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Race and Racism in Contemporary Cuban Art: a conversation with Queloides curators Alejandro de la Fuente and Elio Rodríguez Valdés, moderated by Henry Louis Gates, Jr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. engages curators Elio Rodrŕguez Valdés and Alejandro de la Fuente in conversation about Queloides, an exhibition that explores the social and cultural scars of racism in contemporary Cuba.

Alejandro de la Fuente; Elio Rodríguez Valdés; Henry Louis Gates Jr



Are the basins of Titan's Hotei Regio and Tui Regio sites of former low latitude seas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features observed in the low-latitude basins of Hotei Regio and Tui Regio on Titan have attracted the attention of the Cassini-era investigators. At both locations, Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observed isolated 5-?m bright ˜500 km wide features described as lobate in shape. Several studies have proposed that these materials are cryo-volcanic flows. We propose an alternative explanation. Recently published topographic profiles across Hotei Regio and Tui Regio indicate these features appear to occur in large regional basins, at least along the direction of the profiles. Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images show that the terrains surrounding both topographically low-lying 5-?m bright features exhibit fluvial networks that appear to converge into the probable basins. The 5-?m bright features themselves correspond to fields of discrete radar-bright depressions whose bounding edges are commonly rounded and cumulate in planform in SAR images. These fields of discrete radar-bright depressions strongly resemble fields of features seen at Titan's high latitudes identified as dry lakes. Thus the combination of (1) the resemblance to high-latitude dry lakes, (2) location in the centers of regional depressions, and (3) convergence of fluvial networks are inferred by us to best explain the features of Hotei Regio and Tui Regio as sites of paleolake clusters (and perhaps former, now dry seas). These low-latitude paleolake clusters or former seas, if real, may be evidence of substantially larger inventories of liquid alkanes in Titan's past.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.



Coronae of Mnemosyne Regio - Morphology and origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mnemosine Regio area of Venus contains seven of the circular-to-elliptical structures, characterized by an annulus of concentric ridges, that are known as 'coronae'. Several corona-origin models are presently considered, and it is found that the processes associated with diapirism or hot-spots, and the gravitational relaxation of high topography, are most consistent with the topography and morphology of these coronae. The sequence of the formation and evolution of the coronae proceeds from regional volcanic and tectonic activity, through localized uplift and volcanism, to annulus and trough formation related to gravitational relaxation, and finally local volcanic flooding of the corona, annulus, and trough.

Stofan, E. R.; Head, J. W.



Structure and evolution of southeast Thetis Regio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highland terrain in southeast Thetis Regio consists of a series of thrust faults and conjugate graben that would usually be classified as tesserae. Unusually, this small area of tesserae is younger than the adjacent plains, a conclusion strengthened by modification of Jumaisat crater, a parabolic dark-halo crater >75 Myr old. Two structural belts are distinguished, the eastern ridged terrain and the central plateau, separated by conjugate graben. Unlike most terrestrial mountain belts, the thrusts in southeast Thetis are outward dipping, implying obduction of the eastern plains onto Thetis. This most likely results from the buoyancy of the Venusian lithosphere, which inhibits subduction. A simple two-stage orogenic model is inferred. Plains crust, driven by extension in Diana Chasma, initially overrides higher-standing tesserae crust in southeast Thetis. Through interaction with a plume, or perhaps through convective instability of the lower lithosphere, a plateau forms that resists further compression and that exhibits extensive volcanism. A new area of thrusting in the ridged terrain develops, while the plateau starts to collapse along graben, the larger of which are filled with lavas. The core of Thetis Regio appears to be surrounded by other tectonic units like southeast Thetis, indicating a piecemeal construction similar to terrestrial continents.

Ghail, Richard C.



trans -4-amino-3-hydroxypiperidines. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-4-Amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxypiperidines were synthesized by regio- and stereoselective amination of a series of 1-benzyl-3,4-epoxypiperidines\\u000a with primary and secondary aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic amines in the presence of lithium perchlorate. The regio-\\u000a and stereoselectivity of the amination process is ensured by specific activation of the oxirane ring in epoxypiperidine derivatives.\\u000a Lithium cation is coordinated simultaneously at the piperidine nitrogen atom and oxirane

I. S. Veselov; I. V. Trushkov; N. S. Zefirov; G. V. Grishina



Estimating lithospheric properties at Atla Regio, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magellan spehrical harmonic gravity and topography models are used to estimate lithospheric properties at Alta Regio, Venus, a proposed hotspot with dynamic support from mantle plume(s). Global spherical harmonic and local representations of the gravity field share common properties in the Atla region interms of their spectral behavior over a wavelength band from approximately 2100 to approximately 700 km. The estimated free-air admittance spectrum displays a rather featureless long-wavelength portion followed by a sharp rise at wavelengths shorter than about 1000 km. This sharp rise requires significant flexural support of short-wavelength structures. The Bouguer coherence also displays a sharp drop in this wavelength band, indicating a finite flexural rigidity of the lithosphere. A simple model for lithospheric loading from above and below is introduced (D. W. Forsyth, 1985) with four parameters: f, the ratio of bottom loading to top loading; zm, crustal thickness; zl depth to bottom loading source; and Te elastic lithosphere thickness. A dual-mode compensation model is introduced in which the shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately less than 1000 km) might be explained best by a predominance of top loading by the large shield volcanoes Maat Mons, Ozza Mons, and Sapas Mons, and the longer wavelengths (lambda approximately greater than 1500 km) might be explained best by a deep depth of compensation, possibly representing bottom loading by a dynamic source. A Monte Carlo inversion technique is introduced to thoroughly search out the four-space of the model parameters and to examine parameter correlation in the solutions. Venus either is a considerabe deficient in heat sources relative to Earth, or the thermal lithosphere is overthickened in response to an earlier episode of significant heat loss from the planet.

Phillips, Roger J.



Venus: Preliminary geologic mapping of northern Atla Regio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary geologic map of C1 sheet 15N197 was compiled according to Magellan data. Northern Atla Regio is dominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: radar-bright and -dark flows and spots, shield volcanos, volcanic domes and hills with varied morphology, and coronalike constructions. Tesserae are the oldest terrains semiflooded by plain materials. There are many lineated terrains on this

A. M. Nikishin; G. A. Burba



Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield

A. M. Nikishin; G. A. Burba



Structural characteristics and tectonics of northeastern Tellus Regio and Meni Tessera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tellus Regio-Meni Tessera region is an interesting highland area characterized by large areas of complex ridged terrain or tessera terrain. The area was previously studied from the Venera 15/16 data, typical characteristics of complex tessera terrain of Tellus Regio were analyzed, and a formation mechanism was proposed. Apparent depths of compensation of approximately 30-50 km were calculated from Pioneer Venus gravity and topography data. These values indicate predominant Airy compensation for the area. Regional stresses and lithospheric structures were defined from analysis of surface structures, topography, and gravity data. In this work we concentrate on northeastern Tellus Regio and Meni Tessera, which are situated north and west of Tellus Regio. Structural features and relationships are analyzed in order to interpret tectonic history of the area. Study area was divided into three subareas: northeastern Tellus Regio, Meni Tessera, and the deformed plain between them.

Toermaenen, T.



Regio- and stereoselectivity of P450-catalysed hydroxylation of steroids controlled by laboratory evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current challenge in synthetic organic chemistry is the development of methods that allow the regio- and stereoselective oxidative C-H activation of natural or synthetic compounds with formation of the corresponding alcohols. Cytochrome P450 enzymes enable C-H activation at non-activated positions, but the simultaneous control of both regio- and stereoselectivity is problematic. Here, we demonstrate that directed evolution using iterative saturation mutagenesis provides a means to solve synthetic problems of this kind. Using P450 BM3(F87A) as the starting enzyme and testosterone as the substrate, which results in a 1:1 mixture of the 2?- and 15?-alcohols, mutants were obtained that are 96-97% selective for either of the two regioisomers, each with complete diastereoselectivity. The mutants can be used for selective oxidative hydroxylation of other steroids without performing additional mutagenesis experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking experiments shed light on the origin of regio- and stereoselectivity.

Kille, Sabrina; Zilly, Felipe E.; Acevedo, Juan P.; Reetz, Manfred T.



Laufey Regio: A newly discovered topographic rise on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laufey Regio is a 0.5 km high, elongate topographic rise, measuring 1000 by 2000 km, located within northern Navka Planitia, Venus. It is dominated by two large volcanoes, Var and Atanua Montes, and numerous coronae with associated flow deposits. The area has been geologically mapped, showing that large-scale edifice formation focused at Var and Atanua Montes and overlapped in time with the formation of smaller coronae. Several coronae and volcanoes have had complex and protracted histories with multiple episodes of volcanism and tectonism, supporting a nondirectional history for this region. The broad topography of the rise is surrounded by a concentric set of wrinkle ridges interpreted to have formed after the onset of centralized volcanism. Admittance studies indicate both bottom and top loading, but lithospheric parameters are not well constrained. Top-loading models give a range of 0-48 km for elastic thickness (Te) and 35-115 km for crustal thickness. We interpret the Te range as most likely indicating isostatic compensation. Bottom-loading models yield lower bounds of 30-75 km for Te and 32-74 km for the apparent depth of compensation (ADC). The combination of the large Te and low topography indicates that the plume is no longer active. Bottom loading and a small ADC may indicate that a layer of low-density residuum, produced by pressure release melting in the now extinct plume, is partially supporting the topography. On the basis of its broad, regional topography, abundant volcanism, and gravity signature, we interpret Laufey to be a volcano-dominated rise in a late stage of evolution.

Brian, Antony W.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Guest, John E.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.



Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of alkynes via directed C-H functionalization.  


The ruthenium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes with benzamides proceeds regio- and stereoselectively through a directed C-H bond cleavage. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicate that the reaction involves amide-directed ortho-metalation, carbometalation of alkyne, and protonolysis. Similarly, phenylazoles also add to alkynes regioselectively. PMID:22480263

Hashimoto, Yuto; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi; Miura, Masahiro



Apparent Resurfacing of a Pull-Apart Band in Argadnel Regio, Europa, Resulting from Trough Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Galileo SSI and NIMS data to investigate a distinctive wedge-shaped band within Europa’s Argadnel Regio. The band appears to have been resurfaced along its northern portion as the result of the formation of a large regional depression.

Prockter, L. M.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B.; Kamp, L. W.



Nickel(0) triethyl phosphite complex-catalyzed allylic substitution with retention of regio- and stereochemistry.  


Nickel(0) triethyl phosphite complex-promoted reaction of allylic acetates with thiols produced allylic sulfides with retention of configuration without allylic rearrangement. A similar reaction of allylic acetates with alcohols and phenols also proceeded with retention of regio- and stereochemistry. PMID:17902687

Yatsumonji, Yasutaka; Ishida, Yusuke; Tsubouchi, Akira; Takeda, Takeshi



Hydrogenation of carbon–carbon multiple bonds: chemo-, regio- and stereo-selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the last decade with respect to the selective hydrogenation of hydrocarbons with multiple unsaturation (dienes and alkynes) over heterogeneous palladium catalysts are reviewed. Factors such as metal dispersion, carbon deposits, and the use of promoters and additives controlling catalytic activities and chemo-, regio- and stereo-selectivity are discussed. A detailed treatment of the status of the selective removal of

Árpád Molnár; Antal Sárkány; Mónika Varga



Geology and structure of Beta Regio, Venus: Results from Arecibo radar imaging  

SciTech Connect

Arecibo radar images of a portion of the equatorial region of Venus provide the first high resolution (1.5- to 2.0-km) synoptic coverage of Beta Regio. Within this area, tessera, a complex deformed terrain, is identified as a major geologic unit with the largest region corresponding to a plateau on the east flank of the highland. Three models are proposed to explain the origin and evolution of Beta Regio and are identified as Mantle Plume/Passive Crust, Mantle Plume/Active Crust, and Mantle Plume/Crustal Spreading. The Mantle Plume/Passive Crust model appears to be the most consistent with the geology in this region and suggests that a plume disrupts a preexisting region of tessera.

Senske, D.A.; Head, J.W. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA)); Stofan, E.R. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Campbell, D.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))



Regio- and stereodivergent antibiotic oxidative carbocyclizations catalysed by Rieske oxygenase-like enzymes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidative cyclizations, exemplified by the biosynthetic assembly of the penicillin nucleus from a tripeptide precursor, are arguably the most synthetically powerful implementation of C-H activation reactions in nature. Here, we show that Rieske oxygenase-like enzymes mediate regio- and stereodivergent oxidative cyclizations to form 10- and 12-membered carbocyclic rings in the key steps of the biosynthesis of the antibiotics streptorubin B and metacycloprodigiosin, respectively. These reactions represent the first examples of oxidative carbocyclizations catalysed by non-haem iron-dependent oxidases and define a novel type of catalytic activity for Rieske enzymes. A better understanding of how these enzymes achieve such remarkable regio- and stereocontrol in the functionalization of unactivated hydrocarbon chains will greatly facilitate the development of selective man-made C-H activation catalysts.

Sydor, Paulina K.; Barry, Sarah M.; Odulate, Olanipekun M.; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Haynes, Stuart W.; Corre, Christophe; Song, Lijiang; Challis, Gregory L.



Ligand-controlled, norbornene-mediated, regio- and diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkene hydrosilylation reactions.  


Ligand-controlled, norbornene-mediated, regio- and diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkene hydrosilylation of homoallyl silyl ethers (1) exploiting either BINAP or 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane (dpph) has been developed. This method permits selective access to either trans-oxasilacyclopentanes (trans-2) or oxasilacyclohexanes (3) at will. A substoichiometric amount of norbornene markedly increased both yield and selectivity. A norbornene-mediated hydride shuttle process is discussed. PMID:23773003

Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Scaggs, William R; Jeon, Junha



Tectonic Evolution of Bell Regio, Venus: Regional Stress, Lithospheric Flexure, and Edifice Stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the tectonic features associated with large volcanoes provide important insight into the relationship between volcanic and tectonic processes and the stress state of a planet's crust over time, and provide constraints on the local and regional geologic evolution. This investigation focuses on the tectonism and volcanism of Bell Regio, a major highland uplift n Venus. The stress environments and resulting tectonic features associated with the major volcanic edifices in this region are examined using Magellan ynthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and altimeter measurements of topography. The major volcanoes of Bell Regio, Tepev Mons and the "Eastern Volcanic Center" (EVC), exhibit tectonic characteristics that are unique relative to other volcanic edifices on Venus. The most prominent distinctions are the lack of large rift zones within the overall highland uplift and the presence of radial tectonic and concentric fractures associated with the major edifices. This study examines the regional stress field in Bell Regio through analysis of structural features believed to be a consequence of lithospheric flexure due to volcanic loading and tectonic features that likely resulted from edifice stresses associated with magma chamber inflation.

Rogers, P. G.; Zuber, M. T.



Iodine-mediated highly regio- and stereoselective iodoamination of ferrocenyl allene: an approach for the synthesis of ferrocene-containing allylic amines.  


A straightforward and efficient protocol for the highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of ferrocene-containing allylic amine derivatives via an iodine-mediated iodoamination of ferrocenyl allene was developed. The regio- and stereoselectivity of this reaction may be controlled by the steric effect of the bulky ferrocene group. PMID:23638649

Chen, Shufeng; Yan, Qing; Zhao, Haiying; Li, Baoguo



Are the Basins of Tui Regio and Hotei Arcus Sites of Former Titanian Seas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features observed in the basins of Tui Regio and Hotei Arcus on Titan have attracted the attention of the Cassini-era investigators. At both locations, VIMS observed discrete 5-micron bright 500-km wide features described as lobate in shape. Several studies have proposed that these materials are cryo-volcanic flows; in the case of the Hotei Arcus feature this inference was buttressed with SAR RADAR images showing bright and dark patches with "lobate” margins. We propose an alternative explanation. First we note that all landforms on Titan that are unambiguously identifiable can be explained by exogenic processes (aeolian, fluvial, impact cratering, and mass wasting). Suggestions of endogenically produced cryovolcanic constructs and flows have, without exception, lacked conclusive diagnostic evidence. Recently published topographic profiles across Tui Regio and the "lobate” feature region north of Hotei Arcus indicate these features appear to occur in large regional basins, at least along the direction of the profiles. SAR images show that the terrains surrounding both 5-micron bright features exhibit fluvial networks that appear to converge and debauch into the probable basins. The 5-micron bright features themselves correspond to fields of discrete radar-bright depressions whose bounding edges are commonly rounded and cumulate in planform in SAR images. These fields of discrete radar-bright depressions strongly resemble fields of features seen at Titan's high latitudes usually attributed to be dry lakes. Thus the combination of (1) the resemblance to high-latitude dry lakes, (2) location in the centers of probable regional depressions, and (3) convergence of fluvial networks are inferred by us to best explain the 5-micron bright regions at Tui Regio and Hotei Arcus as sites of dry seas or at least paleolake clusters. Such equatorial seas, if real, may be evidence of substantially larger inventories of liquid alkanes in Titan's past.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, A. D.



Synthesis of ?-monofluorinated goniothalamin analogues via regio- and stereoselective ring-opening hydrofluorination of epoxide.  


A stereoselective synthesis of the biologically interesting ?-monofluorinated goniothalamin analogue 2a was described. The features of the synthesis included regioselective reduction of the unprotected hydroxypropynyl moiety of compound 10 by Red-Al, asymmetric Sharpless epoxidation of allyl alcohol 11, and regio- and stereoselective ring-opening hydrofluorination of the hydroxypropynyl epoxide 14 with Et(3)N·3HF in high ee and dr. The chiral hydroxypropynyl fluorohydrin 15 was used as a valuable building block for preparation of a range of ?-monofluorinated ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactones. PMID:21739972

Chen, Jun-Ling; Zheng, Feng; Huang, Yangen; Qing, Feng-Ling



Nitrile assisted, Brønsted acid catalyzed regio and stereoselective diarylphosphonylation of allyl silyl ethers.  


We have discovered a mild, catalytic protocol for the regio- and stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted allyl diarylphosphonates from the corresponding disubstituted allyl silyl ethers, circumventing the challenges related to the preparation and availability of stereodefined trisubstituted olefins. A closely related arylation reaction was also discovered during the methodology development. By simply switching the reaction medium, high phosphonylation/arylation ratios and vice versa can be achieved. This may not be a direct result of changing solvent polarity. The allyl diarylphosphonates were evaluated as carboxylesterase inhibitors, and the screening results revealed that the inhibitory efficiency is highly related to the choice of alkenes and aryl substituents. PMID:20532352

Ho, Chun-Yu; Chan, Chun-Wa; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Zuo, Zhong; Chan, Lai-Ying



Regio-Selective 10-Hydroxylation of Patchoulol, a Sesquiterpene, by Pithomyces Species  

PubMed Central

Of some 350 microorganisms screened, four strains of Pithomyces species were found to carry out regio-selective hydroxylation of patchoulol, a sesquiterpene, to 10-hydroxypatchoulol: Pithomyces sp. NRJ201, P. chartarum NRJ210, and, to a lesser extent, P. cynodontis ATCC 26150 and P. atro-olivaceus IFO 6651 were found to catalyze this reaction. A method has been developed by which 10-hydroxypatchoulol was obtained in 25 to 45% yields in 1- to 5-liter fermentation jars at 2 to 4 g of patchoulol per liter and isolated as pure material in 30% yields.

Suhara, Yasuji; Itoh, Sayuri; Ogawa, Mayumi; Yokose, Kazuteru; Sawada, Toyoaki; Sano, Takashi; Ninomiya, Rieko; Maruyama, Hiromi B.



Structural and biochemical analyses of regio- and stereospecificities observed in a type II polyketide ketoreductase.  


Type II polyketides include antibiotics such as tetracycline and chemotherapeutics such as daunorubicin. Type II polyketides are biosynthesized by the type II polyketide synthase (PKS) that consists of 5-10 stand-alone domains. In many type II PKSs, the type II ketoreductase (KR) specifically reduces the C9-carbonyl group. How the type II KR achieves such a high regiospecificity and the nature of stereospecificity are not well understood. Sequence alignment of KRs led to a hypothesis that a well-conserved 94-XGG-96 motif may be involved in controlling the stereochemistry. The stereospecificity of single-, double-, and triple-mutant combinations of P94L, G95D, and G96D were analyzed in vitro and in vivo for the actinorhodin KR (actKR). The P94L mutation is sufficient to change the stereospecificity of actKR. Binary and ternary crystal structures of both wild-type and P94L actKR were determined. Together with assay results, docking simulations, and cocrystal structures, a model for stereochemical control is presented herein that elucidates how type II polyketides are introduced into the substrate pocket such that the C9-carbonyl can be reduced with high regio- and stereospecificities. The molecular features of actKR important for regio- and stereospecificities can potentially be applied in biosynthesizing new polyketides via protein engineering that rationally controls polyketide keto reduction. PMID:21506596

Javidpour, Pouya; Korman, Tyler Paz; Shakya, Gaurav; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan



Radical cascades in electron transfer dissociation (ETD) - implications for characterizing peptide disulfide regio-isomers.  


Direct characterization of peptides with multiple disulfide bonds by mass spectrometry is highly desirable. In this study, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide disulfide regio-isomers was studied using model peptides containing two intrachain disulfide bonds. ETD provided rich sequence information (c/z ions) even for the backbone region under the coverage of two disulfide bonds. This behavior presented an analytical advantage over low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated intact peptide ions, which produced very limited sequence (b/y) ions. Mechanistic studies suggested that the formation of c/z ions under the two disulfide bond covered region resulted from an initial N-C? bond cleavage, followed by radical cascades to cleave multiple disulfide bonds. The ETD spectra of the disulfide regio-isomers produced similar product ions due to radical cascades; while the relative intensities of the product ions varied, to a certain degree, which could be helpful in distinguishing isomers with overlapping disulfide bonds. PMID:24061148

Tan, Lei; Durand, Kirt L; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yu



Highly regio- and stereo-selective carbometallation reaction of fluorine-containing internal acetylenes with organocopper reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbometallation reactions of fluoroalkylated internal alkynes with various organocopper reagents derived from organolithium, Grignard, and organozinc reagents were examined. All carbocupration reactions proceeded smoothly in a highly regio- and stereo-selective manner to give the corresponding vinylcopper intermediates. The intermediates reacted with H+ smoothly, leading to the trisubstituted alkenes in high to excellent yields, whereas they reacted only with strictly

Tsutomu Konno; Takeshi Daitoh; Atsushi Noiri; Jungha Chae; Takashi Ishihara; Hiroki Yamanaka



The Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Rhamnose-Containing Oligosaccharides Via Sugar-Sugar Orthoester Formation and Rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convenient regio- and stereoselective syntheses of rhamnose-containing oligosaccharides via sugar-sugar orthoester formation and rearrangement are described. 1?3 Linked rhamno di- and trisaccharides were synthesized effectively using unprotected rhamnose residue as the glycosyl acceptor by this methodology.

Yuguo Du; Fanzuo Kong



Nickel-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective reductive coupling between methylenecyclopropanes, aldehydes, and triethylborane with retention of the cyclopropane ring.  


Running rings: The first regio- and stereoselective reductive coupling between methylenecyclopropanes, aldehydes, and triethylborane with retention of the cyclopropane ring was achieved using a nickel-phosphine catalyst (see scheme). The reductive coupling reaction constructed a stereo-defined cyclopropane ring with formation of a quaternary stereogenic carbon center. PMID:22508328

Ogata, Kenichi; Shimada, Daisuke; Fukuzawa, Shin-ichi



Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.



Microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys in Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI of Pompeii, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archaeological area of Pompeii (Naples, Italy) is known worldwide as one of the most remarkable examples of a Roman Empire town, but its origins are prior to the Roman age and there is a huge archeological interest in discovering the history of the forma urbis. With respect to this framework, the paper presents results from microwave tomography enhanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys carried out in the Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI, one of the most ancient housing areas of Pompeii. The GPR prospections aimed at addressing and driving the archeological excavation campaign performed in this area in October 2010. The results of stratigraphic assays are used to assess the reliability of the tomographic images obtained.

Catapano, I.; Crocco, L.; Di Napoli, R.; Soldovieri, F.; Brancaccio, A.; Pesando, F.; Aiello, A.



A highly regio- and stereo-selective hydrostannation reaction of various fluorine-containing internal acetylene derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrostannation reaction of various fluoroalkylated acetylene derivatives with tributyltin hydride was investigated using a variety of catalysts in toluene. Among them, the Et3B-induced hydrostannation reaction gave the highest regio- and stereo-selectivity. Their selectivity was mostly influenced upon the difference of the substituent X at the aromatic ring of the aryl-substituted internal acetylenes. Thus, the acetylenes having a halogen atom

Jungha Chae; Tsutomu Konno; Masashi Kanda; Takashi Ishihara; Hiroki Yamanaka



Highly regio- and stereoselective hydrometallation reactions of fluorine-containing internal alkynes: Novel approaches to fluoroalkylated alkenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroalumination, hydrocupration, and hydroboration reactions of various fluorine-containing alkynes were investigated. The alkyne reacted smoothly with 2.0 equiv. of Red-Al at ?78°C to give the hydroaluminated adduct in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner, which was treated with iodine, the corresponding vinyliodide being produced in moderate yield. Hydrocupration of the alkynes also took place, but the resulting vinylmetal reacted with

Tsutomu Konno; Jungha Chae; Tomoo Tanaka; Takashi Ishihara; Hiroki Yamanaka



Regio- and enantioselective allylic amination of achiral allylic esters catalyzed by an iridium-phosphoramidite complex.  


A new catalytic asymmetric process, the iridium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic amination of (E)-cinnamyl and terminal aliphatic allylic carbonates, was developed by exploring complexes of chiral phosphoramidites. The reaction provided branched secondary and tertiary allylic amines in high yields with excellent regio- and enantioselectivity (13 examples over 94% ee). Although the reactions in polar solvent such as DMF, EtOH, and MeOH were fast, they gave low enantiomeric excesses. In contrast, reactions in THF displayed the most suitable balance of rate and enantioselectivity. Both the binaphthol unit and the disubstituted amine in the phosphoramidite affected reactivity and selectivity, and complexes of O,O'-(R)-(1,1'-dinaphthyl-2,2'-diyl)-N,N'-di-(R,R)-1-phenylethylphosphoramidite provided the highest reactivity and selectivity. Primary and cyclic secondary amines reacted at room temperature, and acyclic diethylamine reacted at 50 degrees C. p-Methoxy-substituted cinnamyl carbonate reacted similarly to the unsubstituted cinnamyl carbonate, but the o-methoxy-substituted substrate gave lower enantiomeric excess. High ee's were also observed for the products from the reaction of furanyl- and alkyl-substituted (E)-allylic carbonates. PMID:12487578

Ohmura, Toshimichi; Hartwig, John F



Regio- and stereoselective nickel-catalyzed homoallylation of aldehydes with 1,3-dienes.  


Ni(acac)(2) catalyzes homoallylation of aldehydes with 1,3-dienes in the presence of triethylborane. Triethylborane serves as a reducing agent delivering a formal hydride to the C2 position of 1,3-dienes, thus generating a formal homoallyl anion species and enabling the novel homoallylation of aldehydes. The reaction proceeds smoothly at room temperature in the absence of any phosphane or nitrogen ligands and is highly regioselective and stereoselective for a wide variety combination of aldehydes and 1,3-dienes: e.g., isoprene and benzaldehyde combine to give a mixture of anti- and syn-1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-penten-1-ol (2.2) in a ratio of 15:1 in 90% yield. Under the conditions, sterically congested aliphatic aldehydes and ketones show low yields. In such cases, diethylzinc serves as a substitute for triethylborane and yields the expected products in good yields with similarly high regio- and stereoselectivity. 1,3-Cyclohexadiene is one exception among 24 kinds of dienes examined and undergoes allylation (not homoallylation) selectively. PMID:16802822

Kimura, Masanari; Ezoe, Akihiro; Mori, Masahiko; Iwata, Keisuke; Tamaru, Yoshinao



Regio- and stereoselective isomerization of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs): kinetics and mechanism of beta-HBCD racemization.  


Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are high production volume chemicals currently produced in quantities exceeding 20000ty(-1). They are used as flame retardants for plastics and textiles. HBCDs are thermally labile compounds, rapidly decomposing at temperatures above 250 degrees C to form bromine radicals, which scavenge other radicals formed during pyrolysis. But certain HBCD stereoisomers must reach the environment without decomposition, because their levels in soils, sediments, and biota are increasing worldwide. The fate of individual HBCD stereoisomers during production, product use, disposal, and transformation in the environment remains unclear. Herein we report on the thermally induced, highly selective isomerization of (+) and (-)beta-HBCD. Regio- and stereoselective migration of only two of the six bromine atoms resulted in the racemization of both beta-HBCDs. First order rate constants (k(rac)) increased from 0.005, 0.011, 0.021, to 0.055min(-1) at 130, 140, 150, and 160 degrees C, corresponding to half life times tau(1/2) of 143, 63, 29, and 14min, respectively. From the deduced kinetic model, we conclude that any thermal treatment of enantiomerically enriched beta-HBCDs in the range of 100-160 degrees C will result in a loss of most optical activity within few hours. The simultaneous inversion of two asymmetric centers occurred with perfect stereocontrol. Selectively, vicinal dibromides with the RR- and the SS-configurations migrated at these temperatures. An intramolecular reaction mechanism with a four-center transition state is postulated, based on the obtained stereoisomer pattern and the observed reaction kinetics. Crystal structure analysis revealed that all vicinal dibromides in beta-HBCDs prefer synclinal (gauche) conformations. However, an antiperiplanar (staggered) conformation is assumed to facilitate the concerted 1.2-shifts of both bromine atoms, resulting in an inversion of both neighboring carbon atoms. First experiments with other HBCD stereoisomers suggest that the presented isomerization mechanism is of relevance for those stereoisomers as well. PMID:18191442

Heeb, Norbert V; Schweizer, W Bernd; Mattrel, Peter; Haag, Regula; Kohler, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Wolfensberger, Max



Composition of bands in Argadnel Regio, Europa: Implications for Volcanic Resurfacing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bands on Europa are dark or grey features which formed as a result of the pulling apart of cracks in Europa's surface, allowing new cryovolcanic material to be emplaced into the newly formed gaps. Bands have been shown to be sites of extensive resurfacing, and appear to have brightened over time, although the exact cause is not known. Thus the relative albedo of a band can be used as a proxy for age, as has been observed on Europa's surface, where the darkest bands crosscut, and are therefore younger than, lighter, or "grey" bands. We here combine Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and Solid State Imager (SSI) data, using the methods of Shirley et al., [2010], to determine the surface compositions and water ice grain sizes of dark and grey bands in Europa's anti-Jovian Argadnel Regio, and to understand their relative histories. Preliminary results show that the total amount of hydrated salts modeled in the grey bands tends to be less than that seen in the dark bands (from ~19 to ~38% and ~38 to 47% respectively). One dark band contains hydrated sulfuric acid which is >5% lower than that of the surrounding ridged plains, as well as only 9% water ice of small grain size. These observations are interpreted as evidence that this band has been less processed by radiolysis, and so is relatively young or has been recently resurfaced. Relatively larger ice grain sizes are observed in the grey bands, as might be expected if they are older than the dark bands, and all the bands contain less large-grained ice than the surrounding ridged plains, thought to be the oldest unit on Europa's surface. We also find a wedge-shaped band that exhibits a different composition across its northern part, and appears to have undergone resurfacing as the result of the formation of a large, shallow trough that cuts diagonally across the band. We speculate that this resurfacing could be due to processes such as (1) the removal of frost due to surface shaking during the tectonic event, resulting in lower albedo material being revealed; (2) the emplacement of fine-grained plume or similar material due to a cryovolcanic eruption on the wedge floor; or (3) because the fault forming the southwestern wall of the depression intersected a near-surface briny reservoir, such as has been suggested to exist on Europa, enabling low-albedo material to be emplaced onto the floor of the depression, thereby darkening the wedge and modifying its surface composition. Reference: [1] Shirley J.H. et al. (2010) Icarus, 210, 358-384.

Prockter, L. M.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B.; Kamp, L. W.



Regio\\/diastereo-controls of the Bingel-type biscyclopropanation of [60]fullerene by using bismalonates with a Tröger base analogue-derived tether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four kinds of bismalonates tethered with a Tröger base derivative were synthesized and used for the double Bingel reaction of [60]fullerene. The regio\\/diastereoselectivities of the reaction were highly influenced by the structure of the Tröger base derivatives. Heteroaromatic analogues of the Tröger base were found to be applicable as the core of the tether.

Yasuhiro Ishida; Hiroshi Ito; Daisuke Mori; Kazuhiko Saigo



Oxidation of natural targets by dimethyl dioxirane: Regio and stereospecific reactions on enol double bond of bioactive nor quinone methide triterpenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nor quinone methide triterpenes, like pristimerin and tingenone, possess one enol double bond (C3–C4). They also have an extended conjugation with an additional double bond (C7–C8). When these compounds are treated with dimethyl dioxirane, regio and stereoespecific oxidation occurs only on the enol double bond.

Antonio G. González; Nelson L. Alvarenga; Ana Estévez-Braun; Angel G. Ravelo; Rafael Estévez-Reyes



Rhenium-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective synthesis of ?-thio-?,?-unsaturated ketones via insertion of terminal alkynes into the C-S bond.  


The reaction of ?-thioketones and alkynes in the presence of a rhenium catalyst, [HRe(CO)(4)](n), gave ?-thio-?,?-unsaturated ketones in excellent yields. The alkynes were inserted into the carbon-sulfur bond of the ?-thioketones, and isomerization of a double bond provided the products with high regio- and stereoselectivities. This reaction also proceeded in an intramolecular fashion. PMID:23145492

Nishi, Mitsumi; Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Takai, Kazuhiko



Regio- and diastereoselective synthesis of bis- and tetrakisadducts of C70 by directed remote functionalization using Tröger base tethers.  


Double Bingel cyclopropanation of C70 with bismalonates featuring Tröger base derivatives as chiral spacers afforded bisadducts with almost perfect regio- and stereoselectivity. The excellent directing property of these rigidly folded spacers in the remote functionalization of the higher fullerene was further highlighted by the selective formation of a product with a novel bisaddition pattern involving the C(7)-C(22) and C(33)-C(34) bonds of C70. Enantiomerically pure bisadducts of C70 were prepared by highly diastereoselective transformations of bismalonates incorporating optically pure Tröger base tethers. The absolute configuration of these bisadducts was established by comparison of circular dichroism (CD) spectra with data reported in the literature. For the first time, optically active tetrakisadducts of a fullerene were prepared by two sequential chiral-spacer-controlled remote functionalizations. PMID:16548020

Wong, Wallace W H; Diederich, François



New general method for regio- and stereoselective allylic substitution with aryl and alkenyl coppers derived from Grignard reagents.  


Allylic substitution with sp(2)-carbon reagents (aryl and alkenyl anions) was realized by using allylic picolinates and copper reagents derived from RMgBr and CuBr x Me(2)S to afford anti S(N)2' products regio- and stereoselectively. Steric and electronic factors in the reagents and the size of the methylene substituents around the allylic moiety marginally affected the selectivity. The reaction system was compatible with alkyl reagents as well. Furthermore, the substitution was applied to construction of a quaternary center and synthesis of (-)-sesquichamaenol. Electron-withdrawing nature of the pyridyl group and chelation of the C(=O)-C(5)H(4)N to MgBr(2) generated in situ were found to be responsible for the high efficiency of the substitution. PMID:19199795

Kiyotsuka, Yohei; Katayama, Yuji; Acharya, Hukum P; Hyodo, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuichi



Regio- and stereoselectivity in the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-diarylnitrones to 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regio- and stereoselectivity of the nitrone cycloaddition with 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinone ((1) is discussed. Nitrones react regioselectively with1 to give a mixture of diastereoisomeric spiro-cycloadducts3 and4, in which3 always dominates. Both3 and4 result from the approach which binds the carbon of the nitrone with the exocyclic carbon of1 and the oxygen to the spiro carbon. The structure and steric configuration of the

Peter Oravec; ?ubor Fišera; Igor Goljer; Peter Ertl



Over-expression in Escherichia coli of a thermally stable and regio-selective nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni 5-MGAM-4D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding a thermally stable and regio-selective nitrile hydratase (NHase) and an amidase from Comamonas testosteroni 5-MGAM-4D have been cloned and sequenced, and active NHase has been over-produced in Escherichia coli. Maximal activity requires co-expression of a small open reading frame immediately downstream from the NHase beta subunit gene. Compared to the native organism, the E. coli biocatalyst has

Kelly L. Petrillo; Shijun Wu; Eugenia C. Hann; Frederick B. Cooling; Arie Ben-Bassat; John E. Gavagan; Robert DiCosimo; Mark S. Payne



Graben–fissure systems in Guinevere Planitia and Beta Regio (264°–312°E, 24°–60°N), Venus, and implications for regional stratigraphy and mantle plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed mapping in a 14,000,000 km2 area of northwestern Guinevere Planitia and northern Beta Regio bounded by 264°–312°E, 24°–60°N has revealed thousands of long extensional lineaments (graben, fissures and related fractures). These can be grouped into radiating, circumferential and linear systems. Thirty four radiating systems have been identified, of which 16 have radii greater than 300 km and eight have

R. E. Ernst; D. W. Desnoyers; J. W Head; E. B Grosfils



A validated LC method for determination of 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid and its associated regio isomers.  


A simple, selective and sensitive gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography method has been developed for the separation and determination of 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid, which is an intermediate of the lamotrizine drug substance, and its regio isomers. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase United States Pharmacopeia L1 (C-18) column using 0.01 M ammonium acetate buffer at pH 2.5 and methanol (50:50 v/v) mixture as mobile phase A and a methanol and water mixture (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase B in a gradient elution at flow rate 1.2 mL/min with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. The method is found to be selective, precise, linear, accurate and robust. It was used for quality assurance and monitoring the synthetic reactions involved in the process development of lamotrizine. The method is found to be simple, rapid, specific and reliable for the determination of unreacted levels of raw materials and isomers in reaction mixtures and finished product lamotrizine. The method was fully validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines and results from validation confirm that the method is highly suitable for its intended purpose. PMID:22454391

Krishnaiah, Ch; Sri, Khagga Bhavya



Rational design of a minimal and highly enriched CYP102A1 mutant library with improved regio-, stereo- and chemoselectivity.  


A minimal CYP102A1 mutant library of only 24 variants plus wild type was constructed by combining five hydrophobic amino acids (alanine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine) in two positions. Both positions are located close to the centre of the haem group. The first, position 87, has been shown to mediate substrate specificity and regioselectivity in CYP102A1. The second hotspot, position 328, was predicted to interact with all substrates during oxidation and has previously been identified by systematic analysis of 31 crystal structures and 6300 sequences of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. By systematically altering the size of the side chains, a broad range of binding site shapes was generated. All variants were functionally expressed in E. coli. The library was screened with four terpene substrates geranylacetone, nerylacetone, (4R)-limonene and (+)-valencene. Only three variants showed no activity towards all four terpenes, while eleven variants demonstrated either a strong shift or improved regio- or stereoselectivity during oxidation of at least one substrate as compared to CYP102A1 wild type. PMID:19222039

Seifert, Alexander; Vomund, Sandra; Grohmann, Katrin; Kriening, Sebastian; Urlacher, Vlada B; Laschat, Sabine; Pleiss, Jürgen



Organometallic Enantiomeric Scaffolding. A Strategy for the Enantiocontrolled Construction of Regio- and Stereodivergent Trisubstituted Piperidines from a Common Precursor  

PubMed Central

Reported herein is a general and efficient method to construct 2,3,6-trisubstituted piperidines in a substituent-independent fashion. From the high enantiopurity organometallic scaffold (?)-Tp(CO)2[(?-2,3,4)-(1S, 2S)-1-benzyloxycarbonyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-2-yl)molybdenum (Tp = hydridotrispyrazolylborato), a variety of TpMo(CO)2-based 2,3,6-trifunctionalized complexes of the (?-3,4,5-dihydropyridinyl) ligand were easily obtained in 5 steps through a sequence of highly regio- and stereospecific metal-influenced transformations (15 examples). From the 2,3,6-trifunctionalized molybdenum complexes, either 2,6-cis-3-trans or 2,3,6-cis systems were selectively obtained through the choice of an appropriate stereodivergent demetalation protocol. The potential of this strategy in synthetic chemistry was demonstrated by the short total synthesis of four natural and one non-natural alkaloids: indolizidines (±)-209I and (±)-8-epi-219F in the racemic series, and enantiocontrolled syntheses of (?)-indolizidine 251N, (?)-quinolizidine 251AA, and (?)-dehydroindolizidine 233E.

Wong, Heilam; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel C.; Liebeskind, Lanny S.



Regio- and stereoselective isomerization of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs): kinetics and mechanism of gamma- to alpha-HBCD isomerization.  


Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are high production volume chemicals (>20000 ty(-1)) used as flame retardants for plastics and textiles. Lately, we reported on the stereoselective isomerization of beta-HBCDs. Herein we present insights into the mechanism and kinetics of (+)gamma- to (+)alpha- and of (-)gamma- to (-)alpha-HBCD isomerization. Only two of the six bromine atoms migrated, indicating that rearrangements of gamma- to alpha-HBCDs are regio- and stereoselective as well. The apparent first-order isomerization rate constants increased from 0.0013 to 0.0031 to 0.0070 min(-1) at 120, 130, and 140 degrees C, respectively, corresponding to half-lives of 540, 230, and 99 min. Thus, a thermal treatment of materials containing gamma-HBCDs at temperatures >100 degrees C may induce the formation of alpha-HBCDs and, hence, may alter the diastereomeric ratio of a HBCD mixture. The inversion of vicinal dibromides in like-configurations (RR/SS) prevailed, whereas unlike-configurations (RS/SR) were not affected. An intramolecular, stereoselective migration of neighboring bromine atoms via a four-center transition state would explain the observed stereoisomer pattern and first-order kinetics. Despite the fact that vicinal dibromides in HBCDs prefer synclinal (gauche) conformations, antiperiplanar (staggered) conformations are assumed to facilitate concerted 1.2-shifts of both bromine atoms. A conformation analysis revealed that under kinetic control, only those bromine atoms in the more flexible part of the molecules are migrating, whereas those in the conserved triple-turn motive were not affected. Thus, this structural motive, common to all alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs, is more rigid and less reactive than the flexible part, containing the reacting dibromides in like-configurations. PMID:18768199

Heeb, Norbert V; Schweizer, W Bernd; Mattrel, Peter; Haag, Regula; Gerecke, Andreas C; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Vonmont, Heinz



Functional Characterization of Premnaspirodiene Oxygenase, a Cytochrome P450 Catalyzing Regio- and Stereo-specific Hydroxylations of Diverse Sesquiterpene Substrates*s  

PubMed Central

Solavetivone, a potent antifungal phytoalexin, is derived from a vetispirane-type sesquiterpene, premnaspirodiene, by a putative regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation, followed by a second oxidation to yield the ?,?-unsaturated ketone. Mechanistically, these reactions could occur via a single, multifunctional cytochrome P450 or some combination of cytochrome P450s and a dehydrogenase. We report here the characterization of a single cytochrome P450 enzyme, Hyoscyamus muticus premna-spirodiene oxygenase (HPO), that catalyzes these successive reactions at carbon 2 (C-2) of the spirane substrate. HPO also catalyzes the equivalent regio-specific (C-2) hydroxylation of several eremophilane-type (decalin ring system) sesquiterpenes, such as with 5-epi-aristolochene. Moreover, HPO displays interesting comparisons to other sesquiterpene hydroxylases. 5-Epi-aristolochene di-hydroxylase (EAH) differs catalytically from HPO by introducing hydroxyl groups first at C-1, then C-3 of 5-epi-aristolochene. HPO and EAH also differ from one another by 91-amino acid differences, with four of these differences mapping to putative substrate recognition regions 5 and 6. These four positions were mutagenized alone and in various combinations in both HPO and EAH and the mutant enzymes were characterized for changes in substrate selectivity, reaction product specificity, and kinetic properties. These mutations did not alter the regio- or stereo-specificity of either HPO or EAH, but specific combinations of the mutations did improve the catalytic efficiencies 10–15-fold. Molecular models and comparisons between HPO and EAH provide insights into the catalytic properties of these enzymes of specialized metabolism in plants.

Takahashi, Shunji; Yeo, Yun-Soo; Zhao, Yuxin; O'Maille, Paul E.; Greenhagen, Bryan T.; Noel, Joseph P.; Coates, Robert M.; Chappell, Joe



Highly regio- and stereoselective ruthenium(II)-catalyzed direct ortho-alkenylation of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes with activated alkenes under open atmosphere.  


Various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes reacted with activated alkenes in the presence of a catalytic amount of [{RuCl(2)(p-cymene)}(2)], AgSbF(6), and Cu(OAc)(2)·H(2)O to give substituted alkene derivatives in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner. The corresponding alkene derivatives were further converted into unusual four-membered cyclic ketones or a polycyclic isochromanone derivative via a photochemical rearrangement. Notably, the catalytic reaction was conducted under an open atmosphere. PMID:22316177

Padala, Kishor; Jeganmohan, Masilamani



Highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of alpha-(N-alkyl-N-p-toluenesulfonyl)-beta-bromo-ketones via Ni(OAc)2-catalyzed aminobromination of chalcones.  


The combinations of N-methyl-p-toluenesulfonamide/NBS and N-ethyl-p-toluenesulfonamide/NBS were found to be good nitrogen/halogen resources for the aminohalogenation of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones in the presence of Ni(OAc)(2) as the catalyst for the synthesis of vicinal haloamino ketone derivatives. The introduction of N-alkyl groups to the nitrogen resources resulted in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity for both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing group-attached unsaturated ketone substrates. The structure of the resulting products has been unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. PMID:20331646

Sun, Hao; Zhi, San-Jun; Han, Jian-Lin; Li, Guigen; Pan, Yi



Highly regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective one-pot gold/chiral Brønsted acid-catalysed cascade synthesis of bioactive diversely substituted tetrahydroquinolines.  


One-pot sequential asymmetric reactions of aminobenzaldehydes or aminophenones with alkynes catalysed by a gold(I)/Brønsted acid cooperative system are reported. This process provides a highly efficient method for the synthesis of optically active tetrahydroquinolines, with one or two chiral centres at different positions as well as highly divergent functional groups, in good to excellent yields and with high regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectivities. A preliminary study on the effect of stereochemistry on biological activity suggests a potential application of these optically active tetrahydroquinolines in drug discovery processes. PMID:22785458

Liu, Xin-Yuan; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Siu, Fung-Ming; Ni, Li-Chen; Chen, Yong; Wang, Lin; Che, Chi-Ming



A facile, rapid, one-pot regio/stereoselective synthesis of 2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones under solvent/scavenger-free conditions  

PubMed Central

Summary A rapid and efficient one pot solvent/scavenger-free protocol for the synthesis of 2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones has been developed. Interestingly, the regio/stereoselective synthesis affords the regioisomeric (Z)-3-alkyl/aryl-2-(2-phenylcyclohex-2-enylimino)thiazolidin-4-one as the sole product in good yield. The selectivities observed have been rationalized based on the relative magnitude of the allylic strains developed during the course of the reaction. This is the first report wherein the impact of allylic strains in directing the regiocyclization has been noted.

Sathishkumar, Murugan; Nagarajan, Sangaraiah; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Dinesh, Murugan



Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of spirooxindole 1'-nitro pyrrolizidines with five concurrent stereocenters under aqueous medium and their bioprospection using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model.  


A highly regio- and stereoselective method has been developed and expanded for the synthesis of a 20-membered library of spirooxindole 1'-nitro pyrrolizidines via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ by a decarboxylative route from a common set of diverse isatins and l-proline derivatives, with substituted ?-nitrostyrenes under aqueous medium. Among various reaction conditions, water proved to be necessary for the interaction of the reagents as well as heating the reaction at 90 °C for one hour, during which time the desired products were obtained in good yields and with excellent regio- and stereoselectivities. We subsequently applied in silico drug discovery computational methods to (i) identify the ADME properties, based on Lipinski's rule, (ii) screen the toxicological profile, and (iii) predict the penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB) of the synthesized compounds. Next, the LC50 values of all these spirocyclic oxindoles were determined in zebrafish embryos cultured individually in buffer solutions of each compound and, finally, the phenotypes induced by these molecules in the zebrafish embryos at concentrations below their LC50 were analyzed at 48, 72 and 96 hours post fertilization. PMID:24065047

Puerto Galvis, Carlos E; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V



Regio- and stereochemistry of the dioxygenation reaction catalyzed by (S)-type lipoxygenases or by the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthases.  


Investigations on the regio- and stereochemistry of the reactions of mammalian lipoxygenases and of prostaglandin H synthases are reviewed. The results and concepts are summarized as two reaction box models. The structures of all known (S)-type lipoxygenase products of long-chain fatty acids carrying an all-cis-1,4-diene structural element including mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxyl products can be accommodated by this model. The model also provides an explanation for leukotriene formation by mammalian lipoxygenases and for the substrate specificity of lipoxygenases towards esterified fatty acids. The reaction box model for the first dioxygenation step of the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthase is stereochemically different from the (S)-type lipoxygenase box model. PMID:8005520

Lehmann, W D



Ionic-type reactivity of 1,3-dibora-2,4-diphosphoniocyclobutane-1,3-diyls: regio- and stereoselective addition of hydracids.  


Hydrogen chloride and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid readily add to the symmetrically substituted 1,3-dibora-2,4-diphosphoniocyclobutane-1,3-diyl (1) and unsymmetrically substituted 1,3-dibora-2,4-diphosphoniobicyclo[1.1.0]butane (3) under mild conditions, substantiating some formal analogies between the PBPB diradicaloids D and alkenes. X-ray diffraction analyses carried out on all the resulting 1,3-diborata-2,4-diphosphoniocyclobutanes (2, 4-6) revealed that the reactions proceed with complete stereo- and regio-selectivity, and that an unusual t-Bu --> i-Bu isomerization can occur at boron. DFT calculations shed more light on the factors controlling the regioselectivity of the additions, its concerted versus stepwise character, and support an original two-step mechanism for the t-Bu --> i-Bu isomerization, involving a carbocationic sigma-borane adduct as a key intermediate. PMID:19772363

Fuks, Gad; Saffon, Nathalie; Maron, Laurent; Bertrand, Guy; Bourissou, Didier



Over-expression in Escherichia coli of a thermally stable and regio-selective nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni 5-MGAM-4D.  


The genes encoding a thermally stable and regio-selective nitrile hydratase (NHase) and an amidase from Comamonas testosteroni 5-MGAM-4D have been cloned and sequenced, and active NHase has been over-produced in Escherichia coli. Maximal activity requires co-expression of a small open reading frame immediately downstream from the NHase beta subunit gene. Compared to the native organism, the E. coli biocatalyst has nearly threefold more NHase activity on a dry cell weight basis, and this activity is significantly more thermally stable. In addition, this biocatalyst converts a wide spectrum of nitrile substrates to the corresponding amides. Such versatility and robustness are desirable attributes of a biocatalyst intended for use in commercial applications. PMID:15668757

Petrillo, Kelly L; Wu, Shijun; Hann, Eugenia C; Cooling, Frederick B; Ben-Bassat, Arie; Gavagan, John E; DiCosimo, Robert; Payne, Mark S



Regio- and stereoselective terpene epoxidation using tungstate-exchanged takovites: a study of phase purity, takovite composition and stable catalytic activity.  


Nanocrystalline tungstate-exchanged layered double hydroxides of the takovite type, [Ni(x)Al(1-x)(OH)(2)](NO(3))(0.9-x)(WO(4))(0.05).mH(2)O, have been prepared with changing values of x. The morphology-texture parameters of the synthesized materials were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption techniques. X-Ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, (27)Al MAS NMR and infrared spectroscopy were applied to study the structure and the phase purity of the tungstate exchanged materials. Identification of the tungsten state was attempted by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The catalytic properties of the pure tungstate exchanged takovites were tested in the bromide-assisted epoxidation of terpenic olefins using H(2)O(2) as environmental benign oxidant. The bromide-assisted oxidation shows very interesting chemo-selectivity for various substrates with unique regio- and stereo-selectivity often opposite to that of many traditional methods. The activity of the tungstate catalyst was observed to highly depend on the Al content in the takovite support, most likely due to efficient charge shielding at the catalyst's surface. Tungstate exchanged on Al-rich takovite has a remarkable oxidation activity in terms of turnover frequency. Moreover, the takovite catalyst was found to be stable under reaction conditions and recyclable. PMID:19421511

Levecque, Pieter; Poelman, Hilde; Jacobs, Pierre; De Vos, Dirk; Sels, Bert



Regio- and stereo-selective metabolism of phenanthrene by twelve cDNA-expressed human, rodent, and rabbit cytochromes P-450.  


The regio- and stereoselective metabolism of phenanthrene (PA) by seven cDNA-expressed human and five rodent and rabbit cytochromes P-450 has been examined using reverse-phase and chiral stationary phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Turnover numbers ranged from 0.2 to 55 nmol/min per nmol. Using vaccinia virus expression of P-450 enzymes in Hep G2 cells, m1A1 and m1A2 were found to be the most active P-450s. Of the human P-450s, 1A2 and 2B6 have the highest activity and 2C9 has moderate activity. Using cytochrome P-450s expressed in a lymphoblastoid cell line in presence of epoxide hydrolase (EH), human 1A1 had approximately twice the activity of human 1A2. Regioselectivities for PA metabolism were found to be both isozyme and species-dependent. Stereochemical analysis revealed that the P-450s 1A1, m1A1, m1A2, r2A1, r2B1, PB- and 3MC-treated rat liver microsomes preferentially formed 3R,4R-diol enantiomer (88-97%), whereas rabbit 4B formed the 3S,4S-diol enantiomer (72%). Eleven P-450s, 3MC and PB microsomes preferentially formed 1R,2R-diol enantiomer (80-96%). This is the same stereochemistry as the precursors to some diol epoxides that are potent carcinogens. PMID:8062229

Shou, M; Korzekwa, K R; Krausz, K W; Crespi, C L; Gonzalez, F J; Gelboin, H V



Controlled oxidation of remote sp3 C-H bonds in artemisinin via P450 catalysts with fine-tuned regio- and stereoselectivity.  


The selective oxyfunctionalization of isolated sp(3) C-H bonds in complex molecules represents a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we describe a rational, systematic strategy to expedite the development of P450 oxidation catalysts with refined regio- and stereoselectivity for the hydroxylation of remote, unactivated C-H sites in a complex scaffold. Using artemisinin as model substrate, we demonstrate how a three-tier strategy involving first-sphere active site mutagenesis, high-throughput P450 fingerprinting, and fingerprint-driven P450 reactivity predictions enabled the rapid evolution of three efficient biocatalysts for the selective hydroxylation of a primary and a secondary C-H site (with both S and R stereoselectivity) in a relevant yet previously inaccessible region of this complex natural product. The evolved P450 variants could be applied to provide direct access to the desired hydroxylated derivatives at preparative scales (0.4 g) and in high isolated yields (>90%), thereby enabling further elaboration of this molecule. As an example, enantiopure C7-fluorinated derivatives of the clinical antimalarial drugs artesunate and artemether, in which a major metabolically sensitive site is protected by means of a C-H to C-F substitution, were afforded via P450-mediated chemoenzymatic synthesis. PMID:23121379

Zhang, Kaidong; Shafer, Brian M; Demars, Matthew D; Stern, Harry A; Fasan, Rudi



Graben-fissure systems in Guinevere Planitia and Beta Regio (264°-312°E, 24°-60°N), Venus, and implications for regional stratigraphy and mantle plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed mapping in a 14,000,000 km2 area of northwestern Guinevere Planitia and northern Beta Regio bounded by 264°-312°E, 24°-60°N has revealed thousands of long extensional lineaments (graben, fissures and related fractures). These can be grouped into radiating, circumferential and linear systems. Thirty four radiating systems have been identified, of which 16 have radii greater than 300 km and eight have radii greater than 1000 km. Twenty six linear (straight) systems with a length greater than 300 km have been distinguished of which six have a length greater than 1000 km. Linear systems are generally associated with rifts, although some may represent distal portions of radiating systems. In addition, 19 circumferential systems, some associated with coronae, have been identified. The distribution of each system is compared with the host geology in order to place the graben-fissure systems in a regional stratigraphic framework. The majority of systems are: (1) younger than tesserae, ridge belts and densely fractured plains, (2) coeval with, and in many cases, define fracture belts, (3) partially flooded by wrinkle-ridged plains units, and (4) older than smooth and lobate plains units and young rifts. The inventory of radiating graben-fissure systems that we catalogue represents a database of tectono-magmatic centers that complements the centers defined using other criteria, e.g., large volcanoes, coronae, and shield fields. We have attempted to identify those systems that are underlain by dike swarms in order to evaluate their relationship to mantle plumes. At least 11 of the radiating systems extend well beyond any central topographic uplift and are therefore interpreted to be underlain by dike swarms.

