Science.gov

Sample records for question general science

  1. School Science: A Questionable Construct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    I explore the emergence of science and scientific method as political constructs in the 19th century and argue that the associated rhetoric continues to have significant consequences for contemporary school science education. It allows science to be promoted as a coherent curriculum component and fosters an untenable but enduring notion of a…

  2. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  3. Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

  4. Questions in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swigger, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research and commentary on individuals' questions and specific reference queries that characterize two general approaches in librarianship and other disciplines: question itself as phenomenon of questioner's behavior, linguistic performance, or cognitive state; interaction between question and answer focusing on appropriateness of…

  5. Questions and Problems in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul L.; Nelson, Clarence H.

    This folio of test items, contributed by a number of colleges and universities from their course, placement, entrance, or other institutional examinations, was compiled to aid teachers in constructing tests. Only those science courses offered in the first two years of college are represented by the scope of the items. The test items may also serve…

  6. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  7. 10,000 Science Questions by Modem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the ISCS/FIRN Test Item Database, which contains 10,000 juried science questions that can help teachers prepare tests. Describes the process by which teachers can access the database and download certain questions into their own microcomputer. Provides lists from a sample search done using the various menus available. (TW)

  8. Science in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  9. Differential Effects of Science Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential effects on low and high verbal students of verbatim study questions adjunct to a text describing science concepts. The sample consisted of 217 eighth grade students enrolled in twelve Calgary (Alberta, Canada) schools. Materials developed for the study included an introduction to the…

  10. Science Fiction and the Big Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, M.

    Advocates of space science promote investment in science education and the development of new technologies necessary for space travel. Success in these areas requires an increase of interest and support among the general public. What role can entertainment media play in inspiring the public ­ especially young people ­ to support the development of space science? Such inspiration is badly needed. Science education and funding in the United States are in a state of crisis. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. This paper draws on interviews with professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, as well as students interested in those fields. The interviewees were asked about their lifelong media-viewing habits. Analysis of these interviews, along with examples from popular culture, suggests that science fiction can be a valuable tool for space advocates. Specifically, the aspects of character, story, and special effects can provide viewers with inspiration and a sense of wonder regarding space science and the prospect of long-term human space exploration.

  11. Question Stems and Stories to Stimulate Science!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Fox Hill Primary School is part of a family of schools in Sheffield that is piloting the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust Primary Specialism for Science. In parallel to this work, Fox Hill participated in the Smarter Schools project from September 2008-2009. This project, funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust, was set up by the…

  12. Question Stems and Stories to Stimulate Science!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Fox Hill Primary School is part of a family of schools in Sheffield that is piloting the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust Primary Specialism for Science. In parallel to this work, Fox Hill participated in the Smarter Schools project from September 2008-2009. This project, funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust, was set up by the…

  13. Science for the Primary Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Irvin T.

    This article, which provides answers to commonly asked questions about teaching science in the primary grades, is part of a series included in the Primary Packet of Materials compiled by the Division of Early Childhood Education of the Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. Questions considered are: What is science? What should students be…

  14. Improving Teacher Questioning in Science Inquiry Discussions through Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores questioning practices adopted by elementary teachers while facilitating science inquiry discussions prior and subsequent to their participation in a summer institute in which they were provided with scholarly descriptions of inquiry-based teacher questioning (i.e., typologies of questions used by discourse analysts to…

  15. Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise That Generates Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Catherine; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.

    2005-08-01

    Given the importance of questions in science, it is critical that students learn to ask questions as well as learning to answer them. This paper describes a classroom exercise to help students better ask their own questions. It has been classroom-tested in multiple formats and has also been used for curriculum development workshops for faculty. This exercise in creating questions can be easily customized to suit different instructional contexts; some variations are outlined. More broadly, this paper also discusses the pedagogical significance of questioning, raising four salient points: (1) learners are more likely to have a personal interest in the questions they raise; (2) questions can serve as entry points for issues relating to ethnicity and gender; (3) questions give control to the person who asks them; and (4) questions can challenge existing structures, categories, and norms.

  16. Using "What If.." Questions to Teach Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang

    2007-01-01

    With the widening knowledge base students will need to be more flexible in their learning habits. Traditionally, teaching school science often involves teacher-centred methods like lectures, experimental demonstration or guided inquiry. Plain knowledge dissemination will not adequately prepare students to cope with the changing world. Hence,…

  17. Open Questions in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ronald D.; Helms, Jenifer V.

    This ERIC Digest points out gaps in the educational reform process that educational researchers experience. An overview of known and unknown facts of reform with the vision of the National Science Education is presented. Characteristics of needed research are also explained. (YDS)

  18. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of…

  19. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of…

  20. Enhancing Science Kits with the Driving Question Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordine, Jeff; Torres, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the driving question board (DQB), a visual organizer that supports inquiry-based instruction through the use of guiding questions. The DQB is a teaching aid designed to increase student engagement alongside science kits. Information is provided on its application to a lesson on buoyancy, highlighting how it improved…

  1. Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

  2. Encouraging Citizenship in Science Education: Continuing Questions and Hopeful Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" invokes questions intended to further the discourse of citizenship in science and mathematics education, such as, How do we define "citizen" and "democracy"? Is our call for student action hypocritical? Does positioning…

  3. Enhancing Learning Using Questions Adjunct to Science Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; Benson, Garth

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the generalizability of selective-attention and academic-studying hypotheses to a modified science chart medium. The adjunct questions used in this study were designed to selectively focus students' attention on specific columns in a modified science chart, with the goal of improving student achievement on a test…

  4. Encouraging Citizenship in Science Education: Continuing Questions and Hopeful Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" invokes questions intended to further the discourse of citizenship in science and mathematics education, such as, How do we define "citizen" and "democracy"? Is our call for student action hypocritical? Does positioning…

  5. Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsvold, Lori Ann

    Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

  6. Five Paradoxes and a General Question on Time Traveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    We present five paradoxes about: traveling to the past, traveling to the future, time traveling of a pregnant woman, traveling in the past before the birth, and traveling in the future after death. And a general question about how long does the time traveling take by itself?

  7. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate questioning. This data should be shared with teachers and teacher educators to inform them how to increase and use student questions as well as alternate participation methods that strive for "science for all". Future research should focus on how students act as "gatekeepers" for the participation and potential ways to shift underrepresented students into the STEM pipeline.

  8. Cosmic Questions: Engaging science museum audiences with current astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, M.; Gould, R.; Sneider, C.; Cohen, S.

    2003-05-01

    "Cosmic Questions: Our Place in Space and Time" is a major new traveling exhibition and education project that will enable millions of Americans to learn how recent discoveries have shed light on-and raised new questions about-our place in the cosmos. Created by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory with funding from the National Science Foundation and from NASA's Office of Space Science, the highly interactive exhibition opened at Boston's Museum of Science this past fall. In February 2003 it began its 3-year national tour under the management of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Staff from the Museum of Science, in partnership with the CfA, developed a comprehensive set of educational programs, activities and events for museum staff, for teachers and students, and for public audiences. Both the exhibition and accompanying programs involve audiences in learning about the tools, techniques, and research that have allowed us to find some amazing answers to such enduring questions as: What is our place in the universe? Was there a beginning to time? How do we fit in? Evaluation data- including extensive observations, exit interviews, and follow-up phone surveys- suggest that a large majority of visitors could describe new learning and articulate new questions they had as a result of experiencing Cosmic Questions exhibits and programs. Indeed, the evaluation report states that "those interviewed often volunteered an unusual amount of reflective comments compared to visitors at other exhibits." This presentation will highlight how the content, approach, design, development and implementation of this project were (and continue to be) shaped by the significant involvement and contributions of astronomers, observatories and space science education and public outreach programs.

  9. A Thesaurus-Linked Science Question-Banking System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sandra; Maher, Brian

    1984-01-01

    Outlines implementation and uses of the computerized question-banking system of the thesaurus-linked browse procedure used by APU National Assessment in Science Programme. The ROOT Thesaurus, a comprehensive indexing and searching tool for technological applications, is described and its modifications are discussed as the basis for the…

  10. Is Soliciting Important in Science? an Investigation of Science Teacher-Student Questioning Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Ajaja O.; Urhievwejire, Eravwoke Ochuko

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the questioning patterns of teachers in science classes. The design employed for the study was a case study. To guide this study, five research questions were asked and answered. The samples of the study consisted of 20 senior secondary schools and 60 science teachers. The instruments used for data…

  11. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

  12. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

  13. Examining student-generated questions in an elementary science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.

    This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help teachers confidently implement argumentative practices and develop pedagogical strategies to help students use them.

  14. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  15. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  16. National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...

  17. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell removed, pressure began to build in the compressed rocky kernel of Earth and eventually the rigid crust began to crack. The major energy source for planetary decompression and for heat emplacement at the base of the crust is the stored energy of protoplanetary compression. In response to decompression-driven volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and fold-mountain ranges form to accommodate changes in curvature. One of the most profound mysteries of modern planetary science is this: As the terrestrial planets are more-or-less of common chondritic composition, how does one account for the marked differences in their surface dynamics? Differences among the inner planets are principally due to the degree of compression experienced. Planetocentric georeactor nuclear fission, responsible for magnetic field generation and concomitant heat production, is applicable to compressed and non-compressed planets and large moons. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated based upon an analogy with the deep-Earth mass ratio relationships. The origin and implication of Mercurian hydrogen geysers is described. Besides Earth, only Venus appears to have sustained protoplanetary compression; the degree of which might eventually be estimated from understanding Venetian surface geology. A basis is provided for understanding that Mars essentially lacks a 'geothermal gradient' which implies potentially greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than previously expected. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

  18. General Atomics Science Education Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Patricia S.

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by a desire to improve science literacy and to help the current generation of students to be more prepared for an increasingly technological future, General Atomics has been a leader in science education outreach to local K-12 schools. Through its nonprofit ``Sciences Education Foundation,'' and in cooperation with local science teachers, General Atomics has sponsored a variety of education activities and developed several science teaching units including Fusion --- Energy of the Stars; An Exploration of Materials Science, Recombinant DNA Technology; Environmental Radioactivity; and Energy from the Atom. Printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on'' teaching units have been made available to over 600 teachers (from over 175 schools) who have attended General Atomics sponsored workshops, and presentations at education and professional meetings. Additional outreach activities include school partnerships, facility tours, and mentoring programs.

  19. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  20. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  1. General Science Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1645.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide, developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program, contains the minimum competencies and process skills that should be included in a general science course. It consists of: (1) a rationale for an effective science program; (2) a list and description of four major goals…

  2. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Matthew P.; Gillespie, B. Marcus; Harris, Kevin R.; Koether, Steven D.; Shannon, Li-Jen Y.; Rose, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561

  3. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561

  4. Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children.

