouri, Mahtab; Mirbeigi, Sanam; Baghban, Alireza Akbar Zadeh

2014-01-01

323

Distraction osteogenesis in a severe mandibular deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective Distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplasia. In this case report, distraction with a multidirectional extraoral device was performed to gradually lengthen the corpus and ramus of a patient who had a severe hypoplastic mandible. Materials and methods The patient underwent bilateral extraoral ramus and corpus distraction osteogenesis. After seven days of latency period, distraction was performed 0.5 mm twice a day. Subsequent consolidation period was 12 weeks. Results The patient's mandible was elongated successfully. Cephalometric analysis revealed that ANB angle decreased from 13° to 6°, overjet of 15 mm decreased to 4 mm, corpus length increased from 49 mm to 67 mm, and ramus length increased from 41 mm to 43 mm. Posterior airway space (PAS) also increased due to advancement of the mandible. In stereolithographic model evaluation it was determined that the distances from condylion to gonion and from gonion to pogonion increased. Conclusion Satisfactory results from both aesthetic and functional standpoints were obtained by distraction osteogenesis of the ramus and corpus. PMID:17239254

Ortakoglu, Kerim; Karacay, Seniz; Sencimen, Metin; Akin, Erol; Ozyigit, Aykut H; Bengi, Osman

2007-01-01

324

Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures. PMID:25298715

Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

2014-01-01

325

Mandibular osteosarcoma in a nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

A four-year-old neutered male nutria (Myocastor coypus) was presented for a one-day history of lethargy and anorexia. A right-sided facial swelling and loose right mandibular fourth molar that exuded caseous exudate from the root were noted; however, the animal continued to decline despite removal of the affected tooth and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Radiographs showed a lytic proliferative bony lesion on the right mandible that appeared to expand in size over the course of a week. Due to its declining clinical condition and poor response to therapy, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy revealed an invasive bony neoplasm of the right mandible, histologically consistent with an osteosarcoma, that was invading the mandible and dental arcade, likely contributing to tooth root infection and osteomyelitis. Endocardiosis of the tricuspid valve was incidentally found as well with early cardiac remodeling of the right ventricle. This is the first report of an osteosarcoma and endocardiosis in a nutria. PMID:25314853

Johnson, James G; Kim, Kenneth; Serio, Jacqueline; Paulsen, Daniel; Rademacher, Nathalie; Pirie, Gordon

2014-09-01

326

Pheromone interruption of pine engraver, Ips pini, by pheromones of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosne (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pheromones of Dendroc~onzl.~ poriderosae Hopkins on the attraction of Ipspini (Say) to its pheromone, ipsdienol, was investigated in stands of lodgepole pine. The mixture of cis- and trans-verbenol significantly reduced catches of I pin; in traps baited with ipsdienol at three locations in British Columbia. exo-Brevicomi~~ had no effect on catches of 1 pini, irrespective of the

DANIEL R. MILLER; JOHN H. BORDEN

327

The effect of mandibular buccal tilting on the accuracy of posterior mandibular spiral tomographic images: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background: Accurate measurement of the height and buccolingual thickness of available bone has a significant role in dental implantology. The shadow of ramus on the mandibular second molar region disturbs the sharpness of conventional tomographic images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transferring the shadow of ramus from the center of the focal plane, by changing the position of mandible, on the sharpness of the posterior mandibular region. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used 10 dry human mandibles. Three metal balls were mounted on the midline and mandibular second molar regions bilaterally. Standard panoramic and tomographic images were taken. Then, the mandible was tilted buccaly for 8° – compensating the normal lingual inclination of the mandibular ridge and teeth on this region – and tomographic images were taken again. The height and thickness of bone were measured on the images and then compared with the real amounts measured directly on mandibles. Also, the sharpness of mandibular canals was compared between the two tomographic methods. Findings were analyzed with repeated measured ANOVA test (P<0.05). Results: The height of mandibular bone, on the images of the tilted tomography technique was more accurate compared to standard (P<0.001), but standard tomography had more accuracy in estimating the buccolingual thickness at the half-height point. Regarding the sharpness of mandibular canals, we found no significant differences between two tomographic methods. Conclusion: Buccal tilting is recommended when measuring the bone height is more important, but routine standard tomography is preferred when the thickness is requested. PMID:23372586

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Maleki, Vida

2011-01-01

328

September 2010 Issue 57 The Queen Mary newsletter  

E-print Network

reveals why Shakespeare is German Queen Mary, University of London is collaborating with the Globe Theatre on Shakespeare by poets David Constantine and Michael Hofmann, commissioned by Globe Education. Professor Görner

Chittka, Lars

329

44 16'N 76 30'W Welcome to Queen's  

E-print Network

of governments and funding agencies. Queen's researchers are at work in every corner of the globe: · The South houses state-of-the-art research facilities, a 450-seat lecture theatre, Phytotron research greenhouse

Abolmaesumi, Purang

330

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MTH6115 Cryptography  

E-print Network

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MTH6115 Cryptography Course Information Winter/Spring 2011. (Introductory.) Dominic Welsh. Codes and Cryptography. Oxford University Press. Paul Douglas Stinson. Cryptography: Theory and Practice. Chapman and Hall. Assignment Information: I intend to produce approximately

St Andrews, University of

331

A Critical Look at the Queen Bee Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the popular "Queen Bee" stereotype of successful female executives, and concludes that the stereotype is too narrow in focus and fails to take into account complex psychological and experiential variables. (Author/EJT)

Berry, Jane; Kushner, Richard

1975-01-01

332

Sonic Arts Research Centre Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland  

E-print Network

Sonic Arts Research Centre Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland Essay for the Differentiation Process Composing Music by Composing Rules: Computer Aided Composition employing Constraint Logic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3. Towards Constraining the Musical Form

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

333

Appeal Regulations Queen's University, Faculty of Arts and Science  

E-print Network

Appeal Regulations Queen's University, Faculty of Arts and Science TABLE .............................................................................................................. 4 1.1 ­ General Overview of Appeal of Academic Decisions................................................................................. 4 1.2 ­ Contexts for Appeals in the Faculty of Arts and Science

Abolmaesumi, Purang

334

Terminal Investment: Individual Reproduction of Ant Queens Increases with Age  

PubMed Central

The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1]), but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens. PMID:22509399

Heinze, Jürgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

2012-01-01

335

Update on patterns of mandibular fracture in Tasmania, Australia.  

PubMed

Mandibular fractures often present to hospital, so if we understand trends in patterns of fractures and their demographics it may help us to deliver a better service, and prevent these injuries. Here, we compare current data on mandibular fractures in Tasmania with data from 15 years ago, and with current world trends. Patients who presented to the Royal Hobart Hospital with fractured mandibles were audited, and the data analysed and compared with those from a previous study. About 37 fractured mandibles presented to hospital each year. Most patients were men aged 20-30 years old. Ninety-seven of the 159 fractures (61%) were secondary to assault, 27 (17%) were the result of sport, and 24 (15%) followed falls. Road crashes contributed only 5% of mandibular fractures. Sixty-six patients (60%) were intoxicated at the time of injury. The angle of the mandible was the most common site of fracture and open reduction and internal fixation was the treatment of choice. There have been important changes in mandibular fracture patterns in Tasmania in the last 15 years. There was a rise in alcohol-related interpersonal violence, and men were most commonly involved. There was also a decrease in mandibular fractures caused by road crashes, which suggests an improvement in road safety. PMID:25453253

Verma, Shreya; Chambers, Ian

2015-01-01

336

Changes in overnight arterial oxygen saturation after mandibular setback.  

PubMed

Mandibular setback reduces space in the pharyngeal airway, and it has been suggested that it might induce sleep-disordered breathing. We report on its effects on space in the pharyngeal airway and respiratory function during sleep. We studied 78 patients (29 men and 49 women) in whom skeletal class III malocclusions had been corrected. The mean (range) age at operation was 24 (16-38) years and body mass index (BMI) 21.4 (16.1-30 .9)kg/m(2). Morphological changes were evaluated on lateral cephalograms taken three times: preoperatively, a few days postoperatively, and more than 6 months postoperatively. Overnight arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured by pulse oximetry 6 times: preoperatively, and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and 6 months postoperatively; oximetric indices were calculated. Those immediately after mandibular setback were significantly worse than those preoperatively, although they gradually improved. There were positive correlations between BMI and oximetric indices, and little association between changes in mandibular position and oximetric indices. There was no evidence of sleep-disordered breathing 6 months after mandibular setback because most patients adapt to the new environment for respiratory function during sleep. However, some (particularly obese) patients may develop sleep-disordered breathing just after mandibular setback. In such patients attention should be paid to respiratory function during sleep in the immediate postoperative period, and careful postoperative follow-up is needed. PMID:22853977

Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Funayama, Akinori; Hasebe, Daichi; Kato, Yusuke; Yoshizawa, Michiko; Saito, Chikara

2013-06-01

337

Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.  

PubMed

The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures. PMID:25534058

Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

2015-01-01

338

Mandibular first molar with six root canals: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an ongoing trend of case reports that highlight the presence of more than four root canals in mandibular first molars. This tendency warns clinicians to be more prudent when dealing with mandibular first molars requiring endodontic treatment. Moreover, radiographic examination should be taken as a clue providing tool rather than as an absolute guide to anatomy and its associated aberrances. This case reports the successful non-surgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems with three canals in the mesial root and three in the distal root. The classification of root canal systems found in this case was Sert and Bayirli type XV in both the roots. After non-surgical endodontic treatment, the tooth was restored definitively with a resin composite core followed by porcelain fused to the metal crown. This case adds to the library of previously reported cases of mandibular first molars with six root canals and further emphasises on the importance of rare morphological deviations that may occur in the mandibular first molars. PMID:25082869

Hasan, Muhammad; Rahman, Munawar; Saad, Najeeb

2014-01-01

339

Conditional Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase in the Nervous System Impairs Pheromone Information Processing and Pheromone-Evoked Behaviors  

PubMed Central

ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice. PMID:24130808

Zou, Junhui; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

2013-01-01

340

Retreatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Mandibular premolars have earned a reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in mandibular premolars is very rare. If predictable treatment of a three rooted mandibular premolar is planned, precise knowledge of clinical and radiographic anatomy is absolutely necessary. These teeth may also require special shaping and obturating techniques. This article reports and discusses the treatment recommendations for an unusual occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in a second mandibular premolar. PMID:24688588

Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Rasooli, Hossein; Movassagh, Zeinab

2014-01-01

341

Queen control of egg fertilization in the honey bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the precision with which honey bee queens can control the fertilization of the eggs they lay. Because\\u000a males and workers are reared in different-sized cells, the honey bee is one of the few Hymenoptera in which it is possible\\u000a for the experimenter to know which type of egg a queen “intends” to lay. Eggs were collected from

Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Laurent Keller

1998-01-01

342

Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens.  