Ernst, R. E.; Desnoyers, D. W.; Head, J. W.; Grosfils, E. B.



Regio- and stereoselectivity in the reactions of organometallic reagents with an electron-deficient and an electron-rich vinyloxirane: applications for sequential bis-allylic substitution reactions in the generation of vicinal stereogenic centers.  


Vinyloxiranes provide opportunities for bis-allylic substitution reactions and the generation of new vicinal stereogenic centers if regio- and stereocontrol can be achieved. Ethyl (E)-4,5-epoxy-2-hexenoate affords excellent S(N)2':S(N)2 regioselectivity and anti:syn product diastereoselectivity with dialkyzinc reagents in the presence of CuCN, and conversion of the resultant allylic alcohol to the acetate affords good syn:anti product diastereoselectivity in S(N)2'-selective allylic substitutions with alkylcyanocuprates in THF. (E)-1-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2,3-epoxy-4-hexenonate gives excellent S(N)2':S(N)2 regioselectivity and anti:syn product diastereoselectivity with dialkyzinc reagents in THF or DMF or Grignard reagents in Et(2)O/THF (10/1) in the presence of CuCN. Conversion of the product allylic alcohol into the allylic phosphate affords excellent S(N)2' regioselectivity and syn:anti product diastereoselectivity with lithium alkylcyanocuprates for primary and secondary alkyl transferable ligands, while S(N)2 regioselectivity is observed for the tert-butyl ligand. Reaction conditions have been developed for regio- and stereocontrolled bis-allylic substitution reactions on both electron-rich and electron-deficient alkenyloxiranes, providing a methodology for the generation of vicinal alkane stereogenic centers. PMID:22524502

Dieter, R Karl; Huang, Yaxin; Guo, Fenghai



Synthesis of highly substituted allylic alcohols by a regio- and stereo-defined CuCl-mediated carbometallation reaction of 3-aryl-substituted secondary propargylic alcohols with Grignard reagents.  


A highly regio- and stereoselective CuCl-mediated carbometallation reaction of 3-aryl-substituted secondary propargylic alcohols with alkyl, aryl, vinyl or allyl Grignard reagents for the synthesis of fully-substituted allylic alcohols was developed. The R(2) group from the Grignard reagent was successfully introduced to the 2-position of the propargylic alcohols due to the chelation of metal atom with the hydroxyl oxygen atom forming 5-membered metallacyclic intermediates, which smoothly react with various electrophiles to afford stereodefined polysubstituted allylic alcohols. By this method, optically active allylic alcohols can be prepared from readily available optically active propargylic alcohols without obvious racemization. Five-membered lactones can also be synthesized by Pd-catalyzed carbonylation with iodoallylic alcohols. PMID:19641783

Zhang, Xiaobing; Lu, Zhan; Fu, Chunling; Ma, Shengming



An efficient Amano PS-catalyzed chemo-, regio- and enantioselective hydrolysis of (±)-2,3-di- O-acetyl-2- C-methyl- d-erythrono-1,4-lactone: a facile preparation of bioactive natural products (?)-saccharinic acid lactone and potassium (2 R,3 R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharinic acid lactone (?)-1a is a suitable building block for the synthesis of many bioactive natural products. Amano PS-induced chemo-, regio- and enantioselective hydrolysis of diacetyl lactone (±)-3 has been carried out to obtain (?)-1a in 46% yield with 99% ee and diacetyl lactone (+)-3 in 49% yield with 99% ee. The Amano PS-catalyzed enantioselective acylation of (±)-1a with vinyl

Sanjib Gogoi; Narshinha P. Argade



Oxygen deprivation inhibits basal keratinocyte proliferation in a model of human skin and induces regio-specific changes in the distribution of epidermal adherens junction proteins, aquaporin-3, and glycogen.  


It is generally accepted that hypoxia and recovery from oxygen deprivation contribute to the breakdown and ulceration of human skin. The effects of these stresses on proliferation, differentiation and expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules were investigated for the first time in an organotypic model of human skin. Fully stratified tissues were exposed to a time course of oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation. Regional changes in keratinocyte morphology, glycogen stores and cellular junctions were observed, with more differentiated layers of the epidermis exhibiting the first evidence of oxygen deprivation. Cellular swelling within the granular layer was concurrent with aquaporin-3 depletion. The keratinocyte adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin were dramatically decreased in a regio-specific manner throughout the epidermis following oxygen deprivation. In contrast, P-cadherin and the desmosomal proteins desmoplakin and desmoglein-1 were refractory to oxygen deprivation. Relative to normoxic controls, hypoxic tissues exhibited increased mRNA levels of the transcriptional repressor Slug; however, mRNA levels of the related transcriptional factor Snail were unaffected. All cellular and molecular changes were reversible upon reoxygenation. These results show that oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation exert differential effects on epidermal adhesion proteins and suggest a novel role for cadherins, beta-catenin, and Slug in hypoxia-induced junctional changes occurring in stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:19614926

Straseski, Joely A; Gibson, Angela L; Thomas-Virnig, Christina L; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn


Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.  

PubMed Central

13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined.

Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saito, H



Venus: Preliminary geologic mapping of southern Beta Regio-northern Phoebe Regio  

Microsoft Academic Search

New preliminary geologic maps of C1 sheets 15N283 and 00N283 were compiled according to Magellan data. The oldest terrains are tesserae that have fragmentlike shapes. Its margins are partly buried by younger plain materials. Volcanic plains are the dominant types of terrains. There are many different volcanic features on plains: radar-bright and -dark flows and spots, shield volcanos, volcanic domes

A. M. Nikishin; G. A. Burba



Micelles catalyzed chemo- and regio-selective one pot and one step synthesis of 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(alkyl and arylsulfanyl)-1,4-benzoquinones and 2,5-diaminosubstituted-1,4-benzoquinones "In-Water" and their biological evaluation as antibacterial and antifungal agents.  


Chemo- and regio-selective one pot and one step synthesis of novel 2,3,5,6-tetrakis (substituted thio)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diones (4d-14), 2,5-dichloro-3,6-diaminocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diones and 2,5-diaminocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diones (16) by economical green methodology approach using LD (Laundry detergent) as a catalyst "In-Water" by nucleophilic addition and substitution reactions of 1,4-benzoquinone and chloranil with sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles in high yields has been demonstrated. The antifungal profile of 4 and 16 indicates that compounds 4d and 16f had better antifungal activity compared to clinically prevalent antifungal drugs Fluconazole, 5-Fluorocytosine and Clotrimazole against Sporothrix schenckii and Trichophyton mentagraphytes. 16f had also been found to possess better antibacterial activity compared to Ampicillin in vitro against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Compound 16f did not exhibit any toxicity towards mammalian cells L929. PMID:22939606

Tandon, Vishnu K; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Nripendra N; Shukla, Praveen K



EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available



Is EM dead?  


Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future. PMID:24124192

Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel



Environmental Media Services (EMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a nonprofit communications clearinghouse committed to the expansion of media coverage on critical environmental and public health issues. True to their mission, EMS staff "build relationships with top scientists, physicians, and other experts to bring journalists the latest and most credible information." EMS's modest homepage is free of clutter but full of content. While several sections are under construction and updates (currently) appear irregular, a series of available articles provides useful summaries of important environmental news issues over the past six months. Current articles include "The impacts of global warming on the oceans" and "Cool companies," among others.


Aragonite in Roman wall paintings of the VIII(a) Regio, Aemilia, and X(a) Regio, Venetia et Histria.  


In the Roman wall paintings different white colours were used, named Paraetonium, Melinum, Anularia, Eretria, Argentaria, etc. FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction were applied to study different white pigments, such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite and huntite, white carbonates present in archaeological findings from Roman walls in the Mediterranean region. This study showed that it is possible to distinguish and identify these components in white colours. About 450 samples of Roman wall paintings were analysed and it was observed that often aragonite is associated to precious coloured pigments. On the basis of the obtained results some considerations about the period in which the different kinds of white pigments were used are proposed. PMID:16948428

Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Orsega, Emilio Francesco; Baraldi, Pietro; Zannini, Paolo


Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte


by EM tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the in vitro reconstitution of sperm nuclei and small DNA templates to mitotic chroma- tin in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy (EM) tomography. Using specif- ically developed software, the reconstituted chromatin was interpreted in terms of nucleosomal patterns and the overall chromatin connectivity. The condensed chromatin formed

Peter König; Michael B. Braunfeld; John W. Sedat; David A. Agard


Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system or an energy management system (EMS) has an installed life of only 10 to 15 years. Because it can take five years or more to implement a new EMS or SCADA system, managing such projects is becoming a way of life for utilities. Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems is

Charles T. Lindeberg; Wayne R. Block



Triple Jump Acceleration for the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the triple jump framework for ac- celerating the EM algorithm and other bound optimization methods. The idea is to extrapolate the third search point based on the previous two search points found by regu- lar EM. As the convergence rate of regular EM becomes slower, the distance of the triple jump will be longer, and thus provide

Han-shen Huang; Bou-ho Yang; Chun-nan Hsu



Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at




Lietuvos teritorijos žem?s plutos deformacij? ir seismotektoninio potencialo ryšys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lietuvoje yra statini?, kelian?i? ekologinio pavojaus gr?sm? (Ignalinos atomin? elektrin?, Mažeiki? naftos perdirbimo ?mon?, chemijos gamyklos Jonavoje bei K?dainiuose ir pan.). Seisminiai ?vykiai gali sutrikdyti ši? ?moni? veikl? ir net lemti didel? pavoj? aplinkai, t. y. gali b?ti sukelta didel? aplinkos tarša chemin?mis bei radioaktyviosiomis medžiagomis. Seisminius ?vykius lemia teritorijos seismotektoninis potencialas. Seismotektoninis potencialas ir Žem?s plutos deformacijos yra tarpusavyje susij? rei\\vskiniai, kuriuos sukelia dažnai tie patys giluminiai procesai Žem?s gelm?se. Žem?s plutos deformacij? tyrimas yra vienas iš informacijos šaltini? prognozuojant teritorijos seismotektonin? aktyvum?. Straipsnyje nagrin?jamos Žem?s plutos horizontaliosios deformacijos, nustatomi Žem?s plutos ?tempi? poky?iai Lietuvos teritorijoje pagal GPS matavim? duomenis. Atlikus tyrimus pagal pateikiam? Žem?s plutos horizontali?j? deformacij? ir ?tempi? tyrimo metodik?, gauti nauji horizontali?j? deformacij? charakteristik? bei ?tempi? poky?i? rezultatai ir nustatytos j? s?sajos su seismotektoniniu potencialu.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Stanionis, Arminas; Levinskait?, Daiva



DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL



Speech Modelling Using Subspace and EM Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speech waveform can be modelled as a piecewise-stationary linear stochastic state space system, and its parameters can be est imated using an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. One problem is the ini- tialisation of the EM algorithm. Standard initialisation s chemes can lead to poor formant trajectories. But these trajectories howev er are impor- tant for vowel intelligibility. The aim of

Gavin Smith; João F. G. De Freitas; Tony Robinson; Mahesan Niranjan



himu-em: The French Polynesian connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

himu, em i and em ii are three of the main geochemical mantle components that give rise to oceanic island basalts [1]. They represent the end members that produce the extreme isotopic compositions measured on intraplate volcanics. In French Polynesia, all three mantle components are represented in volcanic rocks. The characteristic himu signature is found in Tubuai, Mangaia and Rurutu,

Catherine Chauvel; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Philippe Vidal



EM international activities. February 1997 highlights  

SciTech Connect

EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.




National EMS Scope of Practice Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National EMS Scope of Practice Model is a continuation of the commitment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Health Resources and Services Administration to the implementation of the EMS Agenda for the Future. It is part of a...



Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

Allen, D. M.



Regio- and chemoselective palladium-catalyzed benzylallylation of activated olefins: the remarkable effect of palladium nanoparticles.  


The palladium-catalyzed three-component reactions of benzyl halides, activated olefins, and allyltributylstannane were successfully conducted to produce the corresponding benzylallylation products in satisfactory to high yields. The benzylallylation reaction proceeded smoothly under mild conditions in the presence of palladium nanoparticles in tetrahydrofuran. PMID:23657474

Zhang, Xuan; Feng, Xiujuan; Yu, Xiaoqiang; He, Ren; Bao, Ming



Synthesis of optically active arylaziridines by regio- and stereospecific lithiation of N-bus-phenylaziridine.  


Alpha,alpha-disubstituted aziridines can be produced in good yields by selective lithiation of N-tert-butylsulfonyl-2-phenylaziridine (n-BuLi/TMEDA, Et(2)O) at the benzylic position and subsequent trapping with a range of electrophiles. Repetition of the lithiation/electrophilic trapping sequence provides a stereocontrolled route to trisubstituted aziridines. Using (R)-N-tert-butylsulfonyl-2-phenylaziridine, the alpha,alpha-disubstituted aziridines can be produced as single enantiomers (er >98:2), indicating that the intermediate organolithium is configurationally stable. Efficient aziridine ring-opening reactions leading to 1,2-diamines and 1,4-diamines are also reported. PMID:19086905

Musio, Biagia; Clarkson, Guy J; Shipman, Michael; Florio, Saverio; Luisi, Renzo



Technology policy and the regions — the case of the BioRegio contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only recently, it has been argued that technology policy should give more attention to the regions as they could play a key role in the process of technological change. The German Federal Government has tried to do so by initiating a contest in which Germany's leading Biotech regions competed for a given amount of public funding. This paper reports on

Dirk Dohse



Using NMR to Probe the Regio- and Stereochemistry of the Hydration of 1-Hexene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment complements previously described and popular experiments on hydration of 1-hexene where students experimentally establish the Markovnikov regioselectivity of alkene hydration. In this experiment, students explore not only the regiochemistry but also the stereochemistry of 1-hexene hydration and…

Saba, Shahrokh; Clarke, Donald D.; Iwanoski, Christa; Lobasso, Thomas



Regio- and Stereospecific 1,4-Polymerization of 2-(Triethylsilyl)-1,3-butadiene,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is considerable interest in stereoregular polymerization of 1,3-diene monomers. Anionic polymerization of isoprene initiated by alkyllithium reagents in hydrocarbon solvents such as cyclohexane yields polyisoprene of narrow molecular weight distribu...

X. X. Ding W. P. Weber



Modeling of biliverdin reduction process: regio-specificity and H-bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Octa ethyl biliverdin (OEBV) has been employed as a model for natural biliverdin and its geometry has been optimized by using semiempirical (AM1, PM3), DFT, and hybrid ONIOM methods. Geometries and energetics of formation of octa ethyl bilirubin (OEBR) formed by reduction from OEBV via three carbon sites ?, ?, and ? have been obtained. It has been shown that ?-OEBR has two configurational isomers (named ?1 and ?2), which can convert to each other by internal 1,5-hydrogen shift. The results show that, within the accuracy level of semiempirical methods, all three isomers namely, ?, ?1, and ?-OEBR are of similar stability whereas, at higher level of theory, ?1-OEBR is less stable than others. Moreover, ?2-isomer with one more of its pyrrole rings being aromatic can achieve a higher symmetry, and is the most stable among others by at least 5 6 kcal mol-1 based on various methods employed. It is interesting to note that the ridge-tile conformation, which has been confirmed for natural bilirubin was not observed for calculated geometries of ?1- and ?2-isomers. A conformational analysis show that an energy barrier of ˜25 kcal mol-1 must be surmounted for ?2 to obtain the ridge-tile geometry. OEBV was synthesized and purified from octa ethyl porphyrin iron (III) chloride, and was reduced to OEBR by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Chemical reduction of OEBV with NaBH4 was followed in CDCl3 and CD3OD solutions and the product was characterized by 1H NMR and UV Vis spectroscopy. The results show that ?2-isomer as the major product, forms along with ?1 via an equilibrium tautomerization reaction.

Zahedi, Mansour; Ghiasi, Mina; Safari, Nasser



Mechanism of the regio- and diastereoselective ring expansion reaction using trimethylsilyldiazomethane.  


An equatorial attack of TMS-diazomethane was determined to be the first step of the BF(3)-promoted ring expansion reaction of six-membered ketones using TMS-diazomethane. The migration reaction occurred in a conformation in which the carbonyl oxygen and the TMS group were antiperiplanar to predominantly afford trans-seven-membered ketones. PMID:22900546

Sakai, Takeo; Ito, Satoshi; Furuta, Hiroki; Kawahara, Yuki; Mori, Yuji



Determining the regio- and typo-selectivity of calf pregastric lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of natural lipids, milk fat, cocoa butter and soybean oil, and three synthetic triglycerides 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (POP), 1(3),2-palmitoyl-3(1)-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (PPO), and 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-butyryl-rac-glycerol (PBP) were used as substrates for calf pregastric lipase (CPGL) catalysed hydrolysis at pH 6.5, 37.5°C. CPGL preferentially releases short-chain fatty acids at the sn-3 position and unsaturated fatty acids during the hydrolysis of lipids containing long-chain fatty

Charmian J O’Connor; Kyong-A Bang; Carol M Taylor; Margaret A Brimble



Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Fluoroalkenes by Directed Au(I) Catalysis  

PubMed Central

Au-catalyzed hydrofluorination reactions of a range of functionalized alkynes are reported. In the presence of an appropriate directing group, localized with particular spacing from the pendant alkyne, regioselective and predictable conversion of the alkyne to the Z-vinyl fluoride may be achieved. In selected cases, yields and selectivities are excellent. Additional experiments with two directing groups installed have established some initial principles with respect to a hierarchy of directing groups and their capacity for influencing hydrofluorination regioselectivity.

Gorske, Benjamin C.; Mbofana, Curren T.; Miller, Scott J.



Combining regio- and enantioselectivity of lipases for the preparation of (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol.  


Preparation of 98% ee (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorohydrin esters, using fungal resting cells and commercial enzymes. Hydrolyzes were carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), C. rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), Burkolia cepacia, and resting cells of Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. The influence of the enzyme, the solvent, the temperature, and the alkyl chain length on the selectivity of hydrolyzes of isomeric mixtures of chlorohydrin esters is described. Regioselectivity was higher than 95% for some of the tested lipases. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of the (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol after 15 min of reaction at 30-40 degrees C. PMID:17089342

Méndez, Jonh J; Oromi, Mireia; Cervero, Maria; Balcells, Mercè; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon




EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Cassini observations of flow-like features in western Tui Regio, Titan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large (>3 ?? 104 km2), lobate, 5-??m-bright region seen by Cassini on Titan's leading equatorial region is best explained as a flow field. We discuss observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and Imaging Science Subsystem of the feature and present a map of the field. We establish relative ages of flow features and discuss possible formation mechanisms and the implications of this finding for the evolution of Titan's surface. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Radebaugh, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Sotin, C.; Le, Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J.; Clark, R.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.



Sequence- and Regio-Selectivity in the Montmorillonite-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The six binary montmorillonite clay-catalyzed reactions of the 5'-phosphorimidazolides of adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and uridine were performed and the eight dimers from each reaction were separated and analyzed by HPLC. A 16-51-fold higher yield of the 5'-purine-pyrimidine dimers over that of the 5'-pyrimidine-purines was observed. The total yield of the 5'-purine-pyrimidine dimers was in the 50-70% range while that of the 5'-pyrimidine-purine dimers was 1.3-7.0%. Less sequence selectivity was observed in the homodimers formed. Regioselectivity for the formation of 3', 5'-phosphodiester bonds over that found in the absence of clay was observed. The 5'-purine-pyrimidine, 5'-pyrimidine-pyrimidine and 5'-purine-purine dimers had 3', 5'-links in about half of their phosphodiester bonds. The percent phosphodiester links in the 5'-pyrimidine-pyrimidine dimers was 18%, a value close to that observed in the absence of the montmorillonite catalyst. The montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of all four activated nucleotides was performed and the 24 products were separated and analyzed. The trends observed in the binary reactions were confirmed and the results also showed that the relative reactivity of the activated monomers was A>G>C>U in the ratio 8.2: 4.8: 1.3: 1 respectively. No 5'-pyrimidine-purines with a 5'-U and pG^3'pU, pC^3'pA and pC^3'pG were detected. These studies suggest that a limited population of RNAs would have formed in catalyzed prebiotic reactions.

Ertem, Gözen; Ferris, James P.



Regio- and stereoselectivity in the decatungstate photocatalyzed alkylation of alkenes by alkylcyclohexanes.  


Tetrabutylammonium decatungstate (WO) photocatalyzes radical alkylation reactions starting directly from alkanes. When using tert-butylcyclohexane and methylcyclohexane as the radical precursors, the addition to electrophilic alkenes (beta,beta-dialkylmethylenemalononitriles, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, methyl vinyl ketone) is regioselective and exclusively gives 3- and 4-substituted cyclohexyl adducts, with no significant functionalization of the other positions. Furthermore, when a beta,beta-disubstituted alkene is used, the reaction is stereoselective (cis stereochemistry for the 1,3-cyclohexane derivatives and trans for the 1,4 isomers). Some of the reactions have also been carried out by using benzophenone as the photocatalyst, giving the same product distribution. However, the decatungstate anion is a superior catalyst from a preparative point of view, because it is efficient at low concentrations (0.002 m, 2 mol %) and allows for a simple work up. From a mechanistic point of view, the role of both the alkyl radicals and the radical adducts has been assessed by trapping experiments in the presence of suitable additives (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, PBN, and 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane, MNP) and by EPR spectroscopic detection of the resulting nitroxides in solution. Furthermore, trapping by the nitroxide TEMPO (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) gives O-(tert-butylcyclohexyl)hydroxylamines, again as only the 3- and the 4-substituted isomers. We conclude that the observed regioselective activation originates from the initial hydrogen abstraction step (the statistically corrected ratio for positions 3 and 4 ranges from 1.1 to 1.35 for all of the trapping products). The selectivity is mainly due to steric hinderence. PMID:19609992

Dondi, Daniele; Ravelli, Davide; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Mella, Mariella; Molinari, Alessandra; Maldotti, Andrea; Albini, Angelo



Regio- and stereoselective isomerization of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs): Kinetics and mechanism of ?-HBCD racemization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are high production volume chemicals currently produced in quantities exceeding 20000ty?1. They are used as flame retardants for plastics and textiles. HBCDs are thermally labile compounds, rapidly decomposing at temperatures above 250°C to form bromine radicals, which scavenge other radicals formed during pyrolysis.But certain HBCD stereoisomers must reach the environment without decomposition, because their levels in soils, sediments,

Norbert V. Heeb; W. Bernd Schweizer; Peter Mattrel; Regula Haag; Martin Kohler; Peter Schmid; Markus Zennegg; Max Wolfensberger



Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang


The error cause analysis in EM simulation of ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure validity and applicability of computation results, the EM characteristic of a ship must have a full embodiment in the simulation. In this paper, concerning EM environment, configuration feature and RF function requirements of a ship, illustrates EM characteristic and error cause from two aspects, i.e.EM simulation model, computation and analysis method. Aiming at a typical example, analyzes the

Wu Nan; Huang Song-gao; Wen Ding-e; Wang Chun



Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira


Marine EM Climatic Parameters. Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently there has been increased interest within the U.S. Navy in the use of climatology-based products to support the planning and execution of military operations. Climatological databases of atmospheric features that impact electromagnetic (EM) propag...

A. E. Barrios P. A. Frederickson



EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.  


The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

Mallard, A S



Accelerated list-mode EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

List-mode data preserves all sampling information in three-dimensional (3-D) PET imaging and can reduce storage requirements for short-time frame acquisitions. List-mode expectation maximization-maximum likelihood (EM-ML), which has been implemented in a number of forms (such as the EM algorithm for list-mode maximum likelihood, the FAIR algorithm and COSEM), is an obvious choice to reconstruct from such data sets when the

A. J. Reader; R. Manavaki; S. Zhao; P. J. Julyan; D. L. Hastings; J. Zweit



3D EM Characterization of Wafer Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes a method to characterize wafer probes using a 3D EM simulator. Rather than following the traditional method of building a custom test fixture for different probe setups and measuring the S-parameters, this 3D EM characterization method yields multi-port S-parameters of a specific probe structure by utilizing simulations. For a standard characterization, the S-parameters can be a

Hanyi Ding; Randy Wolf; John Ferrario



Condições físicas em galáxias HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galáxias HII são galáxias anãs de baixa luminosidade que apresentam alta taxa de formação estelar. Seus espectros são dominados por intensas linhas de emissão devido à fotoionização pela presença de um grande número de estrelas do tipo O e B. Nós apresentamos um catálogo espectrofotométrico de 111 galáxias HII observadas no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo Boller & Chivens. Determinamos propriedades estatísticas da amostra e derivamos condições físicas (temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica) e abundâncias químicas. Para algumas galáxias, fomos também capazes de resolver espacialmente regiões de formação estelar individuais e determinar propriedades espectroscópicas para estas regiões separadamente, o que nos permitiu avaliar as flutuações das condições físico-químicas dentro das galáxias HII. Em particular, vimos que apesar das galáxias HII apresentarem formação estelar espalhada ao longo do corpo da galáxia, são objetos quimicamente homogêneos. A fim de estudar a evolução temporal dos objetos durante o tempo de vida das estrelas ionizantes construimos também alguns diagramas relacionando razões de linhas de emissão com a largura equivalente de Hb (EW(Hb)). Para interpretar tais diagramas utilizamos modelos de fotoionização para populações estelares integradas. Concluímos que as galáxias HII não correspondem a simples idéia de um burst instantâneo envolvido por um gás opaco aos fótons ionizantes e com densidade constante. As relações observadas entre razões de linhas e EW(Hb) podem ser melhor compreendidas se as galáxias HII apresentarem populações estelares mais velhas, que contribuem para o contínuo óptico observado.

Kehrig, C.; Telles, E.; Cuisinier, F.



SOFIS FTS EM test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 ?m. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki



Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.



Report of Feasibility Study. MAPA/HPCM EMS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first annual revision of the Comprehensive Plan for Areawide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of the Health Planning Council of the Midlands, and a feasibility study regarding the establishment of an areawide EMS System are presented. The feasibility ...



Rural and Frontier EMS Town Hall Meeting Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) struggle to meet the needs and demands of citizens in communities across the nation. For rural or frontier communities it is becoming even more challenging to meet the communitys needs for prehospital emergency care. EMS S...



Sinopse dos marcos em matéria de segurança alimentar na ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1995 Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (Ponto de controle crítico para análise de risco em frutos do mar, HACCP na sigla em inglês ... More results from


A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.



