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Sample records for query answering systems

  1. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Md. Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks. PMID:22163772

  2. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  3. Producing approximate answers to database queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.

  4. Query-answering algorithms for information agents

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rajaraman, A.; Ordille, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    We describe the architecture and query-answering algorithms used in the Information Manifold, an implemented information gathering system that provides uniform access to structured information sources on the World-Wide Web. Our architecture provides an expressive language for describing information sources, which makes it easy to add new sources and to model the fine-grained distinctions between their contents. The query-answering algorithm guarantees that the descriptions of the sources are exploited to access only sources that are relevant to a given query. Accessing only relevant sources is crucial to scale up such a system to large numbers of sources. In addition, our algorithm can exploit run-time information to further prune information sources and to reduce the cost of query planning.

  5. Efficient Query Answering for OWL 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Urbina, Héctor; Horrocks, Ian; Motik, Boris

    The QL profile of OWL 2 has been designed so that it is possible to use database technology for query answering via query rewriting. We present a comparison of our resolution based rewriting algorithm with the standard algorithm proposed by Calvanese et al., implementing both and conducting an empirical evaluation using ontologies and queries derived from realistic applications. The results indicate that our algorithm produces significantly smaller rewritings in most cases, which could be important for practicality in realistic applications.

  6. An Agent-based Framework for Web Query Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huaiqing; Liao, Stephen; Liao, Lejian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses discrepancies between user queries on the Web and the answers provided by information sources; proposes an agent-based framework for Web mining tasks; introduces an object-oriented deductive data model and a flexible query language; and presents a cooperative mechanism for query answering. (Author/LRW)

  7. A Practical Approach for Scalable Conjunctive Query Answering on Acyclic {EL}^+ Knowledge Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Shengping; Xie, Guotong; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Fokoue, Achille; Ni, Yuan; Li, Hanyu; Pan, Yue

    Conjunctive query answering for {EL}^{++} ontologies has recently drawn much attention, as the Description Logic {EL}^{++} captures the expressivity of many large ontologies in the biomedical domain and is the foundation for the OWL 2 EL profile. In this paper, we propose a practical approach for conjunctive query answering in a fragment of {EL}^{++}, namely acyclic {EL}^+, that supports role inclusions. This approach can be implemented with low cost by leveraging any existing relational database management system to do the ABox data completion and query answering. We conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate our approach using a large clinical data set and show our approach is practical.

  8. Guiding Students to Answers: Query Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmazel, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a guided navigation system built on the textbook search engine developed at Anadolu University to support distance education students. The search engine uses Turkish Language specific language processing modules to enable searches over course material presented in Open Education Faculty textbooks. We implemented a guided…

  9. Monotonically improving approximate answers to relational algebra queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Liu, J. W. S.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a query processing method that produces approximate answers to queries posed in standard relational algebra. This method is monotone in the sense that the accuracy of the approximate result improves with the amount of time spent producing the result. This strategy enables us to trade the time to produce the result for the accuracy of the result. An approximate relational model that characterizes appromimate relations and a partial order for comparing them is developed. Relational operators which operate on and return approximate relations are defined.

  10. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  11. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors that possess

  12. Data Processing on Database Management Systems with Fuzzy Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Irfan; Topuz, Vedat

    In this study, a fuzzy query tool (SQLf) for non-fuzzy database management systems was developed. In addition, samples of fuzzy queries were made by using real data with the tool developed in this study. Performance of SQLf was tested with the data about the Marmara University students' food grant. The food grant data were collected in MySQL database by using a form which had been filled on the web. The students filled a form on the web to describe their social and economical conditions for the food grant request. This form consists of questions which have fuzzy and crisp answers. The main purpose of this fuzzy query is to determine the students who deserve the grant. The SQLf easily found the eligible students for the grant through predefined fuzzy values. The fuzzy query tool (SQLf) could be used easily with other database system like ORACLE and SQL server.

  13. Path querying system on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  14. Advanced Querying Features for Disease Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated disease surveillance systems notify users of increases in the prevalence of reports in syndrome categories and allow users to view patient level data related to those increases. Occasionally, a more dynamic level of control is required to properly detect an emerging disease in a community. Dynamic querying features are invaluable when using existing surveillance systems to investigate outbreaks of newly emergent diseases or to identify cases of reportable diseases within data being captured for surveillance. The objective of the Advance Querying Tool (AQT) is to build a more flexible query interface for most web-based disease surveillance systems. This interface allows users to define and build their query as if they were writing a logical expression for a mathematical computation. The AQT allows users to develop, investigate, save, and share complex case definitions. It provides a flexible interface that accommodates both advanced and novice users, checks the validity of the expression as it is built, and marks errors for users. PMID:23569575

  15. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  16. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  17. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  18. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  19. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  20. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  1. Towards a medical question-answering system: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jacquemart, Pierre; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Question-answering (QA) systems, as have been presented and evaluated in several TREC conferences, are the next generation of search engines. They combine 'traditional' Information Retrieval (IR) with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Knowledge Engineering techniques to provide shorter, more precise answers to natural language questions. We study here the feasibility of such a system for French in the health care domain. In this purpose, we collected a corpus of student questions in oral surgery. We examined two enabling conditions: on the IR side, how to select the right keywords in a question to identify relevant material on the Web for answering this question, a prerequisite for success; and on the NLP side, whether the contents of the questions fit the conceptual model of an existing QA prototype, a favorable condition for rapid implementation. A manual Web search enabled us to devise automatable principles for building IR queries for these questions. Besides, we could design a semantic model, using UMLS Semantic Network relations, which is consistent with our prototype and covers 90% of the questions. However, the high specialization of the domain and the clinical orientation of the questions, joined with the more limited resources online in the French language, may restrain the quantity of Web material available for answering these questions. PMID:14664030

  2. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  3. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  4. Differences between Expected Answers and the Answers Given by Computer Algebra Systems to School Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) offer an answer that is somewhat different from the answer that is probably expected by the student or teacher. These (somewhat unexpected) answers could serve as a catalyst for rich mathematical discussion. In this study, over 120 equations from school mathematics were solved using 8 different CAS. Many…

  5. WISQARS (WEB-BASED INJURY STATISTICS QUERY AND REPORTING SYSTEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, pronounced "whiskers") Fatal is an interactive database system that provides injury-related mortality data useful for research and for making informed public health decisions. WISQARS offers three types of fatal rep...

  6. Design of FastQuery: How to Generalize Indexing and Querying System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-04-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies such as FastBit are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets. These technologies rely on adding auxiliary information to existing datasets to accelerate query processing. To use these indices, we need to match the relational data model used by the indexing systems with the array data model used by most scientific data, and to provide an efficient input and output layer for reading and writing the indices. In this work, we present a flexible design that can be easily applied to most scientific data formats. We demonstrate this flexibility by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using simulation data from the particle accelerator and climate simulation communities. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design, we also present a detailed performance study using both synthetic and real scientific workloads.

  7. Heterogeneous distributed query processing: The DAVID system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) project is the development of an easy to use computer system with which NASA scientists, engineers and administrators can uniformly access distributed heterogeneous databases. Basically, DAVID will be a database management system that sits alongside already existing database and file management systems. Its function is to enable users to access the data in other languages and file systems without having to learn the data manipulation languages. Given here is an outline of a talk on the DAVID project and several charts.

  8. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  9. QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P.; Conroy, John M.

    2006-10-01

    Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the

  10. QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2006-08-01

    Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the

  11. Extensible query processing and data communication in geoscientific information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shek, Eddie Chi-Ho

    Research interest in geoscientific data management, processing, and dissemination has significantly increased over the last few years. Geoscientific applications are characterized by the massive size and spatio-temporal nature of their datasets, as well as the complexity and variety of their operations. In this dissertation, we study issues concerning data modeling, query processing, and data communication in an extensible distributed information system designed to satisfy the requirements imposed by the characteristics of geoscientific applications. Data model and computation architecture form the basis of an information system. It is important that they fit the requirements imposed by the application to be supported. We define a conceptually simple yet expressive scientific data modeling framework, called the Field data model, that captures the structure of a wide variety of scientific and traditional data structures. In addition, it models a number of common higher-order scientific computation patterns hence allowing application-specific operations fitting these patterns to be naturally and seamless introduced. Parallel evaluation is one of the most effective approaches to deliver high query performance. At the same time, geoscientific information systems have to be extensible to accommodate user-defined application-specific operations. To support extensibility in parallel query optimization, we introduce a model that allows the implicit parallelism available in scientific operations to be declaratively captured. Query parallelism algorithms are developed to demonstrate how these information can be exploited to systematically generate efficient parallel query execution plans. The cost of data communication in a scientific information system can be expensive despite the advancement of networking technology, especially during the delivery of data to user over a wide-area network such as the Internet. We present a flexible object-oriented framework called FALCON to

  12. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  13. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  14. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  15. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  16. Students' Comparison of Their Trigonometric Answers with the Answers of a Computer Algebra System in Terms of Equivalence and Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno; Lepp, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The answers offered by computer algebra systems (CAS) can sometimes differ from those expected by the students or teachers. The comparison of the students' answers and CAS answers could provide ground for discussion about equivalence and correctness. Investigating the students' comparison of the answers gives the possibility to study different…

  17. Query-handling in MLM-based decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Arkad, K; Gao, X M; Ahlfeldt, H

    1995-01-01

    Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standard specification for creation and sharing of knowledge bases. The standard specification focuses on knowledge that can be represented as a set of independent Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) such as rules, formulas and protocols. The basic functions of an MLM are to retrieve patient data, manipulate the data, come to some decision, and possibly perform an action. All connections to the world outside an MLM are collected in the data-slot of the MLM. The institution specific parts of these connections are inside the notation of curly brackets ([]) to facilitate sharing of MLM between institutions. This paper focuses on some of the problems that occur in relation to Arden Syntax and connections to a patient database such as database queries. Problems related to possibilities of moving one or several module(s) are also discussed, with emphasis on database connections. As an example, an MLM based Decision Support System (DSS) developed at Linköping University is described. PMID:8882561

  18. Stemming Methodologies Over Individual Query Words for an Arabic Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Salem, Hani; Al-Omari, Mahmoud; Evens, Martha W.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how to improve the performance of an Arabic Information Retrieval System (Arabic-IRS) by imposing the retrieval method, Mixed Stemming, over individual words of a query depending on the importance of the word, the stem or the root of the query terms in the database. This method computes term importance using a Term Frequency and…

  19. The Limitations of Term Co-Occurrence Data for Query Expansion in Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Helen J.; Willett, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Identifies limitations in the use of term co-occurrence data as a basis for automatic query expansion in natural language document retrieval systems. The use of similarity coefficients to calculate the degree of similarity between pairs of terms is explained, and frequency and discriminatory characteristics for nearest neighbors of query terms are…

  20. Context-Sensitive Processing of Semantic Queries in an Image Database System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Hussain Sabri; Nagao, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of image database systems focuses on semantic queries and shows how an image is abstracted into a hierarchy of entity names and features; how relations are established between entities visible in the image; and how a "fuzzy" matching technique is used to compare semantic queries to image abstractions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Yes--No Answering Systems in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Michael M.

    1979-01-01

    Acquisition of answering systems based on speaker intention v literal components of questions was investigated in monolingual and bilingual English- and Japanese-speaking children. The results suggested that the English system is acquired earlier than the Japanese system and that the two systems interact in bilingual children. (Author/RD)

  2. IQARIS : a tool for the intelligent querying, analysis, and retrieval from information systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J. R.; Silver, R. B.

    2002-04-26

    Information glut is one of the primary characteristics of the electronic age. Managing such large volumes of information (e.g., keeping track of the types, where they are, their relationships, who controls them, etc.) can be done efficiently with an intelligent, user-oriented information management system. The purpose of this paper is to describe a concept for managing information resources based on an intelligent information technology system developed by the Argonne National Laboratory for managing digital libraries. The Argonne system, Intelligent Query (IQ), enables users to query digital libraries and view the holdings that match the query from different perspectives.

  3. Development, implementation, and a cognitive evaluation of a definitional question answering system for physicians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lee, Minsuk; Kaufman, David; Ely, John; Osheroff, Jerome A; Hripcsak, George; Cimino, James

    2007-06-01

    The published medical literature and online medical resources are important sources to help physicians make patient treatment decisions. Traditional sources used for information retrieval (e.g., PubMed) often return a list of documents in response to a user's query. Frequently the number of returned documents from large knowledge repositories is large and makes information seeking practical only "after hours" and not in the clinical setting. This study developed novel algorithms, and designed, implemented, and evaluated a medical definitional question answering system (MedQA). MedQA automatically analyzed a large number of electronic documents to generate short and coherent answers in response to definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?"). Our preliminary cognitive evaluation shows that MedQA out-performed three other online information systems (Google, OneLook, and PubMed) in two important efficiency criteria; namely, time spent and number of actions taken for a physician to identify a definition. It is our contention that question answering systems that aggregate pertinent information scattered across different documents have the potential to address clinical information needs within a timeframe necessary to meet the demands of clinicians. PMID:17462961

  4. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin

    2013-07-01

    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  5. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  6. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the “big data” challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce. PMID:24501719

  7. Prospects for Knowledge-Based Customization of Natural Language Query Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damerau, Fred J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the potential sources of knowledge for customizing transportable natural language query systems, including sophisticated dictionaries, database content, and human database experts. A rough quantification of the importance of each source is provided. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

  8. The MiPACQ clinical question answering system.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian L; Nielsen, Rodney D; Masanz, James J; Martin, James H; Palmer, Martha S; Ward, Wayne H; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system's architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation. PMID:22195068

  9. The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Brian L.; Nielsen, Rodney D.; Masanz, James J.; Martin, James H.; Palmer, Martha S.; Ward, Wayne H.; Savova, Guergana K.