PubMed

Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1) sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1) than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively). Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology. PMID:21283547

Gauthier, Laurent; Ravallec, Marc; Tournaire, Magali; Cousserans, François; Bergoin, Max; Dainat, Benjamin; de Miranda, Joachim R

2011-01-01

343

Viruses Associated with Ovarian Degeneration in Apis mellifera L. Queens  

PubMed Central

Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1) sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1) than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively). Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology. PMID:21283547

Gauthier, Laurent; Ravallec, Marc; Tournaire, Magali; Cousserans, François; Bergoin, Max; Dainat, Benjamin; de Miranda, Joachim R.

2011-01-01

344

Virgin honeybee queens fail to suppress worker fertility but not fertility signalling.  

PubMed

Queen mating status in social insects is a matter of crucial importance for workers because of its influence on the queen's productivity and consequently their fitness. Behavioural and physiological reactions of workers to the queens mating status have been studied as a proxy to mechanisms maintaining insect sociality. Here we show that unmated honeybee queens have considerably impaired capacity to trigger worker sterility and cooperative behaviour in comparison to mated (and thus more productive) queens and that under unmated queens social harmony in honeybee societies and queen's dominant position are somewhat compromised. Together with this it is shown that honeybee workers exposed to unmated queens despite being active reproductively and behaving accordingly display an impaired ability to advertise their fertility compared to queenless workers. These findings suggest that reproductive development, behavioural reactions and production of fertility signals are differentially regulated and differently influenced by the queen's presence. PMID:23232436

Orlova, Margarita; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham

2013-03-01

345

Chaotic Red Queen coevolution in three-species food chains.  

PubMed

Coevolution between two antagonistic species follows the so-called 'Red Queen dynamics' when reciprocal selection results in an endless series of adaptation by one species and counteradaptation by the other. Red Queen dynamics are 'genetically driven' when selective sweeps involving new beneficial mutations result in perpetual oscillations of the coevolving traits on the slow evolutionary time scale. Mathematical models have shown that a prey and a predator can coevolve along a genetically driven Red Queen cycle. We found that embedding the prey-predator interaction into a three-species food chain that includes a coevolving superpredator often turns the genetically driven Red Queen cycle into chaos. A key condition is that the prey evolves fast enough. Red Queen chaos implies that the direction and strength of selection are intrinsically unpredictable beyond a short evolutionary time, with greatest evolutionary unpredictability in the superpredator. We hypothesize that genetically driven Red Queen chaos could explain why many natural populations are poised at the edge of ecological chaos. Over space, genetically driven chaos is expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of local populations, even under homogenizing environmental fluctuations, and thus to promote genetic diversity among ecological communities over long evolutionary time. PMID:20356888

Dercole, Fabio; Ferriere, Regis; Rinaldi, Sergio

2010-08-01

346

Mandibular condylectomy in a cow with a chronic luxation of the temporomandibular joint  

PubMed Central

A cow, presented after being struck by a motor vehicle, continued to have difficulty eating after mandibular fracture repair. Imaging showed a temporomandibular luxation and a mandibular condylectomy was performed. Mastication improved greatly but the cow was euthanized due to infection. This is the first report of mandibular condylectomy in cattle. PMID:24891643

Sparks, Holly D.; Roquet, Imma; MacKay, Angela; Barber, Spencer

2014-01-01

347

Changes in the edentulous maxilla in persons wearing implant-retained mandibular overdentures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem: It has been suggested that risk for severe resorption in the anterior maxilla is increased in persons wearing mandibular implant-retained overdentures. However, little information is available about the changes in the edentulous maxilla after mandibular implant treatment. Purpose: This study determined the possible changes in the width of the maxillary residual ridge 6 years after receiving mandibular

Timo O. Närhi; Mariëlle E. Geertman; Miluska Hevinga; Hanan Abdo; Warner Kalk

2000-01-01

348

Mandibular gland secretions of the male beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).  

PubMed

The composition of the territorial marking pheromones from mandibular glands of males of the beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher have been determined. The structures of the components were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The major compound ofP. crabroniformis is isopropyl tetradecanoate, with somewhat lesser amounts of 2-tridecanone, 3-methyl-3-butenyl tetradecanoate, and 92?8 (Z)?(E)-11-eicosen-1-ol. The major compounds ofP. barbatus are ethyl tetradecanoate and hexadecanal, which are present in approximately a 60?40 ratio. These two compounds comprise over 95% of the neutral lipids. Also present in lesser amounts are ethyl dodecanoate, tetradecanal, hexadecan-1-ol, a ? (x) -octadecen-1-ol, and octadecan-1-ol. The major compounds ofP. pulcher are ethyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and geranylgeraniol acetate, which comprise nearly 90% of the neutral lipid fraction, with smaller amounts of tetradecanal, pentadecanal, and ethyl hexadecanoate; trace amounts of ? (x) hexadecenal, hexadecanal, and octadecanal are also present. PMID:24254630

McDaniel, C A; Schmidt, J O; Howard, R W

1992-01-01

349

Identification of a Sex Pheromone From Male Yellow MealWorm Beetles, Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone released by the adult female Tenebrio molitor, 4-methyl-1-nonanol, is well known. In addition, there is evidence that adult males release a pheromone that attracts females. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify male-released pheromone(s). Emissions from virgin adult males and females were collected on filter paper and extracted with pentane. Extracts were analyzed

Gareth P. Bryning; John Chambers; Maureen E. Wakefield

2005-01-01

350

Dodecyl acetate, a second pheromone component of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dodecyl acetate was identified as a second component of the sex pheromone ofTrichoplusia ni (Hübner). Dodecyl acetate comprised 9.6% by weight of the total pheromone [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate plus dodecyl acetate] extracted from glands and 7.3% by weight of the total pheromone evaporated from the surfaces of glands. Dodecyl acetate appears to function as a short-range pheromone component. Evaporation at female

Louis B. Bjostad; Lyle K. Gaston; Lesly L. Noble; J. Harvey Moyer; H. H. Shorey

1980-01-01

351

Neonatal mandibular distraction in a patient with treacher collins syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze a case of mandibular distraction in a case of Treacher Collins syndrome. Mandibular distraction is an adequate surgical treatment of patients with Pierre Robin sequence and represents an alternative to tracheostomy. In severe hypoplastic cases or when three-dimensional vector control or gonial angle control is necessary, extraoral bidirectional or multidirectional devices have an advantage over intraoral devices. The anchorage obtained with transfixing Kirschner wires fixed in the mandibular distal segment and symphysis is crucial in neonates for the stability of the devices. Moreover, with the use of a second pin for each bone segment, the extraoral devices allow to modify the vector orientation and consequently the shape of the newly formed mandible. PMID:25569412

Brevi, Bruno Carlo; Leporati, Massimiliano; Sesenna, Enrico

2015-01-01

352

Mandibular Fracture and Necrotizing Sialometaplasia in a Rabbit  

PubMed Central

A 7-mo-old female New Zealand white rabbit presented with hemorrhage of the gingiva surrounding a loose lower right incisor. Antemortem conventional radiographs revealed only a small bone fragment adjacent to the left mandible's body. In light of a provisional diagnosis of mandibular fracture, the rabbit was euthanized. Postmortem radiographs of the disarticulated mandible demonstrated mandibular symphyseal fracture and comminuted fracture of the ramus and body of the left mandible. According to histopathology, the left submandibular salivary gland had necrotizing sialometaplasia, a nonneoplastic condition of the salivary glands that is caused by ischemic infarction. Although rabbits have been used as animal models of mandibular fracture and necrotizing sialometaplasia, no nonexperimental case of such conditions had been reported previously. PMID:23561940

Villano, Jason S; Cooper, Timothy K

2013-01-01

353

Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition associated with dental anomalies.  

PubMed

Tooth transposition is a rare positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems. Its etiology is an enigma. The occurrence of mandibular canine/lateral incisor transposition is a relatively rare anomaly. Two rooted canine/rotated incisor transposition has not been reported previously in the clinical dental literature. We describe a case with transposition of a mandibular two rooted canine and a lateral incisor with 180 degrees rotation. Possible causes such as trauma and tooth agenesis were absent in this case. Due to the root anomaly, we consider that our case may have a genetic etiology. Although the mandibular lateral incisor and canine were not in their normal anatomic positions, there were no functional or esthetic problems. PMID:16015651

Kansu, Ozden; Avcu, Nihal

2005-09-01

354

Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations  

PubMed Central

Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:24693298

Ilguy, Mehmet; Kursoglu, Pinar; Ilguy, Dilhan

2014-01-01

355

[Differential radiodiagnosis of odontogenic mandibular osteomyelitis accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the results of radiation examination in 43 patients with clinical manifestations of mandibular osteomyelitis. In 13 of them, the disease was accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy. The radiation semiotics of the changes occurring in the mandibular bone and its adjacent soft tissues in different phases of osteomyelitis is described. Comparative analysis of orthopantomograms and the images obtained by multislice spiral computed tomography has revealed the advantage of the latter in identifying insignificant changes in bone tissue and damages to the mandibular canal. Ultrasound study is of more informative value in detecting soft tissue changes in this area. High-technology radiodiagnostic techniques play a leading role in the differentiation of odontogenic and non-odontogenic trigeminal neuropathies. PMID:22288124

Solonskaia, N S; Zorina, I S

2011-01-01

356

Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign  

PubMed Central

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H.

2014-01-01

357

Location of the mandibular foramen in panoramic radiographs.  

PubMed

The reliability of two panoramic x-ray machines (Philips Orthoralix SD Ceph and Gendex Panelipse II) for determination of the location of the mandibular foramen was studied with the use of human dry mandibles. A significant correlation was found between the location of the mandibular foramen in the radiograph and the narrowest anteroposterior dimension of the ramus. A linear logistic regression equation was developed that could predict the actual location of the mandibular foramen from the radiographs. This finding will improve treatment planning of surgical splitting or fracturing of the ramus in cases that require orthognathic surgery provided the surgeon is aware of which panoramic machine was used. The Philips Orthoralix SD was found to be more reliable for this purpose than the Panelipse II (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.87, respectively, in the vertical dimension and R2 = 0.87 and R2 = 0.75, respectively, in the horizontal dimension. PMID:7838477

Kaffe, I; Ardekian, L; Gelerenter, I; Taicher, S

1994-11-01

358

Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor extraction case with invisalign.  