    PubMed Central

    Secan, K E; Egel, A L; Tilley, C S

    1989-01-01

    We conducted an investigation to evaluate the effects of a training strategy for teaching autistic students generalized responses to three forms of wh--questions (what, how, and why). Students were taught, using modeling and reinforcement procedures, to answer questions with magazine pictures as the referents. Each question form was divided into two or more subcomponents reflective of common social usage and was taught within the context of a modified multiple probe design across subcomponents. Following acquisition of each subcomponent, generalization to natural context and storybook questions was assessed; additional probes were conducted to assess responding over time and whether acquisition of responses to questions promoted question-asking skills. Results showed that the picture training procedure was effective in teaching a generalized response to questions for which the relevant cue was visible, whereas specific generalization programming was required for situations in which the relevant cue was not visible. All acquired responses were durable over time. PMID:2745239

  5. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  6. Big Questions and Little Children: Science and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This resource pamphlet is intended to acquaint the Head Start teacher with the possibilities of teaching science in a preschool program for disadvantaged children. Introductory sections stress the importance of including science in a Head Start program, briefly indicate how to use the pamphlet, and suggest some things to seek and avoid. A section…

  7. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Booven, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Building on the "questioning-based discourse analytical" framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the…

  8. Negotiating the question: using science-manager communication to develop management-relevant science products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Snover, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Natural resource managers often ask scientists to answer questions that cannot be answered, and scientists commonly offer research that is not useful to managers. To produce management-relevant science, managers and scientists must communicate clearly to identify research that is scientifically doable and will produce results that managers find useful. Scientists might also consider that journals with high impact scores are rarely used by managers, while managers might consider that publishing in top tier journals is important to maintain scientific credentials. We offer examples from climate change and river restoration research, in which agency scientists and managers worked together to identify key management questions that scientists could answer and which could inform management. In our first example, we describe how climate scientists worked with agency staff to develop guidance for selecting appropriate climate change scenarios for use in ecological impacts assessments and Endangered Species Act decision making. Within NOAA Fisheries, agency researchers provide science to guide agency managers, and a key question has been how to adapt river restoration efforts for climate change. Based on discussions with restoration practitioners and agency staff, we developed adaptation guidance that summarizes current science to lead managers to develop climate-resilient restoration plans, as well as maps of population vulnerability for endangered steelhead. From these experiences we have learned that collaborative definition of relevant and producible knowledge requires (1) iterative discussions that go beyond simply asking managers what they need or scientists what they can produce, and (2) candid conversation about the intended applications and potential limitations of the knowledge.

  9. Journalism, Political Science Classes Agree, Disagree on First Amendment Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Michael

    1980-01-01

    A survey revealed initial similarities and eventual differences between journalism students and political science students concerning legal issues involving First Amendment rights after both groups had taken courses similar in content and focus. (RL)

  10. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science curriculum reform and teaching are discussed in this paper.

  11. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  12. Generating Testable Questions in the Science Classroom: The BDC Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, ChingMei; Chen, Shu-Bi Shu-Bi; Chang, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Guiding students to generate testable scientific questions is essential in the inquiry classroom, but it is not easy. The purpose of the BDC ("Big Idea, Divergent Thinking, and Convergent Thinking") instructional model is to to scaffold students' inquiry learning. We illustrate the use of this model with an example lesson, designed…

  13. The function of questions in Omani fourth grade inquiry-based science classrooms: A sociocultural perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shaibani, Madiha Ahmed

    2005-11-01

    Studies indicate that science education reforms are globally converging. Many countries are adopting the globally advocated science education reforms for the purpose of obtaining the competitive edge in science education and technology that are viewed as the driving forces of modern economies. Globally, science education reforms are emphasizing paradigm shifts in which constructivist instructional are foregrounded. Many science education curricular documents advocate teaching science through engaging students in scientific inquiry. As a result, science classrooms are becoming more student-centered where students are typically actively engaged in inquiry learning. Even though inquiry instruction has become the common approach in teaching science, the actual implementation of inquiry in classrooms indicates that there is a big gap between the intended inquiry advocated in curricula documents and the actual practices in classroom settings. One of the main features of inquiry instruction is student questions. Authentic student questions are essential for the initiating and main scientific inquiry. However, studies have also illustrated the rarity of student questions in classrooms. This dearth in student questions has been attributed to the discursive practices in classrooms. Classrooms that implement the traditional IRE discourse structure tend to have less student questions. On the other hand, reflective questioning is considered a more appropriate classroom discourse structure because it intentionally invites student questions and engages students in classroom discussions. This qualitative study addresses the issue of questioning in fourth grade inquiry-based science classrooms of the Omani Basic Education system. Methods employed in this study included: participant observation, individual interviews, focus group interviews and the collection of artifacts. Findings of this study illustrated the rarity of student questions in the classrooms. However this investigation also revealed the connection between teacher beliefs and implementation of reforms. Teachers whose beliefs were aligned with reforms came closer to implementing reform initiatives as opposed to teachers whose beliefs were not aligned with reform initiatives. The findings of this study were inconclusive when it came to linking teachers' questioning practices to teachers' understanding of inquiry methods.

  14. Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

  15. Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

  16. Let the Questions Be Your Guide: MBE as Interdisciplinary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Daley, Samantha G.; Rose, David H.

    2011-01-01

    From its inception, the field of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE) has been conceived as an interdisciplinary science, and with good reason: The phenomena the field aims to understand often arise from interactions among multiple factors, span levels of analysis, and are context dependent. In this article, we argue that to reach its potential as an…

  17. A Question of Ethics: Themes in the Science Fiction Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNurlin, Kathleen Woitel

    1995-01-01

    Continues an article that began in the summer 1995 "Interdisciplinary Humanities." Examines ethical concerns about nuclear power, societal control, and prejudice articulated in science fiction literature. Authors studied include Ray Bradbury, Philip K. Dick, and Damon Knight. The earlier article covered literature concerned with ecology and…

  18. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  19. Science Questions for the Post-SIRTF and Herschel Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The contents include the following: 1. SIRTF. Long wavelength surveys planned for SIRTF. Galaxy Discovery Rates for Future Missions. Impact of SIRTF s Improved Resolution at 160um: Resolving the Background. 2. Polarimetry. Submillimeter Polarimetry - The State of Play. Magnetic Vectors Across the Orion Molecular Cloud Core. Neutral and Ionized Molecular Spectral Lines. Variation of Polarization With Wavelength. The Polarization Spectrum. Submillimeter Polarimetry - Looking Ahead. 3.Confusion. Confusion at 500, 600 micron. 4. Extragalactic Science. Do Massive Black Holes and Galaxy Bulges form Together? 5. Galactic Science. Can We See the First Generations of Stars and Metal Formation? The Birth of Planets and the Origins of Life. Spatial Resolution at 100 microns. Far-ir/Sub-mm Transitions of Linear Carbon Clusters. Predicted Spectra of Glycine.

  20. Managing for biodiversity unresolved science and policy questions

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, W.E. )

    1990-01-01

    A discussion is presented of efficient strategies for species preservationin spite of continued human alteration of the environment. Current policy and unresolved questions are included in the discussion. Incentives to maintain seminatural areas as a conservation strategy are recommended: planting of hedgerows or windbreaks to provide corridors for migration of species during climate change; purchase of development rights of natural and seminatural land for conversion to park reserves when climate stabilizes; use of intercropping, traditional forest gardens and crop plantings in the tropics; and maintenance of seminatural habitats on public and private lands.

  1. Posing the questions that science has not asked

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.

    1995-12-31

    The author addresses the changing environment for research at American universities as they deal with a swiftly changing world. The next few years are viewed as a transition from traditional approaches to university research. Integration of research and teaching is examined since the approach widely varies among colleges and universities. The research infrastructure is viewed as crumbling or obsolete. The role of the National Science Foundation and its methodology for managing research grants is discussed in detail. The nation has real needs and problems in which our scientific laboratories can provide valuable assistance.

  2. Student-generated questions: a meaningful aspect of learning in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to (a) identify the types of questions that students ask during science learning, (b) explicate the role of students' questions in the knowledge construction process, particularly in educational discourse, (c) investigate the relationship between students' questions and approaches to learning and (d) discuss some emergent issues related to student questioning. Six Grade 8 students were observed during class activities, and interviewed before and after instruction about related science concepts. Students' questions included basic information (factual and procedural) questions which were typical of a surface learning approach, and wonderment (comprehension, prediction, anomaly detection, application, and planning) questions which were indicative of a deep approach. Unlike wonderment questions which stimulated the students to hypothesize, predict, thought-experiment and generate explanations, basic information questions generated little productive discussion. Problem-solving activities elicited more and a wider range of wonderment questions than teacherdirected activities. Although the students did not always ask wonderment questions spontaneously, they were able to generate such questions when prompted to do so.

  3. Burning Questions in Gravity-Dependent Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

    2012-01-01

    Building upon a long history of spaceflight and ground based research, NASA's Combustion Science program has accumulated a significant body of accomplishments on the ISS. Historically, NASAs low-gravity combustion research program has sought: to provide a more complete understanding of the fundamental controlling processes in combustion by identifying simpler one-dimensional systems to eliminate the complex interactions between the buoyant flow and the energy feedback to the reaction zone to provide realistic simulation of the fire risk in manned spacecraft and to enable practical simulation of the gravitational environment experienced by reacting systems in future spacecraft. Over the past two decades, low-gravity combustion research has focused primarily on increasing our understanding of fundamental combustion processes (e.g. droplet combustion, soot, flame spread, smoldering, and gas-jet flames). This research program was highly successful and was aided by synergistic programs in Europe and in Japan. Overall improvements were made in our ability to model droplet combustion in spray combustors (e.g. jet engines), predict flame spread, predict soot production, and detect and prevent spacecraft fires. These results provided a unique dataset that supports both an active research discipline and also spacecraft fire safety for current and future spacecraft. These experiments have been conducted using the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Microgravity Science Glovebox and the Express Rack. In this paper, we provide an overview of the earlier space shuttle experiments, the recent ISS combustion experiments in addition to the studies planned for the future. Experiments in combustion include topics such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes.

  4. Repetitions and Contrasts: Using Essential Questions to Frame Unit Plans in General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In this article, an approach to unit plans using essential questions is described within the context of general music education and illustrated in the unit "Repetition and Contrasts: Understanding Music Through Form." This unit is founded on the essential question: As musicians, how do we use form to organize and understand music?…

  5. Diagnostic Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease -- Frequently Asked Questions for the General Public

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Diagnostic Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease: Frequently Asked Questions for the General Public What ... main differences between the 1984 diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease and the new guidelines? The new guidelines differ ...

  6. The Effects of Teacher Wait-Time and Questioning Quality on Middle School Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    An experiment was conducted on the effects of two teacher variables and student engagement on science achievement. The variables included: teacher wait-time, defined as the length of the pause preceding a teacher utterance; and questioning quality, a generic term used to describe cognitive level, clarity, and relevance of questioning. Thirteen…

  7. Cognitive Levels of Questioning Demonstrated by Test Items That Accompany Selected Fifth-Grade Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Gregory P.

    This study sought to determine the cognitive levels of questioning of end-of-chapter test items accompanying selected fifth-grade science textbooks. The extent to which test items emphasized high level questioning and significant differences among texts in the distribution of knowledge and above-knowledge-level test items were also investigated.…

  8. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  9. Science Learning: A Path Analysis of Its Links with Reading Comprehension, Question-Asking in Class and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…

  10. Science Learning: A Path Analysis of Its Links with Reading Comprehension, Question-Asking in Class and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…

  11. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G

    2014-06-15

    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. PMID:24768172

  12. Science Questions and Broad Outline of Technology Needs of the Decade 2013-2022

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SlIllon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the top priority science questions outlined in the Planetary Exploration Decadal Survey, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022." The recommended mission portfolio, along with expected infrastructure challenges, should drive investments over the decade. The instrument and technology needs for the next decade will be presented, with a summary of progress since the Decadal.

  13. Beginning Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about the Use of Anchoring Questions in Science: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Current science education reform efforts highlight the importance of engaging students in scientifically oriented questions as a central dimension of inquiry-based elementary science. However, elementary teachers, particularly beginning teachers, must often overcome a variety of challenges to engage their students in reform-minded,…

  14. Multi-Tier Question Groups for an Integrated HyperCard Natural Science Stack Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopresti, Vin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an integrated life science/physical science HyperCard library used to enhance active learning and interdisciplinary classroom strategies. The rationale for the design of multitier problem sets as part of the library is discussed and examples of multitier question groups are given. (33 references) (LZ)

  15. Selective attentional effects of textbook study questions on student learning in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.

    A selective attentional model used to explain recent mathemagenic and related research findings also predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. Furthermore, the chances of such dysfunctional selective attention are increased when students are provided with a mere sampling (partial set) of study questions covering only portions of the diagram and are decreased when students are provided with a population (complete set) of questions or a no-question treatment. As predicted, using the Newman-Keuls procedure (p <0.05), the population and no-question treatment groups outperformed the sampling-question group which, in turn, outperformed a placebo-control group. It was concluded that researchers and teachers should be aware that encouraging students to concentrate on selective portions of critical information can result in inadequate processing of such specialized science materials as flow diagrams.