Do earthquakes generate EM signals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been significant interest in the seismoelectric effect which is the conversion of acoustic energy into electromagnetic energy. At the onset of the earthquake and at layer interfaces, it is postulated that the seismoelectric signal propagates at the speed of light and thus travels much faster than the acoustic wave. The focus has mainly been to use this method as a tool of predicting earthquakes. Our main objective is to study the possibility of using the seismoelectric effect to determine the origin time of an earthquake, establish an accurate velocity model and accurately locate microearthquakes. Another aspect of this research is to evaluate the possibility of detecting porous zones where seismic activity is postulated to generate fluid movement through porous medium. The displacement of pore fluid relative to the porous medium solid grains generates electromagnetic signals. The Institute of Earth Science and Engineering (IESE) has installed electromagnetic coils in 3 different areas to investigate the seismoelectric effect. Two of the research areas (Krafla in Iceland and Wairakei in New Zealand) are in active geothermal fields where high microearthquake activity has been recorded. The other area of research is at the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) at Parkfield area on the active San Andreas Fault which is associated with repeating earthquakes. In the Wairakei and Parkfield cases a single borehole electromagnetic coil close to borehole seismometers has been used whereas in the Krafla study area, 3 borehole electromagnetic coils coupled to borehole seismometers have been used. The technical difficulties of working in the borehole environment mean that some of these deployments had a short life span. Nevertheless in all cases data was gathered and is being analysed. At the SAFOD site, the electromagnetic coil recorded seismoelectric signals very close to a magnitude 2 earthquake. In the Wairakei and Krafla study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan



Analysis of the EM Field Distribution in Smart Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the EM field distribution in U-home which is a smart home of Kun Shan University. It is apparent that wireless devices in U-home become EM field emitters. This paper states the measurement and the analysis of the EM field distribution generated by those devices. The measurements focus on some popular frequency bands,

Churng-Jou Tsai; Bo-Yuan Tsai; Jinn-Kwei Guo; Chun-Lin Lu; Chang-Fan Liu; Yu-Sheng Lin; Yeong-Her Wang



On Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build up the mathematical connection between the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix P, and we provide an explicit expression for the matrix. We then analyze the convergence of EM in terms of

Lei Xu; Michael I. Jordan



Induced EM Field and Absorbed Power Density Inside Human Torsos by 1 to 500 MHZ EM Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are numerical results on the internal EM field and absorbed power density inside a human torso induced by EM waves of frequencies ranging from 1 to 500 MHz and of both vertical and horizontal polarizations.

B. S. Guru K. M. Chen



Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for Air Force contract F(41608-96-CA)116: Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields. Circuit cards (or circuit boards) of one type or another are used in nearly every electrical appliance used by the military or by commerce. This na...

D. Zwillinger



EM algorithms for ML factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of EM algorithms for maximum likelihood factor analysis are presented for both the exploratory and confirmatory models. The algorithm is essentially the same for both cases and involves only simple least squares regression operations; the largest matrix inversion required is for aq ×q symmetric matrix whereq is the matrix of factors. The example that is used demonstrates that

Donald B. Rubin; Dorothy T. Thayer



Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa



EMS response to an airliner crash.  


This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of the sediment near the point of discharge. The vertical distribution was found to be in accordance with the local deposition rates. In the water phase no significant change in mercury content from 1975 to 1978/79 could be demonstrated. In 1978/79 a difference between Ems estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea was not significant. In 1978 mercury contents of eelpout Zoarces viviparus in the Ems estuary were about twice as high as in the Wadden Sea. In the Ems estuary a decrease of these contents was found between 1974/75 and 1978. A similar decline in the Wadden Sea may be related to a decreased mercury discharge by the River Rhine.

Essink, K.



EM Topology: From Theory to Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main principles of the Electromagnetic Topology theory and the way of adapting them in order to make possible efficient analysis of EM-Coupling problems. Particularly, a difference is made between a low frequency analysis for which an adaptation of the method is required and a high frequency analysis for which direct application of the method seems achievable.

J.-P. Parmantier; I. Junqua



Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.



The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel



Spacetime-based model of EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacetime based model of an electric field and a photon is presented. The model assumes that 4 dimensional spacetime has vacuum fluctuations at all frequencies up to Planck frequency. Gravitational wave theory is used to give insights into electromagnetic (EM) radiation. From gravitational wave equations it is possible to derive the impedance of spacetime and quantify energy propagating in the medium of spacetime. EM radiation is shown to experience the same impedance as gravitational waves. This implies that photons also are waves in the medium of spacetime. The distortion of spacetime produced by a photon is calculated. Experiments are suggested including an experiment that may improve the sensitivity of experiments attempting to detect gravitational waves.

Macken, John A.



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide\\u000a factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements\\u000a were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of\\u000a the

K. Essink



Topic-based language models using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel statistical language model to capture topic-related long-range dependencies. Topics are mod- eled in a latent variable framework in which we also derive an EM algorithm to perform a topic factor decomposition based on a segmented training corpus. The topic model is combined with a standard language model to be used for on-line word

Daniel Gildea; Thomas Hofmann



Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.



Generation and Identification of Arabidopsis EMS Mutants.  


EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning. PMID:24057369

Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji



Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits  

PubMed Central

Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.



Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube


Complete-data spaces and generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms have been applied extensively for computing maximum-likelihood and penalized-likelihood parameter estimates in signal processing applications. Intrinsic to each EM algorithm is a complete-data space (CDS)-a hypothetical set of random variables that is related to the parameters more naturally than the measurements are. The authors describe two generalizations of the EM paradigm: (i) allowing the relationship between the

J. A. Fessler; A. O. Hero




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK


e/m Experiment Analysis Refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson's e/m experiment is widely popular in undergraduate courses to help gain an understanding of the properties of the electron. Our results using a standard apparatus, however, reveal significant systematic errors. We examine possible reasons for the discrepancy with the aim of modeling effects that were not included in the original analysis. We conclude that the energy loss of the electron beam as it travels through the helium and the distortion of the beam radius measurement by the curved glass of the tube are the two factors which dominate the discrepancy.

Harmon, Michael; Pruitt, Bryce; Velasquez, Kevin; Schelp, Rich



Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman



Convergence in Norm for Alternating Expectation-Maximization (EM) Type Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a sufficient condition for convergence of a general class of alternating estimationmaximization(EM) type continuous-parameter estimation algorithms with respect to a given norm.This class includes EM, penalized EM, Green's OSL-EM, and other approximate EM algorithms.The convergence analysis can be extended to include alternating coordinate-maximization EM algorithmssuch as Meng and Rubin's ECM and Fessler and Hero's SAGE. The condition for

Alfred O. Hero; Jeffrey A. Fessler



Race and Racism in Cuban Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. engages curators Elio Rodrííguez Valdéés and Alejandro de la Fuente in conversation about Queloides, an exhibition that explores the social and cultural scars of racism in contemporary Cuba.

Henry Louis Gates; Elio Rodrííguez Valdéés; Alejandro de la Fuente



[In Process Citation].  


Los queloides son cicatrices de aspecto tumoral que pueden aparecer hasta varios años después de la herida original, y se extienden más allá de los confines de ésta. La  oreja prominente es la deformidad auricular estética más frecuente. La otoplastia para su corrección logra resultados altamente satisfactorios. Sin embargo, no está exenta de complicaciones, entre las que hay que considerar el desarrollo de queloides. Existen muchas técnicas para la extirpación y la posterior cobertura. La técnica del colgajo queloideo consiste en la escisión del queloide preservando una capa delgada de su cubierta cutánea, unida por un pedículo a la piel normal, para reparar el defecto. El colgajo queloideo es una solución sencilla y efectiva para cobertura de defectos importantes tras la extirpación completa de grandes queloides. Se presenta un caso clínico ilustrativo, secundario a otoplastia, del empleo de dicho procedimiento. PMID:24008539

Pérez-Espadero, A; Escudero Nafs, F J



Recent development in open systems for EMS\\/SCADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the current situation and emerging trends of development of EMS\\/SCADA systems throughout the world, this report examines the `open system' concept from the viewpoints of users and suppliers. Current technologies for open distributed EMS\\/SCADAs and their possible future trends are described.

Yutaka Kokai; Fumio Masuda; Satoshi Horiike; Yasuji Sekine



10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...



A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio



Milho para Ensilagem Colhido em Diferentes Estádios de Maturidade1  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Aluno de graduação em Agronomia - UNIFENAS 5 Aluno (a) de graduação em Zootecnia - UNIFENAS Abstract: This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006 on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the maturity stage of the corn for ensiling on the percentage of DM,

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; André Ricardo da Silva; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese


On-chip em-sensitive interconnect structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever greater current densities in modern IC designs, electromigration (EM) in copper interconnects has become an important reliability factor. In this paper, we analyze current densities on bus and clock networks. We observe that under certain conditions, these networks may become sensitive to EM effects and prone to failure. We perform SPICE simulations on open source Wishbone bus

Di-an Li; Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska; Bill Lee



Clustering Very Large Databases Using EM Mixture Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering very large databases is a challenge for traditional pattern recognition algorithms, e.g. the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for fitting mixture models, because of high memory and iteration requirements. Over large databases, the cost of the numerous scans required to converge and large memory requirement of the algorithm becomes prohibitive. We present a decomposition of the EM algorithm requiring a small

Paul S. Bradley; Cory Reina; Usama M. Fayyad



Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.



Optimal multiple source location estimation via the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an algorithm for multiple source localization based on the Estimate-Maximize (EM) method. The EM method is an iterative algorithm that converges to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate of the unknown parameters by exploiting the stochastic syctem under consideration. In our case the algorithm will converge to the exact ML estimates of the various sources location parameters, where each

M. Feder; E. Weinstein



A Two-Round Variant of EM for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of well-separated spherical Gaussians in , a sim- ple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the centers of the Gaussians to near-optimal precision, if the dimension is high ( ). We relate this to previous theoreti- cal and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module B: EMS Systems in the United States - An Introductory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the United States is presented as part of an educational program for EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adpated to a variety...

B. A. Cooper G. Gibson



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)



Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering



A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation.  


A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing. PMID:19765983

Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G



Direct separation of regio- and enantiomeric isomers of diacylglycerols by a tandem column high-performance liquid chromatography.  


A novel HPLC-based method for direct separation of the three isomers of mono-acid diacylglycerols (DAGs), i.e., 1,2-DAG, 2,3-DAG and 1,3-DAG, has been established. The method employs a tandem column system, in which two different columns (a conventional silica gel column and a chiral stationary phase column) are connected in series. Two isomeric mixtures of DAGs (i.e., dicapryloylglycerol and dioleoylglycerol) and lipase-catalyzed reaction mixtures were successfully resolved on the tandem column HPLC system without any derivatization prior to the analysis. According to the established analytical method, stereoselectivity of two lipases toward mono-acid triacylglycerols in ethanolysis reaction was investigated. The tested enzymes were immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML). Analyses of the enantiomeric purity of 1,2-DAG and 2,3-DAG, generated as intermediates during the reaction, revealed that CALB and RML have sn-3 and sn-1 stereopreference, respectively. PMID:15830930

Piyatheerawong, Weera; Iwasaki, Yugo; Yamane, Tsuneo



Antitumor agents. II: Regio- and stereospecific syntheses of 1-beta-alkyl-1-desoxypodophyllotoxin derivatives and biological activity.  


1-beta-Alkyl derivatives of 1-desoxypodophyllotoxin were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects on DNA topoisomerase II (Topo-II) and tubulin polymerization were examined. The reaction of epipodophyllotoxin derivatives (1a-c) with trimethylallylsilane in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate gave 1-beta-allylated compounds (2a-c). The regiochemistry and the beta-stereochemistry of the 1-allyl group were confirmed by comparison of the 13C-NMR spectra and NOE's (%) of 2c, podophyllotoxin (POD) and epipodophyllotoxin (1b). 1-beta-Alkyl-1-desoxypodophyllotoxin derivatives (3-8) were prepared from 2b. None of the tested compounds (3-8) showed any inhibitory effect on Topo-II. 1-beta-Propyl compound (3) and its 4'-demethyl compound (4) inhibited tubulin polymerization and the cytotoxicities of these compounds were equal to that of VP-16. 1-beta-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl) compounds (5 and 8) and 1-beta-(2,3-diacetoxypropyl) compounds (6 and 7) showed no inhibitory effect on tubulin polymerization. Although 5 did not inhibit either Topo-II activity or tubulin polymerization, it showed a high cytotoxicity against sarcoma 180. PMID:8393386

Terada, T; Fujimoto, K; Nomura, M; Yamashita, J; Wierzba, K; Kobunai, T; Takeda, S; Minami, Y; Yoshida, K; Yamaguchi, H



Regio- and stereocontrolled synthesis of novel steroidal isoxazolines: a new route to the formation of selectively modified steroid side chains.  


1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition reaction of acetonitrile oxide to cis- and trans-22-hydroxy-24-alkoxycarbonyl-?(23)-steroids is investigated. An unusual stereochemical course of the cycloaddition, leading to the same set of the isoxazoline adducts for both (Z)- and (E)-disubstituted olefins is revealed. It is shown, the reaction is regioselective and all possible 4',5'-diastereoisomers of resulting isoxazolines can be prepared as major products by cycloaddition to the suitable alkene. The structure of the key compounds is confirmed by X-ray and 2D NMR analysis. PMID:23664846

Zhylitskaya, Halina; Litvinovskaya, Raisa; Baranovsky, Alexander; Eigner, Václav; Kratochvíl, Bohumil; Drašar, Pavel; Khripach, Vladimir



Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene by naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4  

SciTech Connect

Fluorene, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole are structural analogs differing only in the type of atom bridging the two aromatic rings. These compounds are constituents of fossil fuels. The authors have examined the oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene by mutant and recombinant strains which express NDO from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 and reports the yields, region chemistry, absolute stereochemistry, and enantiomeric purity of the isolated initial metabolites. 71 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Resnick, S.M.; Gibson, D.T. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)



LAN based data communication in modern energy management systems (EMS)  

SciTech Connect

The use of energy management systems (EMS) demands high reliability, real-time behavior and more and more economical systems. The last demand requires use of inexpensive standard components, whenever possible. The following article discusses realization of EMS, especially system communication, with respect to these constraints. Problems due to conventional use of standardized communication protocols in distributed supervisory systems in general and highly-reliable systems in particular are shown. Multicast communication concepts are presented as solutions, using standardized protocols in a problem specific way. The presented concepts fulfill the necessity of using standard components as well as the specific demands towards EMS.

Dieterle, W.; Kochs, H.D. [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Dittmar, E. [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)



7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the FSA Administrator to make a determination that a natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical...If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available...



E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH



Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) System for Grumman Maglev Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low ve...

S. S. Kalsi



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Instructor's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructor's manual for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems administration and planning educational program is presented. The program curriculum consists of 23 modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educational settings. Guidelines are ...

M. Howells B. A. Cooper



Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Thi...

J. M. Gabelmann



7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special EM...made for these additional travel funds: (1) Number of sessions. (2) Categories, by number, of personnel attending each session. (3) Estimated...



Decentralized autonomous object-oriented EMS\\/SCADA system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management systems\\/supervisory control and data acquisition (EMS\\/SCADA) systems are usually geographically distributed and have operational organizations. They are changing in accordance with the various and varying environments, and they should be flexible enough to adapt to those changes quickly. The paper proposes a new architecture called SCOPE (System Configuration of Power Control System) to realize flexible and reliable EMS\\/SCADA

Toshibumi. Seki; H. Sato; T. Tanaka; H. Watanabe



Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana


Atlanta school system EMS yields eight-month payback  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $150,000 School Master energy management system (EMS) saved the Atlanta school system $250,000 and paid for itself in eight months by reducing electricity and gas consumption by 30% and 37%, respectively. The EMS includes a central processor and a remote stand-alone processor for each of 14 schools. A DOE matching grant cut the $303,000 cost in half. Monitors with





Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new

R. Watkins; J. England



EMS-Vision: a perceptual system for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a survey on the new Expectation- based Multifocal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system for autonomous vehicle guidance developed at the Universität der Bundeswehr München (UBM). EMS-Vision is the third generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. Its core element is a new camera arrangement, mounted on a high bandwidth pan-tilt head for active gaze control. Central knowledge

Rudolf Gregor; Michael Lützeler; Martin Pellkofer; K.-H. Siedersberger; Ernst Dieter Dickmanns



Maximum likelihood noise cancellation using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the two-microphone speech enhancement problem is discussed. Specifically, a maximum-likelihood (ML) problem is formulated for estimating the parameters needed for canceling the noise, and solved by the iterative EM (estimate-maximize) technique. The EM algorithm has been implemented for both a simplified and a more general scenario. The results improve upon those obtained with the classical least-squares approach




Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.  


The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations. PMID:10263702

Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

SciTech Connect

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann



Electromagnetic divergence correction for 3D anisotropic EM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, the application of divergence correction has been focusing on the electromagnetic (EM) isotropic modeling. However, in regions where the earth demonstrates strong electrical anisotropy due to lamina or faults saturated with water, the traditional divergence corrections may not be working for EM modeling. In this paper, based on the divergence-free property of the current density, we propose a divergence correction technique to speed up the EM modeling process for a 3D arbitrarily anisotropic earth. The volume current density weighting method is adopted for the discretization of divergence correction, so it can be applied to non-uniform grid model. By enforcing the constraints associated with the divergence-free property, the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) iterations and the total computational time for the EM modeling are largely reduced. Furthermore, we discuss how to divide the QMR process into sections and the influence of the number of iterations and the normalized residual on the solution process. We take a helicopter-borne EM system over a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy as an example to examine the effectiveness of our anisotropic divergence correction technique on the EM modelings.

Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.



Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

Copetti, M. V. F.



Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.  


We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation. PMID:20042313

Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C



The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.



Electromagnetic multifrequency sounding device EMS, Prototype 2. Comparison with commercial tools.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS was developped in ninetees in Institute of Geophysics, Russian Academy of sciences, Siberian branch. In 1996-2001 years the numerous works for hydrogeology, civil engineering and archaeology were performed using EMS. The last year the second prototybe has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mapping, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation.

Abu Zeid, N.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.



Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.  


The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm. PMID:1435595

Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J


Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn.

Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank



Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.



EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  

SciTech Connect

King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

King, Bill (SRNL)



EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  


King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.


Rural Volunteer EMS: Reports from the Field. Final Report No. 99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prehospital emergency care services (EMS) are an essential component of a comprehensive health care system. Rural residents and those traveling through rural areas rely on EMS for treatment and transport in the event of an injury or other health emergency...

M. Hamon R. T. Slifkin S. Rutledge V. A. Freeman



The Mediating Role Of EMS Teamwork As It Pertains To HR Factors And Perceived Environmental Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Little management,theory or empirical results exist to guide managers,in maximizing,employee efforts to successfully implement Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In response, this study examines the relationship among,Human,Resource (HR) factors and employee perceptions of environmental,performance. Four hundred,thirty-seven (437) employees,were surveyed,in an organization with a well-developed EMS program,and ISO 14001 certification. Results suggest that management support for EMS, EMS training, employee empowerment,

Bonnie F. Daily; James W. Bishop; Robert Steiner



Changes in the Microflora and Physiological - Biochemical Characteristics in the Culture of EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora of EM1 culture is converted from aerobic and neutral to anaerobic and acidic. Biochemical characteristics of EM1 changed according to change of microflora. pH, EC and content of organic acid of EM1 at the end of culture were 3 - 3.5, 0.6 - 0.9 s\\/m and 1.9 - 2.1 %, respectively. Antioxidation activity of EM1 increased in proportion to

C. M. Oh; S. B. Choi


EMS provider level does not impact use of air medical transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The local emergency medical services (EMS) provider level within a nearby EMS system changed from EMT-I to paramedic. This increase in level of care was expected to decrease utilization of air medical transport and increase acuity of patients flown. Setting: Semirural, mountainous area with an annual volume of 2800 transports. Methods: Retrospective review of the EMS database performed for

David E. Fosnocht; Eric R. Swanson; Elizabeth Middleton



Convergence results for the EM approach to mixtures of experts architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is an iterative approach to maximum likelihood parameter estimation. Jordan and Jacobs recently proposed an EM algorithm for the mixture of experts architecture of Jacobs, Jordan, Nowlan and Hinton (1991) and the hierarchical mixture of experts architecture of Jordan and Jacobs (1992). They showed empirically that the EM algorithm for these architectures yields significantly faster convergence

Michael I. Jordan; Lei Xu



Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: Concept generation of patient-handling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS

Karen M. Conrad; Paul A. Reichelt; Steven A. Lavender; Jessica Gacki-Smith; Sally Hattle



Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to

N. Abu Zeid; E. Balkov; M. Chemyakina; A. Manstein; Y. Manstein; G. Morelli; G. Santarato



Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Handbook for Wastewater Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How this Handbook is Organized This Wastewater EMS Handbook guides you through EMS implementation based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The Handbook is designed primarily for EMS implementers, so the heart ...



Epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases de desenvolvimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO São apresentados os dados anatômicos da epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases do desenvolvimento. Os segmentos foliares foram analisados em toda a extensão do limbo. As células intercostais da epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial evidenciam-se com paredes sinuosas, retangulares e orientadas longitudinalmente em relação ao eixo do segmento foliar com acentuada

Mahedy Araújo Bastos Passos; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii são protozoários coccídios que parasitam diferentes espécies animais domésticas e silvestres. E nquanto a infecção por H. heydorni parece ser assintomática, N. caninum e T. gondii podem provocar alterações reprodutivas em ruminantes. N. caninum é um importante causador de abortamentos em bovinos, ao passo que T. gondii induz a abortamentos em caprinos




Microsoft Academic Search

Nas últimas décadas, verificou-se uma mudança no comportamento do consumidor no sentido de adotar uma postura mais consciente em relação aos produtos que adquire. No setor alimentício, essa evolução é nítida, em função da busca por uma maior qualidade de vida, agregando à dieta questões de saúde, incluindo produtos com menor conteúdo de gorduras e calorias, rico em fibras, pobre

Joao Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz; Andrea Rossi Scalco



Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction using space-alternating generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most expectation-maximization (EM) type algorithmsfor penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstructionconverge slowly, particularly when one incorporatesadditive background effects such as scatter, random coincidences,dark current, or cosmic radiation. In addition,regularizing smoothness penalties (or priors) introduce parametercoupling, rendering intractable the M-steps of mostEM-type algorithms. This paper presents space-alternatinggeneralized EM (SAGE) algorithms for image...

Jeffrey A. Fessler; Alfred O. Hero III



Polyproline II structure is critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domains.  


Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA1) proteins protect enzyme activity from dehydration and are structurally conserved with three different 20 amino acid motifs in the N-terminal, middle and C-terminal domains. Three soybean Em (LEA1) domain peptides (Em-N, Em-2M and Em-C) covering these respective motifs were constructed and had differential protective ability on lactate dehydrogenase against freeze-thaw: Em-C > Em-2M > Em-N. CD spectroscopy revealed that Em-2M and Em-C contained both polyproline II (PII) helical structure and ?-helix, while Em-N had a high potential to form ?-helix but did not contain PII structure. The PII helical structure between the third and fifth glycine in the middle motif was shown, through site mutation, to be critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domain under freezing stress. PMID:21455835

Zou, Yongdong; Hong, Ruisha; He, Shuwen; Liu, Guobao; Huang, Zebo; Zheng, Yizhi



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann



Communications technology guidelines for EMS\\/SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Guideline Technical Paper is to provide a summary of the different communications technologies available for use or application with EMS\\/SCADA system projects. All of the various communication media are addressed with a brief description along with tables of the advantages and disadvantages of each and recommendations for choosing the most appropriate communication technology. The technologies discussed

Donald J. Marihart



Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard



Preliminary study on the EMS of CRT display for computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) of cathode ray tube (CRT) display for computer was investigated preliminarily using the test method of bulk current injection (BCI). During the test, CW signals as electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals with different amplitude at a certain frequency were injected into the RGB, horizontal synchronization (HS) and vertical synchronization (VS) signal line of video graphics array (VGA)

Da Gang Xie; Nan Wu; Jing Yu; Xiang Song Yang; Dong Yun Hou



Ultra-stiff, low mass, EM gun design  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance in an electromagnetic (EM) gun implies high velocity with minimal transition from a solid to plasma armature. Factors that affect gun performance include armature integrity, bore straightness and bore stiffness. Experiences firing solid armature at CEM-UT since 1987 have shown that the lack of one or more of these three ingredients will result in less than desirable performance.

M. D. Werst; J. R. Kitzmiller; C. S. Hearn; G. A. Wedeking



Analysis of composite EM scattering based on accurate geometry modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to studying composite EM scattering from 2-D rough surface and half-buried 3-D target is proposed in this paper, from accurate geometry modeling to RCS analysis. First, two dimensional rough surface is simulated with spectral method, which then is converted into a continuous curved surface through inverse engineering. Target model and rough surface model are combined together to be

Jie Li; Qiong He; Lixin Guo; Bing Wei



A Pilot Marine EM Study of Hydrate Ridge, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been proposed (e.g. Nigel Edwards, U. Toronto) that EM methods may be able to detect and map gas hydrate, which is more resistive than host sediments and thus provides an electrical target. While the base of hydrates often produces a distinctive seismic signature (the bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR), the gradational upper surface is less well imaged using

K. Weitemeyer; S. Constable; J. Behrens



Match'em: using fuzzy logic to profile criminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details research undertaken at Bournemouth University into the use of a fuzzy development system called Matcher to build an offender profiling system. A brief introduction is given on the background and uses for offender profiling and the Matcher tool used to build the Match'em system. A description of the design of the system and its evaluation is provided.

M. Lefly; V. Austin



Detecção Cooperativa de Intrusões em Redes Carrier Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hoje em dia os elementos de rede (NEs) da camada 2 do modelo OSI, bridges ou switches, são componentes complexos, com centenas de milhares de linhas de software, que podem ser vulneráveis a ataques, permitindo até a execução remota de código no seu CPU interno. Este trabalho apresenta um esquema para proteger infra-estruturas de rede Carrier Ethernet de ataques

Pan Jieke; João Redol; Miguel Correia


Sonar-Based Mapping With Mobile Robots Using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithms for learn- ing occupancy grid maps with mobile robots equipped with range finders, such as sonar sen- sors. Our approach employs the EM algorithm to solve the concurrent mapping and localization problem. To accommodate the spatial nature of range data, it relies on a two-layered representa- tion of maps, where global maps are composed from

Wolfram Burgard; Dieter Fox; Hauke Jans; Christian Matenar; Sebastian Thrun


Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey…

Johnson, Johanna H.


An EM algorithm for wavelet-based image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper introduces an expectation--maximization(EM) algorithm for image restoration (deconvolution) based on apenalized likelihood formulated in the wavelet domain. Regularizationis achieved by promoting a reconstruction with low-complexity,expressed in the wavelet coefficients, taking advantage ofthe well known sparsity of wavelet representations. Previous workshave investigated wavelet-based restoration but, except for certainspecial cases, the resulting criteria are solved...

Mário A. T. Figueiredo; Robert D. Nowak



Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression

H. Sigurdsson; S. N. Carey; D. Wilson



Hierarchical mixtures of experts and the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tree-structured architecture for supervised learning. The statistical model underlying the architecture is a hierarchical mixture model in which both the mixture coefficients and the mixture components are generalized linear models (GLIMs). Learning is treated as a maximum likelihood problem; in particular, we present an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for adjusting the parameters of the architecture. We also develop

Michael I. Jordan; Robert A. Jacobs



Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A implantação de microcentrais hidrelétricas é uma das alternativas para suprir com energia comunidades pequenas e isoladas, situadas normalmente na área rural. O aproveitamento de potenciais hidráulicos de pequeno porte é uma alternativa cada vez mais viável devido não só à falta de recursos financeiros para os grandes empreendimentos, mas também pelo imenso potencial de geração em centrais de

Carlos R. Balarim; Luiz A. Targa; Jorim S. Virgens Filho; Alceu G. Andrade Filho; Giovana K. Wiecheteck



FFTF EM service pump design, application, and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1975, HEDL selected Atomics International to review the design of three classes of EM Pumps (L-30, L-100, L-200) and to fabricate a total of fifteen pumps. One of the L-100 pumps was shipped to the liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) for sodium testing in the small components test loop (SCTL). The paper presents the HEDL design criteria, discusses the

G. Jacobson; E. H. Carter; G. J. Hallinan; R. L. Eichelberger



Statistical Physics, Mixtures of Distributions, and the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that there are strong relationships between approaches to optmization and learning based on statistical physics or mixtures of experts. In particular, the EM algorithm can be interpreted as converging either to a local maximum of the mixtures model or to a saddle point solution to the statistical physics system. An advantage of the statistical physics approach is that

Alan L. Yuille; Paul E. Stolorz; Joachim Utans



EM Localization and Separation using Interaural Level and Phase Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system for localizing and separating multiple sound sources from a reverberant two-channel recording. It consists of a probabilistic model of interaural level and phase differences and an EM algorithm for finding the maximum likelihood parameters of this model. By assigning points in the interaural spectrogram probabilistically to sources with the best-fitting parameters and then estimating the parameters

Michael I. Mandel; Daniel P. W. Ellis



Extending EMS capabilities to include online stability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of stability assessment tools in the EMS. The main functions are the transient security and voltage security tools. They are invoked under several modes of operation to address the current state of the system as well as the immediate short-term planning horizons. Data exchange, preparation and output visualization are described in the context of distributed

Rene Avila-Rosales; Jay Giri; Rafael Lopez



Síndrome da cabeça caída em doença do neurônio motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A síndrome da cabeça caída é causada por diminuição de força nos músculos extensores do pescoço sendo encontrada em diversas doenças neuro m u s c u l a res, bem como, na esclerose lateral amiotrófica. D e s c revemos o caso de três mulheres com diagnóstico de doença do neurônio motor com quadro clínico de disfagia

Paulo José Lorenzoni; Marcos Christiano Lange; Cláudia S. K. Kay; Luiz G. M. P. de Almeida; Hélio A. G. Teive; Rosana H. Scola; Lineu C. Werneck



A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong



An EM algorithm for regression analysis with incomplete covariate information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis is often challenged by the fact that some covariates are not completely observed. Among other approaches is a newly developed semiparametric maximum likelihood (SML) method that requires no parametric specification of the selection mechanism or the covariate distribution and that yields efficient inference, at least in some specific models. In this paper, we propose an EM algorithm for

Zhiwei Zhang; Howard E. Rockette



GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.  


GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times. PMID:11326345

Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G



An Evaluation of DOE-EM Public Participation Programs  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the scope and effectiveness of the public participation pr ograms, including Site-Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs), at seven U.S. Departmen t of Energy (DOE) sites: Fernald, Hanford, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Paduc ah, and Savannah River. The primary purpose of the study is to assist both DOE Field and Headquarters managers in reviewing and understanding lessons learned o ver the past decade concerning public participation programs administered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The evaluation provides a snapsh ot of selected EM public participation programs at a particular point of time. It is based on interviews and site visits conducted between January and June 200 2- a time of change within the program. The study focuses on public participati on programs that incorporate a variety of activities and address a wide range of individual site activities and decisions. It uses the Acceptability Diamond as an evaluative framework to answer questions about stakeholders' experiences wit h, and assessment of, DOE-EM's public participation programs. The Acceptability Diamond, which was developed by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in previous research, identifies four program dimensions - substanti ve issues, decision-making process, relationships, and accountability - that det ermine the effectiveness of an agency's interactions with local communities. Es sentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimens ions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and s ituation. This framework provides a guide for agencies to 1) set objectives, 2) design public participation and oversight programs, and 3) set criteria for eva luating program effectiveness. In the current study, where the framework is use d as a means of assessing program effectiveness, the focus is on stakeholders' p erspectives of public participation: on the nature of DOE-EM's public disclosure and the four interrelated dimensions of DOE-EM's interactions with its neighbor ing communities

Bradbury, Judith A.; Branch, Kristi M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.



EM calibration based on Post OPC layout analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Manufacturability (DFM) involves changes to the design and CAD tools to help increase pattern printability and improve process control. Design for Reliability (DFR) performs the same to improve reliability of devices from failures such as Electromigration (EM), gate-oxide break down, hot carrier injection (HCI), Negative Bias Temperature Insatiability (NBTI) and mechanical stress effects. Electromigration (EM) occurs due to migration or displacement of atoms as a result of the movement of electrons through a conducting medium. The rate of migration determines the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) which is modeled as a function of temperature and current density. The model itself is calibrated through failure analysis (FA) of parts that are deemed to have failed due to EM against design parameters such as linewidth. Reliability Verification (RV) of a design involves verifying that every conducting line in a design meets certain MTTF threshold. In order to perform RV, current density for each wire must be computed. Current itself is a function of the parasitics that are determined through RC extraction. The standard practice is to perform the RC extraction and current density calculation on drawn, pre-OPC layouts. If a wire fails to meet threshold for MTTF, it may be resized. Subsequently, mask preparation steps such as OPC and PSM introduce extra features such as SRAFs, jogs,hammerheads and serifs that change their resistance, capacitance and current density values. Hence, calibrating EM model based on pre-OPC layouts will lead to different results compared to post-OPC layouts. In this work, we compare EM model calibration and reliability check based on drawn layout versus predicted layout, where the drawn layout is pre-OPC layout and predicted layout is based on litho simulation of post-OPC layout. Results show significant divergence between these two approaches, making a case for methodology based on predicted layout.

Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip




Microsoft Academic Search

Puccinia triticina Erikss. the causal agent of the leaf rust fungal disease common in southern Brazil, is the widest distributed and regularly occurring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) pathogen. The knowledge of resistance genes is fundamental for a more effective protection against the fungus. Due to the dinamic nature of cereal-fungus relationship, the resistance stability is difficult to

Sandra Patussi Brammer; Maria Irene; Baggio de Moraes; Amarílis L. Barcellos; Sandra Cristina; K. Milach; Antony Worland; Greg Penner


Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.



Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.  


This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul



Efeito do gradiente de martensita induzida por deformação sobre o fenômeno de delayed cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o fenômeno de Delayed Cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos quando foram severamente deformados em operações de estampagem. Durante a conformação, a austenita destes aços se transformou em martensita e a fração volumétrica desta fase apresentou variação em relação à altura da parede do copo e à composição química dos aços. O cobre

Marta Ribeiro dos Santos; Hélio José Batista Alves; Robson Guimarães Lopes; Berenice Mendonça Gonzalez



Access to Emergency Medical Services in Rural Areas: The Supporting Role of State EMS Agencies. Working Paper Number 38.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the limited knowledge about rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the support of rural EMS by state EMS agencies. A telephone survey of state EMS directors was completed in early 2001 and collected information ...

A. Knott



Conhecimento e inovação em sistemas locais de produção de revestimentos cerâmicos e os novos desafi os da concorrência internacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a compreensão das novas dinâmicas de geração de conhecimento e inovação em sistemas loc ais de produção a partir dos desafi os da concorrência internacional, por meio da realização de estudos em dois sistemas locais da indústria de cerâmica de revestimento no Brasil, um localizado em Santa Gertrudes\\/SP e outro em Criciúma\\/SC.

Gabriela Scur FEI; Renato Garcia EPUSP



Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.  


The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression. PMID:2932332

Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C



População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.



Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.  


Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot



Long Term Monitoring of EM Signals Near Parkfield CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations of resistivity and anomalous electromagnetic (EM) signals have often been reported as precursors to earthquakes. Most of these reports are based on anecdotal observations of unusual phenomena associated with distant earthquakes, with anomalous signals that are often orders of magnitude larger than expected based on laboratory measurements. In an attempt to assess the validity of these reports, and to understand how such signals might be generated, anomalous EM signals and resistivity have been monitored since 1995 using magnetotelluric (MT) instruments at the site of the focused earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, CA. This EM monitoring array was fully operational and producing high quality data when the long awaited 28 Sept Mw=6.0 Parkfield earthquake occured. The Parkfield MT site, consisting of three magnetic induction coils and replicated orthogonal electric dipoles, was situated within a few kilometers of the northwestern end of the surface rupture, providing unprecedented observations of EM signals at a well calibrated site in very close proximity to a moderate (M~6) earthquake. A second MT site near Hollister, CA was also functioning well before, during, and after the earthquake, providing a callibrated reference for cancellation of normal EM variations due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources. Analysis of this data using a variety of techniques has not revealed any anomalous signals which were unambiguos precursors to the 28 September Earthquake. In particular, residual E and B fields computed in both the time and frequency domains over the year 2004 using the remote Hollister site for prediction have been analyzed statistically, revealing no long term trends or changes in anomalous EM signal or noise levels in the months to days preceeding the earthquake. Similarly, no anomalous bursts of EM activity are seen immediately preceeding the earthquake. Based on our analysis of these residuals we conclude that any anomalous magnetic signals would have to be at least 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those reported to preceed the Loma Prieta earthquake. A strong co-seismic signal was observed. Much of this signal can probably be explained by motion of the sensors in the Earth's main field, although local electrokinetic effects in the vicinity of the sensor may also have contributed to these signals. Statisitcal analysis has also been performed on variations of daily estimates of apparent resistivity and phase at Parkfield. Systematic variations in these parameters are observed, including slow seasonal modulations and more rapid changes on time scales of a few days. However, comparison to weather records suggest that these signals are most probably related to ground moisture and precipitation events, modifying near surface distortion of the electric fields. Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal components and canonical coherence analysis have also been applited to the data, allowing alternate views of temporal variations of signal and noise characteristics. Although there are some anomalous signals deserving more careful study, there is no evidence from this analysis for significant anomalous EM signals preceeding the Parkfield earthquake.

Kappler, K.; Morrison, H.; Egbert, G.



Tenants' energy bill calculated by custom EMS and software  

SciTech Connect

A Dallas real estate company reduced energy bills by 25% by allocating costs among tenants more fairly. Xencom Inc. assembled an energy management system (EMS) and custom software for the company that monitors and bills tenants who override the EMS during off-hours. The 600-point system made up of components of a number of manufacturers was installed in two buildings. Payback should occur in 18 months. Tenants wishing to override the system between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. weekdays and between Saturday noon and 7 a.m. Monday dial the computer on any touch phone to give their access and employee code, which identifies the office space for billing. The employee then identifies which building systems he needs.

Hines, V.



Automatic Derivation of Statistical Algorithms: The EM Family and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning has reached a point where most probabilistic meth-ods can be understood as variations, extensions and combinations of a much smaller set of abstract themes, e. g., as different instances of the EM algorithm. This enables the systematic derivation of algorithms cus-tomized for different models. Here, we demonstrate the AUTOBAYES system which takes a high-level statistical model specification, uses

Alexander G. Gray; Bernd Fischer; Johann Schumann; Wray L. Buntine



EM-Coffee: An Improvement of M-Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment is a basic of sequence analysis. In the development of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) approaches, M-Coffee [1] was proposed as a meta-method for assembling outputs from different individual multiple aligners into one single MSA to boost the accuracy. Authors showed that M-Coffee outperformed individual alignment methods. In this paper, we propose an improvement of M-coffee, called EM-Coffee,

Nguyen Ha Anh Tuan; Ha Tuan Cuong; Nguyen Hoang Dung; Le Sy Vinh; Tu Minh Phuong



Demand-driven volume rendering of terascale EM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neuroscience, a very promising bottom-up approach to understanding how the brain works is built on acquiring and analyzing electron microscopy (EM) scans of brain tissue, an area known as Connectomics. This results in volume data of extremely high resolution of 3--5nm per pixel and 25--50nm slice thickness, overall leading to data sizes of many terabytes [Jeong et al. 2010].

Johanna Beyer; Markus Hadwiger; Won-Ki Jeong; Hanspeter Pfister; Jeff Lichtman



DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.



Adaptive play in Texas Hold'em Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a Texas Hold’em poker player for limit heads- up games. Our bot is designed to adapt automatically to the strategy of the opponent,and is not based on Nash equilibrium computation. The main idea is to design a bot that builds beliefs on his opponent’s hand. A forest of game,trees is generated according to those beliefs and the

Raphaël Maîtrepierre; Jérémie Mary; Rémi Munos



Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.



Parameter estimation of superimposed signals using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient algorithm for parameter estimation of superimposed signals based on the two-step iterative EM (estimate-and-maximize, with an E step and an M step) algorithm is developed. The idea is to decompose the observed data into their signal components and then to estimate the parameters of each signal component separately. The algorithm iterates back and forth, using the current




Single sensor active noise cancellation based on the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop an approach to active noise cancellation using a single microphone. The noise field is modelled as a stochastic process, and a time-adaptive algorithm based on a modification of the block-estimate-maximize (EM) algorithm is used to adaptively estimate the parameters of this process. Based on these parameter estimates a canceling signal is generated. The algorithm developed is evaluated

A. V. Oppenheim; E. Weinstein; K. C. Zangi; M. Feder; D. Gauger



A Novel EM Gradiometric Surveying System for Geophysical Reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric principles are widely used in precision physics experiments and\\/or in advanced laboratory-based phase measurement systems. Phase resolution of such systems is a few orders of magnitude higher compared to that of standard mixer-based quadrature demodulators or lock-in technique. The first attempt of applying interferometric signal processing to transmitter-target-receiver based electromagnetic (EM) surveying in geophysical prospecting is described. It is

Alexey V. Veryaskin; Francis A. Torres; Timo P. Vaalsta; Ju Li; David G. Blair



Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference

D. N. Smithe; D. Karipides; P. Stoltz; G. Cheng; H. Wang



Effect of the nuclear factors EmBP1 and viviparous1 on the transcription of the Em gene in HeLa nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

Templates constructed from the wheat Em and maize rab28 promoters are efficiently and accurately transcribed in the well-characterized cell-free transcription system prepared from HeLa nuclei. Deletion analysis of the Em promoter indicates that a G-box (CACGTG) element (Em1b) is required for transcription. USF, a Myc transcription factor in HeLa nuclear extracts, activates transcription by binding to Em1b, as shown by the ability of an antibody raised against USF to inhibit transcription and to interfere with Em1b complex formation in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The addition of the recombinant Viviparous1 protein from maize to HeLa nuclear extracts specifically stimulated transcription of the Em promoter but was dependent on the presence of USF in the extract. In USF-depleted extracts, the addition of recombinant EmBP1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor from wheat, activated transcription through Em1b as well as from a similar G-box in the adenovirus major late promoter. Our study demonstrates that the basic transcriptional apparatus in HeLa nuclear extract supports transcription from plant promoters and can be used to assay the function of certain plant nuclear proteins, thereby helping to determine their effects on transcription.

Razik, M A; Quatrano, R S



Estado nutricional em zinco e teste de acuidade do paladar em crianças de baixa estatura familiar Zinc nutritional status and taste acuity test in familial short stature children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional em zinco e a percepção do paladar (salgado, doce, ácido e amargo) em crianças de baixa estatura familiar. Métodos: Estudo transversal de 30 crianças sem sinais de puberdade, pacientes do ambulatório de crescimento da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A ingestão dietética foi avaliada pelo método do Registro Alimentar. Para o teste de acuidade do

Andréa G. Marques; Luiz A. Lopes; Olga M. S. Amancio



Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo é resultante da utilização de duas ferramentas de gestão aplicadas a definição de problemas prioritários em uma propriedade rural especializada em cria de bovinos de corte. Contudo, este estudo foi composto de levantamento de dados e informações coletados a partir de entrevistas estruturadas aplicadas aos profissionais responsáveis pela produção, mercadologia, sistema de informações, finanças, gestão de pessoas e

Odilon Jose De Oliveira Neto; Jose Jeronimo de Lima; Vagner Antonio Maximo Cesar; Simone Oliveira Rezende; Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo



EMS Providers and Exception From Informed Consent Research: Benefits, Ethics, and Community Consultation  

PubMed Central

As attention to, and motivation for, EMS-related research continues to grow, particularly exception from informed consent (EFIC) research, it is important to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers who are actively engaged in the research. Study Objective We explored the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers regarding their involvement in prehospital emergency research, particularly EFIC research. Method Using a qualitative design, 24 participants were interviewed including Nationally Registered Paramedics and Virginia certified Emergency Medical Technicians employed at Richmond Ambulance Authority, the participating EMS agency. At the time of our interviews, the EMS agency was involved in an exception from informed consent trial. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings were presented back to the EMS agency for validation. Results Overall, there appeared to be support for prehospital emergency research. Participants viewed research as necessary for the advancement of the field of EMS. Improvement in patient care was identified as one of the most important benefits. A number of ethical considerations were identified: individual risk versus public good and consent. EMS providers in our study were open to working with EMS researchers throughout the community consultation and public disclosure process. Conclusions EMS providers in our study value research and are willing to participate in studies. Support for research was balanced with concerns and challenges regarding the role of providers in the research process.

Ripley, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Cornelia; Prorock-Ernest, Amy; Foco, Rebecca; Luckett, Solomon; Ornato, Joseph P.



Hydration-layer models for cryo-EM image simulation.  


To compare cryo-EM images and 3D reconstructions with atomic structures in a quantitative way it is essential to model the electron scattering by solvent (water or ice) that surrounds protein assemblies. The most rigorous method for determining the density of solvating water atoms for this purpose has been to perform molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein-water system. In this paper we adapt the ideas of bulk-water modeling that are used in the refinement of X-ray crystal structures to the cryo-EM solvent-modeling problem. We present a continuum model for solvent density which matches MD-based results to within sampling errors. However, we also find that the simple binary-mask model of Jiang and Brünger (1994) performs nearly as well as the new model. We conclude that several methods are now available for rapid and accurate modeling of cryo-EM images and maps of solvated proteins. PMID:22609687

Shang, Zhiguo; Sigworth, Fred J



Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

Not Available



EMS-Vision: combining on- and off-road driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, work at the Universitat der Bundeswehr Muenchen (UBM) has been focused on autonomous road vehicles. During the last four years the Expectation-based Multi-focal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system has been developed and implemented. EMS-Vision is the 3rd generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. The explicit representation of the own capabilities combined with a complex control and information flow allows the implementation of decision units for goal oriented activation of locomotion and perception. Due to this general approach and in contrast to former UBM systems that were specially designed and optimized for certain limited scenarios and domains, e.g., road following on Autobahnen, the EMS-Vision system can handle complex driving missions spanning multiple domains. It has been realized on a decentralized parallel hardware structure, exclusively built of commercial off-the-shelf components, in both UBM test vehicles VaMoRs and VaMP. Results from an autonomously performed mission on the UBM campus are discussed.

Gregor, Rudolf; Luetzeler, Michael; Dickmanns, Ernst D.



International EMS. How demand is shifting around the world.  


The panelists agreed that prehospital systems around the world might very well begin seeing higher demand and lower acuity. However, the unique aspects of each culture that create different prehospital concerns also create different solutions to these needs. U.S. providers must consider for-profit organizations when attempting to reduce fragmentation to gain one lobbying voice, while EMS providers in some nations, such as in Latin America and India, must consider integrating their treatments with local shamens to gain patient acceptance. In Franco-German systems, efficient doctor training has allowed placement of anesthesiologists on ambulances, while prehospital providers in Vietnam have basic concerns, such as whether prehospital care can be sustained in the hospital environment. The shift in EMS around the world will Sdepend more on the expectations and demands of the customers in each nation. It will also depend on the ability of its EMS leaders and administrators to come up with solutions that get customers the most appropriate care in the most affordable manner. To learn more, go to PMID:24159727



GLLH EM Invisible Cloak With Novel Front Branching And Without Exceed Light Speed Violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new Global and Local (GL) electromagnetic (EM) cloaks with distinctive class material a_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\\\log ^\\\\alpha (b_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\/h) h^\\\\beta (GLLH Cloak) without exceed light speed violation. The refractive index of the GLLH cloak material, $n(r)$, is large than one or equal to one. Our GLLH cloak is created by GL EM modeling and GL EM cloak

Ganquan Xieand; Jianhua Li; Lee Xie; Feng Xie



Theoretical and experimental investigations of gravity modification by specially conditioned EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary electromagnetic (em) fields do not couple significantly with those that underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia, and it is suggested that this is because they are of different field essence and form. It is also suggested that a much stronger electro-gravitic coupling might be accomplished for effective propulsion by conditioning ordinary em fields into configurations that are similar to those which underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia. This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental em field conditioning work. .

Froning, H. D.; Barrett, T. W.



The Competitive EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures with BYY Harmony Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaussian mixture has been widely used for data modeling and analysis and the EM algorithm is generally employed for its parameter\\u000a learning. However, the EM algorithm may be trapped into a local maximum of the likelihood and even leads to a wrong result\\u000a if the number of components is not appropriately set. Recently, the competitive EM (CEM) algorithm for Gaussian

Hengyu Wang; Lei Li; Jinwen Ma



EM-ANN models for microstrip vias and interconnects in dataset circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for accurate and efficient modeling of monolithic microwave\\/millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components by using electromagnetically trained artificial neural network (EM-ANN) software modules is presented. Full-wave EM analysis is employed to characterize MMIC components. Structures for simulation are chosen using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. EM-ANN models are then trained using physical parameters as inputs and S-parameters

Paul M. Watson; Kuldip C. Gupta



Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.



EM703, a new derivative of erythromycin, inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts.  


Long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy has been proven to improve survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, although the mechanisms by which it does so remain unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides, the authors examined the effects of erythromycin (EM-A) and new derivative EM703 on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta /Smad signaling fibroblasts. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the collagen production in human lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-beta. EM-A and EM703 inhibited the augmentation of Smad3 mRNA induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 mRNA was inhibited by TGF-beta, but augmented by coincubation with EM-A or EM703. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited p-Smad2/3 proteins induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 protein inhibited by TGF-beta restored beyond basal level by EM-A and EM703. These findings suggest that EM-A and EM703 inhibit TGF-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts via inhibition of p-Smad2/3 through recovery of Smad7 level. PMID:18600500

Yu, ChangHe; Azuma, Arata; Li, YingJi; Wang, Chunyan; Abe, Sinji; Usuki, Jiro; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kudoh, Shoji; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Omura, Satoshi



Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

Chang, F. C.



The characteristics of lithospheric origin ULF EM radiation in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penetration of ultra low frequency (0.01-100 s-1) electromagnetic (ULF EM) radiation throughout ionosphere are calculated numerically for source in the lithosphere and in the magnetosphere. The changes of perturbation area shape during propagation in the ionosphere are investigated for different <> types in the lithosphere which excite this EM radiation. The wave and spatial characteristics of penetrated into upper ionosphere ULF EM field are determined. The influence of altitude profile's main parameters of ionosphere plasma and geophysical condition onto the penetration effect of ULF EM radiation throughout is discussed.

Cheremnykh, O. K.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Kremenetsky, I.


Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.



EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

SciTech Connect

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.



EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Math Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching mathematical fundamentals of electro- and magnetostatics constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. Included are homework questions, concept tests, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.



State of the Art in EM Field Computation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC



Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.  


Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia



8 EMS vendors now offer guaranteed savings plans  

SciTech Connect

At least eight companies now offer company-wide insurance policies guaranteeing the savings projections of energy-management system (EMS) dealers. The plans can guarantee either that energy costs will be lower than the lease payments or that the user will achieve a stated payback. The plan requires users to buy a maintenance contract with their system. Drawbacks are the disincentive for users to seek additional energy savings and the problem of how to measure the savings. Users can request a policy through an insurance company if they are hesitant about a company policy. Spokesmen for several companies offering the insurance option describe the highlights of their programs. (DCK)

Raymond, M.



Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.  


Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only. PMID:7885367

Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z



Aristarchus's <em>On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem>: Greek and Arabic Texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s, T. L. Heath pointed out that historians of mathematics have "given too little attention to Aristarchus". This is still true today. The Greek text of Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem> has received little attention; the Arabic editions virtually none. Much of what this text has to tell us about ancient and medieval mathematics and the mathematical sciences has gone unnoticed. It should be taken as an important source for our understanding of the mathematical sciences of the early Hellenistic period.

Berggren, J. L.; Sidoli, N.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os indicadores de hemorragia letal em vítimas de trauma penetrante de tronco, admitidas com hipotensão arterial sistêmica e analisar sua aplicabilidade na seleção dos candidatos ao \\

José Gustavo Parreira


Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding  

PubMed Central

The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities.

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng



Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding.  


The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng



An EM framework for segmentation of tissue mixtures from medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation plays a major role in quantitative image analysis and computer aided detection (CAD) and diagnosis (CADx) for clinical applications. Conventional segmentation assigns a single label to each voxel, neglecting the partial volume (PV) effect. This work presents an EM (expectation maximization) framework for segmentation of tissue mixture in each voxel. Image data and tissue mixture models, EM algorithm

Zhengrong Liang; Xiang Li; Daria Eremina; Lihong Li



The Greek EMS-SCADA: from the contractor to the user  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national electric utility of Greece has installed and put in operation a modern energy management system (EMS). This paper presents the evolution of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of the EMS during its two years of commercial operation. It classifies all the improvements implemented during this period in 3 areas: telecommunications, man-machine interface and core SCADA

D. T. Askounis; E. Kalfaoglou



Comparison of EM and SEM Algorithms in Poisson Regression Models: A Simulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose to compare two algorithms to compute maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters of a mixture Poisson regression model: the EM algorithm and the Stochastic EM algorithm. The comparison of the two procedures was done through a simulation study of the performance of these approaches on simulated data sets and real data sets. Simulation results show

Susana Faria; Gilda Soromenho



Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun



Comparação entre o desempenho motor de homens e mulheres em séries múltiplas de exercícios com pesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A magnitude das respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas de homens e mulheres parece ser bastante diferen- ciada até mesmo quando esses sujeitos são submetidos a proto- colos de exercícios com pesos semelhantes. Todavia, as diferen- ças no desempenho motor entre homens e mulheres têm sido relatadas predominantemente em protocolos baseados em con- trações isométricas e isocinéticas. Assim, o objetivo

Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; André Luiz Demantova Gurjão; Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Arli Ramos de Oliveira



Analysis of developing EM wave absorber for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we developed an EM wave absorber having the absorption ability of more than 15 dB for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous Metal Powder. Firstly, we fabricated EM wave absorber by using Amorphous Metal Powder and CPE(Chlorinated Polyethylene) with different composition ratios 80 ? 20 wt.% and 85 ? 15 wt.%. Secondly, we designed the optimum

Dong Soo Choi; Dong Il Kim; Do Yeol Kim; Dong Han Choi



Using the EM algorithm to train neural networks: misconceptions and a new algorithm for multiclass classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been of considerable interest in recent years as the basis for various algorithms in application areas of neural networks such as pattern recognition. However, there exists some misconceptions concerning its application to neural networks. In this paper, we clarify these misconceptions and consider how the EM algorithm can be adopted to train multilayer perceptron (MLP)

Shu-Kay Ng; Geoffrey John McLachlan



Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron



Effect of EM574 on Postprandial Pancreaticobiliary Secretion, Gastric Motor Activity, and Emptying in Conscious Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM574, an erythromycin derivative and a potentmotilin receptor agonist, is now under clinical trial asa gastroprokinetic drug. The aim of this study was toestimate the effect of EM574 on postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion, gastric motoractivity, and emptying in conscious dogs. Five mongreldogs were prepared. Indwelling cannulas for bothinfusion of phenolsulfonphthalein and aspiration ofluminal samples were inserted into the proximal anddistal duodenum,

Toshiyuki Tanaka; Akiyoshi Mizumoto; Erito Mochiki; Hideki Suzuki; Zen Itoh; Satoshi Omura



Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland

J. G. Paine; W. A. White; R. C. Smyth; J. R. Andrews; J. C. Gibeaut



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module K: Legal Aspects of Emergency Medical Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on the legal aspects of emergency medical services (EMS) is presented as part of an educational program on EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educa...

J. O. Page



Effects of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM Wave in WLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the condition of WLAN (wireless local area network), walls are the main obstacles in channel. Nowadays, many structures and buildings use reinforced concrete walls. These walls affect transmission of EM wave at some degree. This paper analyses the effects of some typical structural parameters of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM wave using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution

Liu Ping; Chen Gui; Long Yun-liang



The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure

Jun Zhang



Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.



Measurement and Analysis of L-Band (1535-1660 MHz) Electromagnetic (EM) Noise on Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program of L-band (1535-1660 MHz) electromagnetic (EM) noise measurements conducted on ships is described. The magnitude and duration of EM noise on ships is of particular significance in terms of potential radio frequency interference (RFI) to future M...