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system’s architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation. PMID:22195068

  10. A SQL-Database Based Meta-CASE System and its Query Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eessaar, Erki; Sgirka, Rünno

    Meta-CASE systems simplify the creation of CASE (Computer Aided System Engineering) systems. In this paper, we present a meta-CASE system that provides a web-based user interface and uses an object-relational database system (ORDBMS) as its basis. The use of ORDBMSs allows us to integrate different parts of the system and simplify the creation of meta-CASE and CASE systems. ORDBMSs provide powerful query mechanism. The proposed system allows developers to use queries to evaluate and gradually improve artifacts and calculate values of software measures. We illustrate the use of the systems by using SimpleM modeling language and discuss the use of SQL in the context of queries about artifacts. We have created a prototype of the meta-CASE system by using PostgreSQL™ ORDBMS and PHP scripting language.

  11. On the evaluation of fuzzy quantified queries in a database management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Many propositions to extend database management systems have been made in the last decade. Some of them aim at the support of a wider range of queries involving fuzzy predicates. Unfortunately, these queries are somewhat complex and the question of their efficiency is a subject under discussion. In this paper, we focus on a particular subset of queries, namely those using fuzzy quantified predicates. More precisely, we will consider the case where such predicates apply to individual elements as well as to sets of elements. Thanks to some interesting properties of alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets, we are able to show that the evaluation of these queries can be significantly improved with respect to a naive strategy based on exhaustive scans of sets or files.

  12. Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

  13. Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: a case study of RetroGuide

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Narus, Scott P.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2010-01-01

    Provision of query systems which are intuitive for non-experts has been recognized as an important informatics challenge. We developed a prototype of a flowchart-based analytical framework called RetroGuide that enables non-experts to formulate query tasks using a step-based, patient-centered paradigm inspired by workflow technology. We present results of the evaluation of RetroGuide in comparison to Structured Query Language (SQL) in laboratory settings using a mixed method design. We asked 18 human subjects with limited database experience to solve query tasks in RetroGuide and SQL, and quantitatively compared their test scores. A follow-up questionnaire was designed to compare both technologies qualitatively and investigate RetroGuide technology acceptance. The quantitative comparison of test scores showed that the study subjects achieved significantly higher scores using the RetroGuide technology. Qualitative study results indicated that 94% of subjects preferred RetroGuide to SQL because RetroGuide was easier to learn, it better supported temporal tasks, and it seemed to be a more logical modeling paradigm. Additional qualitative evaluation results, based on a technology acceptance model, suggested that a fully developed RetroGuide-like technology would be well accepted by users. Our study is an example of a structure validation study of a prototype query system, results of which provided significant guidance in further development of a novel query paradigm for EHR data. We discuss the strengths and weakness of our study design and results, and their implication for future evaluations of query systems in general. PMID:19560553

  14. A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salloum, Wael

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes a new text-based question answering system. It models knowledge in documents and questions with conceptual graph formalism (CGF). To prepare knowledge to be modeled, natural language processing is applied to the text using OpenNLP, and then syntactic and semantic information is realized using VerbNet and WordNet. We handle different types of questions, especially questions constructed with wh- pronouns, and questions constructed with "how", and we propose a model to represent them in CGF so that their target is realized and marked. Each question's type has different conceptual graph (CG) representations; thus, for each question, many CGs are generated using formulas. Some of these formulas are introduced here. The projection operator is used to compare a question's CG to a sentence's CG, and then the exact answer is extracted from the part of the sentence's CG that has been projected under the question target's concept.

  15. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  16. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  17. POPE: A distributed query system for high performance analysis of very large persistent object stores

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.S.; Isely, M.C.; Nigri, A.M.; Rinaldo, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of large physics data sets is a major computing task at Fermilab. One step in such an analysis involves culling ``interesting`` events via the use of complex query criteria. What makes this unusual is the scale required: 100`s of gigabytes of event data must be scanned at 10`s of megabytes per second for the typical queries that are applied, and data must be extracted from 10`s of terabytes based on the result of the query. The Physics Object Persistency Manager (POPM) system is a solution tailored to this scale of problem. A running POPM environment can support multiple queries in progress, each scanning at rates exceeding 10 megabytes per second, all of which are sharing access to a very large persistent address space distributed across multiple disks on multiple hosts. Specifically, POPM employs the following techniques to permit this scale of performance and access: Persistent objects: Experimental data to be scanned is ``populated`` as a data structure into the persistent address space supported by POPM. C++ classes with a few key overloaded operators provide nearly transparent semantics for access to the persistent storage. Distributed and parallel I/O: The persistent address space is automatically distributed across disks of multiple ``I/O nodes`` within the POPM system. A striping unit concept is implemented in POPM, permitting fast parallel I/O across the storage nodes, even for small single queries. Efficient Shared access: POPM implements an efficient mechanism for arbitration and multiplexing of I/O access among multiple queries on the same or separate compute nodes.

  18. The Yes-No Question Answering System and Statement Verification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, M. Michael; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship of verification to the answering of yes-no questions. Subjects verified simple statements or answered simple questions. Various proposals concerning the relative difficulty of answering questions and verifying statements were considered, and a model was proposed. (SW)

  19. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  20. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  1. Automatic Repeat Query (ARQ), Forward Error Corrector (FEC), and hybrid protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, B.

    1982-02-01

    System performance criteria for error protection are reviewed and different error detection techniques are considered. Various forward error corrector (FEC) decoding systems and automatic repeat query (ARQ) coding systems are discussed. Coding systems in satellite communications are characterized. The implementation of FEC coding in time division multiple access is described. Communication efficiency is shown to be suitable and the impact on ground stations is explained.

  2. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  3. Geodata Modeling and Query in Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Nabil

    1996-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with collecting, modeling, man- aging, analyzing, and integrating spatial (locational) and non-spatial (attribute) data required for geographic applications. Examples of spatial data are digital maps, administrative boundaries, road networks, and those of non-spatial data are census counts, land elevations and soil characteristics. GIS shares common areas with a number of other disciplines such as computer- aided design, computer cartography, database management, and remote sensing. None of these disciplines however, can by themselves fully meet the requirements of a GIS application. Examples of such requirements include: the ability to use locational data to produce high quality plots, perform complex operations such as network analysis, enable spatial searching and overlay operations, support spatial analysis and modeling, and provide data management functions such as efficient storage, retrieval, and modification of large datasets; independence, integrity, and security of data; and concurrent access to multiple users. It is on the data management issues that we devote our discussions in this monograph. Traditionally, database management technology have been developed for business applications. Such applications require, among other things, capturing the data requirements of high-level business functions and developing machine- level implementations; supporting multiple views of data and yet providing integration that would minimize redundancy and maintain data integrity and security; providing a high-level language for data definition and manipulation; allowing concurrent access to multiple users; and processing user transactions in an efficient manner. The demands on database management systems have been for speed, reliability, efficiency, cost effectiveness, and user-friendliness. Significant progress have been made in all of these areas over the last two decades to the point that many generalized database platforms

  4. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  5. A query integrator and manager for the query web.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T

    2012-10-01

    We introduce two concepts: the Query Web as a layer of interconnected queries over the document web and the semantic web, and a Query Web Integrator and Manager (QI) that enables the Query Web to evolve. QI permits users to write, save and reuse queries over any web accessible source, including other queries saved in other installations of QI. The saved queries may be in any language (e.g. SPARQL, XQuery); the only condition for interconnection is that the queries return their results in some form of XML. This condition allows queries to chain off each other, and to be written in whatever language is appropriate for the task. We illustrate the potential use of QI for several biomedical use cases, including ontology view generation using a combination of graph-based and logical approaches, value set generation for clinical data management, image annotation using terminology obtained from an ontology web service, ontology-driven brain imaging data integration, small-scale clinical data integration, and wider-scale clinical data integration. Such use cases illustrate the current range of applications of QI and lead us to speculate about the potential evolution from smaller groups of interconnected queries into a larger query network that layers over the document and semantic web. The resulting Query Web could greatly aid researchers and others who now have to manually navigate through multiple information sources in order to answer specific questions. PMID:22531831

  6. A Query Integrator and Manager for the Query Web

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Detwiler, Landon T.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two concepts: the Query Web as a layer of interconnected queries over the document web and the semantic web, and a Query Web Integrator and Manager (QI) that enables the Query Web to evolve. QI permits users to write, save and reuse queries over any web accessible source, including other queries saved in other installations of QI. The saved queries may be in any language (e.g. SPARQL, XQuery); the only condition for interconnection is that the queries return their results in some form of XML. This condition allows queries to chain off each other, and to be written in whatever language is appropriate for the task. We illustrate the potential use of QI for several biomedical use cases, including ontology view generation using a combination of graph-based and logical approaches, value set generation for clinical data management, image annotation using terminology obtained from an ontology web service, ontology-driven brain imaging data integration, small-scale clinical data integration, and wider-scale clinical data integration. Such use cases illustrate the current range of applications of QI and lead us to speculate about the potential evolution from smaller groups of interconnected queries into a larger query network that layers over the document and semantic web. The resulting Query Web could greatly aid researchers and others who now have to manually navigate through multiple information sources in order to answer specific questions. PMID:22531831

  7. PRoSPer: perceptual similarity queries in medical CBIR systems through user profiles.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, Pedro H; Kaster, Daniel S; Ponciano-Silva, Marcelo; Traina, Caetano; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Traina, Agma J M

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to perform similarity queries over medical images, maintaining the semantics of a given query posted by the user. Content-based image retrieval systems relying on relevance feedback techniques usually request the users to label relevant/irrelevant images. Thus, we present a highly effective strategy to survey user profiles, taking advantage of such labeling to implicitly gather the user perceptual similarity. The profiles maintain the settings desired for each user, allowing tuning of the similarity assessment, which encompasses the dynamic change of the distance function employed through an interactive process. Experiments on medical images show that the method is effective and can improve the decision making process during analysis. PMID:24480158

  8. Perceived barriers to information access among medical residents in Iran: obstacles to answering clinical queries in settings with limited Internet accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mazloomdoost, Danesh; Mehregan, Shervineh; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Soltani, Akbar; Embi, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Studies performed in the US and other Western countries have documented that physicians generate many clinical questions during a typical day and rely on various information sources for answers. Little is known about the information seeking behaviors of physicians practicing in other countries, particularly those with limited Internet connectivity. We conducted this study to document the perceived barriers to information resources used by medical residents in Iran. Our findings reveal that different perceived barriers exist for electronic versus paper-based resources. Notably, paper-based resources are perceived to be limited by resident time-constraints and availability of resources, whereas electronic resources are limited by cost decentralized resources (such as PDAs) and accessibility of centralized, Internet access. These findings add to the limited literature regarding health information-seeking activities in international healthcare settings, particularly those with limited Internet connectivity, and will supplement future studies of and interventions in such settings. PMID:18693891

  9. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  10. Knowledge-level querying of temporal patterns in clinical research systems.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Shankar, Ravi D; Parrish, David B; Das, Amar K

    2007-01-01

    Managing time-stamped data is essential to clinical research activities and often requires the use of considerable domain knowledge. Adequately representing this domain knowledge is difficult in relational database systems. As a result, there is a need for principled methods to overcome the disconnect between the database representation of time-oriented research data and corresponding knowledge of domain-relevant concepts. In this paper, we present a set of methodologies for undertaking knowledge level querying of temporal patterns, and discuss its application to the verification of temporal constraints in clinical-trial applications. Our approach allows knowledge generated from query results to be tied to the data and, if necessary, used for further inference. We show how the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages, OWL and SWRL, respectively, can support the temporal knowledge model needed to integrate low-level representations of relational data with high-level domain concepts used in research data management. We present a scalable bridge-based software architecture that uses this knowledge model to enable dynamic querying of time-oriented research data. PMID:17911729

  11. Using string alignment in a query-by-humming system for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Though query by humming (i.e., retrieving music or information about music by singing a characteristic melody) has been a popular research topic during the past decade, few approaches have reached a level of usefulness beyond mere scientific interest. One of the main problems is the inherent contradiction between error tolerance and dicriminative power in conventional melody matching algorithms that rely on a melody contour approach to handle intonation or transcription errors. Adopting the string matching/alignment techniques from bioinformatics to melody sequences allows to directly assess the similarity between two melodies. This method takes an MPEG-7 compliant melody sequence (i.e., a list of note intervals and length ratios) as query and evaluates the steps necessary to transform it into the reference sequence. By introducing a musically founded cost-of-replace function and an adequate post processing, this method yields a measure for melodic similarity. Thus it is possible to construct a query by humming system that can properly discriminate between thousands of melodies and still be sufficiently error tolerant to be used by untrained singers. The robustness has been verified in extensive tests and real world applications.

  12. Converting a legacy system database into relational format to enhance query efficiency.

    PubMed

    Prather, J C; Lobach, D F; Hales, J W; Hage, M L; Fehrs, S J; Hammond, W E

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of clinical data collected over time can provide important insight into the health care process. Unfortunately, much of the electronic clinical data that exists today is stored in legacy systems, making it difficult to access and share the information. An approach is needed to improve the accessibility of electronic data stored in legacy system databases. In this study, a legacy database is converted into a relational format in the personal computer environment. The impact of such a conversion on query performance is evaluated, and issues that need to be considered when converting a legacy system database are identified. PMID:8563305

  13. Querying Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a query language PrQL designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchical nested labelled trees. The core language presented in this paper is locally structured (first-order), with queries built using recursion and patterns over proof structure and rule names. We define the syntax and semantics of locally structured queries, demonstrate their power, and sketch some implementation experiments.