PubMed

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H

2014-01-01

359

Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles  

PubMed Central

Introduction The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry. Methods 55 adult patients, 26 males (26?±?5 yrs) and 29 females (26?±?5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint. Results Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14?±?318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5?±?418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12?±?0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39?±?0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes. Conclusions The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling. PMID:24354862

2013-01-01

360

Mandibular talon cusps: A Systematic review and data analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mandibular talon cusps distribution from the comprehensive literature search and proposal of new classification Material and Methods: The study was a review of articles published in the English language from January 1960 to December 2013. The PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholor databases were searched electronically using ‘talon cusp’, ‘dens evaginatus’, ‘anterior teeth’, mandible, ‘primary dentition’ and ‘ permanent dentition’ as search terms in various combinations. The citation lists from the included references were subsequently examined, and a hand search was also performed in an attempt to identify additional reports. The distribution, characteristics, common tooth type, associated dental anomaly and proposal of new classification have been included in final data analysis. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Chi square test (SPSS, version 17). Results: Overall 37 citations were retrieved from the literature where one was prevalence studies and rest were case reports among those two were duplication. Total 35 articles with 43 patients were reported on mandibular talon cusps. Males were predominantly affected than females (p<0.05). Eight cases (19%) were reported in archeological skulls 81% were clinical reports. Forty cases (93%) were reported in permanent dentition while 7% cases in primary dentition. Lingual mandibular talon are more common than facial type in permanent dentition facial talons (p<0.05). Seven cases (18%) were bilaterally involved. Double tooth (45%) was commonly associated with mandibular talons. Most of the cases reported from Asia and asia derived populations. Conclusions: Central incisor is the most common tooth type that effected by talon cusp in permanent dentition and lateral incisor is in primary dentition. Lingual talons are common in mandible. Double tooth common dental anomaly associated with mandibular talon cusp. Most of the case reported from Asia. Talon cusps should be classified as facial, lingual, and facial and lingual types. Key words:Double tooth, permanent dentition, primary dentition, mandibular arch, Talon cusp.

Panampally, George-Kurian; Chen, Yong; Tian, Tian

2014-01-01

361

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used

Christopher I. Keeling; Gary J. Blomquist; Claus Tittiger

2004-01-01

362

Identification of the Trail Pheromone of a Leaf-cutting Ant, Atta texana  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE are numerous reports of the isolation and identification of insect sex pheromones, and recently a termite trail-following pheromone was isolated and identified1, but this is the first isolation and identification of an ant trail pheromone to be reported. We have identified the major volatile component of the trail marking substance laid down by the town ant, Atta texana (Buckley),

J. H. Tumlinson; R. M. Silverstein

1971-01-01

363

The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone  

E-print Network

The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone J. R. Chasnov*, W. K. So chemotaxis assays, we demonstrate that females secrete a potent sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance, whereas hermaphrodites do not. The female sex pheromone is not species-specific, with males

Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

364

Ontogeny of Alarm pheromone production in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continued...

365

Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2014-01-01

366

Behavioural and genetic analyses of Nasonia shed light on the evolution of sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones play a pivotal role in the communication of many sexually reproducing organisms. Accordingly, speciation is often accompanied by pheromone diversification enabling proper mate finding and recognition. Current theory implies that chemical signals are under stabilizing selection by the receivers who thereby maintain the integrity of the signals. How the tremendous diversity of sex pheromones seen today evolved is poorly understood. Here we unravel the genetics of a newly evolved pheromone phenotype in wasps and present results from behavioural experiments indicating how the evolution of a new pheromone component occurred in an established sender-receiver system. We show that male Nasonia vitripennis evolved an additional pheromone compound differing only in its stereochemistry from a pre-existing one. Comparative behavioural studies show that conspecific females responded neutrally to the new pheromone phenotype when it evolved. Genetic mapping and gene knockdown show that a cluster of three closely linked genes accounts for the ability to produce this new pheromone phenotype. Our data suggest that new pheromone compounds can persist in a sender's population, without being selected against by the receiver and without the receiver having a pre-existing preference for the new pheromone phenotype, by initially remaining unperceived. Our results thus contribute valuable new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the diversification of sex pheromones. Furthermore, they indicate that the genetic basis of new pheromone compounds can be simple, allowing them to persist long enough in a population for receivers to evolve chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:23407492

Niehuis, Oliver; Buellesbach, Jan; Gibson, Joshua D; Pothmann, Daniela; Hanner, Christian; Mutti, Navdeep S; Judson, Andrea K; Gadau, Jürgen; Ruther, Joachim; Schmitt, Thomas

2013-02-21

367

Genetic Evidence for the Coexistence of Pheromone Perception and Full Trichromatic Vision in Howler Monkeys  

E-print Network

by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack of mating (Keverne 1999). Pheromones are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), an organ to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity

Zhang, Jianzhi

368

Swarm Approaches for the Patrolling Problem, Information Propagation vs. Pheromone Evaporation  

E-print Network

Swarm Approaches for the Patrolling Problem, Information Propagation vs. Pheromone Evaporation of performances, we define a first algorithm based only on the evaporation of a pheromone dropped by reactive and the evaporation of information (pheromone's quantity). The diffusion process enables the propagation

Simonin, Olivier -Département Informatique, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

369

Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

E-print Network

1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

370

76 FR 3596 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine...address overfishing of Caribbean queen conch in the U.S. Caribbean. If...

2011-01-20

371

76 FR 23907 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine...address overfishing of Caribbean queen conch in the U.S. Caribbean. This rule...

2011-04-29

372

Bifid mandibular condyle: Report of two cases of varied etiology  

PubMed Central

Bifid condyle is a rare anatomic variation of mandibular condyle. It can be symptomatic or diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographic examination. No definite etiologic factor has been identified. It is suggested that bifid condyle could be a developmental anomaly or secondary to trauma. We are reporting two cases of bifid mandibular condyle. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography scan, which additionally revealed the associated pathosis in the angle of the mandible in first patient and the ankylosis of temporomandibular joint in the second patient. PMID:22442558

Faisal, Mohammad; Ali, Iqbal; Pal, U.S.; Bannerjee, Kalyan

2010-01-01

373

[Mandibular condyle fractures fixation via intraoral approach with endoscopic assistance].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mandibular condyle fractures fixation via intraoral approach with endoscopic assistance. Thirty-nine patients with low mandibular condyle fractures with lateral (34 patients) or medial (5 patients) displacement were included in the study. The paper contains detailed description of operation technique considering displacement type. This minimally invasive procedure resulted in stable fixation of the fracture so that maxillomandibular splinting was limited to 9-14 days after operation. The patients were discharged 4 to 7 days postoperatively. The study revealed no cases of facial palsies and all patients were highly satisfied with the absence of visible scars. PMID:25588342

Nerobeev, A I; Chkhaidze, G G; Khandzratsian, A S; Koga?, V V

2014-01-01

374

A technique for impressing the severely resorbed mandibular edentulous ridge.  

PubMed

Patients presenting with severe resorption of the residual alveolar ridges are relatively common today in both private practices and teaching institutions. The severely resorbed mandibular ridge is more challenging to impress than is the maxillary ridge. Accurately capturing the denture-bearing surface in its entirety is crucial to providing the patient with a functionally successful prosthesis. This article presents a technique to overcome the difficulties encountered in impressing the severely resorbed mandibular ridge using elastomeric impression materials and a modified special custom tray. PMID:22372876

Chandrasekharan, Nair K; Kunnekel, Ashish T; Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rajiv K

2012-04-01

375

Mandibular irregularity index stability following alveolar corticotomy and grafting: A 10-year preliminary study: Mandibular Irregularity Index Stability.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate mandibular irregularity index stability following orthodontic treatment facilitated by alveolar corticotomy and augmentation bone grafting (Cort+). Materials and Methods: The irregularity index of 121 orthodontically treated and 15 untreated patient study casts was analyzed at 5 years and 10 years. Results: Cort+ resulted in significantly lower mandibular irregularity index scores at both 5 years (1.5 mm vs 4.2 mm, P < .000) and 10 years (2.1 mm vs 4.1 mm, P <.000) compared with conventionally treated patients. Conclusions: Unmatched samples advise caution with conclusions, but orthodontic therapy combined with Cort+ enhanced the stability of the postorthodontic mandibular irregularity index for at least 10 years in this preliminary study. PMID:25474711

Makki, Laith; Ferguson, Donald J; Wilcko, M Thomas; Wilcko, William M; Bjerklin, Krister; Stapelberg, Roelien; Al-Mulla, Anas

2014-12-01

376

The mothematics of female pheromone signaling: strategies for aging virgins.  

PubMed

Abstract Although females rarely experience strong mate limitation, delays or lifelong problems of mate acquisition are detrimental to female fitness. In systems where males search for females via pheromone plumes, it is often difficult to assess whether female signaling is costly. Direct costs include the energetics of pheromone production and attention from unwanted eavesdroppers, such as parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Suboptimal outcomes are also possible from too many or too few mating events or near-simultaneous arrival of males who make unwanted mating attempts (even if successfully thwarted). We show that, in theory, even small costs can lead to a scenario where young females signal less intensely (lower pheromone concentration and/or shorter time spent signaling) and increase signaling effort only as they age and gather evidence (while still virgin) on whether sperm limitation threatens their reproductive success. Our synthesis of the empirical data available on Lepidoptera supports this prediction for one frequently reported component of signaling-time spent calling (often reported as the time of onset of calling at night)-but not for another, pheromone titer. This difference is explicable under the plausible but currently untested assumption that signaling earlier than other females each night is a more reliable way of increasing the probability of acquiring at least one mate than producing a more concentrated pheromone plume. PMID:25674695

Umbers, Kate D L; Symonds, Matthew R E; Kokko, Hanna

2015-03-01

377

Octopamine modulates the sensitivity of silkmoth pheromone receptor neurons.  