J. M. Clarke S. R. Cantor J. J. Winchus A. L. Caporale



Características psicométricas do Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey (MBI-SS) em estudantes universitários brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI-SS) foi projetado para avaliar a síndrome de burnout em estudantes. Este artigo analisa as características psicométricas (fidedignidade e validade de construto) do MBI-SS em uma amostra de 514 estudantes. A análise fatorial identificou três fatores correlatos às três dimensões originalmente identificadas no inventário: exaustão emocional, eficácia profissional e descrença, indicando que a

Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O milho é uma cultura presente em todas as regiões brasileiras; nos últimos anos, seus custos de produção aumentaram. Técnicas que proporcionem economia, sem perda de produtividade, podem incentivar seu cultivo, tão importante no sistema de rota- ção de culturas. Os adubos verdes são opções para a redução de custos, principalmente em relação ao nitrogênio. Utilizaram-se dados de



Marginal maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters: Application of an EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters in the marginal distribution, integrating over the distribution of ability, becomes practical when computing procedures based on an EM algorithm are used. By characterizing the ability distribution empirically, arbitrary assumptions about its form are avoided. The Em procedure is shown to apply to general item-response models lacking simple sufficient statistics for ability. This includes

R. Darrell Bock; Murray Aitkin



Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.



Tumores experimentais do sistema nervoso central: padronização de modelo em roedores utilizando a linhagem 9L  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Grande variedade de modelos experimentais foram estabelecidos em neuro-oncologia durante as últimas décadas, a fim de estudar a biologia tumoral e a eficiciência de novas drogas e novos tratamentos em gliomas malignos humanos. Embora estes modelos estejam bem caracterizados e sejam facilmente reproduzíveis e aplicáveis, há limitações quanto ao seu uso e à resposta obtida, principalmente quando utilizados

Custódio Michailowsky; Flavio Key Niura; Ângela C. do Valle; Shigueko Sonohara; Thales D'Alessandro Meneguin; Ana Maria C. Tsanaclis



Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

Weissman, Alexander



Determining the ratio of charge to mass e\\/m for electrons by magnetic focusing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an instrument based on Busch's method of determining e\\/m for electrons. A square-wave deflection voltage is used for deflecting an electron beam. With this instrument, one can more easily and more accurately determine e\\/m for the electron. A comparison is made experimentally and theoretically among several ways of deflecting an electron beam.

Yong-Kang Yang



A Probabilistic Analysis of EM for Mixtures of Separated, Spherical Gaussians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of k well-separated spherical Gaussians in Rd, a simple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the parameters of the Gaussians to near- optimal precision, if the dimension is high (d ln k). We relate this to previous theoretical and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman



Elogio do cotidiano: a confiança e a arte da vida social em uma comunidade amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como antropóloga (em vez de, por exemplo, filósofa)1 meu objetivo é compreender e desvelar as visões de mundo de outras pessoas, em parti- cular as dos povos indígenas da floresta tropical amazônica. A versão local que, por muitos anos, venho tentando entender pertence aos Pia- roa, um povo que vive ao longo de tributários do rio Orinoco, na Vene- zuela.

Joanna Overing



Realce de Bordas em Imagens Digitais: Uma Abordagem por Números Fuzzy  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma nova abordagem para a extração de bordas em imagens em tons de cinza. A abordagem proposta é baseada na teoria de números fuzzy. Os números fuzzy são apropriados para lidar com incertezas, uma vez que quantificam matematica- mente termos lingüísticos do tipo \\

Inês Ap; Gasparotto Boaventura; Adilson Gonzaga


Simple and effective EM-based optimization procedure for microwave filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective computerized optimization procedure for microwave filters is discussed. The basic idea is to integrate a fast and accurate electromagnetic (EM) solver, a filter design strategy, and two different optimization algorithms. The structural parameters to be modified are then chosen with the objective of improving the interaction between the EM solver and the optimization process. A simple

J. T. Alos; M. Guglielmi



Time-delay estimation for filtered Poisson processes using an EM-type algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a modified EM algorithm to estimate a nonrandom time shift parameter of an intensity associated with an inhomogeneous Poisson process Nt, whose points are only partially observed as a noise-contaminated output X of a linear time-invariant filter excited by a train of delta functions, a filtered Poisson process. The exact EM algorithm for computing the maximum likelihood time

Nikolaos Antoniadis; A. O. Hero



Effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM®) on the Growth Parameters of Fayoumi and Horro Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine growth promoter effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Horro and Fayoumi chickens. This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center and National Veterinary Institute (Debre Zeit). A total of 450 chickens (225 from each breed) were used in this study. Birds were grouped according to treatment groups: EM-treated (with feed, with water, with feed

E. wondmeneh; T. Getachew; D. Tadelle



ITS and Transportation Safety: EMS System Data Integration to Improve Traffic Crash Emergency Response and Treatment - Phase III Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transportation safety and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) literature has called for the development of better information system tools to support EMS to aid in reducing the human impact of medical emergencies. Building upon previous research by the r...

B. Hilton B. Schooley T. A. Horan




Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the products of the interaction of thorium with 230 ; Mev protons revealed evidence for the existence of the neutron-excess isotopes: ; Em²²³, Em²²⁴, and Fr²²⁴. The existence of these three new ; isotopes was confirmed by identification of their decay products: Ra²²³ and ; Ra²²⁴. (auth);




Cryo-EM modeling by the molecular dynamics flexible fitting method  

PubMed Central

The increasing power and popularity of cryo-electron (cryo-EM) microscopy in structural biology brought about the development of so-called hybrid methods, which permit the interpretation of cryo-EM density maps beyond their nominal resolution in terms of atomic models. The Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge 2010 is the first community effort to bring together developers of hybrid methods as well as cryo-EM experimentalists. Participating in the challenge, the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method was applied to a number of cryo-EM density maps. The results are described here with special emphasis on the use of symmetry-based restraints to improve the quality of atomic models derived from density maps of symmetric complexes; on a comparison of the stereochemical quality of atomic models resulting from different hybrid methods; and on application of MDFF to electron crystallography data.

Chan, Kwok-Yan; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Schreiner, Eduard; Schulten, Klaus



Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong



A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B



Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation.

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.



Perfil da automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade de uma cidade do sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: A automedicação tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e assume uma importância maior quando é realizada por idosos, pois geralmente representam um grupo polimedicado. Objetivo: Avaliar a automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade localizados em uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal baseado em entrevistas com idosos participantes de grupos

Edézio Antunes Cascaes; Maria Luiza Falchetti; Dayani Galato


A Gentle Tutorial of the EM Algorithm and its Application to Parameter Estimation for Gaussian Mixture and Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the maximum-likelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectation- Maximization (EM) algorithm can be used for its solution. We first describe the abstract form of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM pa- rameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities,

Jeff A. Bilmes



Efeitos da monensina sobre a fermentação e sensibilidade de bactérias ruminais de bovinos sob dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da monensina sobre as mudanças nos padrões de fermentação e resistência à perda do potássio intracelular das bactérias ruminais provenientes de quatro bovinos recebendo dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado. As bactérias obtidas por centrifugação diferencial foram resuspensas em um meio pobre em potássio, no qual foi medida a perda do p otássio intracelular,

Rogério de Paula Lana; James B. Russell



Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.  


Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding. PMID:18814746

Careless, James; Erich, John



Detecting particles in cryo-EM micrographs using learned features.  


A new learning-based approach is presented for particle detection in cryo-electron micrographs using the Adaboost learning algorithm. The approach builds directly on the successful detectors developed for the domain of face detection. It is a discriminative algorithm which learns important features of the particle's appearance using a set of training examples of the particles and a set of images that do not contain particles. The algorithm is fast (10 s on a 1.3 GHz Pentium M processor), is generic, and is not limited to any particular shape or size of the particle to be detected. The method has been evaluated on a publicly available dataset of 82 cryoEM images of keyhole lympet hemocyanin (KLH). From 998 automatically extracted particle images, the 3-D structure of KLH has been reconstructed at a resolution of 23.2 A which is the same resolution as obtained using particles manually selected by a trained user. PMID:15065673

Mallick, Satya P; Zhu, Yuanxin; Kriegman, David


SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of tutorials and tutorial pre-tests was constructed for a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. These tutorials are weekly student sessions, modeled after research-validated curricula developed at the University of Washington. Using these materials in study/recitation sections, students work in small groups with the instructor as a learning coach. The materials are designed to target known student difficulties, to elicit and develop conceptual understanding and math/physics connections. They also help faculty listen to student reasoning, get a clearer sense of student ideas, and determine where they are struggling. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael



EM-based measurement fusion for HRR radar centroid processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a new algorithm for high range resolution (HRR) radar centroid processing for scenarios where there are closely spaced objects. For range distributed targets with multiple discrete scatterers, HRR radars will receive detections across multiple range bins. When the resolution is very high, and the target has significant extent, then it is likely that the detections will not occur in adjacent bins. For target tracking purposes, the multiple detections must be grouped and fused to create a single object report and a range centroid estimate is computed since the detections are range distributed. With discrete scatterer separated by multiple range bins, then when closely spaced objects are present there is uncertainty about which detections should be grouped together for fusion. This paper applies the EM algorithm to form a recursive measurement fusion algorithm that segments the data into object clusters while simultaneously forming a range centroid estimate with refined bearing and elevation estimates.

Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Blair, W. Dale



EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

Kurennoy, Sergey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang



TrakEM2 Software for Neural Circuit Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

A key challenge in neuroscience is the expeditious reconstruction of neuronal circuits. For model systems such as Drosophila and C. elegans, the limiting step is no longer the acquisition of imagery but the extraction of the circuit from images. For this purpose, we designed a software application, TrakEM2, that addresses the systematic reconstruction of neuronal circuits from large electron microscopical and optical image volumes. We address the challenges of image volume composition from individual, deformed images; of the reconstruction of neuronal arbors and annotation of synapses with fast manual and semi-automatic methods; and the management of large collections of both images and annotations. The output is a neural circuit of 3d arbors and synapses, encoded in NeuroML and other formats, ready for analysis.

Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Preibisch, Stephan; Longair, Mark; Tomancak, Pavel; Hartenstein, Volker; Douglas, Rodney J.



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework question collection was constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course on electro- and magneto-statics. Many questions are related to textbook problems, but with added elements of explanation, sense-making, estimation or approximation, real-world connections, and multiple-representations. Not all these homework questions were used in the course design project. Some problems used include detailed instructor notes, including statistics on student performance on each homework problem assigned. The homework solutions are only available to instructors by writing the authors, This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.



Regio-specific hydroxylation of nonylphenol and the involvement of CYP2K- and CYP2M-like iso-enzymes in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it has been demonstrated that nonylphenol (NP) has a dual function in regulating reproductive hormones by: (1) increasing the activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes at low concentration, that does not induce vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins and (2) decreasing the activity of these enzymes at higher concentration [Environ. Health Perspect. 105 (1997) 109; Environ. Toxicol Chem. 16 (1997)

R. Thibaut; L. Debrauwer; E. Perdu; A. Goksøyr; J. P. Cravedi; A. Arukwe



S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase, a highly stereo- and regio-specific enzyme in tetrahydroprotoberberine biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultures of Berberis species are useful sources for the detection and isolation of a new enzyme which transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine specifically to the 9-position of the (S)-enantiomer of scoulerine, producing (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. The enzyme was enriched 27-fold; it is not particle bound, has a pH optimum of 8.9, a molecular weight of 63 000 and shows a

S. Muemmler; M. Rueffer; N. Nagakura; M. H. Zenk



A new copper-based metal-organic framework as a promising heterogeneous catalyst for chemo- and regio-selective enamination of ?-ketoesters.  


Assembly of 5-nitro-1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3nbta) with Cu(II) in the presence of 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propane (1,3-btp) leads to a new metal-organic framework, [Cu(Hnbta)(1,3-btp)]·2H2O (), which is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for enamination of ?-ketoesters with excellent product yields and selectivity. PMID:24066353

Zhao, Ying; Deng, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Lu-Fang; Ji, Bao-Ming; Wang, Li-Ya



Lettuce Costunolide Synthase (CYP71BL2) and Its Homolog (CYP71BL1) from Sunflower Catalyze Distinct Regio- and Stereoselective Hydroxylations in Sesquiterpene Lactone Metabolism*  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are terpenoid natural products possessing the ?-lactone, well known for their diverse biological and medicinal activities. The occurrence of STLs is sporadic in nature, but most STLs have been isolated from plants in the Asteraceae family. Despite the implication of the ?-lactone group in many reported bioactivities of STLs, the biosynthetic origins of the ?-lactone ring remains elusive. Germacrene A acid (GAA) has been suggested as a central precursor of diverse STLs. The regioselective (C6 or C8) and stereoselective (? or ?) hydroxylation on a carbon of GAA adjacent to its carboxylic acid at C12 is responsible for the ?-lactone formation. Here, we report two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) capable of catalyzing 6?- and 8?-hydroxylation of GAA from lettuce and sunflower, respectively. To identify these P450s, sunflower trichomes were isolated to generate a trichome-specific transcript library, from which 10 P450 clones were retrieved. Expression of these clones in a yeast strain metabolically engineered to synthesize substrate GAA identified a P450 catalyzing 8?-hydroxylation of GAA, but the STL was not formed by spontaneous lactonization. Subsequently, we identified the closest homolog of the GAA 8?-hydroxylase from lettuce and discovered 6?-hydroxylation of GAA by the recombinant enzyme. The resulting 6?-hydroxy-GAA spontaneously undergoes a lactonization to yield the simplest form of STL, costunolide. Furthermore, we demonstrate the milligram per liter scale de novo synthesis of costunolide using the lettuce P450 in an engineered yeast strain, an important advance that will enable exploitation of STLs. Evolution and homology models of these two P450s are discussed.

Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; Gopfert, Jens Christian; Nguyen, Don Trinh; Kim, Soo-Un; O'Maille, Paul E.; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun



Electrolytic partial fluorination of organic compounds. 55. Highly regio- and stereoselective anodic monofluorination of 2,3-dihydrochroman-4-one and chromone derivatives.  


Anodic monofluorination at the position alpha to the oxygen atom of the (E)-3-benzylidene-2,3-dihydrochroman-4-one derivatives was successfully carried out to provide the corresponding 2-fluorochromanones selectively. This is the first regioselective electrochemical fluorination of fused-type, oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds. Anodic fluorination of a chromone derivative also gave a similar fluorinated chromanone stereoselectively. PMID:11701022

Dawood, K M; Fuchigami, T



Metal triflate catalyzed highly regio- and stereoselective 1,2-bromoazidation of alkenes using NBS and TMSN 3 as the bromine and azide sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal triflate catalyzed 1,2-bromoazidation of alkenes was performed using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and trimethylsilyl azide (TMSN3) as the bromine and azide sources, respectively. Among the metal triflates, Zn(OTf)2 was found to be the best catalyst. This catalytic process represents a highly regioselective, stereoselective and high yielding method for the synthesis of anti-1,2-bromoazides from a variety of alkenes including ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

Saumen Hajra; Debarshi Sinha; Manishabrata Bhowmick



Facile regio- and stereoselective hydrometalation of alkynes with a combination of carboxylic acids and group 10 transition metal complexes: selective hydrogenation of alkynes with formic acid.  


A facile, highly stereo- and regioselective hydrometalation of alkynes generating alkenylmetal complex is disclosed for the first time from a reaction of alkyne, carboxylic acid, and a zerovalent group 10 transition metal complex M(PEt(3))(4) (M = Ni, Pd, Pt). A mechanistic study showed that the hydrometalation does not proceed via the reaction of alkyne with a hydridometal generated by the protonation of a carboxylic acid with Pt(PEt(3))(4), but proceeds via a reaction of an alkyne coordinate metal complex with the acid. This finding clarifies the long proposed reaction mechanism that operates via the generation of an alkenylpalladium intermediate and subsequent transformation of this complex in a variety of reactions catalyzed by a combination of Br?nsted acid and Pd(0) complex. This finding also leads to the disclosure of an unprecedented reduction of alkynes with formic acid that can selectively produce cis-, trans-alkenes and alkanes by slightly tuning the conditions. PMID:21916436

Shen, Ruwei; Chen, Tieqiao; Zhao, Yalei; Qiu, Renhua; Zhou, Yongbo; Yin, Shuangfeng; Wang, Xiangbo; Goto, Midori; Han, Li-Biao



The regio- and stereochemical course of reductive cross-coupling reactions between 1,3-disubstituted allenes and vinylsilanes: Synthesis of (Z)-dienes  

PubMed Central

In investigations aimed at exploring the potential of disubstituted allenes in stereoselective synthesis, we report studies that explore the reductive cross-coupling reaction of vinylsilanes with a range of substituted allenes. Regiochemical control is attained by employing allenic alkoxides, where the proximal heteroatom dictates the site-selectivity in a process that proceeds by net formal metallo-[3,3] rearrangement (directed carbometalation/elimination). Stereoselectivity in these reactions is complex, with both the nature of allene substitution and relative stereochemistry of the substrate impacting the stereoselective generation of each alkene of a substituted 1,3-diene. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Barlan, Allan U.



Hydrogen-bond mediated regio- and enantioselectivity in a C-H amination reaction catalysed by a supramolecular Rh(ii) complex.  


Enantioselective (up to 74% ee) and regioselective C-H amination reactions of 3-benzylquinolones were achieved with a chiral C2-symmetric Rh(ii) complex exhibiting two lactam binding sites for substrate coordination via hydrogen bonds. PMID:23917404

Höke, Thorsten; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Bach, Thorsten



Cu(ii)-catalyzed highly regio- and stereoselective construction of C-C double bonds: an efficient method for the ketonization-olefination of indoles.  


A general and efficient method for the cross-coupling of indoles with ?-keto esters by using TEMPO/CuSO4·5H2O in air as oxidant has been developed. This reaction features high functional-group compatibility and an excellent selectivity. This methodology provides an alternative approach for the ketonization-olefination of indoles in moderate to good yields. PMID:24135895

Bao, Yun-Hong; Zhu, Jia-Yi; Qin, Wen-Bing; Kong, Yu-Bo; Chen, Zheng-Wang; Tang, Shao-Bin; Liu, Liang-Xian



Het recreatieve belang van regioparken voor de toekomst; confrontatie van de vraag naar en het aanbod van recreatiemogelijkheden voor de regio's Rotterdam en Haaglanden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In opdracht van de provincie Zuid-Holland is met behulp van het door Alterra ontwikkelde instrument AVANAR (Afstemming Vraag & Aanbod Natuur Als Recreatieruimte) geanalyseerd wat de bijdrage is van een drietal geplande regioparken (Delfland, Rottemeren, IJsselmonde) aan het tegemoetkomen aan de recreatieve vraag vanuit de lokale bevolking. Analyses zijn uitgevoerd voor de huidige situatie (2000), de situatie in 2020 zonder

Vries de S; Regt de W. J



Regio- and chemoselective reduction of nitroarenes and carbonyl compounds over recyclable magnetic ferrite-nickel nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-Ni) by using glycerol as a hydrogen source.  


Reduction by magnetic nano-Fe(3)O(4)-Ni: a facile, simple and environmentally friendly hydrogen-transfer reaction that takes place over recyclable ferrite-nickel magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-Ni) by using glycerol as hydrogen source allows aromatic amines and alcohols to be synthesized from the precursor nitroarenes and carbonyl compounds. PMID:22933355

Gawande, Manoj B; Rathi, Anuj K; Branco, Paula S; Nogueira, Isabel D; Velhinho, Alexandre; Shrikhande, Janhavi J; Indulkar, Utkarsha U; Jayaram, Radha V; Ghumman, C Amjad A; Bundaleski, Nenad; Teodoro, Orlando M N D



OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.



DOE-EM privatization and the 2006 Plan: Principles for procurement policies and risk management  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Remediation and Waste Management (EM) has recently set in place programs to restructure the strategic planning mechanism that will drive its clean-up schedule, The 2006 Plan, and to create a new set of business relationships with private contractors that will reduce costs--privatization. Taken together, the 2006 Plan and privatization will challenge EM to create new business practices to recast its risk management policies to support these initiatives while ensuring that its responsibilities toward the environment, human health, and worker safety (ES and H) are maintained. This paper argues that the 2006 Plan has transformed EM`s traditional, bottoms-up approach based on technical dictates to a top-down approach based on management goals--a transformation from an engineering problem to an economic problem. The 2006 Plan evolved from EM`s Ten-Year Plan, and seeks to convert the largely open-ended planning approach previously undertaken by EM to a plan bounded by time and dollars. The plan emphasizes making tradeoffs and choosing activities that deliver the most clean-up for the dollar. It also recognizes that each major player--stakeholders, DOE, OMB and Congress--has distinct interests that must be resolved if the process is to succeed. This, in turn, has created the need for a corresponding transformation in risk management practices from compliance-driven to benefit/cost-driven.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Duemmer, C.L.



Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.



Methodology for the development of a Canadian national EMS research agenda  

PubMed Central

Background Many health care disciplines use evidence-based decision making to improve patient care and system performance. While the amount and quality of emergency medical services (EMS) research in Canada has increased over the past two decades, there has not been a unified national plan to enable research, ensure efficient use of research resources, guide funding decisions and build capacity in EMS research. Other countries have used research agendas to identify barriers and opportunities in EMS research and define national research priorities. The objective of this project is to develop a national EMS research agenda for Canada that will: 1) explore what barriers to EMS research currently exist, 2) identify current strengths and opportunities that may be of benefit to advancing EMS research, 3) make recommendations to overcome barriers and capitalize on opportunities, and 4) identify national EMS research priorities. Methods/Design Paramedics, educators, EMS managers, medical directors, researchers and other key stakeholders from across Canada will be purposefully recruited to participate in this mixed methods study, which consists of three phases: 1) qualitative interviews with a selection of the study participants, who will be asked about their experience and opinions about the four study objectives, 2) a facilitated roundtable discussion, in which all participants will explore and discuss the study objectives, and 3) an online Delphi consensus survey, in which all participants will be asked to score the importance of each topic discovered during the interviews and roundtable as they relate to the study objectives. Results will be analyzed to determine the level of consensus achieved for each topic. Discussion A mixed methods approach will be used to address the four study objectives. We anticipate that the keys to success will be: 1) ensuring a representative sample of EMS stakeholders, 2) fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and 3) adhering to a predefined approach to measure consensus on each topic. Steps have been taken in the methodology to address each of these a priori concerns.



Queda dos homic?dios em S?o Paulo, Brasil: uma an?lise descritiva  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (?74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (?78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (?79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (?74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social.

Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sergio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sergio



A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT because of its attractive theoretical and practical properties. Its major disadvantage is that, due to its slow rate of convergence, a large amount of computation is often required to achieve an acceptable image. In this paper the authors present a row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA) as an alterative to the EM algorithm for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT. The authors deduce the convergence properties of this algorithm and demonstrate by way of computer simulations that the early iterates of RAMLA increase the Poisson likelihood in ECT at an order of magnitude faster than the standard EM algorithm. Specifically, they show that, from the point of view of measuring total radionuclide uptake in simulated brain phantoms, iterations 1, 2, 3, and 4 of RAMLA perform at least as well as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. Moreover, they show that iterations 1,2,3, and 4 of RAMLA achieve comparable likelihood values as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. They also present a modified version of a recent fast ordered subsets EM (OS-EM) algorithm and show that RAMLA is a special case of this modified OS-EM. Furthermore, they show that the modification converges to a ML solution whereas the standard OS-EM does not.

Browne, J. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Pierro, A.R. de [State Univ. of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Mathematics



Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.  


A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield. PMID:16023343

Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir



Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 0.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When

Zhu Baoge; Gu Aiqiu; Deng Xiangdong; Deng Yuxuan; Lu Zixian



EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating rollover. Vehicle intrusion, deformity, and seatbelt use appear to be more difficult to estimate with only fair agreement with the crash reconstructionist. As expected, the EMS provider estimated speed prior to the crash does not appear to be a reasonable proxy for change in velocity.

Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.



Vibrational symmetry classification and torsional tunneling splitting patterns in G6(EM), G12, and G36(EM) molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the torsional splitting patterns in methanol-like molecules, with the excitation of small amplitude vibrational modes in the methyl group, are determined by mechanisms that can be formulated in an almost identical fashion to that for ethane-like molecules. This is achieved by treating ethane-like molecules by the internal axis method (IAM) and methanol-like molecules by the principal axis method (PAM) or rho-axis method (RAM). Using the extended molecular groups G6(EM) or C6v(M) for methanol and G36(EM) for ethane, vibrations perpendicular to the internal rotation axis are conveniently described by modes of higher degeneracy (E for methanol and Gs for ethane) in the absence of coupling of top and frame. Head-tail coupling operators, except the cos-type barrier terms, lower the degeneracy, causing vibrational splittings. Coupled vibrational pairs with torsional splitting patterns that we call 'regular' (pure A1, A2 pairs for methanol and pure E1d, E2d pairs for ethane) or 'inverted' (pure B1, B2 pairs for methanol and pure E1s, E2s pairs for ethane) can be formed as limit cases. Actual splitting patterns occur between the above limits, and are basically determined by torsional Coriolis coupling, which can tune more or less to resonance pairs of uncoupled basis levels linked by specific head-tail coupling operators. The inversion of torsional splitting patterns, observed in perpendicular vibrational modes of the methyl group of methanol, can be predicted by these theoretical considerations. Similar considerations apply to molecules of G12 symmetry.

Lattanzi, F.; di Lauro, C.


Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: dados diagnósticos e resultados terapêuticos em 241 casos Primary lung abscess: diagnostic findings and results of the treatment in 241 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINOPSE São mostrados aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos do abscesso pulmonar de aspiração. No período de 1968 a 2002 foram reunidos e estudados 241 casos da doença - 199 em homens e 42 em mulheres, com média de idade de 41,3 anos. Em 69% dos pacientes esteve presente a ingestão de álcool e em 64% o hábito tabágico. Tosse, expectoração, febre

ÂNGELA P. ZIEGLER; José S. Moreira; Rua Carlos Von Koseritz



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL


Carbon Nanotube Fiber-Reinforced Composite Structures for EM and Lightning Strike Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for repairing fiber-reinforced composite structures while maintaining original EM and lightning protection using carbon nanotubes, fibers, and thermoset resins is disclosed. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method comprises prepa...

D. H. Landis J. L. Conroy J. W. Piche P. J. Glatkowski



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module Q: Personnel Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on personnel management is presented as part of an educational program for emergency medical services (EMS) systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educatio...

E. C. Murphy



Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1994 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of petroleum reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) monitoring. The goal is to develop practica...

M. Wilt



Examination of In-Bore Projectile Motion from an EM Railgun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was undertaken to examine electromagnetic (EM) gun barrel/projectile interaction. The RASCAL code was used in this study because of its ability to easily manipulate relevant parameters such as gun tube centerline, projectile/bore contact ...

L. Burton



CHOYCE: a web server for constrained homology modelling with cryoEM maps  

PubMed Central

Summary: CHOYCE is a web server for homology modelling of protein components and the fitting of those components into cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps of their assemblies. It provides an interactive approach to improving the selection of models based on the quality of their fit into the EM map. Availability: Contact:; Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Rawi, Reda; Whitmore, Lee; Topf, Maya



An Effective EM\\/IR-drop Flow with UltraSim and VAVO\\/VAEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both static and dynamic methods are widely used for the electro-migration (EM) and IR-drop verifications. For analog and mixed-signal (AMS) designs, only dynamic spice-like simulations may provide adequate accuracy. It is well- known that dynamic simulations generally take a long run time even with so- called fast spice simulators, such as UltraSim. In addition, the EM and IR drop verifications

Wei-Si Jiang


Two different Em -like genes are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a radish cDNA probe, we have isolated and characterized two genomic clones from Arabidopsis thaliana (GEA1 and GEA6) encoding two different proteins that are homologous to the “Early methionine-labelled” (Em) protein of wheat. GEA1 differs from GEA6 and Em clones of wheat in that a sequence coding for 20 amino acid residues is tandemly repeated 4 times. These two

Pascale Gaubier; Monique Raynal; Gillian Hull; Gordon M. Huestis; Françoise Grellet; César Arenas; Montserrat Pagès; Michel Delseny



Esclerose múltipla: estudo descritivo de suas formas clínicas em 302 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A esclerose múltipla é uma das causas mais comuns de incapacidade neurológica crônica em adultos jovens. Avaliamos, através de estudo retrospectivo, características epidemiológicas, formas de apresentação, manifestações clínicas, evolução e o grau de incapacitação física da esclerose múltipla em 302 pacientes. A média da idade dos pacientes foi 37,7 anos e a relação entre os gêneros foi 3,13F:1M.