  14. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  15. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional databases

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2006-08-08

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  16. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional database

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2010-05-11

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  17. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  18. User Satisfaction Evaluation of the EHR4CR Query Builder: A Multisite Patient Count Cohort System

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Rey, Iñaki; N'Dja, Aurèle; Cunningham, James; Newe, Axel; Trinczek, Benjamin; Lafitte, Caroline; Sedlmayr, Brita; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) project aims to develop services and technology for the leverage reuse of Electronic Health Records with the purpose of improving the efficiency of clinical research processes. A pilot program was implemented to generate evidence of the value of using the EHR4CR platform. The user acceptance of the platform is a key success factor in driving the adoption of the EHR4CR platform; thus, it was decided to evaluate the user satisfaction. In this paper, we present the results of a user satisfaction evaluation for the EHR4CR multisite patient count cohort system. This study examined the ability of testers (n = 22 and n = 16 from 5 countries) to perform three main tasks (around 20 minutes per task), after a 30-minute period of self-training. The System Usability Scale score obtained was 55.83 (SD: 15.37), indicating a moderate user satisfaction. The responses to an additional satisfaction questionnaire were positive about the design of the interface and the required procedure to design a query. Nevertheless, the most complex of the three tasks proposed in this test was rated as difficult, indicating a need to improve the system regarding complicated queries. PMID:26539525

  19. Design and implementation of the European Space Information System query environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, J.J. ); Ciarlo, A. ); Benso, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) project is a major pilot project undertaken by the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN. It has as its primary aim to design and develop a set of information systems which will form an integrated environment for the retrieval, dissemination, and application of space scientific data. One of these information systems which shall form an important part of the ESIS concept is the ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE). The ESIS QE project is concerned with the development of a distributed software system which shall provide its users with an environment allowing for uniform and easy access to a set of heterogeneous and geographically distributed databases and space science data archives. (AIP)

  20. Army technology development. IBIS query. Software to support the Image Based Information System (IBIS) expansion for mapping, charting and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, S. Z.; Walker, R. E.; Aitken, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Image Based Information System (IBIS) has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) since 1975. It is a collection of more than 90 programs that enable processing of image, graphical, tabular data for spatial analysis. IBIS can be utilized to create comprehensive geographic data bases. From these data, an analyst can study various attributes describing characteristics of a given study area. Even complex combinations of disparate data types can be synthesized to obtain a new perspective on spatial phenomena. In 1984, new query software was developed enabling direct Boolean queries of IBIS data bases through the submission of easily understood expressions. An improved syntax methodology, a data dictionary, and display software simplified the analysts' tasks associated with building, executing, and subsequently displaying the results of a query. The primary purpose of this report is to describe the features and capabilities of the new query software. A secondary purpose of this report is to compare this new query software to the query software developed previously (Friedman, 1982). With respect to this topic, the relative merits and drawbacks of both approaches are covered.

  1. ConnectomeExplorer: Query-Guided Visual Analysis of Large Volumetric Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Johanna; Al-Awami, Ali; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents ConnectomeExplorer, an application for the interactive exploration and query-guided visual analysis of large volumetric electron microscopy (EM) data sets in connectomics research. Our system incorporates a knowledge-based query algebra that supports the interactive specification of dynamically evaluated queries, which enable neuroscientists to pose and answer domain-specific questions in an intuitive manner. Queries are built step by step in a visual query builder, building more complex queries from combinations of simpler queries. Our application is based on a scalable volume visualization framework that scales to multiple volumes of several teravoxels each, enabling the concurrent visualization and querying of the original EM volume, additional segmentation volumes, neuronal connectivity, and additional meta data comprising a variety of neuronal data attributes. We evaluate our application on a data set of roughly one terabyte of EM data and 750 GB of segmentation data, containing over 4,000 segmented structures and 1,000 synapses. We demonstrate typical use-case scenarios of our collaborators in neuroscience, where our system has enabled them to answer specific scientific questions using interactive querying and analysis on the full-size data for the first time. PMID:24051854

  2. Query Evaluation: Strategies and Optimizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Howard; Flood, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses two query evaluation strategies used in large text retrieval systems: (1) term-at-a-time; and (2) document-at-a-time. Describes optimization techniques that can reduce query evaluation costs. Presents simulation results that compare the performance of these optimization techniques when applied to natural language query evaluation. (JMV)

  3. A high performance, ad-hoc, fuzzy query processing system for relational databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, William H., Jr.; Fleischman, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Database queries involving imprecise or fuzzy predicates are currently an evolving area of academic and industrial research. Such queries place severe stress on the indexing and I/O subsystems of conventional database environments since they involve the search of large numbers of records. The Datacycle architecture and research prototype is a database environment that uses filtering technology to perform an efficient, exhaustive search of an entire database. It has recently been modified to include fuzzy predicates in its query processing. The approach obviates the need for complex index structures, provides unlimited query throughput, permits the use of ad-hoc fuzzy membership functions, and provides a deterministic response time largely independent of query complexity and load. This paper describes the Datacycle prototype implementation of fuzzy queries and some recent performance results.

  4. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  5. Integrating a Federated Healthcare Data Query Platform With Electronic IRB Information Systems.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Hurdle, John F; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Narus, Scott P

    2010-01-01

    Human subjects are indispensable for clinical and translational research. Federal and local agencies issue regulations governing the conduct of research involving human subjects in order to properly protect study participants. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) have the authority to review human subject research to ensure concordance with these regulations. One of the primary goals of the IRB oversight is to protect research participants' privacy by carefully reviewing the data used and disclosed during a study. However, there are major challenges for IRBs in the typical research process. Due to the information disconnect between the data providers (e.g., a clinical data warehouse) and the IRB, it is often impossible to tell exactly what data has been disclosed to investigators. This causes time-consuming, inefficient, and often ineffective monitoring of clinical studies. This paper proposes an integrated architecture that interconnects a federated healthcare data query platform with an electronic IRB system. PMID:21346987

  6. Quality assurance for the query and distribution systems of the RCSB Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Bluhm, Wolfgang F.; Beran, Bojan; Bi, Chunxiao; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Prlić, Andreas; Quinn, Gregory B.; Rose, Peter W.; Shah, Chaitali; Young, Jasmine; Yukich, Benjamin; Berman, Helen M.; Bourne, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, www.pdb.org) is a key online resource for structural biology and related scientific disciplines. The website is used on average by 165 000 unique visitors per month, and more than 2000 other websites link to it. The amount and complexity of PDB data as well as the expectations on its usage are growing rapidly. Therefore, ensuring the reliability and robustness of the RCSB PDB query and distribution systems are crucially important and increasingly challenging. This article describes quality assurance for the RCSB PDB website at several distinct levels, including: (i) hardware redundancy and failover, (ii) testing protocols for weekly database updates, (iii) testing and release procedures for major software updates and (iv) miscellaneous monitoring and troubleshooting tools and practices. As such it provides suggestions for how other websites might be operated. Database URL: www.pdb.org PMID:21382834

  7. Analysis and Benchmark of Hydrological Network Representation Models for Improved Access and Query in Web-based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Szczepanek, R.

    2015-12-01

    Web based systems allow users to delineate watersheds on interactive map environments using server side processing and databases. With increasing resolution of hydrological networks, optimized methods for storage of network representation in databases, and efficient queries and actions on the river network structure become critical. This presentation provides a comprehensive study on analysis of network models in relational databases for hydrological networks, and benchmarking common queries and operations on the network structure using these methods. The analysis has been applied to the hydrological network of the State of Iowa based on 90m DEM consist of 600,000 network nodes. The application results indicate that certain representation methods provide massive improvements on query times and storage of network structure in the database. Suggested method allows watershed delineation tools running on the client-side with desktop-like performance. This will allow users to carry out large scale analysis and visualizations tasks on the web.

  8. A special query tool in the hospital information system to recognize patients and to increase patient numbers for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Koca, Mithat; Husmann, Gabriele; Jesgarz, Jürgen; Overath, Martin; Brandts, Christian; Serve, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    A powerful hospital information system (HIS) contains information about diagnostic and disease data of all patients in a hospital. In the university hospital in Frankfurt / Main Germany more than 80% of all wards are completely "paperless". But the identification of patients for clinical trials is very difficult. We developed a special query and reporting tool in the HIS to recognize patients with a specific disease and with basic inclusion and exclusion criteria for a specific clinical trial. With the help of this query tool it is possible to increase significantly the patient numbers for clinical trials in a short period. PMID:22874393

  9. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  10. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the evaluation of the concept of obtaining significant amount of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System is reported. The Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan is described including: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment.

  11. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  12. Decomposition: A Strategy for Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Eugene; Youssefi, Karel

    Multivariable queries can be processed in the data base management system INGRES. The general procedure is to decompose the query into a sequence of one-variable queries using two processes. One process is reduction which requires breaking off components of the query which are joined to it by a single variable. The other process,…

  13. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  14. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  15. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  16. A peer-to-peer music sharing system based on query-by-humming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianrong; Chang, Xinglong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Yebin; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Today, the main traffic in peer-to-peer (P2P) network is still multimedia files including large numbers of music files. The study of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) brings out many encouraging achievements in music search area. Nevertheless, the research of music search based on MIR in P2P network is still insufficient. Query by Humming (QBH) is one MIR technology studied for years. In this paper, we present a server based P2P music sharing system which is based on QBH and integrated with a Hierarchical Index Structure (HIS) to enhance the relation between surface data and potential information. HIS automatically evolving depends on the music related items carried by each peer such as midi files, lyrics and so forth. Instead of adding large amount of redundancy, the system generates a bit of index for multiple search input which improves the traditional keyword-based text search mode largely. When network bandwidth, speed, etc. are no longer a bottleneck of internet serve, the accessibility and accuracy of information provided by internet are being more concerned by end users.

  17. Improving Web Search for Difficult Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    Search engines have now become essential tools in all aspects of our life. Although a variety of information needs can be served very successfully, there are still a lot of queries that search engines can not answer very effectively and these queries always make users feel frustrated. Since it is quite often that users encounter such "difficult…

  18. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  19. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  20. Incorporating bibliographic information into a spatial data query system for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, D.J.; Jensen, J.R.; MacCharles, C.V.; Holliday, W.N.; White, T.R.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the Environmental Sciences Section of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the University of South Carolina have developed a full-featured spatial data query system for the Savannah River Site. This Environmental Data Atlas, which operates across multiple platforms, is designed to provide scientists with easy access to a wide range of GIS and remote sensing data resources. This paper describes the method that has been developed to extend the Environmental Data Atlas to incorporate bibliographical data. The bibliographic search function was determined by the scientists to be an extremely important enhancement that will enable them to utilize geographic keys to locate obscure references and databases. The method uses a Hot Link function to launch a parsing algorithm by pointing to geographic features. The parsing algorithm efficiently sorts through a list of references based on the keyword associated with the feature. The matched bibliographical entries are formatted into a text file that is displayed in a scrollable window. Any graphics associated with the actual reference can also be scanned and linked to an additional Hot Link. An additional parsing system was used to automatically create the bibliographical database from a comprehensive CD-ROM version of the Environmental Information Document prepared by the Environmental Sciences Section. This extensive digital reference represents a summary of much of the recent ecological information available on the site. The methods used in this system are directly linked to a commercially available software and provide a universal approach to establishing a geographically based document retrieval system.

  1. Question processing and clustering in INDOC: a biomedical question answering system.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Parikshit; Raj, Purushottam; Kumar, V Vinod; Mittal, Ankush

    2007-01-01

    The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC--a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort. PMID:18274647

  2. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  3. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  4. Chinese Automatic Question Answering System of Specific-domain Based on Vector Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiqing; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    In order to meet the demand to acquire necessary information efficiently from large electronic text, the Question and Answering (QA) technology to show a clear reply automatically to a question asked in the user's natural language has widely attracted attention in recent years. Although the research of QA system in China is later than that in western countries and Japan, it has attracted more and more attention recently. In this paper, we propose a Question-Answering construction, which synthesizes the answer retrieval to the questions asked most frequently based on common knowledge, and the document retrieval concerning sightseeing information. In order to improve reply accuracy, one must consider the synthetic model based on statistic VSM and the shallow semantic analysis, and the domain is limited to sightseeing information. A Chinese QA system about sightseeing based on the proposed method has been built. The result is obtained by evaluation experiments, where high accuracy can be achieved when the results of retrieval were regarded as correct, if the correct answer appeared among those of the top three resemblance degree. The experiments proved the efficiency of our method and it is feasible to develop Question-Answering technology based on this method.

  5. Visual query tool for finding patient cohorts from a clinical data warehouse of the partners HealthCare system

    PubMed

    Murphy; Barnett; Chueh

    2000-01-01

    The patient base of the Partners HealthCare System in Boston exceeds 1.8 million. Many of these patients are desirable for participation in research studies. To facilitate their discovery, we developed a data warehouse to contain clinical characteristics of these patients. The data warehouse contains diagnosis and procedures from administrative databases. The patients are indexed across institutions and their demographics provided by an Enterprise Master Patient Indexing service. Characteristics of the diagnoses and procedures such as associated providers, dates of service, inpatient/outpatient status, and other visit-related characteristics are also fed from the administrative systems. The targeted users of this system are research clinician s interested in finding patient cohorts for research studies. Their data requirements were analyzed and have been reported elsewhere. We did not expect the clinicians to become expert users of the system. Tools for querying healthcare data have traditionally been text based, although graphical interfaces have been pursued. In order to support the simple drag and drop visual model, as well as the identification and distribution of the patient data, a three-tier software architecture was developed. The user interface was developed in Visual Basic and distributed as an ActiveX object embedded in an HTML page. The middle layer was developed in Java and Microsoft COM. The queries are represented throughout their lifetime as XML objects, and the Microsoft SQL7 database is queried and managed in standard SQL. PMID:11080028

  6. A Last-Resort Semantic Cache for Web Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarotti, Flavio; Marin, Mauricio; Mendoza, Marcelo

    We propose a method to evaluate queries using a last-resort semantic cache in a distributed Web search engine. The cache stores a group of frequent queries and for each of these queries it keeps minimal data, that is, the list of machines that produced their answers. The method for evaluating the queries uses the inverse frequency of the terms in the queries stored in the cache (Idf) to determine when the results recovered from the cache are a good approximation to the exact answer set. Experiments show that the method is effective and efficient.