PubMed

Effects of octopamine and its antagonist epinastine on electrophysiological responses of receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus specialised to the pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal were investigated. Injections of octopamine and epinastine into the moths had no effect on the transepithelial potential of the antennal-branch preparation nor on the spontaneous nerve impulse frequency in either type of receptor neuron. However, in the presence of continuous low-intensity pheromone stimulation, octopamine significantly increased the nerve impulse frequency in the acetate receptor neuron, but not in the aldehyde receptor neuron. Octopamine and epinastine had no significant effect on the receptor potential amplitudes elicited in both receptor neuron types by pheromone stimulation. However, the peak nerve impulse frequency in the response of both receptor neuron types to pheromone was significantly affected: decreased by epinastine and increased by octopamine over a broad range of pheromone concentrations. In control experiments, injection of physiological saline did not significantly alter the peak nerve impulse frequency. The effect of octopamine was established within 1 h after injection and persisted for about 4 h. The possibility of a direct action of octopamine on the nerve impulse generation by the receptor neurons is discussed. PMID:10757246

Pophof, B

2000-03-01

378

Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity  

PubMed Central

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

2012-01-01

379

Origin and diversification of a salamander sex pheromone system.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones form an important facet of reproductive strategies in many organisms throughout the Animal Kingdom. One of the oldest known sex pheromones in vertebrates are proteins of the Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF) system, which already had a courtship function in early salamanders. The subsequent evolution of salamanders is characterized by a diversification in courtship and reproduction, but little is known on how the SPF pheromone system diversified in relation to changing courtship strategies. Here, we combined transcriptomic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses to investigate the evolution of the SPF pheromone system in nine salamandrid species with distinct courtship displays. First, we show that SPF originated from vertebrate three-finger proteins and diversified through multiple gene duplications in salamanders, while remaining a single copy in frogs. Next, we demonstrate that tail-fanning newts have retained a high phylogenetic diversity of SPFs, whereas loss of tail-fanning has been associated with a reduced importance or loss of SPF expression in the cloacal region. Finally, we show that the attractant decapeptide sodefrin is cleaved from larger SPF precursors that originated by a 62 bp insertion and consequent frameshift in an ancestral Cynops lineage. This led to the birth of a new decapeptide that rapidly evolved a pheromone function independently from uncleaved proteins. PMID:25415963

Janssenswillen, Sunita; Vandebergh, Wim; Treer, Dag; Willaert, Bert; Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Bossuyt, Franky

2015-02-01

380

[Study on trace component in sex pheromones of Dendrolimus spp].  

PubMed

Two compounds were isolated, as sex pheromone components, from the abdominal tips of the female pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii. The major component was identified as (Z,E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There are some difficulties to elucidate the structure of the minor component due to its trace and coelution with other components. The derivatives of alkaline methanolysis and reacetylation of pheromone gland extracts of D. kikuchii were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography, which was performed to verify the functional group and stereo isomers of the trace component in the pheromone gland extracts. The trace component was characterized as (Z,E) -5,7-dodecadienol via microchemical reaction. The advantages of the conversion of acetates to corresponding alcohols or of alcohols to the corresponding acetates in identifying the trace component of pheromone gland extracts of D. kikuchii were discussed. The importance of identifying the trace component in pheromone chemical communication system of insects is emphasized. PMID:16250445

Kong, Xiangbo; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Zhao, Chenghua

2005-07-01

381

The value of oviposition timing, queen presence and kinship in a social insect  

PubMed Central

Reproductive cooperation confers benefits, but simultaneously creates conflicts among cooperators. Queens in multi-queen colonies of ants share a nest and its resources, but reproductive competition among queens often results in unequal reproduction. Two mutually non-exclusive factors may produce such inequality in reproduction: worker intervention or queen traits. Workers may intervene by favouring some queens over others, owing to either kinship or queen signals. Queens may differ in their intrinsic fecundity at the onset of oviposition or in their timing of the onset of oviposition, leading to their unequal representation in the brood. Here, we test the role of queen kin value (relatedness) to workers, timing of the onset of oviposition and signals of presence by queens in determining the maternity of offspring. We show that queens of the ant Formica fusca gained a significantly higher proportion of sexuals in the brood when ovipositing early, and that the presence of a caged queen resulted in a significant increase in both her share of sexual brood and her overall reproductive share. Moreover, the lower the kin value of the queen, the more the workers invested in their own reproduction by producing males. Our results show that both kinship and breeding phenology influence the outcome of reproductive conflicts, and the balance of direct and indirect fitness benefits in the multi-queen colonies of F. fusca. PMID:23843391

Ozan, Martina; Helanterä, Heikki; Sundström, Liselotte

2013-01-01

382

Eddies off the Queen Charlotte Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bright red, green, and turquoise patches to the west of British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska's Alexander Archipelago highlight the presence of biological activity in the ocean. These colors indicate high concentrations of chlorophyll, the primary pigment found in phytoplankton. Notice that there are a number of eddies visible in the Pacific Ocean in this pseudo-color scene. The eddies are formed by strong outflow currents from rivers along North America's west coast that are rich in nutrients from the springtime snowmelt running off the mountains. This nutrient-rich water helps stimulate the phytoplankton blooms within the eddies. (For more details, read Tracking Eddies that Feed the Sea.) To the west of the eddies in the water, another type of eddy-this one in the atmosphere-forms the clouds into the counterclockwise spiral characteristic of a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere. (Click on the image above to see it at full resolution; or click to see the scene in true-color.) The snow-covered mountains of British Columbia are visible in the upper righthand corner of the image. This scene was constructed using SeaWiFS data collected on June 13, 2002. SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

383

Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity Kimberly A. Hughes, and Gene E. Robinson  

E-print Network

Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity Kimberly A. Hughes reprints, see: Notes: #12;Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity

Hughes, Kim

384

Trigeminocardiac Reflex by Mandibular Extension on Rat Pial Microcirculation: Role of Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

In the present study we have extended our previous findings about the effects of 10 minutes of passive mandibular extension in anesthetized Wistar rats. By prolonging the observation time to 3 hours, we showed that 10 minutes mandibular extension caused a significant reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate respect to baseline values, which persisted up to 160 minutes after mandibular extension. These effects were accompanied by a characteristic biphasic response of pial arterioles: during mandibular extension, pial arterioles constricted and after mandibular extension dilated for the whole observation period. Interestingly, the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolished the vasoconstriction observed during mandibular extension, while the administration of N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the vasodilation observed after mandibular extension. Either drug did not affect the reduction of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate induced by mandibular extension. By qRT-PCR, we also showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene expression was significantly increased compared with baseline conditions during and after mandibular extension and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression markedly increased at 2 hours after mandibular extension. Finally, western blotting detected a significant increase in neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression. In conclusion mandibular extension caused complex effects on pial microcirculation involving opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide release by both neurons and endothelial vascular cells at different times. PMID:25551566

Lapi, Dominga; Federighi, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, M. Paola; del Seppia, Cristina; Ghione, Sergio; Colantuoni, Antonio; Scuri, Rossana

2014-01-01

385

The Structure, Stability and Pheromone Binding of the Male Mouse Protein Sex Pheromone Darcin  

PubMed Central

Mouse urine contains highly polymorphic major urinary proteins that have multiple functions in scent communication through their abilities to bind, transport and release hydrophobic volatile pheromones. The mouse genome encodes for about 20 of these proteins and are classified, based on amino acid sequence similarity and tissue expression patterns, as either central or peripheral major urinary proteins. Darcin is a male specific peripheral major urinary protein and is distinctive in its role in inherent female attraction. A comparison of the structure and biophysical properties of darcin with MUP11, which belongs to the central class, highlights similarity in the overall structure between the two proteins. The thermodynamic stability, however, differs between the two proteins, with darcin being much more stable. Furthermore, the affinity of a small pheromone mimetic is higher for darcin, although darcin is more discriminatory, being unable to bind bulkier ligands. These attributes are due to the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of darcin being smaller, caused by the presence of larger amino acid side chains. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of the binding cavity, together with its extreme stability, are consistent with darcin being able to exert its function after release into the environment. PMID:25279835

Phelan, Marie M.; McLean, Lynn; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Lian, Lu-Yun

2014-01-01

386

Pheromonal regulation and sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SST2 gene: a model for desensitization to pheromone.  

PubMed Central

Strains of both haploid mating types containing sst2 mutations are altered in response to pheromone; MATa sst2 cells are supersensitive to alpha-factor, and MAT alpha sst2 cells are supersensitive to a-factor. This phenotype suggests that SST2 encodes a component of the pheromone response pathway that is common to both mating types. We have cloned the SST2 gene by isolation of multicopy plasmids that complement the sst2-1 mutation. One such plasmid contained a 4.5-kilobase HindIII fragment that was able to complement the sst2-1 mutation in high or low copy number, integrated at the SST2 locus, and resulted in an sst2 phenotype when disrupted, indicating that this fragment contained the SST2 gene. We identified the functional region of the complementing DNA fragment by transposon mutagenesis. Sequencing of this fragment identified an open reading frame encoding 698 amino acids at a position that correlated well with the functional region. Expression of an Sst2-beta-galactosidase fusion was haploid specific and induced by exposure to pheromone. We discuss a model in which induction of the SST2 product results in inhibition of a component of the pheromone response pathway, resulting in desensitization to pheromone. PMID:2830483

Dietzel, C; Kurjan, J

1987-01-01

387

The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

2013-01-01

388

Dietary effects on development of the human mandibular corpus.  

PubMed

The extent to which the mandibular corpus exhibits developmental plasticity has important implications for interpreting variation in adult and juvenile mandibular morphology in the archaeological and paleontological record. Here, we examine ontogenetic changes in mandibular corpus breadth, rigidity, and strength in two population samples with contrasting diets: late prehistoric Tigara from Point Hope, Alaska, characterized by a very demanding masticatory regime, and proto-historic Arikara from the Sully Site in South Dakota, with a less demanding regime. A total of 52 juvenile and 11 adult Tigara, and 32 juvenile and 10 adult Arikara were included in the study. Juveniles ranged in age from 1 to 17 years, with good representation of younger (1-6-year-old) juveniles (20 Arikara, 18 Tigara). Superoinferior and buccolingual external and cortical bone breadths of mandibles were measured at the Pm(4) -M(1) and M(1) -M(2) junctions using calipers and biplanar radiographs, respectively. An asymmetrical hollow beam model was employed to reconstruct cross sections and calculate bending rigidities and strengths in the sagittal and transverse planes. Among adults, Tigara have greater transverse corpus width, bending rigidity, and strength, and ratios of transverse to sagittal dimensions than Arikara. This shape difference develops gradually during growth, with only weak trends among young juveniles, increasing to near-adult contrasts among adolescents. These results support a role for functional mechanical loading of the mandible during growth in producing adult differences in mandibular corpus morphology. PMID:21702003

Holmes, Megan A; Ruff, Christopher B

2011-08-01

389

Primary osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle--a rare case.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process involving cortical and cancellous bone. In the maxillofacial region, the mandible is the most frequently affected bone. In the vast majority, a bacterial focus can be identified as the origin of the disease. Chronic progress of the disease may lead to destruction of mandibular bony structures, resulting in mild or severe loss of function if no adequate treatment is applied. In some cases, the etiology of osteomyelitis remains unclear. Review of literature revealed two cases of necrosis of the mandibular condyle caused by primary osteomyelitis. We report a case of primary osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle in a 51-year-old woman. Radiography revealed an almost complete destruction of the right mandibular condyle, resulting in malocclusion. The patient was treated with long-term antibiotics. No surgical intervention had been performed. After remission of the symptoms, the malocclusion had been corrected prosthetically. After a 4-year follow up period, the occlusion is stabile and there are no signs of progression of the disease. PMID:20349324

Zemann, Wolfgang; Feichtinger, Matthias; Pau, Mauro; Kärcher, Hans

2011-06-01

390

Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar  

PubMed Central

Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals.

Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

2015-01-01

391

Ultrastructure of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands.  

PubMed

The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria. PMID:21671995

Krause, W J

2011-10-01

392

Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2%) followed by Type V (16.4%), Type IV (13.2%), Type II (5.6%) and Type III (2.8%). Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4%) and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

Alhadainy, Hatem A.

2012-01-01

393

Refinement in aesthetic contouring of the prominent mandibular angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oriental women, in general, greatly desire a more delicate and feminine facial shape. This can be obtained by contouring the prominent mandibular aangles that give a strong, masculine image. Western authors regarded masseteric muscular hypertrophy the main cause of a square facial appearance, so they usually corrected it by partially excising the masseter muscle. In the authors' view, a square

Se-Min Baek; Rong-Min Baek; Myoung-Soo Shin

1994-01-01

394

Postretention mandibular incisor stability after premolar serial extractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mandibular incisor alignmentin serial extraction cases, using the longitudinal dental cast records of the Burlington Growth Center as a control sample. Various parameters were investigated and the statistical differences determined between the treated and untreated groups. The results were also compared with data from serial extraction groups that subsequently had orthodontic

Donald G. Woodside; P. Emile Rossouw; David Shearer

1999-01-01

395

Patterns of Crowding of Permanent Mandibular Incisors Before Eruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of the radiographs taken of 37 mandibles from children ten months to seven years of age showed that the unerupted, permanent mandibular central incisors were rotated in 45 of 74 jaw halves (60.8%). The type of rotation in which the mesial aspect is directed lingually was most commonly seen (44.6%). The next most common observation was of jaw halves

Kooji Kindaichi

1976-01-01

396

Impaction of Permanent Mandibular Second Molars in Ethnic Chinese Schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: ?To investigate the prevalence of impaction of permanent mandibular second molars and associated dental and radiographic characteristics of Chinese children in Hong Kong. MaterialsandMethods: ?Dental and radiographic records of a group of Chinese school- children were studied retrospectively. Cases of impaction of 1 or both permanent man- dibular second molars were selected. Demographic data and dental and radiographic findings

Shiu-yin Cho; Yung Ki; Vanessa Chu; Joseph Chan

397

Extraction of a mandibular incisor in a Class I malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single mandibular central incisor was removed to treat a Class I malocclusion with crowding and a midline discrepancy. This case report was submitted under category number 10 (optional) and it was believed that the results illustrated the Board objectives of (1) facial harmony, soft tissue balance, and proper proportion, (2) maximum health of the teeth, the supporting tissues and

Daniel J. Grob

1995-01-01

398

Identification of the sex pheromone of Sesamia cretica Lederer.  

PubMed

By using solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, a sex pheromone blend for the stem borer, Sesamia cretica Lederer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), was identified as consisting of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol (80%), (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-yl acetate (10%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (10%). The first two components had previously been discovered as attractants for S. cretica in field tests, but had not been identified in the female's sex pheromone gland. A field-trapping trial showed that the three-component blend gave the highest catches of male S. cretica. This blend, in a sticky trap, was used to monitor a population of S. cretica in Iran, allowing the seasonal flight activity of this insect to be compared with that of a sympatric population of S. nonagrioides. The role of pheromones in the reproductive isolation of these species is discussed. PMID:18092188

Avand-Faghih, Arman; Frérot, Brigitte

2008-01-01

399

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog  

SciTech Connect

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

1988-03-15

400

Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog.  

PubMed

A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-[3H]hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant. PMID:2831215

Vogt, R G; Prestwich, G D; Riddiford, L M

1988-03-15

401

Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.  

PubMed

The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees. PMID:19529971

Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

2009-06-01

402

76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kings, Queens, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice...Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from abroad...of the exhibit objects at The Art Institute of Chicago,...

2011-01-13

403

Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering  

E-print Network

Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Canada · Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering · Nuclear Materials Research Group #12 Conclusions Queen's University, Kingston, Canada · Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Magee, Joseph W.

404

Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.  

PubMed

The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the ?-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences. PMID:21252281

Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

2011-07-01

405

Pheromone reception in fruit flies expressing a moth's odorant receptor  

PubMed Central

We have expressed a male-specific, pheromone-sensitive odorant receptor (OR), BmorOR1, from the silkworm moth Bombyx mori in an “empty neuron” housed in the ab3 sensilla of a Drosophila ?halo mutant. Single-sensillum recordings showed that the BmorOR1-expressing neurons in the transgenic flies responded to the B. mori pheromone bombykol, albeit with low sensitivity. These transgenic flies responded to lower doses of bombykol in an altered stimulation method with direct delivery of pheromone into the sensillum milieu. We also expressed a B. mori pheromone-binding protein, BmorPBP, in the BmorOR1-expressing ab3 sensilla. Despite the low levels of BmorPBP expression, flies carrying both BmorOR1 and BmorPBP showed significantly higher electrophysiological responses than BmorOR1 flies. Both types of BmorOR1-expressing flies responded to bombykol, and to a lesser extent to a second compound, bombykal, even without the addition of organic solvents to the recording electrode buffer. When the semiochemicals were delivered by the conventional puffing of stimulus on the antennae, the receptor responded to bombykol but not to bombykal. The onset of response was remarkably slow, and neural activity extended for an unusually long time (>1 min) after the end of stimulus delivery. We hypothesize that BmorOR1-expressing ab3 sensilla lack a pheromone-degrading enzyme to rapidly inactivate bombykol and terminate the signal. We also found an endogenous receptor in one of the sensillum types on Drosophila antenna that responds to bombykol and bombykal with sensitivity comparable to the pheromone-detecting sensilla on B. mori male antennae. PMID:17060610

Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Ishida, Yuko; Taylor, Katherine; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; Leal, Walter S.

2006-01-01

406

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-12-01

407

Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport  

PubMed Central

Background One of the challenges in insect chemical ecology is to understand how insect pheromones are synthesised, detected and degraded. Genome wide survey by comparative sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for this challenge. A. ipsilon is a destructive pest of many crops and further characterization of the genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and transport could offer potential targets for disruption of their chemical communication and for crop protection. Results Here we report 454 next-generation sequencing of the A. ipsilon pheromone gland transcriptome, identification and expression profiling of genes putatively involved in pheromone production, transport and degradation. A total of 23473 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis, 86% of which were A. ipsilon specific. 42 transcripts encoded enzymes putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, of which 15 were specifically, or mainly, expressed in the pheromone glands at 5 to 120-fold higher levels than in the body. Two transcripts encoding for a fatty acid synthase and a desaturase were highly abundant in the transcriptome and expressed more than 40-fold higher in the glands than in the body. The transcripts encoding for 2 acetyl-CoA carboxylases, 1 fatty acid synthase, 2 desaturases, 3 acyl-CoA reductases, 2 alcohol oxidases, 2 aldehyde reductases and 3 acetyltransferases were expressed at a significantly higher level in the pheromone glands than in the body. 17 esterase transcripts were not gland-specific and 7 of these were expressed highly in the antennae. Seven transcripts encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 8 encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified. Two CSP transcripts (AipsCSP2, AipsCSP8) were highly abundant in the pheromone gland transcriptome and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. One OBP (AipsOBP6) were pheromone gland-enriched and three OBPs (AipsOBP1, AipsOBP2 and AipsOBP4) were antennal-enriched. Based on these studies we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects. PMID:24053512

2013-01-01

408

Comparative analysis between direct Conventional Mandibular nerve block and Vazirani-Akinosi closed mouth Mandibular nerve block technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Over the years different techniques have been developed for achieving mandibular nerve anaesthesia. The main aim of our study was to carry out comparison and clinical efficacy of mandibular nerve anaesthesia by Direct Conventional technique with that of Vazirani-Akinosi mandibular nerve block technique.Materials and Methods: 50 adult patients requiring surgical extraction of premolars, mandibular first, second and third molars were selected randomly to receive Direct Conventional technique and Vazirani- Akinosi technique for nerve block alternatively.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed regarding complete lip anaesthesia at 5 minutes and 10 minutes, nerves anaesthetized with single injection, effectiveness of anaesthesia, supplementary injections and complications in both the techniques. However, onset of lip anaesthesia was found to be faster in Vazirani-Akinosi technique, patients experienced less pain during the Vazirani-Akinosi technique as compared to the Direct Conventional technique. Post injection complication complications were less in the VaziraniAkinosi Technique.Conclusions: Except for faster onset of lip anaesthesia, less pain during injection and fewer post injection complications in Vazirani-Akinosi technique all other parameters were of same efficacy as Direct Conventional technique. This has strong clinical applications as in cases with limited mouth opening, apprehensive patients Vazirani-Akinosi technique is the indicated technique of choice.

Mishra, Sobhan; Tripathy, Ramanupam; Sabhlok, Samrat; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Patnaik, Satyabrata

2012-11-01

409

Selective and pH-dependent binding of a moth pheromone to a pheromone-binding protein.  

PubMed

Fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) data suggest that the major pheromone-binding protein (PBP) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus, ApolPBP1, undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change similar to that previously observed for the PBP from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorPBP. All three constituents of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac, E6,Z11-16Ald, and E4,Z9-14Ac, bound to ApolPBP1 with apparent high affinity at high pH, but reduced binding at low pH when tested individually in a "cold binding assay." In competitive assays, however, ApolPBP1 showed considerable preference for the major constituent of the sex pheromone, E6,Z11-16Ac. These data suggest that specificity of PBPs contributes at least in part to the remarkable selectivity of moth's olfactory system. PMID:16132337

Leal, Walter S; Chen, Angela M; Erickson, Melissa L

2005-10-01

410

Structural differences in the drone olfactory system of two phylogenetically distant Apis species, A. florea and A. mellifera.  