  16. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  17. Data Analysis Questions for Science Subjects: A Resource Booklet. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This resource booklet is designed to supplement standard textbooks used in a science curriculum. The material serves as a syllabus for Year One and Year Two in the secondary science curriculum. Some of the topics presented in this general science syllabus include being a scientist, looking at living things, solvents and solutions, energy,…

  18. Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater engagement with relevant sociopolitical thought in fields typically outside the purview of science education. Drawing from thinkers Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Judith Butler, and Louis Althusser this paper attempts to extend some key ideas coming from Ken Tobin, Larry Bencze, and Lyn Carter and advocates science educators taking up notions of ideology, discourse, and subjectivity to engage globalization and neoliberalism. Subjectivity (and its constitution in science education) is considered alongside two relevant textbook examples and also in terms of its importance in formulating political and culturally relevant questions in science education.

  19. Questioning the Validity of Inquiry Assessment in a High Stakes Physical Sciences Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The South African science curriculum advocates an inquiry-based approach to practical work. Inquiry is a complex and multifaceted activity involving both cognitive and physical activity; thus, paper-and-pencil items do not provide the authentic context for this assessment. This study investigates the construct validity of inquiry-related questions…

  20. Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

  1. Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

  2. Mind Games: A Study of Hypothetical Questioning in a Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley-Oliphant, Ann E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the thinking underlying the questions posed by a science teacher to her seventh grade students in an instructional activity called Mind Games, in which hypothetical situations focussed on scientific issues are proposed and explored at least once during each major instructional unit. Mind games are conveyed…

  3. Patterns of Response Times and Response Choices to Science Questions: The Influence of Relative Processing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics…

  4. Students' Questions and Discursive Interaction: Their Impact on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…

  5. Linking General Education and Science Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente; Morgan, Del; Maeyer, Jenine; Young, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This educational project involves prospective science teachers in implementing a natural science course for nonscience majors. The model creates a space for nonscience majors to experience learner-centered teaching practices while giving prospective teachers an opportunity to apply their science and science education course knowledge and learning.…

  6. Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

  7. A Comparative Study of Six Decades of General Science Textbooks: Evaluating the Evolution of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which…

  8. Examining two Turkish teachers' questioning patterns in secondary school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikmaz, Ali

    This study examined low and high level teachers' questioning patterns and classroom implementations within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, which addresses issues on negotiation, argumentation, learning, and teaching. The level of the teachers was determined by the students' writing scores. This study was conducted in Turkey with seven teacher for preliminary study. Because scoring writing samples examines the students' negotiation level with the different sources and students learn scientific process, as negotiation, which they may transfer into their writing, in classroom, two teachers were selected to represent low and high level teachers. Data collection involved classroom observation through video recordings. The comparative qualitative method was employed throughout the data analysis process with including quantitative results. The research questions that guided the present study were: (1) How are low and high level teachers, determined according to their students' writing scores, questioning patterns different from each other during classroom discourse? (2) Is there a relationship between students' writings and teachers' questioning styles in the classroom? Analysis of Qualitative data showed that teachers' classroom implementations reveal big differences based on argumentation patterns. The high level teacher, whose students had high scores in writing samples, asked more questions and the cognitive levels of questions were higher than the low level teacher. Questions promote an argumentative environment and improve critical thinking skills by discussing different ideas and claims. Asking more questions of teacher influences students to initiate (ask questions) more and to learn the scientific process with science concepts. Implicitly, this learning may improve students' comparison in their writing. Moreover, high level teacher had a more structured and organized classroom than low level teacher.

  9. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  10. Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clelland, Peggie L.

    The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

  11. General Science [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Larry; Lane, Robert

    This unit entitled "General Science" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. The package is subtitled "Physical Science in General Science" and consists of sections dealing with mechanics, electricity and light. A list of 41 behavioral objectives is stated…

  12. Differential effects of verbal aptitude and study questions on comprehension of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; Whittaker, Harold G.; Loose, Kenneth D.

    Selective attention models predict that verbatim study questions can divert students from meaningfully encoding attributes of science concepts. The aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis predicts that such questions can be particularly dysfunctional to low-ability students. These predictions assume the measurement of true comprehension of concepts as a criterion. Eighth-grade students (n = 217) were randomly assigned to a text-only, text-question or a placebo treatment. The text verbally described five fossil types. The questions consisted of 28 fill-in-the-blank queries about the text. The posttest required students to visually identify and discriminate 40 fossil specimens as to fossil type. Comprehension of the concepts clearly took place-a fact substantiated by the very low scores obtained by the placebo group. As predicted (p < 0.05), low-verbal students performed better when provided with a text-only rather than a text-question treatment. In contrast, high-verbal students were less effected by the verbatim study questions. Main effects among these groups were also detected. Apparently such questions can overprompt students, resulting in their copying of words from a text to an answer-blank without semantically encoding (i.e., comprehending) the copied words.

  13. Challenging accepted wisdom: looking at the gender and science education question through a different lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jane; Calvert, Sarah

    2003-07-01

    This article reports on a research project designed to explore a group of women scientists' understandings of themselves and science. The project uses an unconventional methodology: - a mixture of conventional qualitative research methods and techniques developed for use in psychotherapy. Its preliminary results appear to contradict some of the assumptions on which much of past work on girls and science education is based. For example, we found that, for the women involved in this project, factors such as the presence in their lives of strong female role models and/or the use of 'girl-friendly' curriculum materials were not important in their decision to continue the study of science to university level. Other factors - some of which were quite unexpected - had a much greater effect. The article outlines the methodology of this project and some of its findings, and explores the implications of these findings for future work on the gender and science education question.

  14. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  15. General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

  16. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in contemporary science teaching.

  17. Matter, Motion, and Man. An Experimental Program in General Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Betty Jo

    Volume One of the three-volume experimental program in general science attempts to provide preparation for the new approaches in biology, chemistry, and physics and to give those who will not continue in science a realistic way of understanding themselves, the world, and the role of science in society. Chapters on the nature of scientific inquiry,…

  18. Grand Research Questions in the Solid-Earth Sciences Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Anne M.

    2008-12-03

    Over the past three decades, Earth scientists have made great strides in understanding our planet’s workings and history. Yet this progress has served principally to lay bare more fundamental questions about the Earth. Expanding knowledge is generating new questions, while innovative technologies and new partnerships with other sciences provide new paths toward answers. A National Academies committee was established to frame some of the great intellectual challenges inherent in the study of the Earth and planets. The goal was to focus on science, not implementation issues, such as facilities or recommendations aimed at specific agencies. The committee canvassed the geological community and deliberated at length to arrive at 10 questions: 1. How did Earth and other planets form? 2. What happened during Earth’s “dark age” (the first 500 million years)? 3. How did life begin? 4. How does Earth’s interior work, and how does it affect the surface? 5. Why does Earth have plate tectonics and continents? 6. How are Earth processes controlled by material properties? 7. What causes climate to change—and how much can it change? 8. How has life shaped Earth—and how has Earth shaped life? 9. Can earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and their consequences be predicted? 10. How do fluid flow and transport affect the human environment? Written for graduate students, colleagues in sister disciplines, and program managers funding Earth and planetary science research, the report describes where the field stands, how it got there, and where it might be headed. Our hope is that the report will spark new interest in and support for the field by showing how Earth science can contribute to a wide range of issues—including some not always associated with the solid Earth—from the formation of the solar system to climate change to the origin of life. Its reach goes beyond the United States; the report is being translated into Chinese and distributed in China.

  19. Question Me an Answer: Re-Awakening the Art of Inquiry in Post-Secondary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Beirne-Ryan, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    In our science learning and teaching environment, how often do we present science as a body of facts, or at best, a compendium of knowledge to which we can add more information, if we ask the "right" questions? In reality, the nature of science is significantly more complex, and the number of iterations we go through to resolve a given…

  20. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  1. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  2. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  3. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students' exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a "B-" to a "B"). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections. PMID:26500828

  4. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to survey science teachers about their instructional activities should include operational definitions, methods of classifying single activities into 2 or more instructional categories, and questions that are more accurate in describing quality science instructional activities.

  5. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  6. How can comprehension adjunct questions focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of a computer-animated science lesson?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; McGuire, Barry

    Two focusing hypotheses were evaluated. First, do adjunct questions, focusing on science concepts and inserted after computer-animated sequences, selectively alter students' attentional or practice processing and thus produce differential learning effects? Theoretically, such questions selectively focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of focused concepts. Second, do these questions still provide enough metacognitive scaffolding to produce differential learning effects when only the first 8 out of 12 sequences are followed by focusing questions? Eighth-grade students (n = 160) were randomly assigned to a control group (lesson alone) or one of four treatment groups (lesson plus 12 questions focusing either on heat or on temperature, or lesson plus the same first 8 questions on heat or temperature followed by 4 placebo questions). Two significant two-way interactions with widely varying F ratios supported the differential focusing hypotheses (12 questions - more robust interaction, 8 - less robust interaction).

  7. Science Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General Education Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Mallow, J. V.

    2004-12-01

    Earlier studies [Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. Journal of Science Education and Technology 3: 227-238; Udo, M. K., Ramsey, G. P., Reynolds-Alpert, S., and Mallow, J. V. (2001). Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety? Journal of Science Education and Technology 10: 237-247] of science anxiety in various student cohorts suggested that nonscience majors were highly science anxious (SA), regardless of what science courses they were taking. In this study, we investigated science anxiety in a cohort consisting mostly of nonscience majors taking general education science courses. Regression analysis shows that the leading predictors of science anxiety are (i) nonscience anxiety and (ii) gender, as they were for different cohorts in the earlier studies. We confirm earlier findings that females are more SA than males. Chi-square analysis of acute science anxiety shows an amplification of these differences. We found statistically significant levels of science anxiety in humanities and social science students of both genders, and gender differences in science anxiety, despite the fact that the students were all enrolled in general education science courses specifically designed for nonscience majors. We found acute levels of anxiety in several groups, especially education, nursing, and business majors. We describe specific interventions to alleviate science anxiety.

  8. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Lara, Barbara A.; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts’ relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines. PMID:26958222

  9. Science Education Information Report, General Bibliography Series 22, Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    This is the second in the third series of general bibliographies developed to disseminate information on documents analyzed at the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education. Reported are some 113 citations of selected documents related to teacher education in science and mathematics education. The documents included represent research…

  10. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  11. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  12. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the courses. The large enrollment SCALE-UP model as implemented at the host university did not increase science teaching self-efficacy of non-science majors, as hypothesized. This was likely due to limited modification of standard cooperative activities according to the inquiry-guided SCALE-UP model. It was also found that larger SCALE-UP enrollments did not decrease science teaching self-efficacy when standard cooperative activities were used in the larger class.

  13. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  14. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question…

  15. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  16. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  17. COPS science questions revisited: What have we learned so far from COPS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Richard, E.; Dorninger, M.; Di Girolamo, P.; Corsmeier, U.; Kalthoff, N.; Bauer, H.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) was an international field campaign carried out in summer 2007 with the overall goal to advance the quality of forecasts of orographically-induced convective precipitation by 4-dimensional observations and modeling of its life cycle. The pre-convective environment, the formation of clouds and the onset and development of precipitation were observed in a low-mountain area in south-western Germany and eastern France covering the Vosges Mountains, the Rhine Valley, and the Black Forest Mountains during 18 Intensive Observations Periods from June 1 to August 31, 2007, under different forcing conditions. Meanwhile, in the nearly five years since the COPS field phase, a large number of results on analyses of selected COPS IOPs and of continuous measurements during the COPS period have been published; in a special issue of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society alone, 21 papers appeared in January 2011. A second special issue on COPS results is currently in preparation for the Meteorologische Zeitschrift (MetZ). In this contribution, we will revisit the original science questions of COPS, summarize the results gained so far from COPS, and discuss questions which still remain open.