  7. An Experimental Remote Question-Answer Scan Television and Student Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigas, Anthony L.

    Presented is a description of the development and use of a technical system designed to provide students (in this case, engineering students) situated at remote sites a means for better interaction with their instructors. For example, students at such sites cannot get their immediate questions answered because of the physical location of their…

  8. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations 2: Index functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories (gamma) of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let eta is contained R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean space, and let parallel to center dot parallel to denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structures and indices for trajectories are defined and algorithms are given to answer queries of the following forms: Query 1. Given a path eta, determine whether eta occurs as a subtrajectory of any trajectory gamma from the database. If so, return the trajectory; otherwise, return null. Query 2. Given a path eta, return the trajectory gamma from the database which minimizes the norm parallel to eta - gamma parallel.

  9. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  10. The Silver Bullet Skunk Works: Holistic design of the answering system 1300

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Silver Bullet Skunk Works, and experimental product realization team at AT T Consumer Products, designed and shipped a new telephone answering system to market in eight months, approximately one year faster than previous AT T products of similar complexity. This paper outlines the Design for X'' (DFX) philosophies and the team structure that enabled the group to accelerate the Product Realization Process. The Answering System 1300, developed in record time, was a successful product that met its schedule and cost objectives, and sold out its entire high-volume manufacturing run. Lessons learned from the Skunk Works experience have since been applied to other development activities in AT T Consumer Products. 3 figs.

  11. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  12. On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers θ1 and θ2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either θ1 = 0 or θ2 = +∞. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

  13. Advanced Query Formulation in Deductive Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Timo; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    1992-01-01

    Discusses deductive databases and database management systems (DBMS) and introduces a framework for advanced query formulation for end users. Recursive processing is described, a sample extensional database is presented, query types are explained, and criteria for advanced query formulation from the end user's viewpoint are examined. (31…

  14. Characterization of the Biomedical Query Mediation Process

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Gregory W.; Boland, Mary Regina; Cimino, James J.; Gao, Junfeng; Wilcox, Adam B.; Hirschberg, Julia; Weng, Chunhua

    To most medical researchers, databases are obscure black boxes. Query analysts are often indispensable guides aiding researchers to perform mediated data queries. However, this approach does not scale up and is time-consuming and expensive. We analyzed query mediation dialogues to inform future designs of intelligent query mediation systems. Thirty-one mediated query sessions for 22 research projects were recorded and transcribed. We analyzed 10 of these to develop an annotation schema for dialogue acts through iterative refinement. Three coders independently annotated all 3160 dialogue acts. We assessed the inter-rater agreement and resolved disagreement by group consensus. This study contributes early knowledge of the query negotiation space for medical research. We conclude that research data query formulation is not a straightforward translation from researcher data needs to database queries, but rather iterative, process-oriented needs assessment and refinement. PMID:24303242

  15. Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

  16. Query expansion using the UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. R.; Rindflesch, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of query expansion for improving retrieval effectiveness when applying statistically-based systems to MEDLINE citations. The research has suggested the use of retrieval feedback for enhancing the original text of users' queries. As an alternative method of query expansion, we propose the use of the MetaMap program for associating UMLS Metathesaurus concepts with the original query. Our experiments show that query expansion based on MetaMap compares favorably with retrieval feedback. We conclude that the optimal strategy would be to combine the two techniques. PMID:9357673

  17. A low-latency, big database system and browser for storage, querying and visualization of 3D genomic data.

    PubMed

    Butyaev, Alexander; Mavlyutov, Ruslan; Blanchette, Mathieu; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2015-09-18

    Recent releases of genome three-dimensional (3D) structures have the potential to transform our understanding of genomes. Nonetheless, the storage technology and visualization tools need to evolve to offer to the scientific community fast and convenient access to these data. We introduce simultaneously a database system to store and query 3D genomic data (3DBG), and a 3D genome browser to visualize and explore 3D genome structures (3DGB). We benchmark 3DBG against state-of-the-art systems and demonstrate that it is faster than previous solutions, and importantly gracefully scales with the size of data. We also illustrate the usefulness of our 3D genome Web browser to explore human genome structures. The 3D genome browser is available at http://3dgb.cs.mcgill.ca/. PMID:25990738

  18. GSEL version 2, an online genome-wide query system of operon organization and regulatory sequence elements of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanhua; Brown, Peter; Barbe, Jose F; Puljic, Marko; Merino, Enrique; Adkins, Ronald M; Lovley, Derek R; Krushkal, Julia

    2009-10-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model organism within the delta-Proteobacterial family Geobacteraceae, members of which can participate in environmental bioremediation of metal and organic waste contaminants and in production of bioenergy. In this report, we describe a new, significantly expanded and updated, version 2 of the GSEL (Geobacter Sequence Elements) database ( http://geobacter.org/research/gsel2/ and http://geobacter.org/refs/gsel2/ ) and its accompanying online query system, which compiles information on operon organization and regulatory sequence elements in the genome of G. sulfurreducens. It incorporates a new online graphical browser, provides novel search capabilities, and includes updated operon predictions along with new information on predicted and experimentally validated genome regulatory sites. The GSEL database and online search system provides a unique and comprehensive tool cataloging information about gene regulation in G. sulfurreducens, aiding in investigation of mechanisms that regulate its ability to generate electric power, bioremediate environmental waste, and adapt to environmental changes. PMID:19792871

  19. A low-latency, big database system and browser for storage, querying and visualization of 3D genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Butyaev, Alexander; Mavlyutov, Ruslan; Blanchette, Mathieu; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Recent releases of genome three-dimensional (3D) structures have the potential to transform our understanding of genomes. Nonetheless, the storage technology and visualization tools need to evolve to offer to the scientific community fast and convenient access to these data. We introduce simultaneously a database system to store and query 3D genomic data (3DBG), and a 3D genome browser to visualize and explore 3D genome structures (3DGB). We benchmark 3DBG against state-of-the-art systems and demonstrate that it is faster than previous solutions, and importantly gracefully scales with the size of data. We also illustrate the usefulness of our 3D genome Web browser to explore human genome structures. The 3D genome browser is available at http://3dgb.cs.mcgill.ca/. PMID:25990738

  20. Exploring U.S Cropland - A Web Service based Cropland Data Layer Visualization, Dissemination and Querying System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Han, W.; di, L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) of the USDA produces the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) product, which is a raster-formatted, geo-referenced, U.S. crop specific land cover classification. These digital data layers are widely used for a variety of applications by universities, research institutions, government agencies, and private industry in climate change studies, environmental ecosystem studies, bioenergy production & transportation planning, environmental health research and agricultural production decision making. The CDL is also used internally by NASS for crop acreage and yield estimation. Like most geospatial data products, the CDL product is only available by CD/DVD delivery or online bulk file downloading via the National Research Conservation Research (NRCS) Geospatial Data Gateway (external users) or in a printed paper map format. There is no online geospatial information access and dissemination, no crop visualization & browsing, no geospatial query capability, nor online analytics. To facilitate the application of this data layer and to help disseminating the data, a web-service based CDL interactive map visualization, dissemination, querying system is proposed. It uses Web service based service oriented architecture, adopts open standard geospatial information science technology and OGC specifications and standards, and re-uses functions/algorithms from GeoBrain Technology (George Mason University developed). This system provides capabilities of on-line geospatial crop information access, query and on-line analytics via interactive maps. It disseminates all data to the decision makers and users via real time retrieval, processing and publishing over the web through standards-based geospatial web services. A CDL region of interest can also be exported directly to Google Earth for mashup or downloaded for use with other desktop application. This web service based system greatly improves equal-accessibility, interoperability, usability

  1. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  2. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  3. Implementing Graph Pattern Queries on a Relational Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L; Abdulla, G M; Brugger, S T; Kohn, S R

    2007-12-26

    When a graph database is implemented on top of a relational database, queries in the graph query language are translated into relational SQL queries. Graph pattern queries are an important feature of a graph query language. Translating graph pattern queries into single SQL statements results in very poor query performance. By taking into account the pattern query structure and generating multiple SQL statements, pattern query performance can be dramatically improved. The performance problems encountered with the single SQL statements generated for pattern queries reflects a problem in the SQL query planner and optimizer. Addressing this problem would allow relational databases to better support semantic graph databases. Relational database systems that provide good support for graph databases may also be more flexible platforms for data warehouses.

  4. Exploring connectivity of the brain's white matter with dynamic queries.

    PubMed

    Sherbondy, Anthony; Akers, David; Mackenzie, Rachel; Dougherty, Robert; Wandell, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging method that can be used to measure local information about the structure of white matter within the human brain. Combining DTI data with the computational methods of MR tractography, neuroscientists can estimate the locations and sizes of nerve bundles (white matter pathways) that course through the human brain. Neuroscientists have used visualization techniques to better understand tractography data, but they often struggle with the abundance and complexity of the pathways. In this paper, we describe a novel set of interaction techniques that make it easier to explore and interpret such pathways. Specifically, our application allows neuroscientists to place and interactively manipulate box or ellipsoid-shaped regions to selectively display pathways that pass through specific anatomical areas. These regions can be used in coordination with a simple and flexible query language which allows for arbitrary combinations of these queries using Boolean logic operators. A representation of the cortical surface is provided for specifying queries of pathways that may be relevant to gray matter structures and for displaying activation information obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging. By precomputing the pathways and their statistical properties, we obtain the speed necessary for interactive question-and-answer sessions with brain researchers. We survey some questions that researchers have been asking about tractography data and show how our system can be used to answer these questions efficiently. PMID:16138552

  5. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

  6. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  7. Techniques for optimization of queries on integrated biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Zoé; Raschid, Louiqa; Eckman, Barbara A

    2004-06-01

    Today, scientific data are inevitably digitized, stored in a wide variety of formats, and are accessible over the Internet. Scientific discovery increasingly involves accessing multiple heterogeneous data sources, integrating the results of complex queries, and applying further analysis and visualization applications in order to collect datasets of interest. Building a scientific integration platform to support these critical tasks requires accessing and manipulating data extracted from flat files or databases, documents retrieved from the Web, as well as data that are locally materialized in warehouses or generated by software. The lack of efficiency of existing approaches can significantly affect the process with lengthy delays while accessing critical resources or with the failure of the system to report any results. Some queries take so much time to be answered that their results are returned via email, making their integration with other results a tedious task. This paper presents several issues that need to be addressed to provide seamless and efficient integration of biomolecular data. Identified challenges include: capturing and representing various domain specific computational capabilities supported by a source including sequence or text search engines and traditional query processing; developing a methodology to acquire and represent semantic knowledge and metadata about source contents, overlap in source contents, and access costs; developing cost and semantics based decision support tools to select sources and capabilities, and to generate efficient query evaluation plans. PMID:15297988

  8. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations: Data structures for trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    One approach to qualitative reasoning about dynamical systems is to extract qualitative information by searching or making queries on databases containing very large numbers of trajectories. The efficiency of such queries depends crucially upon finding an appropriate data structure for trajectories of dynamical systems. Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories gamma of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let Eta is contained in set R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean Space, and let the Euclidean Norm denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structure is defined to represent trajectories of dynamical systems, and an algorithm is sketched which answers queries.

  9. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  10. YARS2: A Federated Repository for Querying Graph Structured Data from the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Andreas; Umbrich, Jürgen; Hogan, Aidan; Decker, Stefan

    We present the architecture of an end-to-end semantic search engine that uses a graph data model to enable interactive query answering over structured and interlinked data collected from many disparate sources on the Web. In particular, we study distributed indexing methods for graph-structured data and parallel query evaluation methods on a cluster of computers. We evaluate the system on a dataset with 430 million statements collected from the Web, and provide scale-up experiments on 7 billion synthetically generated statements.

  11. 77 FR 70431 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice Establishing Answer Period to Limited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Answer Period to Limited Emergency Protest On November 16, 2012, JP Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. (JPMVEC) filed a Limited Emergency Protest (Protest) regarding the comment period for the California Independent... consideration, notice is hereby given that the date for filing answers to JPMVEC's Protest is shortened to...

  12. What Do People Ask for on the Web and How Do They Ask It: ASK JEEVES Query Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a study examining the nature of queries submitted to Ask Jeeves-a publicly accessible question and answer search engine. Some 30,000 queries from a dataset of 800,000, or 3.75%, were analyzed. Results include: many queries not in question format; four types of user queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; and common…

  13. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  14. Multi-Bit Quantum Private Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Xu; Liu, Xing-Tong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-09-01

    Most of the existing Quantum Private Queries (QPQ) protocols provide only single-bit queries service, thus have to be repeated several times when more bits are retrieved. Wei et al.'s scheme for block queries requires a high-dimension quantum key distribution system to sustain, which is still restricted in the laboratory. Here, based on Markus Jakobi et al.'s single-bit QPQ protocol, we propose a multi-bit quantum private query protocol, in which the user can get access to several bits within one single query. We also extend the proposed protocol to block queries, using a binary matrix to guard database security. Analysis in this paper shows that our protocol has better communication complexity, implementability and can achieve a considerable level of security.

  15. Information Network Model Query Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaopu

    Information Networking Model (INM) [31] is a novel database model for real world objects and relationships management. It naturally and directly supports various kinds of static and dynamic relationships between objects. In INM, objects are networked through various natural and complex relationships. INM Query Language (INM-QL) [30] is designed to explore such information network, retrieve information about schema, instance, their attributes, relationships, and context-dependent information, and process query results in the user specified form. INM database management system has been implemented using Berkeley DB, and it supports INM-QL. This thesis is mainly focused on the implementation of the subsystem that is able to effectively and efficiently process INM-QL. The subsystem provides a lexical and syntactical analyzer of INM-QL, and it is able to choose appropriate evaluation strategies and index mechanism to process queries in INM-QL without the user's intervention. It also uses intermediate result structure to hold intermediate query result and other helping structures to reduce complexity of query processing.