PubMed

Male insects that are attracted by sex pheromones to find their female mates over long distances have specialized olfactory subsystems. Morphologically, these subsystems are characterized by a large number of receptor neurons sensitive to components of the female's pheromones and hypertrophied glomerular subunits ('macroglomeruli' or 'macroglomerular complexes') in the antennal lobes, in which the axons of the receptor neurons converge. The olfactory subsystems are adapted for an increased sensitivity to perceive minute amounts of pheromones. In Apis mellifera, drones have 18,600 olfactory poreplate sensilla per antenna, each equipped with receptor neurons sensitive to the queen's sex pheromone, and four voluminous macroglomeruli (MG1-MG4) in the antennal lobes. In contrast, we show that drones of the phylogenetically distant species, Apis florea, have only 1,200 poreplate sensilla per antenna and only two macroglomeruli in their antennal lobes. These macroglomeruli are homologous in anatomical position to the two most prominent macroglomeruli in A. mellifera, the MG1 and MG2, but they are much smaller in size. The morphological and anatomical differences described here suggest major modifications in the sex-pheromone processing subsystem of both species: (1) less pheromone sensitivity in A. florea and (2) a more complex sex-pheromone processing and thus a more complex sex-pheromone communication in A. mellifera. Research in honey bee sex-pheromone communication dates back to the 1960s, when Gary (1962) demonstrated that in Apis mellifera the queen's mandibular gland secretion and especially its main component, 9-ODA (9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid), is highly attractive to drones on their nuptial flight. Later, cross-species attraction experiments showed that other honey bee species, Apis florea, A. cerana, and A. dorsata probably also use the queen's mandibular gland secretion as a mating attractant (Butler et al. 1967; Sanasi et al. 1971). Besides its function in mating behavior, the queen's mandibular gland secretion is the main pheromone regulating queen-worker interactions (Free 1987). In this context, several studies have demonstrated the behavioral significance of single components (Slessor et al. 1988) and differences in the composition of the secretion between Apis species (Plettner et al. 1996, 1997; Keeling et al. 2000). Regarding the interspecific differences in the queen's signal, the question arises whether this variation is reflected in the olfactory system of drones and workers of the various species. PMID:11320892

Brockmann, A; Brückner, D

2001-02-01

411

Biased sperm use by polyandrous queens of the ant Proformica longiseta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and genetic effects of polyandry were studied in the ant Proformica longiseta using three microsatellite markers. The average queen mating frequency (QMF) estimated from the sperm dissected from the spermathecae of 61 queens was 2.4 with 69% of the queens being multiply mated. QMF estimated from worker offspring in a subsample of eight monogynous colonies was 3.5, but

Ignacio Fernández-Escudero; Pekka Pamilo; Perttu Seppä

2002-01-01

412

Brittle Faults of the Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 Charles Merguerian  

E-print Network

Between 1996 and 1999, a high-performance tunnel-boring machine (TBM) excavated a 7 m wide, 7.7 km longBrittle Faults of the Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 Charles Merguerian Geology and associated rocks of the Queens Tunnel Complex. Faults in the Queens Tunnel vary from early ductile faults

Merguerian, Charles

413

The effects of multiple mating on the worker-queen conflict in Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic model is presented which shows that multiple mating reduces the conflict between workers and queen in the optimal investment ratio in each sex. The natural risk of the nuptual flights of honeybee queens fits well into the theoretically determined risk when queens tend to optimize the numbers of drones with which they mate.

Robin F. A. Moritz

1985-01-01

414

Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Detects Honey Bee Queen Insemination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the ...

415

Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy detects queen honey bee insemination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abdomens of honey bee queens, the heads of worker bees, and the ventriculi of worker bees were analyzed by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Mated honey bee queens could be distinguished from virgin queens by their spectra with 100% accuracy. Also, the heads of worker bees taken from the...

416

Docile sitters and active fighters in paper wasps: a tale of two queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis are sympatric, primitively eusocial paper wasps widely distributed in peninsular India. We compare the two species, especially their queens, in an attempt to begin to understand the role of the power of queens over their workers, in social organisation and evolution. Queens of R. marginata have lower levels of activity, rates of interactions and dominance behaviour, compared with queens of R. cyathiformis. For the same variables, R. marginata queens are either indistinguishable from or have lower values than their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens have higher values than their workers. R. marginata queens never occupy the top rank while R. cyathiformis queens are always at the top of the behavioural dominance hierarchies of their colonies. R. marginata queens thus do not appear to use dominance behaviour to suppress reproduction by their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens appear to do so. These different mechanisms used by the two queens to regulate worker reproduction give them different powers over their workers, because R. marginata queens are completely successful in suppressing reproduction by their nestmates while in R. cyathiformis colonies, other individuals also sometimes lay eggs. There is also some evidence that the different powers of the queens result in different mechanisms of regulation of worker foraging in the two species - decentralised, self-regulation in R. marginata and relatively more centralised regulation by the queen in R. cyathiformis. Thus we show here, perhaps for the first time, that the power of the queens over their workers can have important consequences for social organisation and evolution.

Kardile, Sujata; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

2002-02-01

417

Site of sex pheromone production in three species of Trichoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests with chemical extracts of various body sections of adult caddisflies indicate that the female fifth abdominal sternite in the sericostomatids Gumaga nigricula (McL.) and Gumaga griseola (McL.) and the limnephilid Dicosmoecus gihipes (Hagen) contains a substance that attracts conspecific males. This sex pheromone is most likely produced by the paired exocrine glands located on the fifth sternite. Chemical

Vincent H. Resh; John R. Wood

1985-01-01

418

Identification of a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats.  

PubMed

Chemical communication plays an important role in the social lives of various mammalian species. Some of these chemicals are called pheromones. Rats release a specific odor into the air when stressed. This stress-related odor increases the anxiety levels of other rats; therefore, it is possible that the anxiety-causing molecules are present in the stress-related odorants. Here, we have tried to identify the responsible molecules by using the acoustic startle reflex as a bioassay system to detect anxiogenic activity. After successive fractionation of the stress-related odor, we detected 4-methylpentanal and hexanal in the final fraction that still possessed anxiogenic properties. Using synthetic molecules, we found that minute amounts of the binary mixture, but not either molecule separately, increased anxiety in rats. Furthermore, we determined that the mixture increased a specific type of anxiety and evoked anxiety-related behavioral responses in an experimental model that was different from the acoustic startle reflex. Analyses of neural mechanisms proposed that the neural circuit related to anxiety was only activated when the two molecules were simultaneously perceived by two olfactory systems. We concluded that the mixture is a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying a rat pheromone. Our results could aid further research on rat pheromones, which would enhance our understanding of chemical communication in mammals. PMID:25512532

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2014-12-30

419

DIGITAL PHEROMONES FOR AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION OF SWARMING UAV'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern UAV's reduce the threat to human operators, but do not decrease the manpower requirements. Each aircraft requires a flight crew of one to three, so deploying large numbers of UAV's requires committing and coordinating many human warfighters. Insects perform impressive feats of coordination without direct inter-agent coordination, by sensing and depositing pheromones (chemical scent markers) in the environment (14).

H. Van Dyke Parunak; LCDR Michael Purcell; Robert O'Connell

2002-01-01

420

SEX PHEROMONE FOR CRANBERRY BLOSSOM WORM, EPIGLAE APIATA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aitan), in New Jersey. The sex pheromone of this insect was identified to be a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), a...

421

Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.  

PubMed

The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

2007-10-01

422

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world but toxic bait systems affect non-target ant species and can not be used in sensitive ecosystems. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of food resources back to the colony....

423

Identification of a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats  

PubMed Central

Chemical communication plays an important role in the social lives of various mammalian species. Some of these chemicals are called pheromones. Rats release a specific odor into the air when stressed. This stress-related odor increases the anxiety levels of other rats; therefore, it is possible that the anxiety-causing molecules are present in the stress-related odorants. Here, we have tried to identify the responsible molecules by using the acoustic startle reflex as a bioassay system to detect anxiogenic activity. After successive fractionation of the stress-related odor, we detected 4-methylpentanal and hexanal in the final fraction that still possessed anxiogenic properties. Using synthetic molecules, we found that minute amounts of the binary mixture, but not either molecule separately, increased anxiety in rats. Furthermore, we determined that the mixture increased a specific type of anxiety and evoked anxiety-related behavioral responses in an experimental model that was different from the acoustic startle reflex. Analyses of neural mechanisms proposed that the neural circuit related to anxiety was only activated when the two molecules were simultaneously perceived by two olfactory systems. We concluded that the mixture is a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying a rat pheromone. Our results could aid further research on rat pheromones, which would enhance our understanding of chemical communication in mammals. PMID:25512532

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2014-01-01

424

ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

425

Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

426

Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.  

PubMed

A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. PMID:21644949

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

2011-06-01

427

Is the vomeronasal system really specialized for detecting pheromones?  

E-print Network

of the vomeronasal system. Introduction The vomeronasal organ is a peripheral chemosensory structure in vertebrates of the vomeronasal organ also causes severe sexual deficits, at first no link was made between the vomeronasal system system could mediate responses to pheromones. Removal of the vomeronasal organ does interfere

Eisthen, Heather L.

428

Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

429

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa) Summary — In a simultaneous choice test, bees killed by freezing were more attractive to Varroa than bees stung to death by other bees. The smell of the sting apparatus proved to be repellent for Varroa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

UPDATE ON STORED-PRODUCT INSECT PHEROMONES AND THEIR APPLICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities require improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is increasing in the food ...

431

A Mutation With Major Effects on Drosophila melanogaster Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals that are crucial for mate attraction and discrimination. In Drosophila melanogaster, the predominant hydrocarbons on the cuticle of mature female and male flies are radically different and tend to stimulate or inhibit male courtship, respectively. This sexual difference depends largely upon the number of double bonds (one in males and two in females) added

Fabrice Marcillac; Josiane Alabouvette; Fabrice Savarit

2005-01-01

432

INTERPRETATION OF PHEROMONE MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target interventions in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to monitor pests is incre...

433

BUG PHEROMONES (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA) AND TACHINID FLY HOST-FINDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data and observations on wild tachinid flies that were attracted to traps baited with known or suspected pheromones for the following stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are reported: Podisus maculiventris (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), Thyanta accerra custator McAtee, Acrosternum...