On Iterative EM-Based Frequency Domain Joint Estimation of Synchronization Parameter and Channel Impulse Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an iterative EM-based frequency domain joint estimation algorithm of synchronization parameter and channel impulse response (CIR) in direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) system is proposed. This algorithm is based on the expectation-maximization (EM) method. A complete Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) analysis of the proposed algorithms is also given in this paper. Because this algorithm can

Cheng Li; Tianqi Wang; Hsiao-hwa Chen



Acceleration of germination of super-hard rice cultivar EM10 by soaking with red onion.  


Red onion accelerated the germination of rice seeds and inhibited microbial infestation during germination. After germination with red onion for 16 h at 35 °C, super-hard rice EM10 showed a higher germination ratio (2.3 times), and it contained more GABA (2.3 times) and glucose (2.9 times) than that soaked without onion. Due to soaking with red onion, germinated EM10 was fortified with quercetin (18 mg/100 g). PMID:21389608

Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi



Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other

Dennis Hewett



Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng



Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and

Christian Haas; John Lobach; Stefan Hendricks; Lasse Rabenstein; Andreas Pfaffling



Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman–Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length

E. Al-Tarazi; J. Abu Rajab; A. Al-Naqa; M. El-Waheidi




Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter-borne electromagnetic-inductive (EM) ice thickness measurements have been performed in February 2003 along the Finish Baltic Sea coast. Both, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia were surveyed. Measurements have been performed with a small, two-frequency EM-Bird, a towed sensor suspended 20 m below the heli- copter and operated 15 m above the ice surface. Results show that

Christian Haas


A note on stopping rules in EM-ML reconstructions of ECT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain pseudo-maximum likelihood estimates (i.e. the EM-ML algorithm) of radiopharmaceutical distributions based on data collected from emission computed tomography (ECT) systems is now a well developed area, as witnessed by a number of recent articles on that topic, including the detailed study of the relative performance of EM-ML and FBP reconstructions provided in

Valen E. Johnson



Amplification and expression of EMS-1 (cortactin) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  


Amplification of chromosome 11q13 DNA sequences is detected in approximately 30% of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The amplified region includes genes for cyclin D1, hst-1, int-2, and more recently, ems-1. Ems-1 encodes an 80/85kd cytoskeletal associated protein termed cortactin, which has been shown to bind F-actin and is a pp60src substrate. We investigated 16 HNSCC cell lines for ems-1 DNA amplification and gene expression by western blotting and immunofluorescence using mAb 4F11. Amplification of ems-1 DNA was detected in 8/16 (50%) cell lines and was related directly to over-expression of cortactin by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Western blotting detected both forms of cortactin, p80 and p85, at equal intensity. Immunofluorescent staining revealed low levels of cortactin localized to the cytoplasm and surface membrane in normal bronchial epithelial cells and tumor cell cultures with single copy ems-1 DNA. In contrast, tumor cell cultures with ems-1 DNA amplification demonstrated intense, homogeneous cortactin cytoplasmic staining. These results suggest that overexpression of p80/85 may be a useful marker to identify 11q13 amplification, a molecular alteration correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. PMID:8552396

Patel, A M; Incognito, L S; Schechter, G L; Wasilenko, W J; Somers, K D



Method for estimating dynamic EM tracking accuracy of surgical navigation tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tracking systems have been used for several years in image guided medical procedures. Vendors often state static accuracies of a single retro-reflective sphere or LED. Expensive coordinate measurement machines (CMM) are used to validate the positional accuracy over the specified working volume. Users are interested in the dynamic accuracy of their tools. The configuration of individual sensors into a unique tool, the calibration of the tool tip, and the motion of the tool contribute additional errors. Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are considered an enabling technology for many image guided procedures because they are not limited by line-of-sight restrictions, take minimum space in the operating room, and the sensors can be very small. It is often difficult to quantify the accuracy of EM trackers because they can be affected by field distortion from certain metal objects. Many high-accuracy measurement devices can affect the EM measurements being validated. EM Tracker accuracy tends to vary over the working volume and orientation of the sensors. We present several simple methods for estimating the dynamic accuracy of EM tracked tools. We discuss the characteristics of the EM Tracker used in the GE Healthcare family of surgical navigation systems. Results for other tracking systems are included.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; Beauregard, Lee; Anderson, Peter



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Student Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of student difficulties identified in a junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course during four semesters of a curriculum transformation project. These resource documents present the research findings of this project that resulted from: interviews with students using âthink-aloudâ protocol as they worked through problems or diagrammed their understanding using concept maps; observations during help sessions and tutorials; student questions during lecture; student performance on concept tests / clicker questions; student performance on homework and exams; and student performance on the conceptual assessment developed for the course. In addition to student difficulties, these documents include the learning goals associated with each topic and class activities developed by other institutions to address that topic. Those who wish to learn more about these activities activities should This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael



EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

Nelson, S.D.



Electromagnetic (EM) wave attachment to femtosecond laser plasma filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis outlines a theoretical and experimental analysis of utilizing plasma filaments generated by a femtosecond class laser system as a means for transmission of Radio Frequency (RF) electro-magnetic waves. Theoretically, the plasma filaments are modeled as complex cylindrical wires in space for single and dual wire configurations. Attenuation as a function of distance is calculated for single wire TE mode propagation and dual wire TEM mode propagation. Minimum attenuation is shown to be dependant on filament diameter, electron density and filament separation (for the dual wire case). Initial experimental validation of theoretical models is performed with copper wire filament surrogates. RF/plasma filament interaction is then demonstrated in a rectangular waveguide fixture. Filament electron density enhancement is demonstrated in cylindrical resonant RF cavities (2.6 GHz and 0.9 GHz) where an increase in pulse width of attached EM waves beyond lifetimes of typical ultra-fast laser generated plasma filaments is observed. Transmission of RF energy out of resonant cavities along a filament is demonstrated further validating transmission theory.

Friedman, Daniel Clint


If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

Wellard, Stanley J.



Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization…

Waters, John K.



A INFLUÊNCIA DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL NOS HÁBITOS DE CONSUMO: uma análise do comportamento de consumo em universitários do curso de Administração com Habilitação em Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As mudanças na sociedade trouxeram ao consumidor um grande poder de decisão, tornando-o responsável pela escolha de seu consumo e preferências. As empresas para acompanharem tais mudanças apostaram em transformações e adaptaram-se aos novos rumos do mercado. O marketing por sua vez, vem inovando suas estratégias e ações para atender a essas novas necessidades e determinações do consumidor e

Ana Carolina; Saad Camargo; Ligia Ghisi



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Meliponina tem ocorrência restrita a áreas tropicais e subtropicais e é na Região Neotropical que possuem a maior diversidade de espécies. A maioria faz seus ninhos preferencialmente em ocos de árvores, no entanto, algumas espécies podem nidificar em cavidades no solo, em cupinzeiros ou formigueiros (abandonados ou ativos), em ninhos de pássaros desativados ou em paredes de casas.

Estefane Leoncini SIQUEIRA; Roderic Breno MARTINES; Fernanda Helena


Adequação do consumo de ferro por gestantes e mulheres em idade fértil atendidas em um serviço de pré-natal Adequacy of iron consumption in pregnant and fertile women assisted by a prenatal service Adecuación del consumo de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y fértiles asistidas por un servicio prenatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Anemia por carência alimentar de ferro é o problema nutricional mais prevalente em nível de saúde coletiva e afeta crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em especial as gestantes. Este estudo avaliou o consumo de alimentos fontes de ferro, naturais e fortificados, e a adequação de energia e nutrientes de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, gestantes ou não. Desenvolveu-se um

Juliana Moreira Lino Viana; Adriana Uehara Santos; Maria Alice Tsunechiro; Ana Paula; Sayuri Sato; Isabel Bonadio; Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc; Elizabeth Fujimori


Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from global trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements in ocean island basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high ‘?’ = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, Matthew G.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep



Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from Global Trends between Radiogenic Isotopes and Major Elements in Ocean Island Basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'ì' = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent- daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, M. G.; Dasgupta, R.



EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM) without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. METHODS:

Ying Ji Li; Arata Azuma; Jiro Usuki; Shinji Abe; Kuniko Matsuda; Toshiaki Sunazuka; Takako Shimizu; Yukiyo Hirata; Hirofumi Inagaki; Tomoyuki Kawada; Satoru Takahashi; Shoji Kudoh; Satoshi Omura



EmCodeSyn: A visual framework for multi-rate data flow specifications and code synthesis for embedded applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new framework EmCodeSyn is introduced for visual debugging, execution and code synthesis from multi-rate data flow based specifications. EmCodeSyn is an attempt to create a formal semantics based visual framework for specifying safety critical applications such as automotive control, avionics fly-by-wire control, etc. In contrast with SIMULINK\\/Stateflow, LabVIEW and other visual tools, EmCodeSyn is based on

Bijoy A. Jose; Jason Pribble; Lemaire Stewart; Sandeep K. Shukla



Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland habitat more accurately and in greater detail than is feasible from aerial photographs and limited field checks, approaching that achievable on the ground. Where vegetation is dense, lidar-derived elevations may represent the top of massed vegetation rather than the ground surface, leading to potential habitat misclassification. Measurements of shallow electrical conductivity using a ground-based EM instrument range over three orders of magnitude and also correlate well with NWI habitat and geomorphic unit. High conductivities are measured within marine and estuarine NWI units and in salt marsh, wind-tidal flat, and forebeach environments. Low conductivities are measured within upland and palustrine NWI habitats and in dune, VBF, and fresh marsh environments. Conductivity profiles possess more mappable detail than is present on NWI maps. Tests of an airborne EM sensor towed 30 m above the ground yielded insufficient resolution. Elevation and conductivity are inversely correlated along the transects. EM and lidar readily discern saline- and fresh-water environments and complement traditional wetland classification by helping distinguish environments that have similar signatures on aerial photographs. There is some overlap in elevation and conductivity among similar habitats and environments, but a statistical classification based on integrated data from lidar, EM, and aerial photographs can achieve greater resolution and accuracy than current remote-sensing methods. Future work should include evaluating the effect of vegetation density on lidar-beam penetration, quantifying seasonal change in ground conductivity in fresh and saline environments, examining the geographic variability of elevation and conductivity, and further evaluating the use of airborne EM sensors to measure conductivity at multiple exploration depths simultaneously.

Paine, J. G.; White, W. A.; Smyth, R. C.; Andrews, J. R.; Gibeaut, J. C.



Scalable and interactive segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM datasets.  


Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuro-scientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes. PMID:19834227

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T


Scalable and Interactive Segmentation and Visualization of Neural Processes in EM Datasets  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuroscientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes.

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T.



The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  


This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S


Preliminary Seafloor Controlled Source EM Results From APPLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain events in the life cycle of oceanic lithosphere are dominantly two-dimensional. These include formation of crust at axial spreading centers and deformation at the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary. These processes may result in an electrically anisotropic oceanic lithosphere by creating conductive pathways in preferred orientations. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) soundings and Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made during the Anisotropy and Physics of the Pacific Lithosphere Experiment (APPLE), carried out in February/March 2001 approximately 600 km west of San Diego, California. Twenty seafloor electromagnetic field sensors were deployed: 4 long-wire CSEM recorders with 200 m electrode offsets, 6 high-frequency MT/CSEM recorders with two orthogonal 10 m offset electrodes and two orthogonal induction coil magnetometers, and 10 low-frequency MT recorders with a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and two orthogonal 10 m electric dipoles, 5 of which also recorded CSEM data. Every instrument was recovered, with data, during this primary cruise and a follow-up recovery cruise for the long-period instruments in August 2001. The deep-towed EM transmitter (DASI) was a 100 m horizontal electric dipole, which was towed in a 30 km radius circle around a central core of recorders. A radial tow was also performed. DASI transmitted a 4 Hz square wave throughout the CSEM phase of the experiment. Initial processing of the CSEM data reveals evidence of crustal anisotropy. In particular, transmitted electromagnetic energy is attenuated more strongly when propagating from west to east than from north to south. The difference in attenuation is about a factor of two, at a range of 30 km and a frequency of 4Hz. This confirms earlier results from the PEGASUS experiment, which proposed that oceanic lower crust and upper mantle with east-west trending lineaments of increased conductivity will exhibit greater attenuation of electric fields in the east-west direction. These lineaments may be deposits of conductive minerals (e.g. oxides, graphite) stretched out along the direction of plate motion.

Behrens, J. P.; MacGregor, L.; Constable, S.; Everett, M.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (l.) R. Br.) tem sido a principal opção para a formação de palhada no sistema de plantio direto no cerrado, sendo cultivado em safrinha ou em pré-safra. Para esta última época, todavia, são necessárias informações que possibilitem seu cultivo sem prejudicar a época de semeadura da cultura de verão. O objetivo do trabalho

Fabio Ribeiro; Renato Lara; Gilson Pereira; Antônio Joaquim; Braga Pereira; Shinayder Cristina SANTOS; Santiel Alves; João Paulo; Goulart de SOUSA


Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.



Diffusion-Based EM Algorithm for Distributed Estimation of Gaussian Mixtures in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach.

Weng, Yang; Xiao, Wendong; Xie, Lihua



EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.



Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.  


This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan



Applying WPD and SVD to Classification of EM Wave Induced by Partial Discharge in Power Transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial discharge (PD) current is an impulse signal at nanosecond level, which can generate electromagnetic (EM) wave containing broadband frequency information. The frequency band of EM signal is from MHz up to GHz. Due to different PD patterns, impulse currents with different shapes induce different EM waves containing different frequency information. Therefore, using the features extracted from frequency domain of EM signals, the classification of PD patterns can be effectively got. It is good to use wavelet or wavelet packet decomposition to select features. However, if the decomposition level is too shallow to find enough effective features, it cannot group the EM signals to the right pattern. On the contrary, although it is easier to find features to distinguish the PD pattern if the decomposition level is deep, there will be a lot of redundancy variables and it is hard to select features among so many variables. In this paper, a method is presented, which selected features in the whole decomposition tree instead of selecting among the leaf node of the tree, because more potential features can be found in the whole tree. With the present method, it is possible not only to get enough features, but also to eliminate the redundancy variables effectively. In order to validate the method, large EM signals from four PD patterns in a power transformer are acquired as the training data and testing data for feature selection and classification, and three common classification methods are introduced to classify the PD patterns using the features selected by the method. Most of the classification results are satisfactory indicating that the proposed method is effective.

Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Yong-Hong; Meng, Yong-Peng; Danikas, Michael G.



EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the appropriate stage of development.

Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.



A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.



Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data  

PubMed Central

Cryo-elecron microscopy (Cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a “consensus” achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data.

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Tama, Florence



Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data.  


Cryo-elecron microscopy (cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a "consensus" achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data. PMID:22019767

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Tama, Florence



The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key workforce measures – turnover rates and costs – where previously none have existed. Local EMS directors and policymakers at all levels of government may find the results and study methodology useful towards designing and evaluating programs targeting the EMS workforce.

Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas



Label-free visualization of ultrastructural features of artificial synapses via cryo-EM.  


The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses. PMID:22860164

Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Yam, Patricia T; Madwar, Carolin; Bostina, Mihnea; Rouiller, Isabelle; Colman, David R; Lennox, R Bruce



the Mean Field Theory in EM Procedures for Markov Random Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how the mean field theory from statistical mechanics can be used in EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm when part of the data is modeled as a Markov random field (MRF). true parameters 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 estimated in EM procedure 0.06 0.09 -0.15 0.76 1.00 0.68 0.69 estimated from the region map -0.04 -0.03

Jun Zhang; James W. Modestino



Specially Conditioned EM Fields for Propellant-less Impulsion within Higher Dimensional Spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A higher dimensional realm with room for both slower than light (STL) and faster-than-light (FTL) travel is defined, together with paths within this realm that enable: unlabored (momentum-conserving and energy-preserving) ship acceleration and deceleration between STL and FTL speeds. And it is shown that fields guiding ships on unlabored paths within this deeper realm must have components in more than the 3 spatial directions in which ordinary electromagnetic (EM) fields act. This is shown possible with EM fields that are transformed from lower U1 to higher SU2 Lie symmetry.

Froning, H. David



A protein-based EM label for RNA identifies the location of exons in spliceosomes  

PubMed Central

To locate key RNA features in the structure of the spliceosome by EM, we fused a sequence-specific RNA binding protein to a protein with a distinct donut-shaped structure. We used this fusion to label spliceosomes assembled on a pre-mRNA that contained the target sequence in the exons. The label is clearly visible in EM images of the spliceosome, and subsequent image processing with averaging shows that the exons sit close to each other in the complex. This labeling strategy will serve as a general tool for analyzing the structures of RNA-containing macromolecular complexes.

Alcid, Eric A; Jurica, Melissa S



Effect of EM on Soil Quality, Fruit Quality and Yield of Orange Trees in a Brazilian Citrus Orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field investigation was conducted during 1993-94 on citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the interactions of EM with soil, leaves, mite populations, fruit quality and yield of orange trees. The study was designed to test the ability of Effective Microorganisms (EM) to significantly change a number of soil parameters in the citrus agroecosystem. Climate of

A. D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; A. B. Sanches; M. C. S. Nogueira


A Zeeman-Stark\\/Markov model approach to study the EM-RF exposure of a potassium channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary increase in the use of electromagnetic (EM) radiofrequency (RF) radiation has stimulated new researches concentrated on the study of the early steps of the EM interaction mechanisms. As most of the effects due to the exogenous exposure of biosystem has been associated with the cell membrane, these researches are mainly oriented toward the study of the molecular aspects

Simona Bruna; Micaela Liberti; S. Giordano; E. Moggia; B. Bianco; G. D'Inzeo



Assistência de enfermagem ao paciente em pulsoterapia com corticosteróide Nursing care of patients on corticosteroid pulse therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResUMo introdução: A pulsoterapia com corticosteróide endovenoso consiste na administração de corticosteróides em altas doses (a partir de 1 g\\/ dia), por três dias ou mais, ou em dias alternados. A necessidade de hospitalização ocorre devido aos possíveis efeitos colaterais que o paciente pode apresentar durante a infusão da droga; para tanto a monitorização dos parâmetros vitais, além de identificar

Deborah Rozencwajg; Carla Fátima; Paixão Nunes; Luciane Midory Sakuma; Cláudia Regina Laselva; Bartira Aguiar Roza


Left-Handed-Media Simulation and Transmission of EM Waves in Subwavelength Split-Ring-Resonator-Loaded Metallic Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

At microwave frequencies, hollow metallic waveguides behave in certain aspects as a ``one-dimensional plasma.'' This feature will be advantageously used for simulating the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in left-handed metamaterials provided the hollow waveguide is periodically loaded with split ring resonators. It will be shown that EM transmission in this structure is feasible within a certain frequency band even

R. Marqués; J. Martel; F. Mesa; F. Medina




Microsoft Academic Search

Foi instalado um teste de procedência e progênie de Liquidambar styraciflua L. em Agudos, SP, em solo de areia quartzosa. Os materiais genéticos foram fornecidos pelo Oxford Forestry Institute, incluindo doze procedências da Guatemala, Honduras, Nicarágua, México e dos Estados Unidos, sendo testados juntamente com uma testemunha local, com duas a dez progênies por procedência. Medições efetuadas dos quatro até

Jarbas Y. Shimizu; Ivana H. Z. Spir


Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

Adachi, Kohei



Synoptic Field Measurements In The Ems Estuary Combining Adcp, Multi Sensor Equipped Current Meter and Gauge Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estuary of the Ems River is located in the north-west of Germany and forms partly the border line between the Netherlands and Germany. Between the lower Ems River and the outer estuary to the North Sea a brackish shallow water basin of mesohalin characteristics is located - the Dollart. The surface area ist about 100 km2 and the only

J. Jensen; T. Frank; Ch. Mudersbach




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar os riscos de acidentes em atividades de poda de árvores na arborização urbana do Distrito Federal. A coleta de dados foi feita com a aplicação de um questionário em forma de entrevista individual. Responderam ao questionário 94% dos funcionários, sendo 92% do total dos operadores de motosserra e 95% do total de

Nilton César Fiedler; Eduardo Hideki Sone; Ailton Teixeira do Vale; José de Fátima Juvêncio; Luciano José Minette


Comparison of 3D OS-EM and 4D MAP-RBI-EM reconstruction algorithms for cardiac motion abnormality classification using a motion observer  

PubMed Central

Using a heart motion observer, we compared the performance of two image reconstruction techniques, a 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering and a 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm. The task was to classify gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) SPECT images of beating hearts with or without regional motion abnormalities. Noise-free simulated GMP SPECT projection data was generated from two 4D NCAT beating heart phantom models, one with normal motion and the other with a 50% motion defect in a pie-shaped wedge region-of-interest (ROI) in the anterior-lateral left ventricular wall. The projection data were scaled to clinical GMP SPECT count level before Poisson noise was simulated to generate 40 noise realizations. The noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the two reconstruction algorithms, parameters chosen to optimize the tradeoff between image bias and noise. As a motion observer, a 3D motion estimation method previously developed was applied to estimate the radial motion on the ROI from two adjacent gates. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for radial motion magnitudes corresponding to each reconstruction technique. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as an index for classification of regional motion. The reconstructed images with better bias and noise tradeoff were found to offer better classification for hearts with or without regional motion defects. The 3D cardiac motion estimation algorithm, serving as a heart motion observer, was better able to distinguish the abnormal from the normal regional motion in GMP SPECT images obtained from the 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm than from the 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering.

Tang, Jing; Lee, Taek-Soo; He, Xin; Segars, W. Paul; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.



Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.



As paixões naturais e as ações humanas voluntárias em Thomas Hobbes1 The natural passions and voluntary human actions in Thomas Hobbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo procuram-se examinar as razões pelas quais se originam e procedem as ações humanas em Hobbes. Primeiramente, evidencia-se que as ações humanas procedem dos movimentos voluntários, e que tais movimentos são responsáveis pelo processo de deliberação humana. Em seguida, discute-se o papel da vontade em relação às ações voluntárias, ressaltando, sobretudo, como essas ações constituem-se em ações livres, de

Delmo Mattos da Silva


In Situ Data Processing With Workflow-based Embedded Cyberinfrastructure (emCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decreasing cost of sensors and sensor networks has led to the wide scale adoption of this technology by large numbers of scientists for the collection of data in the field. At the same time, advances in both hardware and software have resulted in increased processing power at the sensor, enabling sensors in the field to do more than just data collection. With an increase in the number of sensors and deployments, scientists need tools for the configuration, operation, and debugging problems on their sensor networks. Furthermore, as the amount of data increases, scientists need a way to quickly and easily tag, process, archive, and share their datasets. Without proper tools, it is common for data processing to happen weeks or sometimes months after it is collected. This leads to important events being missed and makes real-time data analysis impossible. Additionally, because data is often manually processed through a series of repetitive steps, the analysis is susceptible to errors that are hard to track after data is combined and shared among researchers. Our emCI (embedded cyberinfrastructure) toolkit enables researchers to easily collect, analyze, and share their data. emCI provides a web-portal with upload/download capabilities that accept data in a number of different formats and ultimately can be used to archive data and share datasets among scientists. emCI uses an embedded general-purpose computer in the field for interfacing with sensors, coordinating data collection, and providing reliable data transfer to the emCI web portal. emCI relies on workflow technologies to automate data processing pipelines and to provide provenance information. In particular, emCI uses the Pegasus Workflow Management System as a core component, adapting it to the embedded computation environment. emCI allows scientists to distribute tasks among sensors in field and servers in the lab. In-situ processing using embedded workflows enable data reduction and validation in the field. Scientists can also create embedded workflows for data analysis and sensor retasking, allowing for much faster response to events in the field as well as disconnected operation from the emCI portal. Workflows executed at the emCI portal can include heavier computations, and combine data from multiple sensors by performing data analysis on data from multiple sources. The emCI portal also supports workflows for data transfers, visualization, and the automatic monitoring of the embedded infrastructure. We have prototyped the emCI toolkit in a project that uses automated digital cameras and weather stations for observing climate change based on plant phenology observations. In this application, embedded workflows are being used to coordinate the field data collection, reduce and analyze image data in the field, and retask cameras based on embedded triggers. We are currently in the process of moving our deployment from prototype to production stage at the Stunt Ranch UC Reserve in the Santa Monica Mountains.

Mehta, G.; Silva, F.; Graham, E. A.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Rundel, P.



Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.



REVISÃO DA LITERATURA SOBRE CONCEITOS E DEFINIÇÕES DE FRAGILIDADE EM IDOSOS Literature review on the concepts and definitions of frailty in elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar as definições de Fragilidade em Idosos, prevalentes em artigos científicos de revisão sobre o tema. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1) artigo de revisão sobre conceitos e definições de fragilidade em idosos, apresentando ênfase na inexistência de consenso sobre o termo \\

Ilka Nicéia; D'Aquino Oliveira



Variação da independência funcional em idosos hospitalizados relacionada a variáveis sociais e de saúde Variation in functional independence in hospitalized elderly related to social and health variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de envelhecimento, as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as hospitalizações podem causar declínio funcional em idosos. Alguns fatores podem potencializar esse comprometimento funcional como gênero, número de internações, presença de acompanhante e medicações em uso. Objetivo: Identificar a variação da capacidade funcional em idosos no decorrer da hospitalização e relacionar a diferença com variáveis sociais e de saúde.

Kozue Kawasaki; Maria José D'Elboux Diogo



SCADA EMS DMS-a part of the corporate IT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static world with a closed control room within the utility industry is changing to an environment where the SCADA\\/EMS\\/DMS system is part of the corporate IT systems. The driving force for this is the need for utilities to have accurate data available for quick business decisions on a deregulated market. Cost reduction and quality improvement facilitated by increased information

L. Grasberg; L. A. Osterlund



Abordagem etnobotânica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em dermatologia na cidade de João Pessoa-Paraíba, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As doenças de pele são muito comuns acometendo cerca de 1\\/3 da população mundial e as plantas medicinais, em especial as suas associações, são comumente usadas nas comunidades para o tratamento de micoses, erisipela e outras dermatoses. Todavia, um dos problemas enfrentados pelos profissionais da área de saúde atualmente é justamente a questão do uso concomitante de plantas medicinais

E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo; João Pessoa



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research is to review and compare two commonly used spatial prediction techniques, cokriging (CoK) and hierarchical spatial regression (HSR), specifically with respect to predicting various soil properties from calibrating regional EM survey data. A brief review of the mathemati...


Sintomas Depressivos e Qualidade de Vida em Indivíduos com Epilepsia por Esclerose Mesial Temporal  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades no trabalho, em relacionamentos interpessoais, familiares e sociais, a percepção do estigma, da discriminação dentre outros têm sido associados aos estados depressivos interictais, influen- ciando negativamente a qualidade de vida (QV) das pessoas com epilepsia. A depressão tem alta prevalência (20 a 55%) nas epilepsias, sendo vista como o fator mais importante no julgamento do paciente sobre

Neide Barreira Alonso; Tatiana Indelicato da Silva; Ana Carolina Westphal; Auro Mauro Azevedo


Analysis on the characteristics of the EM wave absorber using Sendust and Amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we fabricated several samples using amorphous metal powder and Sendust as magnetic loss materials and CPE as binder. Firstly, we fabricated EM wave absorber with different composition ratio of 60 : 40, 70 : 30 and 80 : 20 wt.%. and thickness of 1 mm and 2 mm. Then we compared the measured absorption ability based on

Dong Soo Choi; Gun Suk Yoo; Dong Il Kim




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an incremental iterative procedure was carried out to study aerodynamic response of an EMS-type maglev vehicle moving over a series of guideway girders at constant speeds. The maglev vehicle is simulated as a rigid car body supported by a rigid levitation frame using a uniformly distributed spring-dashpot system, in which the electromagnetic forces are controlled by an

J. D. Yau


Delineation of Groundwater and Soil Contamination Using EM Survey at an Industrial Abandoned Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts by the activity in our hand with appropriate methods, and the geophysical techniques have often been using in the subsurface environmental monitoring and remediation processes. In the study an Electromagnetic survey (EM) is performed to delineate deeply the extent of contamination at an industrial abandoned site, to detect the spread

Zhang Shaohong




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A escassez do petróleo e a crescente pressão dos organismos ambientais têm contribuído significativamente para o aumento da utilização mundial do gás natural, nos diversos setores, em substituição aos combustíveis fósseis. Porém, no Brasil, o governo pretende utilizar o combustível para alimentar várias termelétricas a fim de suprir o déficit energético. O estudo mostra que esta opção acarreta

Eduardo Rocha Praça; Ernesto Ferreira; Nobre Júnior; João Bosco; Furtado Arruda



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL


Estudo comparativo das amplitudes de movimento da coluna cervical em idosos com diferentes níveis de aptidão  

Microsoft Academic Search

REsumo Introdução:Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar e comparar as amplitudes de movimento (ADM) da coluna cervical em dois grupos de idosos com níveis diferentes de aptidão física. Métodos: Foram selecionados 40 voluntários assintomáticos com idade entre 60-75 anos e subdivididos pelo seu respectivo nível de aptidão física. Os voluntários então foram submetidos a mensuração de suas respectivas ADM pelo

Cristiano Oliveira de Carvalho; Denis Aron; José Alberto; Alves Silva; Luis Flávio Horta Bicalho; Ana Paula; Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa; Vânia Ferreira de Figueiredo



Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation  

EPA Science Inventory

The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...