  16. A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability.

    PubMed

    Easley, Christopher J; Karlinsey, James M; Bienvenue, Joan M; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Feldman, Sanford H; Hughes, Molly A; Hewlett, Erik L; Merkel, Tod J; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2006-12-19

    We describe a microfluidic genetic analysis system that represents a previously undescribed integrated microfluidic device capable of accepting whole blood as a crude biological sample with the endpoint generation of a genetic profile. Upon loading the sample, the glass microfluidic genetic analysis system device carries out on-chip DNA purification and PCR-based amplification, followed by separation and detection in a manner that allows for microliter samples to be screened for infectious pathogens with sample-in-answer-out results in < 30 min. A single syringe pump delivers sample/reagents to the chip for nucleic acid purification from a biological sample. Elastomeric membrane valving isolates each distinct functional region of the device and, together with resistive flow, directs purified DNA and PCR reagents from the extraction domain into a 550-nl chamber for rapid target sequence PCR amplification. Repeated pressure-based injections of nanoliter aliquots of amplicon (along with the DNA sizing standard) allow electrophoretic separation and detection to provide DNA fragment size information. The presence of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in 750 nl of whole blood from living asymptomatic infected mice and of Bordetella pertussis in 1 microl of nasal aspirate from a patient suspected of having whooping cough are confirmed by the resultant genetic profile. PMID:17159153

  17. Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, İ.; Alkış, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Increase in the number of satellites and the utilization of digital cameras in the aerial photography has spread the use of satellite image and oriented aerial photograph as real or near-real time resolution, accessible, cost effective spatial data. Co-registered images or aerial photos corrected for the height variations and orthogonality (scale) have become an essential input for geographical information systems and spatial decision making due to their integration with the other spatial data. Beyond that, images and photographs compose infrastructure for the other information in usage of spatial data with the help of the access and query facility web providing. Although the issue of the aerial photo ortho-rectification has been solved long ago, the problems related with the storage of huge amount of photos and images, their management, processes, and user accesses have been raised. These subjects concern the multitudinous private and governmental institutes. Some governmental organizations and private companies have gained the technical ability to perform these works in recent times. This situation has lead to significant increase in the amount of aerial photograph taking and processing in one year for whole country. General Command of Mapping has been using digital aerial camera since 2008 for the photograph taking. The total area covered by the satellite images, purchased for different purposes, and the aerial photographs, taken for some revision purposes or demands of governmental and private institutes, has reached up to 200.000 km². It is considered that, colored and high resolution orthophotos of the whole country can be achieved within four years; provided that the annual production would continue similarly without any increase in amount. From the numbers given above, it is clear and inevitable that the orthophoto production procedure must be improved in order to produce orthophotos in the same year just after the photograph takings. Necessary studies

  18. High-precision positioning system of four-quadrant detector based on the database query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Deng, Xiao-guo; Su, Xiu-qin; Zheng, Xiao-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The fine pointing mechanism of the Acquisition, Pointing and Tracking (APT) system in free space laser communication usually use four-quadrant detector (QD) to point and track the laser beam accurately. The positioning precision of QD is one of the key factors of the pointing accuracy to APT system. A positioning system is designed based on FPGA and DSP in this paper, which can realize the sampling of AD, the positioning algorithm and the control of the fast swing mirror. We analyze the positioning error of facular center calculated by universal algorithm when the facular energy obeys Gauss distribution from the working principle of QD. A database is built by calculation and simulation with MatLab software, in which the facular center calculated by universal algorithm is corresponded with the facular center of Gaussian beam, and the database is stored in two pieces of E2PROM as the external memory of DSP. The facular center of Gaussian beam is inquiry in the database on the basis of the facular center calculated by universal algorithm in DSP. The experiment results show that the positioning accuracy of the high-precision positioning system is much better than the positioning accuracy calculated by universal algorithm.

  19. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  20. How Do Children Reformulate Their Search Queries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Sophie; Ford, Nigel; Clough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates techniques used by children in year 4 (age eight to nine) of a UK primary school to reformulate their queries, and how they use information retrieval systems to support query reformulation. Method: An in-depth study analysing the interactions of twelve children carrying out search tasks in a primary school…

  1. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  2. [Data coding in the Israeli healthcare system - do choices provide the answers to our system's needs?].

    PubMed

    Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding

  3. Qualified answers that reflect user needs and preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces a formalism to describe the needs and preferences of database users. Because of the precise formulation of these concepts, we have found an automatic and {ital very simple} mechanism to incorporate user needs and preferences into the query answering process. In the formalism, the user provides a lattice of domain independent values that define preferences and needs and a set of domain specific {ital user constraints} qualified with lattice values. The constraints are automatically incorporated into a relational or deductive database through a series of syntactic transformations that produces an annotated deductive database. Query answering procedures for deductive databases are then used, with minor modifications, to obtain annotated answers to queries. Because preference declaration is separated from data representation and management, preferences can be easily altered without touching the database. Also, the query language allows users to ask for answers at different preference levels. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  5. The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

  6. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  7. Query Networks for Medical Information Retrieval-Assigning Probabilistic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Steve B.; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Frisse, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Query networks are specializations of Belief networks used in information retrieval. We hypothesize that query networks can be incorporated into medical information systems in at least two ways: First, the relative values of nodes in the query networks can be used to initiate searches based on query term-weights. Second, query models can incorporate reader feedback and can become simple task-specific user models. If large query networks are to be useful, one must find means to assign reasonable “default” values to those nodes and edges which are not explicitly defined by some other means. This paper presents preliminary data assessing the suitability of various default heuristic query network edge assignment functions. Early evidence suggests that query networks using default assignment functions exhibit behavior consistent with that expected from an information retrieval aid.

  8. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  9. Retrieval with gene queries

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Aditya K; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2006-01-01

    Background Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Results Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline). For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene) summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. Conclusion We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents. PMID:16630348

  10. An SQL query generator for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Chirica, Laurian

    1990-01-01

    As expert systems become more widely used, their access to large amounts of external information becomes increasingly important. This information exists in several forms such as statistical, tabular data, knowledge gained by experts and large databases of information maintained by companies. Because many expert systems, including CLIPS, do not provide access to this external information, much of the usefulness of expert systems is left untapped. The scope of this paper is to describe a database extension for the CLIPS expert system shell. The current industry standard database language is SQL. Due to SQL standardization, large amounts of information stored on various computers, potentially at different locations, will be more easily accessible. Expert systems should be able to directly access these existing databases rather than requiring information to be re-entered into the expert system environment. The ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS) was used to provide a database connection within the CLIPS environment. To facilitate relational database access a query generation system was developed as a CLIPS user function. The queries are entered in a CLlPS-like syntax and are passed to the query generator, which constructs and submits for execution, an SQL query to the ORACLE RDBMS. The query results are asserted as CLIPS facts. The query generator was developed primarily for use within the ICADS project (Intelligent Computer Aided Design System) currently being developed by the CAD Research Unit in the California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly). In ICADS, there are several parallel or distributed expert systems accessing a common knowledge base of facts. Expert system has a narrow domain of interest and therefore needs only certain portions of the information. The query generator provides a common method of accessing this information and allows the expert system to specify what data is needed without specifying how to retrieve it.

  11. EHR query language (EQL)--a query language for archetype-based health records.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunlan; Frankel, Heath; Beale, Thomas; Heard, Sam

    2007-01-01

    OpenEHR specifications have been developed to standardise the representation of an international electronic health record (EHR). The language used for querying EHR data is not as yet part of the specification. To fill in this gap, Ocean Informatics has developed a query language currently known as EHR Query Language (EQL), a declarative language supporting queries on EHR data. EQL is neutral to EHR systems, programming languages and system environments and depends only on the openEHR archetype model and semantics. Thus, in principle, EQL can be used in any archetype-based computational context. In the EHR context described here, particular queries mention concepts from the openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM). EQL can be used as a common query language for disparate archetype-based applications. The use of a common RM, archetypes, and a companion query language, such as EQL, semantic interoperability of EHR information is much closer. This paper introduces the EQL syntax and provides example clinical queries to illustrate the syntax. Finally, current implementations and future directions are outlined. PMID:17911747

  12. Multidimensional indexing structure for use with linear optimization queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Castelli, Vittorio (Inventor); Chang, Yuan-Chi (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Linear optimization queries, which usually arise in various decision support and resource planning applications, are queries that retrieve top N data records (where N is an integer greater than zero) which satisfy a specific optimization criterion. The optimization criterion is to either maximize or minimize a linear equation. The coefficients of the linear equation are given at query time. Methods and apparatus are disclosed for constructing, maintaining and utilizing a multidimensional indexing structure of database records to improve the execution speed of linear optimization queries. Database records with numerical attributes are organized into a number of layers and each layer represents a geometric structure called convex hull. Such linear optimization queries are processed by searching from the outer-most layer of this multi-layer indexing structure inwards. At least one record per layer will satisfy the query criterion and the number of layers needed to be searched depends on the spatial distribution of records, the query-issued linear coefficients, and N, the number of records to be returned. When N is small compared to the total size of the database, answering the query typically requires searching only a small fraction of all relevant records, resulting in a tremendous speedup as compared to linearly scanning the entire dataset.

  13. The StarView intelligent query mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, R. D.; Silberberg, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The StarView interface is being developed to facilitate the retrieval of scientific and engineering data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope. While predefined screens in the interface can be used to specify many common requests, ad hoc requests require a dynamic query formulation capability. Unfortunately, logical level knowledge is too sparse to support this capability. In particular, essential formulation knowledge is lost when the domain of interest is mapped to a set of database relation schemas. Thus, a system known as QUICK has been developed that uses conceptual design knowledge to facilitate query formulation. By heuristically determining strongly associated objects at the conceptual level, QUICK is able to formulate semantically reasonable queries in response to high-level requests that specify only attributes of interest. Moreover, by exploiting constraint knowledge in the conceptual design, QUICK assures that queries are formulated quickly and will execute efficiently.

  14. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  15. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  16. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must tradeoff time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality is associated with the fidelity of the multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the design space that can be analyzed. The tradeoff is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary system model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than handwritten translation scripts or codes of multidisciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core system model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query-View- Transform (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems and analyses. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models. The Europa Hability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, a symbolic mathematical framework (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the system model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful tradespace exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  17. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a Systems Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must trade between time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality often correlates with greater run time in multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the number of alternatives that can be analyzed. The trade-off is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary systems model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than hand-written translation scripts between multi-disciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core systems model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query/View/Transformation (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models into other models, including those leveraged by engineering analyses. The Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, symbolic analysis (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the systems model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful design exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  18. Generic queries for meeting clinical information needs.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Aguirre, A; Johnson, S B; Peng, P

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a model for automated information retrieval in which questions posed by clinical users are analyzed to establish common syntactic and semantic patterns. The patterns are used to develop a set of general-purpose questions called generic queries. These generic queries are used in responding to specific clinical information needs. Users select generic queries in one of two ways. The user may type in questions, which are then analyzed, using natural language processing techniques, to identify the most relevant generic query; or the user may indicate patient data of interest and then pick one of several potentially relevant questions. Once the query and medical concepts have been determined, an information source is selected automatically, a retrieval strategy is composed and executed, and the results are sorted and filtered for presentation to the user. This work makes extensive use of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): medical concepts are derived from the Metathesaurus, medical queries are based on semantic relations drawn from the UMLS Semantic Network, and automated source selection makes use of the Information Sources Map. The paper describes research currently under way to implement this model and reports on experience and results to date. PMID:8472005

  19. Querying and Ranking XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlieder, Torsten; Meuss, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML, information retrieval, precision, and recall focuses on a retrieval technique that adopts the similarity measure of the vector space model, incorporates the document structure, and supports structured queries. Topics include a query model based on tree matching; structured queries and term-based ranking; and term frequency and…

  20. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  1. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  2. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  3. Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

  4. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  5. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  6. A need for closer examination of FASD by the criminal justice system: has the call been answered?

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains. PMID:21900706

  7. QVIZ: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUERYING AND VISUALIZING DATA

    SciTech Connect

    T. KEAHEY; P. MCCORMICK; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    Qviz is a lightweight, modular,and easy to use parallel system for interactive analytical query processing and visual presentation of large datasets. Qviz allows queries of arbitrary complexity to be easily constructed using a specialized scripting language. Visual presentation of the results is also easily achieved via simple scripted and interactive commands to our query-specific visualization tools. This paper describes our initial experiences with the Qviz system for querying and visualizing scientific datasets, showing how Qviz has been used in two different applications: ocean modeling and linear accelerator simulations.