  18. Classifying End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems for Selected General Chemistry Textbooks Used in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Kariluz; Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Science textbooks have a major influence on teaching and learning. Teachers and instructors at all educational levels use them regularly not only as a guide for course content and sequence but also in the design of homework assignments and assessment probes. From this perspective, textbook questions and problems can be expected to have a strong…

  19. Supporting General Educators' Inclusive Practices in Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Al-Juraid, Sarah E.; Stuker, Jodi D.

    This paper describes a state-funded project at Southeastern Louisiana University that offered coursework and direct classroom assistance to general educators attempting to include students with disabilities for mathematics and science instruction. Thirty-five general educators in five parish school systems participated. A sequence of three credit…

  20. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  1. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined. PMID:23249629

  2. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-19

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  3. 76 FR 64954 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-19

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  4. 76 FR 64955 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 78 FR 35942 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 76 FR 36556 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 75 FR 13557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-22

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  9. 76 FR 67467 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-06-15

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  11. General Education Astronomy Students’ Worldviews And Beliefs About The Role Of Science In Society: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Teske, J.; Meyers, M.; Mendelsohn, B.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2012-05-01

    Over the past year, we began a new research project to uncover general education astronomy students’ worldviews, their ideas about the role science plays in society, and the effects instruction has on these beliefs. Over the course of the spring 2012 semester, we collected students’ written responses to several open-ended, provocative questions that investigate students’ ideas about the impact science has had on areas such as the economy, their daily lives, and their fundamental beliefs about the nature of reality. This talk will present our preliminary findings from this project. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0833364 and Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  12. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  13. Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

  14. Making a Map of Science: General Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Tertiary Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.

    2002-01-01

    Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…

  15. Making a Map of Science: General Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Tertiary Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.

    2002-01-01

    Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…

  16. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  17. Cooperative General Science Program. Progress Report 1966-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, O. P.

    This is a final report on an experimental program in curriculum development. Four undergraduate colleges in the Atlanta University Center (Clark, Morehouse, Morris Brown, and Spelman) have cooperated to develop a 1-year course in general science for use in liberal arts colleges. This program has proven successful in developing and presenting…

  18. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

  19. Questions Asked by Primary Student Teachers about Observations of a Science Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahtee, Maija; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Suomela, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Teacher questioning has a central role in guiding pupils to learn to make scientific observations and inferences. We asked 110 primary student teachers to write down what kind of questions they would ask their pupils about a demonstration. Almost half of the student teachers posed questions that were either inappropriate or presupposed that the…

  20. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  1. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  2. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

  3. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    4. How is the succession of native floodplain vegetation shaped by present-day flow and sediment conditions? Answering these questions will produce baseline data on the current distributions of landforms and habitats (question 1), the extent of the functional floodplain (question 2), and the effects of modern flow and sediment regimes on future floodplain landforms, habitats, and vegetation succession (questions 3 and 4). Addressing questions 1 and 2 is a logical next step because they underlie questions 3 and 4. Addressing these four questions would better characterize the modern Willamette Basin and help in implementing and setting realistic targets for ongoing management strategies, demonstrating their effectiveness at the site and basin scales, and anticipating future trends and conditions.

  4. General chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, Ashley N.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.

  5. Journeys into Inquiry-Based Elementary Science: Literacy Practices, Questioning, and Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Elaine V.; Lim, Miyoun; Campos, Jaclyn

    2009-01-01

    Teaching literacy in inquiry-based science-teaching settings has recently become a focus of research in science education. Because professional scientists' uses of reading, writing, and speaking are foundational to their work, as well as to nonscientists' comprehension of it , it follows that literacy practices should also be central to science…

  6. The knowledge most worth having: Otis W. Caldwell (1869 1947) and the rise of the general science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffron, John M.

    1995-07-01

    In 1860 Herbert Spencer asked the famous rhetorical question ‘What Knowledge is of Most Worth?’ The unequivocal answer was science. Giving greater attention to science and scientific knowledge would not only produce additional scientists; more important, argued Spencer, it would make better parents, better church-goers, better citizens and workers, better artists and better consumers of art. It would lead to a ‘command of fundamental processes’, ‘worthy home membership’, ‘worthy use of leisure’, ‘ethical character’ — the goals of a general education spelled out by Spencerians within the National Educational Association in 1918. Here is our puzzle, then: how are we to interpret a definition of science, one widely accepted both in Spencer's time and in our own, that comes so close descriptively to a commonsensical view of what constitutes non-science? The answer to this question lies in part in the historical relationship between science and general education, a relationship established in the opening decades of this century, when the authority of science and scientific objectivity was in the minds of most educators unimpeachable. The high school general science course, developed in its early stages by the botanist and educator, Otis W. Caldwell, was a potent symbol of this new relationship. Organized around broad, topical issues and claiming to teach the mundane truths of life, general science was more than a loose collection of facts from the various earth, biological, and physical sciences. Its many advocates viewed the new unified science course as pedagogically independent of the specialties yet central to education in general. In 1949, two years after Caldwell's death, 72 percent of the total science enrollments in the United States were in general science and biology, its closest cognate. This paper examines the rise of the general science course and its implications for the reform of secondary school science education. It concludes that while recent reforms may impress students with the personal and social character of science, introducing them to a broad use of the scientific method, they will not necessarily make them more scientifically literate or train them to think about problems in anything like the way professional scientists do. Much less will they introduce students to alternative ways of problem-solving, arguably one of the most important goals of good science teaching.

  7. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  8. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

    2013-01-01

    During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and…

  9. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

    2013-01-01

    During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and…

  10. Impact of Online Support for Teachers' Open-Ended Questioning in Pre-K Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju; Kinzie, Mable B.; Whittaker, Jessica Vick

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of teacher supports in enhancing teachers' open-ended questioning in pre-k activities. The blended teacher supports included online video demonstrations of questioning techniques and companion workshop activities. Twenty-five teachers received the blended supports while the control group did not. The data consisted of…

  11. So Much More than Just a List: Exploring the Nature of Critical Questioning in Undergraduate Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is…

  12. Student Questioning in the Presence of the Teacher during Problem Solving in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzini, Edward L; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    Student questioning within the Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) problem solving instructional model was investigated. The results suggest that the SSCS problem-solving instructional model increases student questioning in the presence of the teacher (n=22) when compared to a teacher-directed laboratory instructional model. The implications…

  13. Contexts for Questioning: Two Zones of Teaching and Learning in Undergraduate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina; Moreira, Aurora; Watts, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are currently undertaking a challenging process in moving from teacher-orientated to student-focused approaches. Students' ability to asking questions is fundamental to developing critical reasoning, and to the process of scientific enquiry itself. Our premise is that questioning competences should become a central…

  14. Minimum Learning Essentials: Science. Chemistry, Earth Science, Biology, Physics, General Science. Experimental Edition 0/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)

  15. Toward an Applied Science of Education: Some Key Questions and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif, F.

    1978-01-01

    Goals discussed for developing education into an effective applied science include working toward intellectual standards similar to those in other successful applied sciences, teaching higher level cognitive skills, improving educational delivery through exploitation of current technological means, and striving for the excellence and…

  16. Moving Science Classes to the Community: A Question of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers argue that science literacy and numeracy are vital skills for successfully participating in the economy of this century. But how do educators increase the levels of scientific literacy, let alone make science a subject for all students, when the subject matter itself has been keeping students away? In this article,…

  17. Using Question-Answer Relationships to Build: Reading Comprehension in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) placed pressure on elementary teachers to raise standardized test scores in reading and mathematics. Unfortunately, the focus on reading and math has led to reduced time for science instruction. Mandatory standardized testing in science began in elementary schools across the United States in 2007. Instructing…

  18. Neoliberal Ideology, Global Capitalism, and Science Education: Engaging the Question of Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater…

  19. Neoliberal Ideology, Global Capitalism, and Science Education: Engaging the Question of Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater…

  20. Novel Methods for Communicating Plasma Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Delooper, John

    2012-10-01

    The broader implications of Plasma Science remains an elusive topic that the general public rarely discusses, regardless of their relevance to energy, the environment, and technology. Recently, we have looked beyond print media for methods to reach large numbers of people in creative and informative ways. These have included video, art, images, and music. For example, our submission to the ``What is a Flame?'' contest was ranked in the top 15 out of 800 submissions. Images of plasmas have won 3 out of 5 of the Princeton University ``Art of Science'' competitions. We use a plasma speaker to teach students of all ages about sound generation and plasma physics. We report on the details of each of these and future videos and animations under development.

  1. Learning by Doing: Science in a Large General Education Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Moore, R. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Teaching science in a large (150+ students) class can be a challenge. This is especially true in a general education science class that is populated by non-science majors, athletes, and students with math phobias, as well as students with a variety of learning disabilities. To illustrate Newton's Laws, we used The Egg Fling: knocking a pie pan from under a raw egg which then falls straight down into a container of water. Newton's Laws are projected on an overhead in constant view of the students, and an ELMO is used to give a live, big-screen view to engage even those in the back of the large lecture room. Students make predictions, watch the demo, then refine or correct predictions as we discuss which laws are illustrated. The Laws are later related to students’ science fiction books and the GEMS Moons of Jupiter activity. Reading classic science fiction books allows students to see how our understanding of the universe and our technology have changed over the last 150 years, also adding a writing component to the class. Student preceptors are critical to the success of this approach, leading small group discussions that could not easily be done with the whole class. Preceptors receive training before they lead activities or discussions with groups of 10 to 15 peers. Students do live sky observations and informal measurements to track the motion and phases of the Moon against the background stars, but use technology (Heavens Above and Starry Night) to track and understand the rising and setting of the Sun and its relation to the reason for the seasons. Using a combination of live demonstrations with technology, short assessments, and student preceptors makes teaching a large group possible, effective, and fun.

  2. Learning by Doing: Science in a Large General Education Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Moore, R. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Teaching science in a large (150+ students) class can be a challenge. This is especially true in a general education science class that is populated by non-science majors, athletes, and students with math phobias, as well as students with a variety of learning disabilities. To illustrate Newton's Laws, we used The Egg Fling: knocking a pie pan from under a raw egg which then falls straight down into a container of water. Newton's Laws are projected on an overhead in constant view of the students, and an ELMO is used to give a live, big-screen view to engage even those in the back of the large lecture room. Students make predictions, watch the demo, then refine or correct predictions as we discuss which laws are illustrated. The Laws are later related to students’ science fiction books and the GEMS Moons of Jupiter activity. Reading classic science fiction books allows students to see how our understanding of the universe and our technology have changed over the last 150 years, also adding a writing component to the class. Student preceptors are critical to the success of this approach, leading small group discussions that could not easily be done with the whole class. Preceptors receive training before they lead activities or discussions with groups of 10 to 15 peers. Students do live sky observations and informal measurements to track the motion and phases of the Moon against the background stars, but use technology (Heavens Above and Starry Night) to track and understand the rising and setting of the Sun and its relation to the reason for the seasons. Using a combination of live demonstrations with technology, short assessments, and student preceptors makes teaching a large group possible, effective, and fun.

  3. question_1410546275 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  4. question_1414049861 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  5. International teachers negotiating 21st century science classrooms: a question of hybridized identities and pedagogical imaginaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippins, Deborah J.; Hammond, Lorie; Hutchison, Charles B.

    2006-12-01

    International high school science teachers are crossing international and cultural borders to teach, raising important issues in education. In this article, we describe the cross-cultural assessment challenges that four international science teachers encountered when they migrated to teach in the United States. These included differences in grade expectations for a given quality of work, the weight given to final examinations, the assessment process, and cutoff scores for letter grades. To become proficient in their new teaching contexts, the participating teachers had to modify (or hybridize) their assessment philosophies and practices in order to conform to the expectations of their new schools. This hybridization process ushered them into what is proposed as the Pedagogical imaginary; a transitional space between the ``purity'' of their native educational conventions and that of their American schools. The implications of these findings are discussed in hopes of improving high school science teaching experiences for international science teachers.