434

PHEROMONE OF THE FRUIT FLY PARASITOID DIACHASMIMORPHA LONGICAUDATA (HYMENOPTERA, BRACONIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Availability of a pheromone-based trapping system for parasitoids such as D. longicaudata would add a valuable tool to document successful use for biological control. Video analysis was used to record male-female interations, olfactometer and windtunnel studies were used to evaluate response of virg...

435

Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths  

PubMed Central

The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

2012-01-01

436

Transcriptional activation upon pheromone stimulation mediated by a small domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12p.  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste12p induces transcription of pheromone-responsive genes by binding to a DNA sequence designated the pheromone response element. We generated a series of hybrid proteins of Ste12p with the DNA-binding and activation domains of the transcriptional activator Gal4p to define a pheromone induction domain of Ste12p sufficient to mediate pheromone-induced transcription by these hybrid proteins. A minimal pheromone induction domain, delineated as residues 301 to 335 of Ste12p, is dependent on the pheromone mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway for induction activity. Mutation of the three serine and threonine residues within the minimal pheromone induction domain did not affect transcriptional induction, indicating that the activity of this domain is not directly regulated by MAP kinase phosphorylation. By contrast, mutation of the two tyrosines or their preceding acidic residues led to a high level of transcriptional activity in the absence of pheromone and consequently to the loss of pheromone induction. This constitutively high activity was not affected by mutations in the MAP kinase cascade, suggesting that the function of the pheromone induction domain is normally repressed in the absence of pheromone. By two-hybrid analysis, this minimal domain interacts with two negative regulators, Dig1p and Dig2p (also designated Rst1p and Rst2p), and the interaction is abolished by mutation of the tyrosines. The pheromone induction domain itself has weak and inducible transcriptional activity, and its ability to potentiate transcription depends on the activity of an adjacent activation domain. These results suggest that the pheromone induction domain of Ste12p mediates transcriptional induction via a two-step process: the relief of repression and synergistic transcriptional activation with another activation domain. PMID:9343403

Pi, H; Chien, C T; Fields, S

1997-01-01

437

Unequal Partitioning of Reproduction and Investment between Cooperating Queens in the Fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, as Revealed by Microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insects provide ideal systems for investigating how kinship and ecological factors affect cooperation and conflict. In many ant species, unrelated queens cooperate to initiate new colonies. However, fights between queens break out after the eclosion of the first workers, leading to the death of all but one queen. Queens within associations potentially face a trade-off. On one hand, a

Giorgina Bernasconi; Michael J. B. Krieger; Laurent Keller

1997-01-01

438

The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in queenless worker honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In honeybees, workers under queenless condition compete for reproduction and establish reproductive dominance hierarchy. Ovary activation is generally accompanied by the expression of queen-like pheromones. Biogenic amines (BAs), in particular dopamine, are believed to be involved in this process by regulating ovarian development. However, the role of BAs in establishing reproductive dominance or their effect on queen-like pheromone production was not investigated. Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. One bee in a pair was treated with either OA or TA while the other was fed sugar solution. TA was found to enhance ovary development and the production of esters in the Dufour's gland and 9HDA (queen component) in the mandibular glands, thus facilitating worker reproductive dominance. OA, on the other hand, did not enhance ovarian development or ester production, but increased the production of 10HDA (worker major component) in the mandibular glands of their sugar-paired mates. OA is known to induce foraging behavior by workers, while increased production of 10HDA characterizes nursing workers. Therefore, we suggest that TA induces reproductive division of labor, while OA treatment results in caste differentiation of workers to foragers and nurses.

Salomon, Mor; Malka, Osnat; Meer, Robert K. Vander; Hefetz, Abraham

2012-02-01

439

Growth changes of the mandibular body with eruption of mandibular third molars: analysis of anatomical morphometry and quantitative bone mineral content by using radiography.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze growth changes in mandibular body morphology and quantitative bone mineral content (QBMC) with eruption of mandibular third molars (M3s) and the relationship between those variables and posterior mandibular body length. Linear and angular measurements were conducted using standard lateral radiographs of 37 dried mandibles in Hellman's dental developmental stages IVA (14 specimens) to VA (23 specimens). Cortical and trabecular basal bone mineral contents (CBMC and TBMC) in the mandible were expressed in millimeter titanium equivalent values using a titanium step wedge. The largest significant change in the mandibular body morphology was an increase in the horizontal dimension (M2DP'-Go': 7.59mm), followed by vertical dimension - total height of the mandibular body (THOMB: 4.96mm) and mandibular cortical width (MCW: 1.22mm). The gonial angle (GA) decreased significantly by 6.72° between stages IVA and VA. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) was classified only as C1 or C2 in each stage. Among 4 types of line profile, types 1 and 2 were most commonly observed in both stages. Mean values for CBMC and TBMC increased significantly between stages IVA and VA. Posterior mandibular body length (MeF'-Go') correlated positively with M2DP'-Go', THOM, MCW, and CBMC (r=0.816, 0.698, 0.595, and 0.507), respectively and negatively with GA (r=-0.582). These results demonstrated that the morphological changes in the posterior mandibular body and the QBMC increased significantly with M3 eruption, while the GA became significantly smaller. The posterior mandibular body length had a linear correlation with these variables. PMID:23031389

Ogawa, Takahiro; Osato, Shigeo

2013-03-01

440

Computer-aided system for morphometric mandibular index computation (Using dental panoramic radiographs)  

PubMed Central

Objective: We propose and validate a computer—aided system to measure three different mandibular indexes: cortical width, panoramic mandibular index and, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. Study Design: Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements are analyzed and compared to the manual estimation of the same indexes. Results: The proposed computerized system exhibits superior repeatability and reproducibility rates compared to standard manual methods. Moreover, the time required to perform the measurements using the proposed method is negligible compared to perform the measurements manually. Conclusions: We have proposed a very user friendly computerized method to measure three different morphometric mandibular indexes. From the results we can conclude that the system provides a practical manner to perform these measurements. It does not require an expert examiner and does not take more than 16 seconds per analysis. Thus, it may be suitable to diagnose osteoporosis using dental panoramic radiographs. Key words:Osteoporosis, panoramic mandibular index, cortical width, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. PMID:22322489

Álvarez-López, Jose M.; Jané-Salas, Enrique; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Ayuso-Montero, Raul; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

2012-01-01

441

Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of the sexual communication signals of female moths is thought to be under strong stabilizing selection, because females that produce atypical pheromone blends suffer lower success in finding mates. This intraspecific selection pressure cannot explain the high diversity of moth pheromone blends found in nature. We conducted experiments to determine whether communication interference from males of closely related species could exert strong enough directional selection to cause evolution of these signals. Attraction and mating success of Heliothis subflexa (Hs) females with a normal quantitative trait locus for production of acetate pheromone components (norm-OAc) were compared with Hs females with an introgressed quantitative trait locus from Heliothis virescens (Hv) that dramatically decreased the amount of acetate esters in their pheromone glands (low-OAc). In field experiments with natural Hv and Hs populations, 10 times more Hv males were captured in traps baited with live low-OAc Hs females than in traps with norm-OAc Hs females. This pattern was confirmed in mate-choice assays in cages. Hybrids resulting from Hv–Hs matings have effectively zero fitness in the field. Combining our results with the extensive data set gathered in the past 40 years on the reproductive biology of Hv, we can quantitatively estimate that the directional selection exerted by Hv males on Hs females to produce relatively high amounts (>5%) of acetates can range from 0.135 to 0.231. Such intense interspecific selection may counteract intraspecific stabilizing selection that impedes evolutionary changes in pheromone blends and could lead to diversification of sexual signals. PMID:16585529

Groot, Astrid T.; Horovitz, Joy L.; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G.; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

2006-01-01

442

Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the sexual communication signals of female moths is thought to be under strong stabilizing selection, because females that produce atypical pheromone blends suffer lower success in finding mates. This intraspecific selection pressure cannot explain the high diversity of moth pheromone blends found in nature. We conducted experiments to determine whether communication interference from males of closely related species could exert strong enough directional selection to cause evolution of these signals. Attraction and mating success of Heliothis subflexa (Hs) females with a normal quantitative trait locus for production of acetate pheromone components (norm-OAc) were compared with Hs females with an introgressed quantitative trait locus from Heliothis virescens (Hv) that dramatically decreased the amount of acetate esters in their pheromone glands (low-OAc). In field experiments with natural Hv and Hs populations, 10 times more Hv males were captured in traps baited with live low-OAc Hs females than in traps with norm-OAc Hs females. This pattern was confirmed in mate-choice assays in cages. Hybrids resulting from Hv-Hs matings have effectively zero fitness in the field. Combining our results with the extensive data set gathered in the past 40 years on the reproductive biology of Hv, we can quantitatively estimate that the directional selection exerted by Hv males on Hs females to produce relatively high amounts (>5%) of acetates can range from 0.135 to 0.231. Such intense interspecific selection may counteract intraspecific stabilizing selection that impedes evolutionary changes in pheromone blends and could lead to diversification of sexual signals. PMID:16585529

Groot, Astrid T; Horovitz, Joy L; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

2006-04-11

443

Transalveolar repositioning of an impacted immature permanent mandibular canine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case report is to discuss the four-year follow-up of a transalveolar transplantation of an impacted immature permanent mandibular left canine. A nine year-old-boy was referred to the dental school because of a mandibular swelling associated with the impacted canine. Under local anesthesia, the tooth was extracted and transplanted in its own space, followed by a two-week orthodontic fixation. The radiographic examination two months later revealed the presence of external inflammatory root resorption, which was treated with an apexification. The overall status of the transplanted tooth and the surrounding hard and soft tissues four years post-treatment indicates a successful outcome. PMID:25514261

Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Guler, Nurhan; Sungurtekin-Ekci, Elif; Sandalli, Nuket

2015-01-01

444

A rare case of dens invaginatus in a mandibular canine.  

PubMed

Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a common dental anomaly with a reported prevalence of between 0.04% and 10%. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors and premolars. These developmental lesions are less common in mandibular teeth and are extremely rare in canines and molars. This report describes a rare case of dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II) in a permanent mandibular canine. The tooth was mature with a closed apex and showed apical pathosis. The tooth was treated endodontically using a non-surgical technique with hand endodontic files, and then followed up after a period of 8 months. A follow-up radiograph showed some healing of the lesion. PMID:20666755

George, Roy; Moule, Alexander J; Walsh, Laurence J

2010-08-01

445

Identification of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 gene involved in pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide stimulated pheromone production in Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In the present study, a DGAT2 gene from Bombyx mori was characterized. Temporal expression profiles indicated that BmDGAT2 steadily increased from 96 h before eclosion (-96 h) to an expression peak in the pheromone glands (PGs) of new-emerged female (0 h), a key stage for sex pheromone production. Spatial expression analysis revealed that the BmDGAT2 transcript was most richly expressed in PGs. Decapitation and subsequent methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog, treatment experiments revealed that JH had no influence on the expression of BmDGAT2 transcript before emergence, but inhibited the expression of BmDGAT2 transcript when administered to newly emerged adults. Further RNAi analysis confirmed that the decrease in BmDGAT2 mRNA level caused a significant reduction in sex pheromone production. Thus, DGAT2 is a key enzyme regulating B. mori sex pheromone synthesis and release. PMID:22387497

Du, Mengfang; Zhang, Songdou; Zhu, Bin; Yin, Xinming; An, Shiheng

2012-05-01

446

Convergent evolution: the genetics of queen number in ants.  