  8. A Multi-Agent Question-Answering System for E-Learning and Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinaghi, Tannaz; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    The increasing advances of new Internet technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. E-learning and collaborative learning environment systems are originated through such changes and aim at providing facilities for people in different times and geographical locations to cooperate, collaborate, learn and work…

  9. Two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Nam, Jeonghun; Kim, Sangho; Lim, Chwee Teck; Park, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Yong

    2016-08-15

    Rapid, early, and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for effective disease management and surveillance, and can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Although significant advances have been achieved for the diagnosis of malaria, these technologies are still far from ideal, being time consuming, complex and poorly sensitive as well as requiring separate assays for sample processing and detection. Therefore, the development of a fast and sensitive method that can integrate sample processing with detection of malarial infection is desirable. Here, we report a two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites. It combines the Dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)/Thin film Sample processing (DTS) technique as a first stage and the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer-Isothermal solid-phase DNA Amplification (MZI-IDA) sensing technique as a second stage. The system can extract DNA from malarial parasites using DTS technique in a closed system, not only reducing sample loss and contamination, but also facilitating the multiplexed malarial DNA detection using the fast and accurate MZI-IDA technique. Here, we demonstrated that this system can deliver results within 60min (including sample processing, amplification and detection) with high sensitivity (<1 parasite μL(-1)) in a label-free and real-time manner. The developed system would be of great potential for better diagnosis of malaria in low-resource settings. PMID:27031184

  10. Query-Based Outlier Detection in Heterogeneous Information Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kuck, Jonathan; Zhuang, Honglei; Yan, Xifeng; Cam, Hasan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Outlier or anomaly detection in large data sets is a fundamental task in data science, with broad applications. However, in real data sets with high-dimensional space, most outliers are hidden in certain dimensional combinations and are relative to a user’s search space and interest. It is often more effective to give power to users and allow them to specify outlier queries flexibly, and the system will then process such mining queries efficiently. In this study, we introduce the concept of query-based outlier in heterogeneous information networks, design a query language to facilitate users to specify such queries flexibly, define a good outlier measure in heterogeneous networks, and study how to process outlier queries efficiently in large data sets. Our experiments on real data sets show that following such a methodology, interesting outliers can be defined and uncovered flexibly and effectively in large heterogeneous networks. PMID:27064397

  11. SPARQL Assist language-neutral query composer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SPARQL query composition is difficult for the lay-person, and even the experienced bioinformatician in cases where the data model is unfamiliar. Moreover, established best-practices and internationalization concerns dictate that the identifiers for ontological terms should be opaque rather than human-readable, which further complicates the task of synthesizing queries manually. Results We present SPARQL Assist: a Web application that addresses these issues by providing context-sensitive type-ahead completion during SPARQL query construction. Ontological terms are suggested using their multi-lingual labels and descriptions, leveraging existing support for internationalization and language-neutrality. Moreover, the system utilizes the semantics embedded in ontologies, and within the query itself, to help prioritize the most likely suggestions. Conclusions To ensure success, the Semantic Web must be easily available to all users, regardless of locale, training, or preferred language. By enhancing support for internationalization, and moreover by simplifying the manual construction of SPARQL queries through the use of controlled-natural-language interfaces, we believe we have made some early steps towards simplifying access to Semantic Web resources. PMID:22373327

  12. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  13. AQBE — QBE Style Queries for Archetyped Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Shelly; Yaginuma, Daigo; Chu, Wanming; Bhalla, Subhash

    Large-scale adoption of electronic healthcare applications requires semantic interoperability. The new proposals propose an advanced (multi-level) DBMS architecture for repository services for health records of patients. These also require query interfaces at multiple levels and at the level of semi-skilled users. In this regard, a high-level user interface for querying the new form of standardized Electronic Health Records system has been examined in this study. It proposes a step-by-step graphical query interface to allow semi-skilled users to write queries. Its aim is to decrease user effort and communication ambiguities, and increase user friendliness.

  14. A framework for querying heterogeneous images repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanesi, Maria G.; Falchero, Emanuele; Guerrini, Federico; Ferretti, Marco

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we describe a new system for storing annotated images in a large database and querying by means of a dynamical retrieval of images through use of metadata. It is based on a three-tier architecture suitable for building a common gateway for accessing heterogeneous data. Based on XML schema of documents, the extraction of metadata is used for successive querying. We give an example on a database of astronomical and geographical images, but the method is quite general and can be applied to more general case of large heterogeneous databases.

  15. Query Expansion and Query Translation as Logical Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    2003-01-01

    Examines query expansion during query translation in cross language information retrieval and develops a general framework for inferential information retrieval in two particular contexts: using fuzzy logic and probability theory. Obtains evaluation formulas that are shown to strongly correspond to those used in other information retrieval models.…

  16. Querying Semi-Structured Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abiteboul, Serge

    1997-01-01

    The amount of data of all kinds available electronically has increased dramatically in recent years. The data resides in different forms, ranging from unstructured data in the systems to highly structured in relational database systems. Data is accessible through a variety of interfaces including Web browsers, database query languages, application-specic interfaces, or data exchange formats. Some of this data is raw data, e.g., images or sound. Some of it has structure even if the structure is often implicit, and not as rigid or regular as that found in standard database systems. Sometimes the structure exists but has to be extracted from the data. Sometimes also it exists but we prefer to ignore it for certain purposes such as browsing. We call here semi-structured data this data that is (from a particular viewpoint) neither raw data nor strictly typed, i.e., not table-oriented as in a relational model or sorted-graph as in object databases. As will seen later when the notion of semi-structured data is more precisely de ned, the need for semi-structured data arises naturally in the context of data integration, even when the data sources are themselves well-structured. Although data integration is an old topic, the need to integrate a wider variety of data- formats (e.g., SGML or ASN.1 data) and data found on the Web has brought the topic of semi-structured data to the forefront of research. The main purpose of the paper is to isolate the essential aspects of semi- structured data. We also survey some proposals of models and query languages for semi-structured data. In particular, we consider recent works at Stanford U. and U. Penn on semi-structured data. In both cases, the motivation is found in the integration of heterogeneous data.

  17. Calling ET or not Even Answering the Phone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, A.

    The complex query (in the Title) can be divided into two more simple questions: To Send or not to Send? ("Calling") and To Answer or not to Answer? ("Answering"). The second question will be vital maybe tomorrow morning (if the SETI-signal was detected) or maybe never. And in any case, such answering requires a careful analysis of any ET-message received. The first question is quite suitable and feasible for analysis right now. There are two `pro' arguments: Asteroid Hazard and Loss of Interest.

  18. PAQ: Persistent Adaptive Query Middleware for Dynamic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Vasanth; Julien, Christine; Payton, Jamie; Roman, Gruia-Catalin

    Pervasive computing applications often entail continuous monitoring tasks, issuing persistent queries that return continuously updated views of the operational environment. We present PAQ, a middleware that supports applications' needs by approximating a persistent query as a sequence of one-time queries. PAQ introduces an integration strategy abstraction that allows composition of one-time query responses into streams representing sophisticated spatio-temporal phenomena of interest. A distinguishing feature of our middleware is the realization that the suitability of a persistent query's result is a function of the application's tolerance for accuracy weighed against the associated overhead costs. In PAQ, programmers can specify an inquiry strategy that dictates how information is gathered. Since network dynamics impact the suitability of a particular inquiry strategy, PAQ associates an introspection strategy with a persistent query, that evaluates the quality of the query's results. The result of introspection can trigger application-defined adaptation strategies that alter the nature of the query. PAQ's simple API makes developing adaptive querying systems easily realizable. We present the key abstractions, describe their implementations, and demonstrate the middleware's usefulness through application examples and evaluation.

  19. A Topic Clustering Approach to Finding Similar Questions from Large Question and Answer Archives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  20. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  1. The Imposed Query: Implications for Library Service Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa

    1998-01-01

    Explores the potential impact of imposed query, a new model of information-seeking behavior, on current approaches to library service and system evaluation. Discusses reference service evaluation, user studies, output measures, and relevance as an evaluation tool. Argues that imposed query broadens understanding of the user and of the role that…

  2. Querying Proofs (Work in Progress)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and introduce the basis for a query language designed for inspecting electronic representations of proofs. We argue that there is much to learn from large proofs beyond their validity, and that a dedicated query language can provide a principled way of implementing a family of useful operations.

  3. A novel methodology for querying web images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Rashmi; Lee, Ching Cheng

    2004-12-01

    Ever since the advent of Internet, there has been an immense growth in the amount of image data that is available on the World Wide Web. With such a magnitude of image availability, an efficient and effective image retrieval system is required to make use of this information. This research presents an effective image matching and indexing technique that improvises on existing integrated image retrieval methods. The proposed technique follows a two-phase approach, integrating query by topic and query by example specification methods. The first phase consists of topic-based image retrieval using an improved text information retrieval (IR) technique that makes use of the structured format of HTML documents. It consists of a focused crawler that not only provides for the user to enter the keyword for the topic-based search but also, the scope in which the user wants to find the images. The second phase uses the query by example specification to perform a low-level content-based image match for the retrieval of smaller and relatively closer results of the example image. Information related to the image feature is automatically extracted from the query image by the image processing system. A technique that is not computationally intensive based on color feature is used to perform content-based matching of images. The main goal is to develop a functional image search and indexing system and to demonstrate that better retrieval results can be achieved with this proposed hybrid search technique.

  4. A novel methodology for querying web images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Rashmi; Lee, Ching Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the advent of Internet, there has been an immense growth in the amount of image data that is available on the World Wide Web. With such a magnitude of image availability, an efficient and effective image retrieval system is required to make use of this information. This research presents an effective image matching and indexing technique that improvises on existing integrated image retrieval methods. The proposed technique follows a two-phase approach, integrating query by topic and query by example specification methods. The first phase consists of topic-based image retrieval using an improved text information retrieval (IR) technique that makes use of the structured format of HTML documents. It consists of a focused crawler that not only provides for the user to enter the keyword for the topic-based search but also, the scope in which the user wants to find the images. The second phase uses the query by example specification to perform a low-level content-based image match for the retrieval of smaller and relatively closer results of the example image. Information related to the image feature is automatically extracted from the query image by the image processing system. A technique that is not computationally intensive based on color feature is used to perform content-based matching of images. The main goal is to develop a functional image search and indexing system and to demonstrate that better retrieval results can be achieved with this proposed hybrid search technique.

  5. 78 FR 56263 - HydroGen Corp., QueryObject Systems Corp., Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc., Skins, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...., SLM Holdings, Inc., Spring Creek Healthcare Systems, Inc., and Startech Environmental Corp.; Order of... information concerning the securities of SLM Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  6. Autonomic care platform for optimizing query performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As the amount of information in electronic health care systems increases, data operations get more complicated and time-consuming. Intensive Care platforms require a timely processing of data retrievals to guarantee the continuous display of recent data of patients. Physicians and nurses rely on this data for their decision making. Manual optimization of query executions has become difficult to handle due to the increased amount of queries across multiple sources. Hence, a more automated management is necessary to increase the performance of database queries. The autonomic computing paradigm promises an approach in which the system adapts itself and acts as self-managing entity, thereby limiting human interventions and taking actions. Despite the usage of autonomic control loops in network and software systems, this approach has not been applied so far for health information systems. Methods We extend the COSARA architecture, an infection surveillance and antibiotic management service platform for the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with self-managed components to increase the performance of data retrievals. We used real-life ICU COSARA queries to analyse slow performance and measure the impact of optimizations. Each day more than 2 million COSARA queries are executed. Three control loops, which monitor the executions and take action, have been proposed: reactive, deliberative and reflective control loops. We focus on improvements of the execution time of microbiology queries directly related to the visual displays of patients’ data on the bedside screens. Results The results show that autonomic control loops are beneficial for the optimizations in the data executions in the ICU. The application of reactive control loop results in a reduction of 8.61% of the average execution time of microbiology results. The combined application of the reactive and deliberative control loop results in an average query time reduction of 10.92% and the combination of

  7. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  8. Interactive Querying over Large Network Data: Scalability, Visualization, and Interaction Design

    PubMed Central

    Pienta, Robert; Tamersoy, Acar; Tong, Hanghang; Endert, Alex; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Given the explosive growth of modern graph data, new methods are needed that allow for the querying of complex graph structures without the need of a complicated querying languages; in short, interactive graph querying is desirable. We describe our work towards achieving our overall research goal of designing and developing an interactive querying system for large network data. We focus on three critical aspects: scalable data mining algorithms, graph visualization, and interaction design. We have already completed an approximate subgraph matching system called MAGE in our previous work that fulfills the algorithmic foundation allowing us to query a graph with hundreds of millions of edges. Our preliminary work on visual graph querying, Graphite, was the first step in the process to making an interactive graph querying system. We are in the process of designing the graph visualization and robust interaction needed to make truly interactive graph querying a reality. PMID:25859567

  9. A Fuzzy Query Mechanism for Human Resource Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Lien-Fu; Wu, Chao-Chin; Huang, Liang-Tsung; Kuo, Jung-Chih

    Users' preferences often contain imprecision and uncertainty that are difficult for traditional human resource websites to deal with. In this paper, we apply the fuzzy logic theory to develop a fuzzy query mechanism for human resource websites. First, a storing mechanism is proposed to store fuzzy data into conventional database management systems without modifying DBMS models. Second, a fuzzy query language is proposed for users to make fuzzy queries on fuzzy databases. User's fuzzy requirement can be expressed by a fuzzy query which consists of a set of fuzzy conditions. Third, each fuzzy condition associates with a fuzzy importance to differentiate between fuzzy conditions according to their degrees of importance. Fourth, the fuzzy weighted average is utilized to aggregate all fuzzy conditions based on their degrees of importance and degrees of matching. Through the mutual compensation of all fuzzy conditions, the ordering of query results can be obtained according to user's preference.