  6. Gender Differences in Introductory Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Exams: Multiple Choice versus Constructed Response Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Raptis, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes 295 male and 194 female examinations from introductory atmospheric and oceanic science courses to determine whether or not there exist gender differences in the performance on multiple choice versus constructed response sections of the exams. (Author/SAH)

  7. Que es la Ciencia? What Is Science? A Question for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurlin, Quincy; Blanco, George

    This teacher's guide offers classroom techniques for teaching science to bilingual elementary students. Recommendations are made for improving teaching by: lowering students' affective filters; providing comprehensible input; providing for language output; creating a supportive environment; adjusting classroom teaching style; teaching…

  8. The Effect of the Type of Achievement Grouping on Students' Question Generation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of different types of achievement grouping on question generation. There were 46 participants from two Grade 5 classrooms. Students completed a test to determine their achievement levels. One of the classrooms was randomly assigned, to work in homogeneous achievement groups and the other one in…

  9. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  10. Question of Language Loyalty. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guitart, Jorge M.

    This paper examines the question of language loyalty in the United States and explores the implications that the institutional teaching of modern languages may have for ethnic language maintenance. The education of United States ethnics has always resulted in the loss of the ethnic tongue as a resource. However, although negative attitudes toward…

  11. Cooperative Learning in Third Graders' Jigsaw Groups for Mathematics and Science with and without Questioning Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souvignier, Elmar; Kronenberger, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is much support for using cooperative methods, since important instructional aspects, such as elaboration of new information, can easily be realized by methods like "jigsaw." However, the impact of providing students with additional help like a questioning training and potential limitations of the method concerning the (minimum)…

  12. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  13. The Effect of the Type of Achievement Grouping on Students' Question Generation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of different types of achievement grouping on question generation. There were 46 participants from two Grade 5 classrooms. Students completed a test to determine their achievement levels. One of the classrooms was randomly assigned, to work in homogeneous achievement groups and the other one in…

  14. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  15. Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

  16. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  17. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  18. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher talk changed from giving directions toward scaffolding student thought. These results have implications for professional development and teacher education as they suggest that more time should be spent on challenging teachers to align their pedagogy with how students learn rather than simply providing strategies and lesson plans for teachers to use in the classrooms.

  19. How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in K-12 Schools? Some Answers and Many Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the "ACM TOCE" journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of…

  20. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  1. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  2. Questioning the Validity of Inquiry Assessment in a High Stakes Physical Sciences Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The South African science curriculum advocates an inquiry-based approach to practical work. Inquiry is a complex and multifaceted activity involving both cognitive and physical activity; thus, paper-and-pencil items do not provide the authentic context for this assessment. This study investigates the construct validity of inquiry-related questions…

  3. How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in K-12 Schools? Some Answers and Many Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the "ACM TOCE" journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of…

  4. question_1302099820 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302099820 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  5. question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309291860 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  6. question_1297460130 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297460130 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  7. question_1296401928 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296401928 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  8. question_1301530459 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1301530459 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  9. question_1296830406 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296830406 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  10. question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1312382828 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  11. question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309360864 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  12. question_1298409202 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1298409202 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  13. question_1302545047 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302545047 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  14. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of T32... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18J,...

  15. 78 FR 63231 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel P20 INBRE... of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An.22,...

  16. 78 FR 28601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Initial Review Group, Training and..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  17. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MBRS SCORE. Date..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  18. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  19. 76 FR 62815 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18C,...

  20. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of R01... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  1. 75 FR 35820 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Review of... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD...

  2. 76 FR 62815 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, MBRS Score. Date... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN12C,...

  3. 77 FR 11562 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An18C,...

  4. 75 FR 11895 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Modeling the..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  5. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.

  6. Is victim identity in genocide a question of science or law? The scientific perspective, with special reference to Darfur.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra

    2008-09-01

    In genocide, victims must represent an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. But is victim identity a question of science or law? Must victims be a socially recognized group or can group identity exist solely in the mind of the perpetrator? This question is relevant to the on-going crisis in Darfur. The "Arab-on-African" violence depicted in the media encompasses identities not shared by Darfurians. This study details an evaluation of victim identity in Darfur, based on field research and literature review. Darfurians are defined by subsistence strategy and economic groups are not protected under genocide law. Whether Darfur is genocide depends on whether victims must conform to scientific group classifications or need only be defined by their relationship to the perpetrators. PMID:18953803

  7. Methodological troubles as problems and phenomena: ethnomethodology and the question of 'method' in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Mair, Michael; Sharrock, Wes

    2015-09-01

    Across the disciplinary frontiers of the social sciences, studies by social scientists treating their own investigative practices as sites of empirical inquiry have proliferated. Most of these studies have been retrospective, historical, after-the-fact reconstructions of social scientific studies mixing interview data with the (predominantly textual) traces that investigations leave behind. Observational studies of in situ work in social science research are, however, relatively scarce. Ethnomethodology was an early and prominent attempt to treat social science methodology as a topic for sociological investigations and, in this paper, we draw out what we see as its distinctive contribution: namely, a focus on troubles as features of the in situ, practical accomplishment of method, in particular, the way that research outcomes are shaped by the local practices of investigators in response to the troubles they encounter along the way. Based on two case studies, we distinguish methodological troubles as problems and methodological troubles as phenomena to be studied, and suggest the latter orientation provides an alternate starting point for addressing social scientists' investigative practices. PMID:26364574

  8. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  9. Integrating K-W-L Prompts into Science Journal Writing: Can Simple Question Scaffolding Increase Student Content Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Brandon Joel

    Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.

  10. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of…

  11. Assessing General Education Science Courses: A Portfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika; Impey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of portfolios to assess student performance in K-12 science classrooms and to monitor the training of preservice science teachers is increasingly common, their implementation in undergraduate science courses is still limited. The work presented here represents one in-depth example of the integration of portfolio assessment into…

  12. Assessing General Education Science Courses: A Portfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika; Impey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of portfolios to assess student performance in K-12 science classrooms and to monitor the training of preservice science teachers is increasingly common, their implementation in undergraduate science courses is still limited. The work presented here represents one in-depth example of the integration of portfolio assessment into…

  13. Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the General Chemistry Laboratory to Improve Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poock, Jason R.; Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes the effects of using the science writing heuristic (SWH) in the general chemistry laboratory on the students' academic performance. The technique has found to be extremely important factor in a student's learning process and achievement in science.

  14. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  15. 77 FR 24724 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  16. 77 FR 47857 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is ] hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  17. 75 FR 22606 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  18. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question. PMID:26623943

  19. Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos E.

    2009-09-01

    According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

  20. question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

  1. Effects of the Multiple Solutions and Question Prompts on Generalization and Justification for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving in a Computer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang; Chang, Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of solution methods and question prompts on generalization and justification of non-routine problem solving for Grade 9 students. The learning activities are based on the context of the frog jumping game. In addition, related computer tools were used to support generalization and justification of…

  2. Effects of the Multiple Solutions and Question Prompts on Generalization and Justification for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving in a Computer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang; Chang, Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of solution methods and question prompts on generalization and justification of non-routine problem solving for Grade 9 students. The learning activities are based on the context of the frog jumping game. In addition, related computer tools were used to support generalization and justification of…

  3. Communicating the science of the 11-year sunspot cycle to the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysics is one branch of science which excites the imagination of the general public. Pioneer science popularizers like George Gamow and Fred Hoyle wrote on different aspects of astrophysics. However, of late, we see a trend which I find disturbing. While it has become extremely fashionable to write popular science books on cosmology, other areas of astrophysics are grossly neglected.

  4. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  5. Science Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General Education Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Mallow, J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Earlier studies [Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. "Journal of Science Education and Technology" 3: 227-238; Udo, M. K., Ramsey, G. P., Reynolds-Alpert, S., and Mallow, J. V. (2001). Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety? "Journal of Science Education and Technology" 10: 237-247] of…

  6. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD, ORGAN SYSTEMS, HEALTH, CONTINUANCE OF LIFE,…

  7. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD, ORGAN SYSTEMS, HEALTH, CONTINUANCE OF LIFE,…

  8. Developing Civic Engagement in General Education Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Jozwiak, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    How can we promote student and civic engagement amongst our students? At Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, the political science courses in the First Year Learning Communities Program have been using the "New York Times" as a supplemental reader to increase student engagement both inside and outside the classroom. The paper will examine the…

  9. Building a Dental Sciences Collection in a General Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Eva; Galbraith, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the web and print resources used in selecting material for a dental sciences collection in an academic library at a public university without a medical library. The process of creating a collection quickly and with limited resources is described, from the initial collection assessment to the decision-making processes…

  10. On the Meaning of Element in the Science of Italic Tradition, the Question of Physical Objectivity (and/or Physical Meaning) and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscarino, Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    It is questioned: Is quantum mechanics a new science or a new (or rather old) philosophy of physical science? It is shown that Einstein's attempt in his article of 1935 to bring the concept of "element" from the classical (we call it Italic) philosophical-epistemological tradition, which goes under the names of Pythagoras Parmenides, Democritus, and Newton, into quantum mechanical theory is unclear, inadequate and contradictory.

  11. The Ability of Children to Generalize Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study to assess ability of children from different age groups (N=144) to generalize two hierarchically related concepts (Insect and Animal) with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. Also examined effects of age, I.Q., and sex on ability to generalize these concepts. (Author/JN)

  12. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  13. Children's Question Asking and Curiosity: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2011-01-01

    A primary instructional objective of most early science programs is to foster children's scientific curiosity and question-asking skills (Jirout & Klahr, 2011). However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question-asking behavior, and general inquiry skills. While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…

  14. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self-reported behavior changes indicated favorable responses to an increased awareness of and positive action toward the environment.

  15. Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes this school building, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and construction team, a general building description, and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

  16. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  17. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  18. question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

  19. The Necessity of Teaching for Aesthetic Learning Experiences in Undergraduate General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscotte, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Students should have aesthetic experiences to be fully engaged in science learning at any level. A general education science instructor can foster opportunities for aesthetic educative learning experiences enabling student growth. Drawing on the work of John Dewey and expanding on others in the field, Uhrmacher identifies the characteristics of…

  20. Science and Mathematics Education Information Report, General Bibliography Series, Bibliography 40. Teacher Characteristics, Student Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    This is the tenth in the fourth series of general bibliographies developed to disseminate information on documents analyzed at the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science and Mathematics Education. Reported are 59 citations of selected documents related to characteristics of teachers and students of science and mathematics. The documents…

  1. A Guide for Teaching General Science 1-2 (8th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Philip D.

    This guide was prepared as an aid to teachers of general science 1-2, grade 8. One of the major purposes of the guide is to assist the teachers in adopting a discovery-oriented approach in the classroom. The course is designed to prepare able students for the advanced science courses, grades 9-12. Teaching techniques, homework, laboratory…

  2. 75 FR 49499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... Director, NIGMS, and other business of the Council. Place: National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building... Sciences Council. Date: September 20-21, 2010. Closed: September 20, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda:...

  3. 75 FR 79386 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... Director, NIGMS, and other business of the Council. Place: National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building... Sciences Council. Date: January 27-28, 2011. Closed: January 27, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda:...

  4. 78 FR 25281 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The..., and other business of the Council. Place: National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Conference... Sciences Council. Date: May 16-17, 2013. Closed: May 16, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  5. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... Director, NIGMS, and other business of the Council. Place: National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building... Sciences Council. Date: September 15-16, 2011. Closed: September 15, 2011, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda:...

  6. An Analysis of Metaphors Used by Students to Describe Energy in an Interdisciplinary General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the term energy varies widely in scientific and colloquial discourse. Teasing apart the different connotations of the term can be especially challenging for non-science majors. In this study, undergraduate students taking an interdisciplinary, general science course (n?=?49) were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts:…

  7. An Analysis of Metaphors Used by Students to Describe Energy in an Interdisciplinary General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the term energy varies widely in scientific and colloquial discourse. Teasing apart the different connotations of the term can be especially challenging for non-science majors. In this study, undergraduate students taking an interdisciplinary, general science course (n?=?49) were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts:…

  8. The Necessity of Teaching for Aesthetic Learning Experiences in Undergraduate General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscotte, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Students should have aesthetic experiences to be fully engaged in science learning at any level. A general education science instructor can foster opportunities for aesthetic educative learning experiences enabling student growth. Drawing on the work of John Dewey and expanding on others in the field, Uhrmacher identifies the characteristics of…

  9. 75 FR 69092 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel MBRS Behavioral... Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research...