PubMed

Large, non-recombining genomic regions underlie the polymorphism in colony queen number in two distantly related ant species. This illustrates that convergence in complex phenotypes can arise via convergence in general genomic architecture, rather than convergent changes in specific genes. PMID:25458216

Libbrecht, Romain; Kronauer, Daniel J C

2014-11-17

447

How to Comment like a King--or Queen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blogging, if you truly inhale its essence, will give you a calling, renewal, and purpose as you have never seen before. Here, the author shows how to blog like a king or a queen. These techniques include: (1) Write a meaningful comment; (2) If you have written about it, hyperlink to your post; (3) If you have a blog, share some information about…

Davis, Vicki

2007-01-01

448

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments  

E-print Network

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MAS 314 Design of Experiments Assignment 10 For discussion on 20 available for the experiment. They are arranged in a 5 Ã? 5 rectangle. Construct a suitable design. 3 A road safety organization wishes to compare four makes of car-tyre. The organi- zation has four test cars

Bailey, R. A.

449

Constitution of the Middle Common Room of The Queen's  

E-print Network

referred to as the "MCR", of The Queen's College, Oxford, hereafter referred to as the "College". II Aims and Objects The aims and objects of the MCR shall include the making of representations on behalf of its shall have the full use of MCR facilities, shall pay the subscription fee, and shall have voting rights

Capdeboscq, Yves

450

Queens versus workers: sex-ratio conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of sex-ratio conflict in the eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps) have provided the most rigorous tests of kin selection theory. The hymenopteran haplodiploid system of sex determination generally renders workers more closely related to their sisters than to their brothers, whereas queens are equally related to their sons and daughters. Kin selection theory therefore predicts that resource allocation

Natasha J. Mehdiabadi; Hudson Kern Reeve; Ulrich G. Mueller

2003-01-01

451

The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

Thomas, George Anthony

2009-01-01

452

Artificial diets for juvenile queen conch: Studies examine algae content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University found juvenile queen conch fed diets containing added macroalgae had higher survival than a control given catfish feed only, but saw no significant difference in overall growth rates among the treatments. In a secon...

453

Impending Trade Suspensions of Caribbean Queen Conch under CITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Authority issued injunctions in 2003 and 2004 to halt export trade of Caribbean queen conch (Strombus gigas) from several countries and initiated reviews of a number of other conch-producing countries. The current regulatory framework for regional conch fisheries has obviously failed to protect stocks. I present a case study of the

Charles A. Acosta

2006-01-01

454

December 2010 Issue 58 The Queen Mary newsletter  

E-print Network

. Earliest Holocaust films discovered in Russian Archive Russian cinema expert Dr Jeremy Hicks, of Queen Mary, while researching his new book, Cinema's Black Book: Soviet Film and the Holocaust, 1938 invaded Russia, should be designated the first cinematic representations of the Holocaust

Chittka, Lars

455

Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is…

Easton, Peter

2007-01-01

456

Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.  

E-print Network

Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.: 1 Document No.: SOP-CHEM-04 of Environmental Health & Safety 1.0 Introduction The Mold Prevention Assessment and Remediation Procedures were developed by the Department of Environmental Health & Safety in accordance with the University's Policy

Abolmaesumi, Purang

457

Bulletin no. 8: February 2010 The Queen's College  

E-print Network

contributed to the spiritual and musical life of the Church, and have enjoyed the benefits of a tremendous musical education. The three of us were all in the choir on Christmas morning, and watching my seven of £25. Benefits of membership include priority booking, reserved seating for all Choir concerts at Queen

Capdeboscq, Yves

458

The Queen's College Oxford OX1 4AW DEGREE DAYS  

E-print Network

The Queen's College · Oxford OX1 4AW DEGREE DAYS Congregation will be held in the Sheldonian Theatre for the purpose of granting graces and conferring degrees on the days shown below. Date Places' notice before the Degree Day, although in the case of Trinity Term and the Long Vacation it is wise

Capdeboscq, Yves

459

QUEEN MARY UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Timetabling and Room Booking Policy  

E-print Network

of the Taught Programmes Planning Group. 2. Scope 2.1 The Timetabling and Room Booking Policy covers1 QUEEN MARY UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Timetabling and Room Booking Policy Contents Summary and Overview Changes 14. Ad Hoc Room Bookings 15. Fair Use of Space 16. Conflict Resolution Procedures 17

Chittka, Lars

460

December 2011 Issue 63 The Queen Mary newsletter  

E-print Network

Grieve QC MP, also lead minister and champion of pro bono work in England and Wales, described the Queen photo: Maths Building, Mile End Campus #12;you enjoy your studies you are more likely to get a good teaching and access to top notch library facilities, to devote to a subject you find fascinating

Chittka, Lars

461

Queen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.  

E-print Network

. A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must be consulted to obtain any necessary information pertaining. MSDS sheets can be obtained by following a link on the Health and Safety website at http://www.safetyQueen's University Environmental Health & Safety Date Issued: Page No.: 1 Document No.: SOP-CHEM-05

Abolmaesumi, Purang

462

THE RED QUEEN HYPOTHESIS AND PLANT\\/PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) explains how pathogens may maintain sexual reproduction in hosts. It assumes that parasites become specialized on common host genotypes, reducing their fitness. Such frequency-dependent selection favors sexual reproduction in host populations. Necessary conditions are that resistance and virulence are genotype specific so that host genotype frequencies respond to changes in pathogen genotype frequencies, and vice

Keith Clay; Paula X. Kover

1996-01-01

463

Sex and the Red Queen Maurine Neiman and Britt Koskella  

E-print Network

interactions) from the perspective of species adapted to earlier conditions, and termed this mechanism "The Red you can do, to keep in the same place." This was the Red Queen's explanation to a confused Alice as to why she could run as fast as she could in Wonderland but never get anywhere, a situation analogous

Neiman, Maurine

464

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

465

Transduction of baculovirus vectors to queen honeybees, Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

Transduction of baculovirus vectors to queen honeybees, Apis mellifera Takashi IKEDA 1,4 , Jun within the recognition sites (Yamamoto et al. 2004; Kawashima et al. 2007). The European honeybee, Apis mellifera L., is a beneficial insect that provides useful products and mediates the pollination

466

Queen Mary's `Media & Arts Technology Studios' Audio System Design  

E-print Network

next to the listening room in a space that used to be a large open plan computing lab area). The control room is provides facilities to record and monitor audio from the other rooms. All the cablingQueen Mary's `Media & Arts Technology Studios' Audio System Design Martin J. Morrell1 , Christopher

Reiss, Josh

467

The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

Andrews, James R.

2000-01-01

468

65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. Receiving gold numbers on her designation as "Queen of the Fleet," serving as the oldest Coast Guard Cutter in active service when U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Ingham was decommissioned on May 27, 1988. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter FIR, Puget Sound Area, Seattle, King County, WA

469

Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root  

PubMed Central

Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root. PMID:24082581

Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

2013-01-01

470

A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation. PMID:23555836

Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

2013-01-01

471

Facial Reanimation by Masseteric Muscle- Mandibular Periosteum Transfer  

PubMed Central

Permanent facial paralysis is a catastrophic event for involved patients. In long lasting paralysis with severe facial muscles atrophy, masseter muscle transfer is a very good choice. But its greatest problem is postoperative elongation of flap and gradual diminishing of early results and loss of symmetry. This article advocate a new modification for resolving this problem with concomitant elevation of mandibular periosteum with masseter muscle, as a unit for lip and midface elevation. PMID:25489504

Abbasi, Ruholah

2013-01-01

472

Treatment methods for fractures of the mandibular angle.  

PubMed

Fractures of the mandibular angle are plagued with the highest rate of complication of all mandibular fractures. Over the past 10 years, various forms of treatment for these fractures were performed on an indigent inner city population. Treatment included: 1) closed reduction or intraoral open reduction and non-rigid fixation; 2) extraoral open reduction and internal fixation with an AO/ASIF reconstruction bone plate; 3) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using a solitary lag screw; 4) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using two 2.0 mm mini-dynamic compression plates; 5) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using two 2.4 mm mandibular dynamic compression plates; 6) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using two non-compression miniplates; 7) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using a single non-compression miniplate; and 8) intraoral open reduction and internal fixation using a single malleable non-compression miniplate. This paper reviews the results of those modes of treatment when used for the same patient population at one hospital. Results of treatment show that, in this patient population, the use of either an extraoral open reduction and internal fixation with the AO/ASIF reconstruction plate or intraoral open reduction and internal fixation, using a single miniplate, are associated with the fewest complications. PMID:10416889

Ellis, E

1999-08-01

473

Mandibular Tori: A source of autogenous bone graft  

PubMed Central

Restoration of lost alveolar bone support remains as one of the main objectives of periodontal surgery. Amongst the various types of bone grafts available for grafting procedures, autogenous bone grafts are considered to be the gold standard in alveolar defect reconstruction. Although there are various sources for autogenous grafts including the mandibular symphysis and ramus, they are almost invariably not contiguous with the area to be augmented. An alternative mandibular donor site that is continuous with the recipient area and would eliminate the need for an extra surgical site is the tori/exostoses. Bone grafting was planned for this patient as there were angular bone loss present between 35-36 and 36-37. As the volume of bone required was less and bilateral tori were present on the lingual side above the mylohyoid line, the tori was removed and used as a source of autogenous bone graft, which were unnecessary bony extensions present on the mandible and continuous with the recipient area. Post-operative radiographs taken at 6 and 12 month intervals showed good bone fill and also areas of previous pockets, which did not probe after treatment indicates the success of the treatment. The use of mandibular tori as a source of autogenous bone graft should be considered whenever a patient requires bone grafting procedure to be done and presents with a tori.

Santhanakrishnan, Muthukumar; Rangarao, Suresh

2014-01-01