  10. Pareto-depth for multiple-query image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-02-01

    Most content-based image retrieval systems consider either one single query, or multiple queries that include the same object or represent the same semantic information. In this paper, we consider the content-based image retrieval problem for multiple query images corresponding to different image semantics. We propose a novel multiple-query information retrieval algorithm that combines the Pareto front method with efficient manifold ranking. We show that our proposed algorithm outperforms state of the art multiple-query retrieval algorithms on real-world image databases. We attribute this performance improvement to concavity properties of the Pareto fronts, and prove a theoretical result that characterizes the asymptotic concavity of the fronts. PMID:25494509

  11. Automatic query formulations in information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Salton, G; Buckley, C; Fox, E A

    1983-07-01

    Modern information retrieval systems are designed to supply relevant information in response to requests received from the user population. In most retrieval environments the search requests consist of keywords, or index terms, interrelated by appropriate Boolean operators. Since it is difficult for untrained users to generate effective Boolean search requests, trained search intermediaries are normally used to translate original statements of user need into useful Boolean search formulations. Methods are introduced in this study which reduce the role of the search intermediaries by making it possible to generate Boolean search formulations completely automatically from natural language statements provided by the system patrons. Frequency considerations are used automatically to generate appropriate term combinations as well as Boolean connectives relating the terms. Methods are covered to produce automatic query formulations both in a standard Boolean logic system, as well as in an extended Boolean system in which the strict interpretation of the connectives is relaxed. Experimental results are supplied to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic query formulation process, and methods are described for applying the automatic query formulation process in practice. PMID:10299297

  12. Expert Systems, Job Aids, and the Future of Instructional Technology; and Decision Tables, the Poor Person's Answer to "Expert Systems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul; Pipe, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Describes design and presents examples of industrial use of small expert systems and guidelines for choosing problems which lend themselves to small tool solutions. Use of microcomputer facilitated decision tables to diagnose and categorize people, things, and issues is suggested, and development of three decision table formats is described. (MBR)

  13. Mining Longitudinal Web Queries: Trends and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; Berry, Michael W.; Yang, Yiheng

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed user queries submitted to an academic Web site during a four-year period, using a relational database, to examine users' query behavior, to identify problems they encounter, and to develop techniques for optimizing query analysis and mining. Linguistic analyses focus on query structures, lexicon, and word associations using statistical…

  14. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  15. VISAGE: A Query Interface for Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Siegler, Trish; Saxman, Paul; Sandberg, Neil; Mueller, Remo; Johnson, Nathan; Hunscher, Dale; Arabandi, Sivaram

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of VISAGE (VISual AGgregator and Explorer), a query interface for clinical research. We follow a user-centered development approach and incorporate visual, ontological, searchable and explorative features in three interrelated components: Query Builder, Query Manager and Query Explorer. The Query Explorer provides novel on-line data mining capabilities for purposes such as hypothesis generation or cohort identification. The VISAGE query interface has been implemented as a significant component of Physio-MIMI, an NCRR-funded, multi-CTSA-site pilot project. Preliminary evaluation results show that VISAGE is more efficient for query construction than the i2b2 web-client. PMID:21347154

  16. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... day—try to reach 10,000 steps a day. Answer: D Packing your lunch at home the night before ... portion sizes as in your meal plan. Answer: D It's important to be active every day! Physical activity can make you feel better if ...

  17. The Database Query Support Processor (QSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The number and diversity of databases available to users continues to increase dramatically. Currently, the trend is towards decentralized, client server architectures that (on the surface) are less expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain than information architectures based on centralized, monolithic mainframes. The database query support processor (QSP) effort evaluates the performance of a network level, heterogeneous database access capability. Air Force Material Command's Rome Laboratory has developed an approach, based on ANSI standard X3.138 - 1988, 'The Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS)' to seamless access to heterogeneous databases based on extensions to data dictionary technology. To successfully query a decentralized information system, users must know what data are available from which source, or have the knowledge and system privileges necessary to find out this information. Privacy and security considerations prohibit free and open access to every information system in every network. Even in completely open systems, time required to locate relevant data (in systems of any appreciable size) would be better spent analyzing the data, assuming the original question was not forgotten. Extensions to data dictionary technology have the potential to more fully automate the search and retrieval for relevant data in a decentralized environment. Substantial amounts of time and money could be saved by not having to teach users what data resides in which systems and how to access each of those systems. Information describing data and how to get it could be removed from the application and placed in a dedicated repository where it belongs. The result simplified applications that are less brittle and less expensive to build and maintain. Software technology providing the required functionality is off the shelf. The key difficulty is in defining the metadata required to support the process. The database query support processor effort will provide

  18. Query-Driven Approach to Face Clustering and Tagging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Wang, Xikui; Kalashnikov, Dmitri V; Mehrotra, Sharad; Ramanan, Deva

    2016-10-01

    In the era of big data, a traditional offline setting to processing image data is simply not tenable. We simply do not have the computational power to process every image with every possible tag; moreover, we will not have the manpower to clean up the potentially noisy results. In this paper, we introduce a query-driven approach to visual tagging, focusing on the application of face tagging and clustering. We integrate active learning with query-driven probabilistic databases. Rather than asking a user to provide manual labels so as to minimize the uncertainty of labels (face tags) across the entire data set, we ask the user to provide labels that minimize the uncertainty of his/her query result (e.g., "How many times did Bob and Jim appear together?"). We use a data-driven Gaussian process model of facial appearance to write the probabilistic estimates of facial identity into a probabilistic database, which can then support inference through query answering. Importantly, the database is augmented with contextual constraints (faces in the same image cannot be the same identity, while faces in the same track must be identical). Experiments on the real-world photo collections demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27448352

  19. Accelerating Network Traffic Analytics Using Query-DrivenVisualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu,Kesheng

    2006-07-29

    Realizing operational analytics solutions where large and complex data must be analyzed in a time-critical fashion entails integrating many different types of technology. This paper focuses on an interdisciplinary combination of scientific data management and visualization/analysis technologies targeted at reducing the time required for data filtering, querying, hypothesis testing and knowledge discovery in the domain of network connection data analysis. We show that use of compressed bitmap indexing can quickly answer queries in an interactive visual data analysis application, and compare its performance with two alternatives for serial and parallel filtering/querying on 2.5 billion records worth of network connection data collected over a period of 42 weeks. Our approach to visual network connection data exploration centers on two primary factors: interactive ad-hoc and multiresolution query formulation and execution over n dimensions and visual display of then-dimensional histogram results. This combination is applied in a case study to detect a distributed network scan and to then identify the set of remote hosts participating in the attack. Our approach is sufficiently general to be applied to a diverse set of data understanding problems as well as used in conjunction with a diverse set of analysis and visualization tools.

  20. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  1. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  2. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes. PMID:27350905

  3. Parasol: An Architecture for Cross-Cloud Federated Graph Querying

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Michael; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hughes, Marisa; Patrone, Dennis; Hider, Sandy; Piatko, Christine; Chapman, Matthew; Marple, JP; Silberberg, David

    2014-06-22

    Large scale data fusion of multiple datasets can often provide in- sights that examining datasets individually cannot. However, when these datasets reside in different data centers and cannot be collocated due to technical, administrative, or policy barriers, a unique set of problems arise that hamper querying and data fusion. To ad- dress these problems, a system and architecture named Parasol is presented that enables federated queries over graph databases residing in multiple clouds. Parasol’s design is flexible and requires only minimal assumptions for participant clouds. Query optimization techniques are also described that are compatible with Parasol’s lightweight architecture. Experiments on a prototype implementation of Parasol indicate its suitability for cross-cloud federated graph queries.

  4. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  5. Mystery #25 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... MISR Mystery Image Quiz #25 : Western Cape, South Africa     View Larger Image ... is at the bottom. The area shown is the Western Cape, South Africa. Answers to the questions are provided. 1.   Located within the ...

  6. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W. M.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:8563422

  7. A visual query-by-example image database for chest CT images: potential role as a decision and educational support tool for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Giuseppe; Marsiglia, Hugo Raul; Pigatto, Francesca; Basilicata, Antonio; Gargiulo, Mario; Abate, Andrea Francesco; Nappi, Michele; Pulley, Jenny; Sasso, Francesco Silvano

    2005-03-01

    Primary reading or further evaluation of diagnostic imaging examination often needs a comparison between the actual findings and the relevant prior images of the same patient or similar radiological data found in other patients. This support is of clinical importance and may have significant effects on physicians' examination reading efficiency, service-quality, and work satisfaction. We developed a visual query-by-example image database for storing and retrieving chest CT images by means of a visual browser Image Management Environment (IME) and tested its retrieval efficiency. The visual browser IME included four fundamental features (segmentation, indexing, quick load and recall, user-friendly interface) in an integrated graphical environment for a user-friendly image database management. The system was tested on a database of 2000 chest CT images, randomly chosen from the digital archives of our institutions. A sample of eight heterogeneous images were used as queries and, for each of them a team of three expert radiologists selected the most similar images from the database (a set of 15 images containing similar abnormalities in the same position of the query). The sensitivity and the positive predictive factor, both averaged over the 8 test queries and 15 answers, were respectively 0.975 and 0.91 The IME system is currently under evaluation at our institutions as an experimental application. We consider it a useful work-in-progress tool for clinical practice facilitating searches for a variety of radiological tasks. PMID:15937719

  8. Metadata-driven Ad Hoc Query of Clinical Studies Data

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2001-01-01

    The Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) data representation is widely used in both clinical patient record systems (CPRSs) and clinical study data management systems (CSDMS). Both of these systems are heterogeneous in that many types of data are also represented conventionally, a situation that complicates data display, editing and ad hoc query. Seamless functioning of such systems mandates the presence of developer-defined metadata (data describing the rest of the database) that records, among other things, how individual parameters are represented within the system. We illustrate a web-based ad hoc query tool that relies on the metadata to generate syntactically and semantically correct SQL.

  9. Improving query services of web map by web mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Maojun

    2007-11-01

    Web map is the hybrid of map and the World Wide Web (known as Web). It is usually created with WebGIS techniques. With the rapid social development, web maps oriented the public are facing pressure that dissatisfy the increased demanding. The geocoding database plays a key role in supporting query services effectively. The traditional geocoding method is laborious and time-consuming. And there is much online spatial information, which would be the supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper discusses how to improve query services by web mining. The improvement can be described from three facets: first, improving location query by discovering and extracting address information from the Web to extend geocoding database. Second, enhancing the ability of optimum path query of public traffic and buffer query by spatial analyzing and reasoning on the extended geocoding database. Third, adjusting strategies of collecting data according to patterns discovered by web map query mining. Finally, this paper presents the designing of the application system and experimental results.

  10. Representation and alignment of sung queries for music information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Norman H.; Wakefield, Gregory H.

    2005-09-01

    The pursuit of robust and rapid query-by-humming systems, which search melodic databases using sung queries, is a common theme in music information retrieval. The retrieval aspect of this database problem has received considerable attention, whereas the front-end processing of sung queries and the data structure to represent melodies has been based on musical intuition and historical momentum. The present work explores three time series representations for sung queries: a sequence of notes, a ``smooth'' pitch contour, and a sequence of pitch histograms. The performance of the three representations is compared using a collection of naturally sung queries. It is found that the most robust performance is achieved by the representation with highest dimension, the smooth pitch contour, but that this representation presents a formidable computational burden. For all three representations, it is necessary to align the query and target in order to achieve robust performance. The computational cost of the alignment is quadratic, hence it is necessary to keep the dimension small for rapid retrieval. Accordingly, iterative deepening is employed to achieve both robust performance and rapid retrieval. Finally, the conventional iterative framework is expanded to adapt the alignment constraints based on previous iterations, further expediting retrieval without degrading performance.

  11. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  12. Indexing and querying moving objects with uncertain speed and direction in spatiotemporal databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Efficient processing of spatiotemporal queries over moving objects with uncertainty has become imperative due to the increasing need for real-time information in highly dynamic environments. Most of the existing approaches focus on designing an index structure for managing moving objects with uncertainty and then utilize it to improve the query performance. All the proposed indexes, however, have their own limitations. In this paper, we devote to developing an efficient index, named the R lsd - tree, to index moving objects with uncertain speed and direction varying within respective known ranges. We design several pruning criteria combined with the R lsd -tree to answer the probabilistic range queries. Moreover, two models, the sampling-based probability model and the ER-based probability model, are proposed to quantify the possibility of each object being the query result. Finally, a thorough experimental evaluation is conducted to show the merits of the proposed techniques.

  13. A Coding Method for Efficient Subgraph Querying on Vertex- and Edge-Labeled Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Song, Qinbao; Guo, Yuchen; Du, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangtao

    2014-01-01

    Labeled graphs are widely used to model complex data in many domains, so subgraph querying has been attracting more and more attention from researchers around the world. Unfortunately, subgraph querying is very time consuming since it involves subgraph isomorphism testing that is known to be an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel coding method for subgraph querying that is based on Laplacian spectrum and the number of walks. Our method follows the filtering-and-verification framework and works well on graph databases with frequent updates. We also propose novel two-step filtering conditions that can filter out most false positives and prove that the two-step filtering conditions satisfy the no-false-negative requirement (no dismissal in answers). Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic graphs show that, compared with six existing counterpart methods, our method can effectively improve the efficiency of subgraph querying. PMID:24853266

  14. A Framework for WWW Query Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Binghui Helen; Wharton, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Query processing is the most common operation in a DBMS. Sophisticated query processing has been mainly targeted at a single enterprise environment providing centralized control over data and metadata. Submitting queries by anonymous users on the web is different in such a way that load balancing or DBMS' accessing control becomes the key issue. This paper provides a solution by introducing a framework for WWW query processing. The success of this framework lies in the utilization of query optimization techniques and the ontological approach. This methodology has proved to be cost effective at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC).