  10. 78 FR 10621 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ..., Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: John J. Laffan, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45...

  11. 77 FR 5816 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... 3An12A, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Mona R. Trempe, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  12. 77 FR 64813 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... 3An18, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  13. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  14. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  15. Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  16. Generalizations and kinds in natural science: the case of species.

    PubMed

    Reydon, Thomas A C

    2006-06-01

    Species in biology are traditionally perceived as kinds of organisms about which explanatory and predictive generalizations can be made, and biologists commonly use species in this manner. This perception of species is, however, in stark contrast with the currently accepted view that species are not kinds or classes at all, but individuals. In this paper I investigate the conditions under which the two views of species might be held simultaneously. Specifically, I ask whether upon acceptance of an ontology of species as diachronic segments of the tree of life (this is one version of the species as individuals ontology) species can perform the epistemic role of kinds of organisms to which explanatory and predictive generalizations apply. I show that, for species-level segments of the tree of life, several requirements have to be met before the performance of this epistemic role is possible, and I argue that these requirements can be met by defining species according to the Composite Species Concept proposed by Kornet and McAllister in the 1990s. PMID:16769557

  17. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public. PMID:22397082

  18. question_1309956298 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Cell culture, the propagation of cells in artificial environment conducive to growth, has become one of the major tools in life sciences. Human cells grown in laboratory, subjected to various (single or multiple) perturbations, are serving well in elucidating physico-biochemical mechanisms of response in investigations of physiology and biochemistry. In addition, cell strains and cell lines have extensively been used to identify molecular markers of disease, and recent advances in cell culture have facilitated propagating stem cells for clinical and research purposes.

  19. Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

    2012-11-01

    Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit. The unit materials included features meant to support teachers in eliciting and working with students' ideas and questions as a source for student-led investigations. We present three contrasting cases of teachers to highlight evidence that shows teachers' differing strategies for eliciting students' ideas and questions, and for developing their ideas, questions and questioning skills. Results from our cross case analysis provide insight into the ways in which teachers' enactments enabled them to work with students' ideas and questions to help advance learning. Consistent with other studies, we found that teachers could readily elicit ideas and questions but experienced challenges in helping students develop them. Findings suggest a need for more specified supports, such as specific discourse strategies, to help teachers attend to student thinking. We explore implications for curricular tools and discuss a need for more examples of effective discourse moves for use by teachers in orchestrating scientific discourse.

  20. Debates of science vs. religion in undergraduate general education cosmology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aleman, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in theoretical physics such as the discovery of the Higgs boson or the BICEP2 data supporting inflation can be part of the general science curriculum of non-science majors in a cosmology course designed as part of the General Education component. Yet to be a truly interdisciplinary experience one must deal with the religious background and faith of most of our students. Religious faith seems to be important in their lives, but the philosophical outlook of sciences like cosmology or evolutionary biology is one in which God is an unnecessary component in explaining the nature and origin of the universe. We will review recent advances in cosmology and suggestions on how to establish a respectful and intelligent science vs. religion debate in a transdisciplinary general education setting.

  1. Environmental Science Literacy in Science Education, Biology and Chemistry Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mike; Crowther, David

    2001-01-01

    Questions whether biology majors are more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, preservice science teachers, and a general population sample of 1,492 students. Indicates that preservice science teachers are significantly more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, but not more science literate than biology majors.…

  2. Science Fiction and General Semantics as Interdisciplinary/Cross-Cultural Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Harold L.

    General semantics and science fiction are disciplines that can be incorporated in lectures for public speaking and other speech communication classes. Alfred Korzybski's theories of general semantics lend themselves to researching, preparing, delivering interpersonal communication messages, and establishing student interest in foreign languages,…

  3. Why can't you scientists leave things alone? Science questioned in British films of the post-war period (1945-1970).

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    2001-10-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the representation of scientists as villains in horror and science fiction films, and to the part this has played in creating the public perception of scientists. But science and scientists have also been represented in films which do not fit readily with the conventions of these genres, and these "mainstream" films allow a more detailed investigation of the public perception of science at the time they were made. This paper examines a number of British mainstream films portraying scientists and science from the period 1945-1970 to see in what ways the conduct of science was being questioned. A concern with the political control of science and the resulting secrecy is evident in a number of the films. The criticism of scientists seems to come from two contradictory directions. Scientists were either seen as too detached and unconcerned about the consequences of their work, or they were too emotional and insufficiently objective. This is in part explained by newer, less deferential attitudes to science co-existing with the older, heroic view during the period under study. PMID:11774889

  4. Rethinking the Discussion about Science Education in a Multicultural World: Some Alternative Questions as a New Point of Departure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svennbeck, Margareta

    2001-01-01

    Comments on three articles in this issue on universalists versus multiculturalists. Discusses the importance in the United States of universalism versus relativism with regard to science. Discusses whether indigenous knowledge or traditional ecological knowledge should be considered with regard to science education. (SAH)

  5. Bridging the Gap between the Science Curriculum and Students' Questions: Comparing Linear vs. Hypermedia Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    While interest is central to learning, considerable disparities have been reported between students' science interests and the science curriculum. This study explores how 5th grade students' (n = 72) competence, relatedness and interest levels changed as a consequence of using two online learning environments, which bridged the students' anonymous…

  6. Bridging the Gap between the Science Curriculum and Students' Questions: Comparing Linear vs. Hypermedia Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    While interest is central to learning, considerable disparities have been reported between students' science interests and the science curriculum. This study explores how 5th grade students' (n = 72) competence, relatedness and interest levels changed as a consequence of using two online learning environments, which bridged the students' anonymous…

  7. Japanese representation in leading general medicine and basic science journals: a comparison of two decades.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tsuguya; Takahashi, Osamu; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    During 1991-2000, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals was very small although the contribution to the top basic science journals was sizeable. However, it has not been examined whether the contribution to the top general medicine and basic science journals has changed during the last decade (2001-2010). The objective of this study was to compare Japan representation in high-impact general medicine and basic science journals between the years 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. We used PubMed database to examine the frequency of articles originated from Japan and published in 7 high-impact general medicine and 6 high-impact basic science journals. Several Boolean operators were used to connect name of the journal, year of publication and corresponding authors' affiliation in Japan. Compared to the 1991-2000 decade, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals did not increase over the 2001-2010 period (0.66% vs. 0.74%, P = 0.255). However, compared to the same period, its contribution to the top basic science journals increased during 2001-2010 (2.51% vs. 3.60%, P < 0.001). Japan representation in basic science journals showed an upward trend over the 1991-2000 period (P < 0.001) but remained flat during 2001-2010 (P = 0.177). In contrast, the trend of Japan representation in general medicine journals remained flat both during 1991-2000 (P = 0.273) and 2001-2010 (P = 0.073). Overall, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals has remained small and unchanged over the last two decades. However, top basic science journals had higher Japan representation during 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000. PMID:24189990

  8. Teacher Roles of Questioning in Early Elementary Science Classrooms: A Framework Promoting Student Cognitive Complexities in Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the various roles that early elementary teachers adopt when questioning, to scaffold dialogic interaction and students' cognitive responses for argumentative practices over time. Teacher questioning is a pivotal contributing factor that shapes the role teachers play in promoting dialogic interaction in argumentative practice and that different roles serve different functions for promoting students' conceptual understanding. The multiple-case study was designed as a follow-up study after a 4-year professional development program that emphasized an argument-based inquiry approach. Data sources included 30 lessons focusing on whole class discussion from three early elementary teachers' classes. Data were analyzed through two approaches: (1) constant comparative method and (2) enumerative approach. This study conceptualized four critical roles of teacher questioning—dispenser, moderator, coach, and participant—in light of the ownership of ideas and activities. The findings revealed two salient changes in teachers' use of questions and the relationships between teachers' question-asking and students' cognitive responses: (1) teachers increasingly used multiple roles in establishing argumentative discourse as they persistently implemented an argument-based inquiry approach, and (2) as teachers used multiple roles in establishing patterns of questioning and framing classroom interactions, higher levels of student cognitive responses were promoted. This study suggests that an essential component of teacher professional development should include the study of the various roles that teachers can play when questioning for establishing dialogic interaction in argumentation and that this development should consist of ongoing training with systematic support.

  9. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E. |

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

  10. Science in the General Educational Development (GED) curriculum: Analyzing the science portion of GED programs and exploring adult students' attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Joya Reena

    The General Educational Development (GED) tests enable people to earn a high school equivalency diploma and help them to qualify for more jobs and opportunities. Apart from this main goal, GED courses aim at enabling adults to improve the condition of their lives and to cope with a changing society. In today's world, science and technology play an exceedingly important role in helping people better their lives and in promoting the national goals of informed citizenship. Despite the current efforts in the field of secondary science education directed towards scientific literacy and the concept of "Science for all Americans", the literature does not reflect any corresponding efforts in the field of adult education. Science education research appears to have neglected a population that could possibly benefit from it. The purpose of this study is to explore: the science component of GED programs, significant features of the science portion of GED curricula and GED science materials, and adult learners' attitudes toward various aspects of science. Data collection methods included interviews with GED students and instructors, content analysis of relevant materials, and classroom observations. Data indicate that the students in general feel that the science they learn should be relevant to their lives and have direct applications in everyday life. Student understanding of science and interest in it appears to be contingent to their perceiving it as relevant to their lives and to society. Findings indicate that the instructional approaches used in GED programs influence students' perceptions about the relevance of science. Students in sites that use strategies such as group discussions and field trips appear to be more aware of science in the world around them and more enthusiastic about increasing this awareness. However, the dominant strategy in most GED programs is individual reading. The educational strategies used in GED programs generally focus on developing reading skills rather than the internalization of knowledge or influencing attitudes. An interesting finding is that GED science materials do attend to the relevance of science in everyday life but students' appreciation of this depends on the strategies employed.

  11. On extracting design principles from biology: I. Method-General answers to high-level design questions for bioinspired robots.

    PubMed

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    When millions of years of evolution suggest a particular design solution, we may be tempted to abandon traditional design methods and copy the biological example. However, biological solutions do not often translate directly into the engineering domain, and even when they do, copying eliminates the opportunity to improve. A better approach is to extract design principles relevant to the task of interest, incorporate them in engineering designs, and vet these candidates against others. This paper presents the first general framework for determining whether biologically inspired relationships between design input variables and output objectives and constraints are applicable to a variety of engineering systems. Using optimization and statistics to generalize the results beyond a particular system, the framework overcomes shortcomings observed of ad hoc methods, particularly those used in the challenging study of legged locomotion. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of the relative running efficiency of rotary-kneed and telescoping-legged robots. PMID:25643176

  12. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-06-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students learn to question their own research results and expert witnesses. The method of successive approximations enables students to question the results of complex calculations, such as estimates of forest biomass. Balloons and rolls of toilet paper provide means of questioning two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional Earth and the value of pi. Generation of systematic errors can illustrate the pitfalls of blind acceptance of data. While learning to question is essential, it is insufficient by itself; students must also learn how to be solutionologists in order to satisfy societal demands for solutions to environmental problems. A little irreverence can be an excellent didactic tool for helping students develop the skills necessary to lead conservation and development efforts in the region.