Effect of EM on Soil Properties and Nutrient Cycling in a Citrus Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on soil and on natural cycling of nutrients, a field investigation was conducted with citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. A Typic Hapludox soil predominates as a deep, well-drained, clay soil with high hydrogen and aluminum contents and low base saturation, The organic matter content of the soil is moderate,

D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; M. J. A. Jorge; M. C. S. Nogueira


Longer term impacts of transformed courses on student conceptual understanding of E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment.) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting in Fall 2004 and 2007, respectively. Our longitudinal data allow us to measure "fade" on BEMA performance between freshman and junior year. We investigate the effects of curricula on students by comparing juniors who were enrolled in traditional vs. transformed physics as freshmen, as well as those who were enrolled in traditional or transformed upper-division E&M I, using both BEMA and CUE measures. We find that while freshman reforms significantly impact BEMA scores, junior-level reforms affect CUE but not BEMA outcomes.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.



The mean field theory in EM procedures for Markov random fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many signal processing and pattern recognition applications, the hidden data are modeled as Markov processes, and the main difficulty of using the maximisation (EM) algorithm for these applications is the calculation of the conditional expectations of the hidden Markov processes. It is shown how the mean field theory from statistical mechanics can be used to calculate the conditional expectations

Jun Zhang




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL


EM121 Sonar Calibration Experiment Using MPL's Phantom DS4 ROV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a series of measurements carried out at sea in December 1995, to determine the acoustic source levels of a SIMRAD EM-121 multibeam echo-sounder installed aboard USNS SUMNER (TAGS-61). This was done by navigating a refer...

C. D. Moustier



Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam



The Trier mummy Paï-es-tjau-em-aui-nu: radiological and histological findings.  


The ancient Egyptian mummy Paï-es-tjau-em-aui-nu, now on exhibition in the Rheinische Landesmuseum in Trier, Germany, was examined by conventional X-ray radiography, computed tomography, and digital fluoroscopy. In addition, some tissues were biopsied for further histologic identification. Along with some representative images, the peculiarities of the Trier mummy concerning the mummification process are presented. PMID:12111080

Sigmund, G; Minas, M



Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.  


Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R



Analysis and measurements of EM and substrate coupling effects in common RF integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of coupling between inductors and resonators fabricated in Si substrates is presented and the effects on RF systems and components is discussed. EM simulators (e.g., Agilent Momentum) provide accurate near field analysis of coupling in lossy and complex silicon substrates. Measurements verify theory and a novel experimental technique to measure inductor and resonator coupling makes use of injection-lockable

Rony E. Amaya; Peter H. R. Popplewell; Mark Cloutier; Calvin Plett




Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a ocorrência de surtos naturais de fotossensibilização que vêm ocorrendo em diversas espécies animais na região semi-árida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram visitadas 17 propriedades nas quais estavam ocorrendo casos naturais desta patologia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com os tratadores, exames clínicos e provas séricas bioquímicas de função hepática nos animais afetados. Também

M. F. Macedo; M. B. Bezerra; B. Soto Blanco


Modeling of Transmission Lines with EM Wave Coupling by Finite Difference Quadrature Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an efficient numerical approxi- mation technique, called the Finite Difference Quadrature (FDQ) Method, which has been adapted to model transmission lines (TL's) with external EM wave coupling. The finite difference quadrature method can quickly compute finite differences be- tween adjacent grid points by estimating a weighted linear sum of derivatives at a set of points belonging to

Qinwei Xu; Pinaki Mazumder


Seed Treatment With EM and Micronutrients for Controlling Rice and Maize Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine whether seed treatment of rice and maize with Effective Microorganisms (EM) and micro nutrients could reduce the incidence of disease and parasite injury, and prevent nutrient imbalances after germination. Potassium and certain micro nutrient metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) are essential activators of enzyme systems for the biosynthesis of organic compounds in plants.

A. M. Primavesi; Fazenda Ecológica; Itaí SP Brazil


Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is

Michael Wilt; Clifford Schenkel; Michael Wratcher; Ilia Lambert; Carlos Torres-Verdin; Tseng H. W



Adoção de Padrões de Informação em Saúde: Estudo de Caso do Diagnóstico Nutricional proposto pela ADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Atualmente existem muitos padrões para a área de informação em saúde sendo especificados. Um destes foi proposto pela American Dietetic Association (ADA) para a definição do diagnóstico nutricional, que é composto por três domínios: Ingestão Nutricional, Nutrição Clínica e Comportamento Nutricional. Porém existe dificuldade na utilização destes padrões, uma vez que geralmente os critérios para determinar o diagnóstico não

Luciene Zotelli; Claudia M. C. Moro; João Dias; Cristina Martins


The ‘Bavarian Turnip’ — a rediscovered local vegetable variety of Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. var. rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bavarian Turnip (Bayerische Rübe, Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. var. rapa) is a nearly lost crop today. Until 1900, this local variety was commonly grown in Bavaria for human consumption. The special and very distinct characters of this variety in comparison with recent breeds are preferred by the farmers families and assured the persistence and survival of this turnip

Ludwig Reiner; Thomas Gladis; Harald Amon; Andreas Emmerling-Skala



Learning mixture models using a genetic version of the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to find new pattern recognition techniques that correctly classify complex structures has risen as an im- portant field of research. A well-known solution to this problem, which has proven to be very powerful, is the use of mixture models. Mixture models are typically fitted using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Unfortu- nately, optimal results are not always achieved because

Aleix M. Mart; Jordi Vitri


Estudo epidemiológico das dermatofitoses em instituições públicas da cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 RESUMO - As dermatofitoses são infecções superficiais capazes de produzir lesões em tecidos queratinizados, como pele, pêlo, e unhas. Foram examinados 536 indivíduos procedentes de Barretos, com suspeita clínica de infecções fúngicas, no período de Novem- bro de 2002 a Outubro de 2003, verificando-se a incidência e a etiologia das dermatofitoses. Material coletado de várias regiões cor- póreas foram

Cátia Rezende; Graziela Porsani Borsari; Fernanda Regina Cavalcanti


Accelerated Iterative Reconstruction for Positron Emission Tomography Based on the EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EM method that was originally developed for maximum likelihood estimation in the context of mathematical statistics may be applied to a stochastic model of positron emission tomography (PET). The result is an iterative algorithm for image reconstruction that is finding increasing use in PET, due to its attractive theoretical and practical properties. Its major disadvantage is the large amount

Robert M. Lewitt; Gerd Muehllehner



External Resource: Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics: Building the EMS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit of study, students participate in iterative model building as they encounter patterns in various celestial phenomena and attempt to provide a causal explanation for them. Each of the six materials within Building the EMS Model focuses on a di



Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam



Dieta cetogênica e dieta de Atkins modificada no tratamento da epilepsia refratária em crianças e adultos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: A dieta cetogênica (DC) e a dieta de Atkins modificada (DAM) são dietas terapêuticas mun- dialmente utilizadas no tratamento da epilepsia refratária em crianças e adultos. No Brasil estas modalidades de tratamento são pouco indicadas, restringindo a poucos centros. Metodologia: Revisão de literatura sobre a utilização da DC e DAM no tratamento da epilepsia refratária. Conclusões: A DC

Luciana Midori Inuzuka-Nakaharada



Application of Complex Ray Theory in EM Scattering and RCS Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex ray theory provides a simple and useful approach for the analysis of the propagation and scattering of HF EM waves in various complicated environments. This paper deals with complex ray fields in free space, reflection and refraction at a sing...

Y. Ruan




Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium contents in soils from the sugar cane plantation áreas of Pernambuco estate Brazil, are often phytotoxic, specially em subsurfeces. Mineral gypsum has gained growing interest for supplying Ca and demosshing Al saturation, therefore enchancing the root system development. The work was carried out to evaluate the efectts of mineral gypsum applied to on oxisol. The treatments compused five doses

Eduardo César; Medeiros Saldanha; Alexandre Tavares da Rocha; Emídio Cantídio Almeida de Oliveira; Fernando José Freire


Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment  

SciTech Connect

The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [and others



Community-Based Needs Assessment: Assisting Communities in Building a Stronger EMS System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When people call for medical help in a rural area, they expect a rapid response, competent staff, and good equipment from the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Too often, their expectations are formed by what they see on TV, not by the reality in th...



Transforming Legacy Energy Management System (EMS) Modules into Reusable Components: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-layer adaptive wrapping technique is proposed in this paper to migrate legacy Energy Management System (EMS) modules into reusable components, and therefore transforming the legacy system into a component-based system. Meanwhile, an XML based database wrapping technique is proposed to provide a flexible data exchange solution. These techniques help not only maintaining the reliability but also increasing the reusability

Qing Zhao; In Hoh; Xiaowei Wu; Garng M. Huang



Avaliação da função motora em crianças com distrofia muscular congênita com deficiência da merosina  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC) compõe um grupo de miopatias caracterizadas por hipo- tonia e fraqueza muscular notadas até o primeiro ano de vida. Em torno de 40% a 50% dos casos são decor- rentes de deficiência primária da proteína merosina (DM), os quais apresentam um fenótipo mais homogêneo, com grave comprometimento motor e respiratório. Foram avaliadas neste

Fernanda M. Rocco; Fernanda H. Gianini Luz; Alexsander Junquera Rossato; Antônio Carlos Fernandes; Acary S. B. Oliveira; Javier Toledano Beteta; Edmar Zanoteli



Descrição morfológica e fenologia floral em alfavaca do campo (Ocimum campechianum Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Ocimum campechianum Mill, conhecida no nordeste brasileiro como alfavaca do campo, é uma importante fonte de óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas, inflorescências e sementes da planta adulta, cujas propriedades medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são reconhecidas e empregadas na medicina natural e culinária regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo da morfologia floral e fenologia da floração em

Anderson Brito da Silva; Marcela Fonseca Souza; Alisson Harley; Brito da Silva


FERMAT: A high frequency em scattering code from complex scenes including objects and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fast high frequency analysis method of complex 3D targets and environment is achieved by coupling electromagnetic asymptotic formulations and shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) approach. Different applications of the tools from EM fields evaluation are then presented.

H. J. Mametsa; S. Laybros; A. Berges; P. F. Combes; P. N'Guyen; P. Pitot




Microsoft Academic Search

We address the task of reconstructing images corrupted by Poisson noise, which is im- portant in various applications, such as fluorescence microscopy, positron-emission-tomography (PET) or astronomical imaging. In this work, we focus on reconstruction strategies, combining expectation- maximization (EM) and total variation (TV) based regularization, and present detailed analytical as well as numerical achievements. In the past, extensions of the



Nhs: Network-based Hierarchical Segmentation for Cryo-EM Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments yield low-resolution (3–30Å) 3D-density maps of macromolecules. These density maps are segmented to identify structurally distinct proteins, protein domains, and sub-units. Such partitioning aids the inference of protein motions and guides fitting of high-resolution atomistic structures. Cryo-EM density map segmentation has traditionally required tedious and subjective manual partitioning or semi-supervised computational methods, while validation of resulting segmentations has remained an open problem in this field. Our network-based bias-free segmentation method for cryo-EM density map segmentation, Nhs (Network-based hierarchical segmentation), provides the user with a multi-scale partitioning, reflecting local and global clustering, while requiring no user input. This approach models each map as a graph, where map voxels constitute nodes and edges connect neighboring voxels. Nhs initiates Markov diffusion (or random walk) on the weighted graph. As Markov probabilities homogenize through diffusion, an intrinsic segmentation emerges. We validate the segmentations with ground-truth maps based on atomistic models. When implemented on density maps in the 2010 Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge, Nhs efficiently and objectively partitions macromolecules into structurally and functionally relevant sub-regions at multiple scales.

Burger, Virginia; Chennubhotla, Chakra



EM radiation from Wi-LAN base station and its’ effects in human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM Fields have adverse effects on Human health. Tissue damage could occur due to the body inability to cope with the excessive heat that could be generated during the exposure to Radio Frequency. The parameters of concern with respect to human health are the rate at which a person absorbs electromagnetic energy, called the specific absorption rate (SAR). Electric field

Hikma Shabani; M. R. Islam; A. H. M. Alam; H. E. Abd El-Raouf




Microsoft Academic Search

For sustainable banana production, the EARTH University's Agro-commercial Enterprise has investigated management alternatives for the biodegradable banana residues from harvest and packing processes. Several investigations have been carried out in the area of organic fertilizer production as a way of optimizing resources and EM-compost with forced aeration was found to be a viable alternative. Using the results of these experiments,

K. Reátegui; H. Zenteno; C. Hernández; L. Quirós


Back Strength and Flexibility of EMS Providers in Practicing Prehospital Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the execution of prehospital care duties, an EMS provider may be required to carry equipment and patients over long distances or over multiple flights of stairs at any time of the day. At a minimum, a prehospital provider must have sufficient lower back strength and hamstring flexibility to prevent musculoskeletal injury while lifting. This study administered fitness assessments related

Matthew T. Crill; David Hostler



KEY AND SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISONS: RMO comparison final report: 2006-2007 Resistance standards comparison between SIM laboratories. SIM.EM-K1, 1 ? SIM.EM-K2, 1 G? SIM.EM-S6, 1 M?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group for Electricity and Magnetism of the Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) initiated the key and supplemental regional comparisons SIM.EM-K1-K2-S6 to provide the first internationally recognized comparisons of precision resistance measurements for nations of the western hemisphere. These comparisons include the official metrology institutes of six members of SIM and follow the guidelines for key comparisons under the 1999 CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provided the comparison standards and acted as the pilot laboratory in the SIM.EM-K1-K2-S6 comparisons, which began in January 2006 and were completed in September 2007. By means of procedures for linking key comparison data, the SIM.EM-K1-K2 comparisons will help to provide assurance of equality in measurements between the nations organized in SIM and the participants in the CCEM key comparisons. The analysis included in this report (Appendix A) specifically provides methods for calculating the degrees of equivalence and their uncertainties between the national measurement standards of the participating laboratories (Appendix B). A subsequent analysis (Appendix G) provides methods and results linking this regional comparison to CCEM key comparison CCEM-K2 and a recent BIPM-NIST bilateral comparison at the 1 ? level. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Elmquist, R. E.; Jarrett, D. G.; Zhang, N. F.



Ženkl? Sistemos Mokyklini? Geografijos Atlas? ?kio Žem?lapiuose Semiotiniu Aspektu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Šiais laikais kartografinio raštingumo aktualumas yra akivaizdus. Kartografin?s kalbos mokymas turi b?ti pradedamas jau vaikyst?je, o ypa? jos ugdymui daug d?mesio skiriama mokyklos metais. Svarbus vaidmuo ?ia tenka naudojamiems geografijos atlasams, j? kokybei. Straipsnyje supažindinama su tyrimo rezultatais, gautais analizuojant ženkl? sistemas mokyklini? geografijos atlas? ?kio žem?lapiuose (vaizduojan?iuose išteklius, pramon?, bioprodukcin? ?k?, transporto bei ekonominius ryšius) semiotiniu aspektu. Tyrimui pasirinkta "Briedžio", "Šviesos", "Prad?" leidykl? atlasai. Metodika parengta atsižvelgiant ? ženkl? bei kartografinio vaizdo suvokimo psichologij?, vartotoj? kontingent?, be to, pasinaudota jau sudaryta temini? žem?lapi? komunikacin?s kokyb?s nustatymo ir vertinimo metodologija, kurioje pateikiama ir ženkl? sistem? semiotinis vertinimas trimis aspektais - semantiniu, sintaktiniu bei pragmatiniu. Apibr?žti svarbiausieji kiekvieno aspekto vertinimo kriterijai bei požymiai, turintys didžiausi? ?tak? ženkl? sudarymo korekti\\vskumui, j? suvokimo efektyvumui: semantika - ženkl? formos, ženkl? spalvos asociatyvumas su žymimuoju; sintaktika - ženkl? semantinis bei taksonominis diferencijavimas, pereinamumo rai\\vska; pragmatika - žem?lapio grafin? bei informacin? apkrovos, kartografinio pagrindo optimalumas, grafinis originalumas. Mokykliniuose geografijos atlasuose naudojam? ženkl? sistem? semiotin? analiz? atskleid? ne tik privalumus, bet ir tr?kumus. Kartografin?s produkcijos leidyklos, rengdamos publikacijas spaudai, tur?t? koreguoti ir pavienius ženklus, ir kartografin? rai\\vsk?. Dažniausiai pasitaikantys tr?kumai: per mažai skiriama d?mesio sintaktiniams ženkl? ryšiams perteikti - semantin?s ženkl? grup?s ne?vardijamos, neatskleidžiama hierarchija, žem?lapi? informacin?s apimtys nedid?ja atsižvelgiant ? moksleivi? amži?, kartografinis vaizdas per daug schematizuojamas, neie\\vskoma originalesni? žem?lapio apipavidalinimo b?d?. Ženkl? sistem? tobulinimas geografijos atlasuose sudaryt? palankesnes prielaidas efektyvesniems kartografin?s kalbos ?sisavinimo procesams.

Dumbliauskien?, Maryt?; Ro?i?t?, Inga



Determining and Prioritizing the Organizational Determinants of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Improving the organization of pre-hospital emergency to provide emergency medical services (EMS), as a part of health system, plays an important role in timely and properly response to incidents, as well as, reducing mortalities and disabilities. Objective This study was conducted to determine the organizational determinants of emergency medical services in Iran and analyze their relationship and prioritize them. Materials and Methods The present study is kind of descriptive and cross-sectional study that has been conducted on the first half of 2010 using DEMATEL method (a group decision-making technique). Required data were collected using a questionnaire from a sample of 30 Iranian experts in pre-hospital emergency, who were selected using available sampling method. Results The determinants of establishing an independent EMS organization as a policy maker and observer organization, providing services through public organizations such as Emergency 115, private organizations partnership in pre-hospital emergency system, and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as organizational determinants. Also, establishing an independent EMS organization and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as the most affecting and affected organizational determinants, respectively, with the coordinates (1.01 and 1.01) and (0.85 and - 0.85) in the pre-hospital emergency organizational determinants graph. Conclusions Emergency medical services should be considered as a system with its independent components. Establishing an independent EMS organization, integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management, as well as, extending the possibility of providing EMS through private sector are essential in order to make fundamental reforms in providing emergency medical services in Iran.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin



Foreground object detection using top-down information based on EM framework.  


In this paper, we present a novel foreground object detection scheme that integrates the top-down information based on the expectation maximization (EM) framework. In this generalized EM framework, the top-down information is incorporated in an object model. Based on the object model and the state of each target, a foreground model is constructed. This foreground model can augment the foreground detection for the camouflage problem. Thus, an object's state-specific Markov random field (MRF) model is constructed for detection based on the foreground model and the background model. This MRF model depends on the latent variables that describe each object's state. The maximization of the MRF model is the M-step in the EM framework. Besides fusing spatial information, this MRF model can also adjust the contribution of the top-down information for detection. To obtain detection result using this MRF model, sampling importance resampling is used to sample the latent variable and the EM framework refines the detection iteratively. Besides the proposed generalized EM framework, our method does not need any prior information of the moving object, because we use the detection result of moving object to incorporate the domain knowledge of the object shapes into the construction of top-down information. Moreover, in our method, a kernel density estimation (KDE)-Gaussian mixture model (GMM) hybrid model is proposed to construct the probability density function of background and moving object model. For the background model, it has some advantages over GMM- and KDE-based methods. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of our method, particularly in handling the camouflage problem. PMID:22645266

Liu, Zhou; Huang, Kaiqi; Tan, Tieniu



Investigating metal removal potential by Effective Microorganisms (EM) in alginate-immobilized and free-cell forms.  


Metal removal potential of both alginate-immobilized and free-cells of Effective Microorganisms (EM-1™ Inoculant) was investigated in this study. Results revealed that removal of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) followed a similar trend where alginate-immobilized EM were more efficient compared to free-cells of EM. For these metals, 0.940, 2.695 and 4.011mgg(-1) of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) were removed compared to only 0.160, 0.859 and 0.755mgml(-1) removed by free-cells, respectively. The higher efficiency of alginate-immobilized EM was primarily attributed to the alginate matrix. This was evident when both alginate-immobilized EM and plain alginate beads (without EM), were not significantly different in their removal efficacies. Presence of alginate also enhanced the use of the biosorbents as maximum metal sorption was achieved after 120min as opposed to only 60min for free-cells. EM per se in immobilized or free-cell forms did not enhance metal removal efficacy. PMID:24001691

Ting, Adeline Su Yien; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Ikmal Hafiz Mahamad; Tan, Wei Shang



Increased survival after EMS witnessed cardiac arrest. Observations from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry - Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and lethal. It has been suggested that OHCA witnessed by EMS providers is a predictor of survival because advanced help is immediately available. We examined EMS witnessed OHCA from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) to determine the effect of EMS witnessed vs. bystander witnessed and unwitnessed OHCA. Methods Data were analyzed from a prospective, population-based cohort study in 10 U.S. and Canadian ROC sites. Individuals with non-traumatic OHCA treated 04/01/06 – 03/31/07 by EMS providers with defibrillation or chest compressions were included. Cases were grouped into EMS-witnessed, bystander witnessed, and unwitnessed and further stratified for bystander CPR. Multiple logistic regressions evaluated the odds ratio (OR) for survival to discharge relative to the EMS-witnessed group after adjusting for age, sex, public/private location of collapse, ROC site, and initial ECG rhythm. Of 9,991 OHCA, 1022 (10.2%) of EMS-witnessed, 3,369 (33.7%) bystander witnessed, and 5,600 (56.1%) unwitnessed. Results The most common initial rhythm in the EMS-witnessed group was PEA which was higher than in the bystander- and unwitnessed groups (p<0.001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) of survival compared to the EMS-witnessed group was 0.41, (0.36, 0.46) in bystander witnessed with bystander CPR, 0.37, (0.33, 0.43) in bystander witnessed without bystander CPR, 0.17 (0.14, 0.20) in unwitnessed with bystander CPR and 0.21 (0.18, 0.24) in unwitnessed cases without bystander CPR. Conclusions Immediate application of prehospital care for OHCA may improve survival. Efforts should be made to educate patients to access 9-1-1 for prodromal symptoms.

Hostler, David; Thomas, Elizabeth G; Emerson, Scott S; Christenson, James; Stiell, Ian G; Rittenberger, Jon C; Gorman, Kyle R; Bigham, Blair L; Callaway, Clifton W; Vilke, Gary M; Beaudoin, Tammy; Cheskes, Sheldon; Craig, Alan; Davis, Daniel P; Reed, Andrew; Idris, Ahamed; Nichol, Graham



Evaluation of the toxicity and safety of the antioxidant beverage effective microorganisms-X (EM-X) in animal models.  


The acute and chronic toxicity tests and the mutagenic test of the extracts from the fermentation of plants with effective microorganisms (EM-X) were performed in the mouse and the rat. In acute toxicity test, mice were orally treated three times per day with 20-fold of concentrated EM-X for 7 days. For chronic toxicity test, the rats were orally treated with original EM-X once a day for 90 days at the dosages of 180, 120 or 60ml/kg. At the levels tested EM-X did not lead to significant changes in food consumption, body weight, behaviors and stools. Hematological assays on red blood, white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, granulocyte, middle cell and coagulation time and the biochemical assays on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, glucose, total bilirubin, creatinine and total cholesterol did not show abnormal changes. The histological inspection of principal organs of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney did not show significant pathological changes. The delaying toxic reactions were detected 2 weeks after administration of EM-X was stopped. The mutagenic test showed that EM-X did not cause mutagenesis and tests of micronucleus of bone marrow cell and sperm shape abnormality upon EM-X were negative. The maximal tolerance dose of EM-X was calculated to be 1800ml/kg BW in the mouse and rat. Thus, oral administration of EM-X does not present acute and chronic toxicity and mutagenic effects in the animals. PMID:21783606

Ke, Bin; Liang, Yun-Fei; Zhong, Zheng-Xian; Higa, Terou; Aruoma, Okezie I



Measurement of EM Field Inside a Cruising Aircraft: Potential Problems for the Use of Mobile Phones on Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) emissions from portable electronic devices (PEDs) carried onboard aircraft can interfere with avionic systems. Several onboard systems using EM waves have been planned, such as mobile communications and UWB (ultra-wideband) entertainment services distribution. Manufacturers of this system develop schemes to avoid electromagnetic interference by the transmissions (emissions) of mobile phones with avionic systems; some local-specific problems still remain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate to what extent non-GSM transmissions from the ground base stations reach inside a cruising aircraft. The EM field at the base station frequency bands is measured in a cruising small aircraft.

Kohmura, A.; Picard, J.; Yonemoto, N.; Yamamoto, K.


Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers  

PubMed Central

In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

Fadare, Oluwole; Zheng, Wenxin



Effect of organic-inorganic hybrid P123-em-SBA15 on lithium transport properties of composite polymer electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel PEO-based composite polymer electrolyte by using organic-inorganic hybrid EO20PO70EO20-emmesoporous silica (P123-em-SBA15) as the filler has been developed. The experiment results show that P123-em-SBA15 can\\u000a enhance the lithium-ion transference number of the composite polymer electrolyte, which is induced by the special topology\\u000a structure of P123 in P123-em-SBA15 hybrid. In addition, room temperature ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolyte

Jingyu Xi; Xiaobin Huang; Xiaozhen Tang




PubMed Central

Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-?=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-?=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-?=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato.

Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo




SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format encompassed three break-out sessions, which focused on needs and opportunities associated with the following LTM technical areas: (1) Performance Monitoring Tools, (2) Systems, and (3) Information Management. The specific objectives of the Technical Forum were to identify: (1) technical targets for reducing EM costs for life-cycle monitoring; (2) cost-effective approaches and tools to support the transition from active to passive remedies at EM waste sites; and (3) specific goals and objectives associated with the lifecycle monitoring initiatives outlined within the Roadmap. The first Breakout Session on LTM performance measurement tools focused on the integration and improvement of LTM performance measurement and monitoring tools that deal with parameters such as ecosystems, boundary conditions, geophysics, remote sensing, biomarkers, ecological indicators and other types of data used in LTM configurations. Although specific tools were discussed, it was recognized that the Breakout Session could not comprehensively discuss all monitoring technologies in the time provided. Attendees provided key references where other organizations have assessed monitoring tools. Three investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The second Breakout Session was on LTM systems. The focus of this session was to identify new and inventive LTM systems addressing the framework for interactive parameters such as infrastructure, sensors, diagnostic features, field screening tools, state of the art characterization monitoring systems/concepts, and ecosystem approaches to site conditions and evolution. LTM systems consist of the combination of data acquisition and management efforts, data processing and analysis efforts and reporting tools. The objective of the LTM systems workgroup was to provide a vision and path towards novel and innovative LTM systems, which should be able to provide relevant, actionable information on system performance in a cost-effective manner. Two investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The last Breakout Session of the Technical Forum

Mayer, J.



National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V st