  15. Factors Associated with Success in Searching medline and Applying Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Friedman, Charles P.; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Mosbaek, Craig; Kraemer, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to use medline to obtain evidence for answering clinical questions and to identify factors associated with the successful answering of questions. Methods: A convenience sample of medical and nurse practitioner students was recruited. After completing instruments measuring demographic variables, computer and searching attitudes and experience, and cognitive traits, the subjects were given a brief orientation to medline searching and the techniques of evidence-based medicine. The subjects were then given 5 questions (from a pool of 20) to answer in two sessions using the Ovid medline system and the Oregon Health & Science University library collection. Each question was answered using three possible responses that reflected the quality of the evidence. All actions capable of being logged by the Ovid system were captured. Statistical analysis was performed using a model based on generalized estimating equations. The relevance-based measures of recall and precision were measured by defining end queries and having relevance judgments made by physicians who were not associated with the study. Results: Forty-five medical and 21 nurse practitioner students provided usable answers to 324 questions. The rate of correctness increased from 32.3 to 51.6 percent for medical students and from 31.7 to 34.7 percent for nurse practitioner students. Ability to answer questions correctly was most strongly associated with correctness of the answer before searching, user experience with medline features, the evidence-based medicine question type, and the spatial visualization score. The spatial visualization score showed multi-collinearity with student type (medical vs. nurse practitioner). Medical and nurse practitioner students obtained comparable recall and precision, neither of which was associated with correctness of the answer. Conclusions: Medical and nurse practitioner students in this

  16. Ad Hoc Query Support For Very Large Simulation Mesh Data: The Metadata Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B; Snapp, R; Musick, R; Critchlow, T

    2001-12-17

    We present our approach to enabling approximate ad hoc queries on terabyte-scale mesh data generated from large scientific simulations through the extension and integration of database, statistical, and data mining techniques. There are several significant barriers to overcome in achieving this objective. First, large-scale simulation data is already at the multi-terabyte scale and growing quickly, thus rendering traditional forms of interactive data exploration and query processing untenable. Second, a priori knowledge of user queries is not available, making it impossible to tune special-purpose solutions. Third, the data has spatial and temporal aspects, as well as arbitrarily high dimensionality, which exacerbates the task of finding compact, accurate, and easy-to-compute data models. Our approach is to preprocess the mesh data to generate highly compressed, lossy models that are used in lieu of the original data to answer users' queries. This approach leads to interesting challenges. The model (equivalently, the content-oriented metadata) being generated must be smaller than the original data by at least an order of magnitude. Second, the metadata representation must contain enough information to support a broad class of queries. Finally, the accuracy and speed of the queries must be within the tolerances required by users. In this paper we give an overview of ongoing development efforts with an emphasis on extracting metadata and using it in query processing.

  17. Mystery #2 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... D.   A lakeside town hosts an annual celebration of Celtic music. Answer: B is false Lake Constance provides drinking water for ... lakeside town of   Konstanz, Germany. An annual Celtic music festival is hosted on the Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of ...

  18. Mystery #9 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ...   A.   The island and adjacent waters were designated a nature reserve.   B.   A weather station was established on the island, ... species. Answer: E •   Bouvetøya became a Nature Reserve in 1971 •   An automated weather station was ...

  19. Mystery #1 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... area was designated in 1989, and includes a large complex of sand dunes. What is the park's name? Answer:  Its first national park, the Sigatoka Sand Dunes, was designated in July 1989. 3.   The Independence Day ...

  20. Mystery #27 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #27 : Jordan     View ... the Arabic word for valley. 3.   The name of the body of water partially shown at the bottom of the image is actually a ... to the surrounding aridity.  What is the name the body of water? Answer: The body of water is the Dead Sea. 4. ...

  1. Mystery #17 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... for its sweet waters and supports year-round commercial and sport fishing. Answer: False. The dark blue lake, "La Dulce," is named for its fresh water, and there is sport and commercial fishing for "pejerrey," but there are long closed seasons, ...

  2. Mystery #5 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... human settlements on this island. 6.   Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with ...

  3. Will the Disadvantaged Ride the Information Superhighway?: Hopeful Answers from a Computer-Based Health Crisis System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingree, Suzanna; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study monitored use of an interactive computer system called CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System), placed in homes of HIV-infected persons. Usage differences among demographic subgroups were small, but typically the system was used more by groups expected to use it less (women, minorities, the less educated). Results…

  4. An Examination of Performance-Based Teacher Evaluation Systems in Five States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakman, Karen; Riordan, Julie; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Fournier, Richard; Brett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on performance-based teacher evaluation systems in five states that have implemented such systems. It investigates two primary research questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of state-level performance-based teacher evaluation systems in the study states?; and (2) How do state teacher evaluation measures, the teaching…

  5. An Examination of Performance-Based Teacher Evaluation Systems in Five States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakman, Karen; Riordan, Julie; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Fournier, Richard; Brett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on performance-based teacher evaluation systems in five states that have implemented such systems. It investigates two primary research questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of state-level performance-based teacher evaluation systems in the study states?; and (2) How do state teacher evaluation measures, the teaching…

  6. Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

  7. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  8. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  9. GPU-accelerated minimum distance and clearance queries.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; McMains, Sara; Haller, Kirk

    2011-06-01

    We present practical algorithms for accelerating distance queries on models made of trimmed NURBS surfaces using programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We provide a generalized framework for using GPUs as coprocessors in accelerating CAD operations. By supplementing surface data with a surface bounding-box hierarchy on the GPU, we answer distance queries such as finding the closest point on a curved NURBS surface given any point in space and evaluating the clearance between two solid models constructed using multiple NURBS surfaces. We simultaneously output the parameter values corresponding to the solution of these queries along with the model space values. Though our algorithms make use of the programmable fragment processor, the accuracy is based on the model space precision, unlike earlier graphics algorithms that were based only on image space precision. In addition, we provide theoretical bounds for both the computed minimum distance values as well as the location of the closest point. Our algorithms are at least an order of magnitude faster and about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the commercial solid modeling kernel ACIS. PMID:21474862

  10. Parallel Index and Query for Large Scale Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Ruebel, Oliver; Howison, Mark; Qiang, Ji; Prabhat,; Austin, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes; Ryne, Rob D.; Shoshani, Arie

    2011-07-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets, but numerous challenges remain in terms of designing a system for process- ing general scientific datasets. The system needs to be able to run on distributed multi-core platforms, efficiently utilize underlying I/O infrastructure, and scale to massive datasets. We present FastQuery, a novel software framework that address these challenges. FastQuery utilizes a state-of-the-art index and query technology (FastBit) and is designed to process mas- sive datasets on modern supercomputing platforms. We apply FastQuery to processing of a massive 50TB dataset generated by a large scale accelerator modeling code. We demonstrate the scalability of the tool to 11,520 cores. Motivated by the scientific need to search for inter- esting particles in this dataset, we use our framework to reduce search time from hours to tens of seconds.

  11. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools: One Answer to the Productivity Puzzle? AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholtys, Phyllis A.

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach employing both traditional programming techniques and nonprocedural languages is described. A fourth generation application tool is used to develop a prototype system that is revised and expanded as the user clarifies individual requirements. When fully defined, a combination of…

  12. The ESIS query environment pilot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, Jens J.; Ciarlo, Alessandro; Benso, Stefano

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) was originally conceived to provide the European space science community with simple and efficient access to space data archives, facilities with which to examine and analyze the retrieved data, and general information services. To achieve that ESIS will provide the scientists with a discipline specific environment for querying in a uniform and transparent manner data stored in geographically dispersed archives. Furthermore it will provide discipline specific tools for displaying and analyzing the retrieved data. The central concept of ESIS is to achieve a more efficient and wider usage of space scientific data, while maintaining the physical archives at the institutions which created them, and has the best background for ensuring and maintaining the scientific validity and interest of the data. In addition to coping with the physical distribution of data, ESIS is to manage also the heterogenity of the individual archives' data models, formats and data base management systems. Thus the ESIS system shall appear to the user as a single database, while it does in fact consist of a collection of dispersed and locally managed databases and data archives. The work reported in this paper is one of the results of the ESIS Pilot Project which is to be completed in 1993. More specifically it presents the pilot ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE) system which forms the data retrieval and data dissemination axis of the ESIS system. The others are formed by the ESIS Correlation Environment (ESIS CE) and the ESIS Information Services. The ESIS QE Pilot Project is carried out for the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN, by a Consortium consisting of Computer Resources International, Denmark, CISET S.p.a, Italy, the University of Strasbourg, France and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratories in the U.K. Furthermore numerous scientists both within ESA and space science community in Europe have been involved in

  13. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-01-01

    A content-matched (CM) range monitoring query over moving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CM range monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613

  14. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments.

    PubMed

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-01-01

    A content-matched (CM) rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613

  15. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  16. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  17. From Answer Garden to Answer Jungle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dron, Jon; Mitchell, Richard; Siviter, Phil

    1998-01-01

    The use of Usenet newsgroups in a computing and information systems classroom at the University of Brighton showed how Internet-based learning systems can encourage rapid evolution so that resources adapt to learners' needs. Although not always used as intended, and including off-topic distractions, newsgroups did accommodate learning styles and…

  18. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C.

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  19. TEQUEL: The query language of SADDLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    A relational database management system is presented that is tailored for engineering applications. A wide variety of engineering data types are supported and the data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) are extended to handle matrices. The system can be used either in the standalone mode or through a FORTRAN or PASCAL application program. The query language is of the relational calculus type and allows the user to store, retrieve, update and delete tuples from relations. The relational operations including union, intersect and differ facilitate creation of temporary relations that can be used for manipulating information in a powerful manner. Sample applications are shown to illustrate the creation of data through a FORTRAN program and data manipulation using the TEQUEL DML.

  20. Evolutionary multiobjective query workload optimization of Cloud data warehouses.

    PubMed

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  1. Federated queries for comparative effectiveness research: performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Price, Ronald C; Huth, Derick; Smith, Jody; Harper, Steve; Pace, Wilson; Pulver, Gerald; Kahn, Michael G; Schilling, Lisa M; Facelli, Julio C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the performance of federated queries implemented in a system that simulates the architecture proposed for the Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet). Performance tests were conducted using both physical hardware and virtual machines within the test laboratory of the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah. Tests were performed on SAFTINet networks ranging from 4 to 32 nodes with databases containing synthetic data for several million patients. The results show that the caGrid FQE (Federated Query Engine) is capable and suitable for comparative effectiveness research (CER) federated queries given its nearly linear scalability as partner nodes increase in number. The results presented here are also important for the specification of the hardware required to run a CER grid. PMID:22941983

  2. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  3. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  4. Access to data: comparing AccessMed with Query by Review.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G; Allen, B; Cimino, J J; Lee, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of tools for authoring patient database queries. DESIGN: Query by Review, a tool that exploits the training that users have undergone to master a result review system, was compared with AccessMed, a vocabulary browser that supports lexical matching and the traversal of hierarchical and semantic links. Seven subjects (Medical Logic Module authors) were asked to use both tools to gather the vocabulary terms necessary to perform each of eight laboratory queries. MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of queries that were correct; intersubject agreement. RESULTS: Query by Review had better performance than AccessMed (38% correct queries versus 18%, p = 0.002), but both figures were low. Poor intersubject agreement (28% for Query by Review and 21% for AccessMed) corroborated the relatively low performance. Subjects appeared to have trouble distinguishing laboratory tests from laboratory batteries, picking terms relevant to the particular data type required, and using classes in the vocabulary's hierarchy. CONCLUSION: Query by Review, with its more constrained user interface, performed somewhat better than AccessMed, a more general tool. Neither tool achieved adequate performance, however, which points to the difficulty of formulating a query for a clinical database and the need for further work. PMID:8816352

  5. QBIC project: querying images by content, using color, texture, and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niblack, Carlton W.; Barber, Ron; Equitz, Will; Flickner, Myron D.; Glasman, Eduardo H.; Petkovic, Dragutin; Yanker, Peter; Faloutsos, Christos; Taubin, Gabriel

    1993-04-01

    In the query by image content (QBIC) project we are studying methods to query large on-line image databases using the images' content as the basis of the queries. Examples of the content we use include color, texture, and shape of image objects and regions. Potential applications include medical (`Give me other images that contain a tumor with a texture like this one'), photo-journalism (`Give me images that have blue at the top and red at the bottom'), and many others in art, fashion, cataloging, retailing, and industry. Key issues include derivation and computation of attributes of images and objects that provide useful query functionality, retrieval methods based on similarity as opposed to exact match, query by image example or user drawn image, the user interfaces, query refinement and navigation, high dimensional database indexing, and automatic and semi-automatic database population. We currently have a prototype system written in X/Motif and C running on an RS/6000 that allows a variety of queries, and a test database of over 1000 images and 1000 objects populated from commercially available photo clip art images. In this paper we present the main algorithms for color texture, shape and sketch query that we use, show example query results, and discuss future directions.

  6. An Analysis of Web Image Queries for Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differences between Web image and textual queries, and attempts to develop an analytic model to investigate their implications for Web image retrieval systems. Provides results that give insight into Web image searching behavior and suggests implications for improvement of current Web image search engines. (AEF)

  7. Project Lefty: More Bang for the Search Query

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnum, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Project Lefty, a search system that, at a minimum, adds a layer on top of traditional federated search tools that will make the wait for results more worthwhile for researchers. At best, Project Lefty improves search queries and relevance rankings for web-scale discovery tools to make the results themselves more relevant…

  8. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  9. Query driven visualization of astronomical catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactive visualization of astronomical catalogs requires novel techniques due to the huge volumes and complex structure of the data produced by existing and upcoming astronomical surveys. The creation as well as the disclosure of the catalogs can be handled by data pulling mechanisms (Buddelmeijer et al. 2011). These prevent unnecessary processing and facilitate data sharing by having users request the desired end products. In this work we present query driven visualization as a logical continuation of data pulling. Scientists can request catalogs in a declarative way and set process parameters directly from within the visualization. This results in profound interoperation between software with a high level of abstraction. New messages for the Simple Application Messaging Protocol are proposed to achieve this abstraction. Support for these messages are implemented in the Astro-WISE information system and in a set of demonstrational applications.

  10. How Physicians' Answers Relate to Health Consumers' Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Laura; Soergel, Dagobert

    2003-01-01

    Examines the semantic relationships in consumers' health-related questions, physician-provided answers, and between questions and answers with the purpose of supporting the design of health consumer question-answering systems. The information present in the text was expressed using a "pilot" ontology that was based on the semantic relationships…