  13. Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered…

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  15. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  16. Gender Disparities in Sciences: The Question of Parental Influence on Children's Self-Concept and Utility-Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwinya, Noel M.; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept and utility-values are thought to influence differences in choices, participation and performance in schools-careers between students of different genders and ages. This study was investigating existence of gender differences in such constructs regarding science. Further, the study investigated whether development of such constructs…

  17. Looking for Signs of Community College Arts and Sciences Faculty Professionalization in Searches: An Alternative Approach to a Vexing Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    To explore professionalization of community college faculty, this study uses data from case studies of searches for full-time arts and sciences community college faculty. The author concludes that there is little evidence of a unique profession and that on a continuum of professionalization community college faculty are more professionalized than…

  18. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  19. New and Emerging Strategies in Platelet-Rich Plasma Application in Musculoskeletal Regenerative Procedures: General Overview on Still Open Questions and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Sartori, Maria; Fini, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasive use, the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy and the different mechanisms of action have yet to be established. This overview of the literature is focused on the role of PRP in bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament tissue regeneration considering basic science literature deriving from in vitro and in vivo studies. Although this work provides evidence that numerous preclinical studies published within the last 10 years showed promising results concerning the application of PRP, many key questions remain unanswered and controversial results have arisen. Additional preclinical studies are needed to define the dosing, timing, and frequency of PRP injections, different techniques for delivery and location of delivery, optimal physiologic conditions for injections, and the concomitant use of recombinant proteins, cytokines, additional growth factors, biological scaffolds, and stems cells to develop optimal treatment protocols that can effectively treat various musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:26075269

  20. General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David; Stroup, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Suggests using general system theory as a unifying theoretical framework for science and technology education for all. Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics, the ability to represent the relationship between microlevel and…

  1. 78 FR 66947 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of..., Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research...

  2. 78 FR 13689 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  3. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  4. 78 FR 13362 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Program Projects....18K, Bethesda, MD 20814, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, PHD, Scientific..., MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, PHD, Scientific Review...

  5. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  6. 76 FR 10038 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, PSI Biology... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and... and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96,...

  7. 76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology... Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics... Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

  8. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  9. Primary School Science: Implementation of Domain-General Strategies into Teaching Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Van de Keere, Kristof; Tallir, Isabel; Vervaet, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we present a didactic method to help children aged 11 and 12 learn science in such a way as to enable a dynamic interaction between domain general strategies and the development of conceptual knowledge, whilst each type of scientific process has been considered (forming of hypotheses, experimenting and evaluating). We have…

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Laboratory Approaches in a General Education College Physical Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, John Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of two laboratory approaches in a general education physical science course: (1) the experimental method called the contemporary topics, and (2) the control method called the standard topics. The criterion instruments were an investigator-constructed subject content test, the…

  11. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on scientific/technical information and libraries presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Library Ethics and the Special Library Network in Science and Technology" (Dieter Schmidmaier, East Germany); (2) "The Dissemination of Patent Information by Libraries: An Example Demonstrating the Necessity of Libraries in the…

  13. Primary School Science: Implementation of Domain-General Strategies into Teaching Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Van de Keere, Kristof; Tallir, Isabel; Vervaet, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we present a didactic method to help children aged 11 and 12 learn science in such a way as to enable a dynamic interaction between domain general strategies and the development of conceptual knowledge, whilst each type of scientific process has been considered (forming of hypotheses, experimenting and evaluating). We have…

  14. Conceptions of the Nature of Science--Are They General or Context Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhahne, Detlef; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between general and context-specific conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The categorization scheme by Osborne et al. (J Res Sci Teach 40:692-720, "2003") served as the theoretical framework of the study. In the category "nature of scientific knowledge", the certainty, development, simplicity,…

  15. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document is the student laboratory manual that was designed to accompany some of the experimental activities found in the teacher's guide to this general science course for ninth graders. It contains laboratory worksheets for lessons on such topics as: (1) soil; (2) hazardous waste; (3) wildlife refuges; (4) the water cycle; (5) water…

  16. Using Self-Reflection to Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video…

  17. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  18. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document is the student laboratory manual that was designed to accompany some of the experimental activities found in the teacher's guide to this general science course for ninth graders. It contains laboratory worksheets for lessons on such topics as: (1) soil; (2) hazardous waste; (3) wildlife refuges; (4) the water cycle; (5) water…

  19. 76 FR 79200 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C....

  20. 78 FR 77472 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C....

  1. 77 FR 76059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C....

  2. 77 FR 14406 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  3. 78 FR 66372 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Drive, Room 12An.18K, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of..., MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Rebecca H. Johnson, PhD., Scientific Review...

  4. 77 FR 31862 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  5. 78 FR 70311 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  6. 77 FR 64812 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... 20814. Contact Person: Saraswathy Seetharam, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific... (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health,...

  7. 75 FR 30408 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App), notice is hereby given of the...

  8. 77 FR 71430 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  9. 75 FR 7484 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... H. Johnson, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of..., Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: Mona R. Trempe, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45...

  10. 76 FR 10911 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  11. 76 FR 60059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  12. Conceptions of the Nature of Science--Are They General or Context Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhahne, Detlef; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between general and context-specific conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The categorization scheme by Osborne et al. (J Res Sci Teach 40:692-720, "2003") served as the theoretical framework of the study. In the category "nature of scientific knowledge", the certainty, development, simplicity,…

  13. Using the science writing heuristic approach as a tool for assessing and promoting students' conceptual understanding and perceptions in the general chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Elham Ghazi

    This thesis reports on a study that examined the impact of implementing SWH (inquiry-based approach) in a general chemistry lab on non-science-major students' understanding of chemistry concepts and students' perceptions toward writing in science and implementing SWH. This study was conducted in a large university in the Midwest of the United States in a college freshman chemistry laboratory for non-science-major students. The research framework is presented including the following: the qualitative research design with the observation as data collection method for this design and the criteria for teacher level of implementation and the ranking mechanism; and the quantitative research design with data collection and analysis methods including pre- and post-conceptual exams, lecture question, open-ended surveys. This research was based on a quasi-experimental mixed-method design a focus on student performance on higher order conceptual questions, and open-ended survey at the end of semester about their perception toward writing to learn ad implementing SWH. Results from the qualitative and quantitative component indicated that implementing SWH approach has notably enhanced both male and female conceptual understanding and perception toward chemistry and implementing SWH. It is known that there is gender gap in science, where female have lower perception and self confident toward science. Interestingly, my findings have showed that implementing SWH helped closing the gap between male and female who started the semester with a statistically significant lower level of conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts among females than males.

  14. General Education Engagement in Earth and Planetary Science through an Earth-Mars Analog Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.

  15. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  16. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  17. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  18. General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

  19. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    PubMed Central

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  20. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    PubMed

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  1. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348335

  2. Exploring the beliefs of persisting secondary science teachers in general induction programs: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sissy Sze-Mun

    Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.

  3. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  4. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  5. Postdoctoral Training in the Biomedical Sciences. An Evaluation of NIGMS [National Institute of General Medical Sciences] Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    This document describes in detail a study of postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences. Highlights of the study indicate: (1) During the 1958-70 period, 8,685 postdoctorals, equally divided between MD's and PD's, were supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), at a total cost of $86.5 million. (2) Directors of the…

  6. Making Connections to Students' Lives and Careers Throughout a General Education Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaDue, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives. Several examples of these connections will be described.

  7. Numerical Lattice Generalization of Complex Data Base in Space and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.

    Analysis of extended hybrid data base of high resolution measurements is becoming a tremendous methodological and computational task in all areas of natural science The development of expert data base systems especially in space science and geosciences is the key to study complex scientific phenomena related to space and atmospheric tropospheric environment dynamics In this paper we introduce a mathematical generalization of multi-measurement systems based on the concept of numerical lattices We define a generalized numerical lattice L as a function of four coefficients p1 p2 p3 p4 that represents the following lattice properties size dimension extension and coupling respectively From this generalization any multi data base can be reduced in a closed set of classified time series in N dimensions We show from application in data base from NASA and NOAA that expert systems can be developed in order to make the real time analysis of these data systems a possible task An example for space weather applications is given by constructing numerical lattice system for data from space plasmas spatio-temporal solar data interplanetary medium magnetosphere ionosphere and earth atmospheric and oceanographic data

  8. Teaching and learning the geological knowledge as a part of the science education general field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Pérez, Constancio

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 50s of last century the Teaching of Science has undergone a process of continuous development, (Gutiérrez, 1987; Aliberas, Gutierrez and Izquierdo, 1989) to become a scientific discipline largely accepted as such by many different universities worldwide. Besides, the proliferation of publications, magazines, conferences, symposia, meetings, and so on, proves this assertion. In these publications and meetings the Teaching of Science (or Science Education in more general terms) is addressed as a new field of research, teaching and educational innovation focused on the processes of teaching and learning of the experimental sciences (all of them: Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology). The study of this discipline is undertaken from different pedagogical, epistemological, psychological and sociological approaches. From this general perspective we can say that over the last two decades each of the sciences has developed specific characteristics so that, today, we could speak about specific didactics for each one of them. In the case of Geology (or Geoscience) Teaching there have been significant contributions from the following fields of research: the students' prior ideas (constructivist approach), the history of geology (as a subject-specific field) and from epistemology (Pedrinaci, E. 2000). The body of geoscience knowledge has an internal logic (as happens with the other science subjects) that allows us to organize the contents to teach, selecting, arranging and establishing proper relations between them. Still geology has a central, transverse, inter-and transdisciplinary character for its relationship with the other sciences. This character makes it appear as one of the disciplines with a huge potential to combine different methodologies of teaching and learning and different learning models already tested in the research field of Physics, Chemistry or Biology Education. Moreover, the most recent term coined for it "geosciences or earth and space sciences" emphasizes still further such character receiving the contributions of physics, chemistry, biology and environmental science in a kind of scientific-technical mixture which enriches the discipline itself and constitutes a fundamental basis for the evolution of knowledge in its broadest sense (Martinez Frias et al. 2008). In this paper we propose to show some of the experiences and didactic innovations in the teaching of geology found in the scientific literature in recent years and likewise part of an author's own work on the establishment of analogies on the time variable based on Carl Sagan's cosmic calendar. With these analogies we try to approximate geologic times to the understanding of high school and first university courses students (Aguirre-Perez, C. 2008) REFERENCES ALIBERAS, J. GUTIÉRREZ, R. and IZQUIERDO, M. (1989). La Didáctica de las Ciencias: Una empresa racional. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 7 (3), pp. 227-284. GUTIÉRREZ, R. (1987). Psicología y aprendizaje de las Ciencias. El modelo de Ausubel. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 5 (2), pp. 118-128. MARTÍNEZ FRÍAS, J. LUNAR, R. RODRÍGUEZ-LOSADA, J.A. EFF-DARWICH, A. and MADERO JARABO, J. (2008)"La Geología en la exploración planetaria (Geology inplanetary exploration). Geo-temas 10, pp. 1621-1624. PEDRINACI, E. (2000): La Enseñanza y el aprendizaje del conocimiento geológico. Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales. Teoría y Práctica de la Enseñanza de las ciencias, pp. 479-503. Ed. Marfil.

  9. Critical Questions in Wetland Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

  10. Critical Questions in Wetland Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

  11. How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2008-06-01

    How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

  12. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  13. A Thematic Review of Interactive Whiteboard Use in Science Education: Rationales, Purposes, Methods and General Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormanci, Ummuhan; Cepni, Salih; Deveci, Isa; Aydin, Ozhan

    2015-10-01

    In Turkey and many other countries, the importance of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is increasing, and as a result, projects and studies are being conducted regarding the use of the IWB in classrooms. Accordingly, in these countries, many issues are being researched, such as the IWB's contribution to the education process, its use in classroom settings and problems that occur when using the IWB. In this context, the research and analysis of studies regarding the use of the IWB have important implications for educators, researchers and teachers. This study aims to review and analyze studies conducted regarding the use of the IWB in the field of science. Accordingly, as a thematic review of the research was deemed appropriate, extant articles available in the literature were analyzed using a matrix that consisted of general features (type of journal, year and demographic properties) and content features (rationales, aims, research methods, samples, data collections, results and suggestions). According to the findings, it was concluded that the studies regarding the use of IWBs were conducted due to deficiencies in the current literature. However, there are rare studies in which the reasons for the research were associated with the nature of science education. There were also studies that focused on the effects of the IWB on student academic success and learning outcomes. Within this context, it is evident that there is a need for further research concerning the use of IWBs in science education and for studies regarding the effect of IWBs on students' skills.

  14. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  15. Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

  16. Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

  17. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  18. Heat. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one of a series designed to support "general level" program development for intermediate/junior high school science, emphasizing the relationship between science and society. The main body of the manual deals with teaching about heat in the context of home heating systems. In addition, a brief treatment of the particle…

  19. Neural Networks In Mining Sciences - General Overview And Some Representative Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The many difficult problems that must now be addressed in mining sciences make us search for ever newer and more efficient computer tools that can be used to solve those problems. Among the numerous tools of this type, there are neural networks presented in this article - which, although not yet widely used in mining sciences, are certainly worth consideration. Neural networks are a technique which belongs to so called artificial intelligence, and originates from the attempts to model the structure and functioning of biological nervous systems. Initially constructed and tested exclusively out of scientific curiosity, as computer models of parts of the human brain, neural networks have become a surprisingly effective calculation tool in many areas: in technology, medicine, economics, and even social sciences. Unfortunately, they are relatively rarely used in mining sciences and mining technology. The article is intended to convince the readers that neural networks can be very useful also in mining sciences. It contains information how modern neural networks are built, how they operate and how one can use them. The preliminary discussion presented in this paper can help the reader gain an opinion whether this is a tool with handy properties, useful for him, and what it might come in useful for. Of course, the brief introduction to neural networks contained in this paper will not be enough for the readers who get convinced by the arguments contained here, and want to use neural networks. They will still need a considerable portion of detailed knowledge so that they can begin to independently create and build such networks, and use them in practice. However, an interested reader who decides to try out the capabilities of neural networks will also find here links to references that will allow him to start exploration of neural networks fast, and then work with this handy tool efficiently. This will be easy, because there are currently quite a few ready-made computer programs, easily available, which allow their user to quickly and effortlessly create artificial neural networks, run them, train and use in practice. The key issue is the question how to use these networks in mining sciences. The fact that this is possible and desirable is shown by convincing examples included in the second part of this study. From the very rich literature on the various applications of neural networks, we have selected several works that show how and what neural networks are used in the mining industry, and what has been achieved thanks to their use. The review of applications will continue in the next article, filed already for publication in the journal "Archives of Mining Sciences". Only studying these two articles will provide sufficient knowledge for initial guidance in the area of issues under consideration here.

  20. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  1. Questioning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nikki

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…

  2. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  3. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  4. Patient Safety in Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ General Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Mohammad; AKBARI SARI, Ali; MOVAHED KOR, Elham; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; TOLOUI RAKHSHAN, Shiva; EZATI, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important to focus on creating opportunities for patients’ participation at all levels of health systems in order to promote their ability to improve patient safety and quality of services. The general aim of this study was to determine patient safety level in Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ (TUMS) general hospitals, Tehran, Iran from patients’ perspective and to determine the contributory factors on their perspective. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In the spring 2011, the list of clinical departments of the six general hospitals affiliated to TUMS was obtained through the Website of TUMS. By using stratified random sampling, the sample size was calculated 300 patients. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and its validity and reliability were acceptable. Descriptive statistics, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyzing the data. Results: Totally, 60% of patients were female. Patient safety was evaluated high by 60% of respondents. The unmarried or educated or employed individuals tend to score lower than others. Conclusion: TUMS’s general hospitals are enough safe from patients’ perspective, patient safety should be improved. In clinical governance, contributing patients’ perspective to the improvement of patient safety reforms is critical in generating new models of good practice. PMID:23641408

  5. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  6. Testing Propositions Derived from Twitter Studies: Generalization and Replication in Computational Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai; Fu, King-wa

    2015-01-01

    Replication is an essential requirement for scientific discovery. The current study aims to generalize and replicate 10 propositions made in previous Twitter studies using a representative dataset. Our findings suggest 6 out of 10 propositions could not be replicated due to the variations of data collection, analytic strategies employed, and inconsistent measurements. The study’s contributions are twofold: First, it systematically summarized and assessed some important claims in the field, which can inform future studies. Second, it proposed a feasible approach to generating a random sample of Twitter users and its associated ego networks, which might serve as a solution for answering social-scientific questions at the individual level without accessing the complete data archive. PMID:26287530

  7. Testing Propositions Derived from Twitter Studies: Generalization and Replication in Computational Social Science.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Replication is an essential requirement for scientific discovery. The current study aims to generalize and replicate 10 propositions made in previous Twitter studies using a representative dataset. Our findings suggest 6 out of 10 propositions could not be replicated due to the variations of data collection, analytic strategies employed, and inconsistent measurements. The study's contributions are twofold: First, it systematically summarized and assessed some important claims in the field, which can inform future studies. Second, it proposed a feasible approach to generating a random sample of Twitter users and its associated ego networks, which might serve as a solution for answering social-scientific questions at the individual level without accessing the complete data archive. PMID:26287530

  8. AAAS News: Questions of Science Literacy Addressed by Rutherford/AAAS; 1982 Exhibit; Energy and Health to Be Discussed in Berkeley; Short Courses at Pacific Division, Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the views of F. James Rutherford concerning the status of science education and his role as advisor on science education to the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (SK)

  9. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

  10. A study of the test–retest reliability of the self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Trung; Stupar, Maja; Boyle, Eleanor; Shearer, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the test–retest reliability of two self-perceived recovery questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), and to assess whether remembering previous answers influences reliability. The self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions were administered to 46 patients with recent WAD 6 weeks after recruitment and again 3–5 days later. At follow-up, we also asked participants if they remembered their previous answers. We used the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to measure the reliability of the original ordinal response structure and kappa statistics for dichotomized responses. The ICC [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for the general recovery and for the change in neck pain questions were 0.70 (0.60–0.80) and 0.80 (0.72–0.87), respectively. The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the general recovery question was 0.81 (0.64–0.99) when recovery was defined as “completely better” or “much improved”. The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the change in neck pain question was 0.80 (0.62–0.99) when recovery was defined as “very much better” or “better”. Our analysis suggests that the test–retest reliability may be higher for participants who remembered their previous responses. In conclusion, our results suggest that self-perceived recovery questions have adequate reliability for use in epidemiological research of WAD. PMID:20130932

  11. Education Partnerships: Museums as Mediators Between Science, Educators and the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    The Exploratorium, a museum of science, art and human perception in San Francisco, has been partnering with polar scientists to bring their work to the general public, students and teachers before and during the International Polar Year, 2007-9. Last year, Exploratorium producers connected with scientists on the ANDRILL sediment coring project out of McMurdo, Antarctica in a series of live programs and web postings that were broadcast on the museum floor and on the Internet. This work builds on an NSF-funded project in 2001 that brought four museum educators to Antarctica on a six-week Web expedition and will continue over the next two field seasons in Antarctica and the Arctic field season in summer 2008. Over the next 18 months, the Exploratorium's "Ice Stories" will partner museum media and web producers with polar scientists working in the field to bring their research to the Internet and museum audience via live Webcasts, video clips, blogs, podcasts, and other media platforms. The museum will curate polar field reports from scientists and educators into a continuously updated Web portal on the Exploratorium's award-winning Website and highlight the ongoing research in museum programming, floor demonstrations, and exhibits. There is excellent potential for these partnerships between formal and informal science to be expanded by creating additional links with formal educators in classroom and out-of-classroom settings.

  12. Earth System Science Education in a General Education Context: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The teaching of Earth System Science (ESS) to non-science majors is examined in a large lecture format class at a state university and in small classes with a significant research component at a liberal arts college. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of both approaches reveal some of the challenges educators face as they work to advance students' integrated understanding of the Earth system. Student learning on selected concepts in the large lecture format class was poorly or negatively correlated with the amount of class time spent on the topic, even when the time was spent in teacher-student dialogue or in cooperative learning activities. The small class format emphasized student participation in research, which was found to be particularly effective when the class operated as a three-week intensive block and student use of computer models to simulate the dynamics of complex systems, which was found to be more effective when the class was held in a ten-week quarter. This study provides some clarification as to the utility of specific pedagogical frameworks (such as constructivism and experiential education) in the teaching of ESS to a general education audience and emphasizes the importance of carefully defining educational goals (both cognitive and affective) as a part of the curriculum design.

  13. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  14. Methods and successes of New York University workshops for science graduate students and post-docs in science writing for general audiences (readers and radio listeners)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and science administrators often stress the importance of communication to the general public, but rarely develop educational infrastructures to achieve this goal. Since 2009, the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University has offered a series of basic and advanced writing workshops for graduate students and post-docs in NYU's eight scientific divisions (neuroscience, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, and computer science). The basic methodology of the NYU approach will be described, along with successful examples of both written and radio work by students that have been either published or broadcast by general interest journalism outlets.

  15. Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

  16. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  17. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. PMID:23899406

  18. Open Questions.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A few items in this issue of the Report explore a hodge-podge of questions associated with cutting-edge genetics research. In the lead article, Charles Dupras and Vardit Ravitsky look at research into epigenetics, which refers to molecular mechanisms that affect how genes are expressed. As Dupras and Ravitsky explain, research into epigenetics might turn out to be useful for developing environmental and social strategies for improving public health, but it might also end up leading to clinical tools-tools that work at the "molecular" instead of the social level and that target individuals rather than the collective public. Dupras and Ravitsky plainly hope to see a good effort to develop environmental and social strategies, and they fear that funding and interest will go mostly the other way, toward ever more "molecular" interventions. That trend in funding and interest is reflected, to some degree, in the second article, in which Oscar Zarate and colleagues explore how the Personal Genome Project, an endeavor launched at Harvard University to collect and share personal genetic and health information in order to facilitate research, is perceived by the people who consent to be part of it. Questions about open consent and subjects' role in fostering research recur in several shorter contributions to this issue. In the lead essay, Carl Elliott reflects on how and why the language used to describe research has been updated ("subjects" giving way to "participants" and "experimentation" to "research") and suggests that the changes reflect an effort to deflect concerns about the treatment of subjects. PMID:26786031

  19. General systems theory, cultural change, and a human science foundation for planning and design

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, J.L.; Woodfin, T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper integrates the knowledge-base concerning systems, their behavior and structure, and the management of complex systems - to provide insight to physical planning and design in equilibrium and rapidly-changing conditions. It contributes to the redefinition of the professions of physical planning and design; and the establishment of their human science foundations. This paper begins with a description of general systems theory, and the types of organizational structures that emerge in systems that are either in a state of equilibrium, controlled change, or chaos. It addresses the changes in system dynamics that occur as a culture moves from a condition of equilibrium or slow evolutionary change, to one of profound, rapid change. Conceptual approaches to decision-making to address these changing conditions are explored, with a focus on strategies to manage change and retard its rate, or conversely to maximize rate of change with reduced ability to manage that change. The paper presents the recent history of South Africa, Value Systems Theory and the differential manner in which people image the world - in an effort to establish intergroup harmony. It introduces problems that are emerging due to different value systems and need satisfaction; and on-going efforts to facilitate rapid paradigmatic change through equilibrium processes. The paper addresses recent efforts at the national level, roadblocks to change, and {open_quotes}change triggers{close_quotes} that can facilitate that change. It addresses case-study research to identify urbanization {open_quotes}delivery models{close_quotes} that can facilitate change at the local community-planning level. This paper develops the scientific basis within which to address urban planning and design as community facilitation, and as the management of ecological and human health. It establishes the need for a human science foundation for physical planning and design. 116 refs.

  20. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  1. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  2. A Reconstruction of Structure of the Atom and Its Implications for General Physics Textbooks: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    Recent research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presentation of the Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr models of the atom in general physics textbooks based on criteria derived from history and philosophy of science. Forty-one general physics…

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  4. The Effects of Two Strategic and Meta-Cognitive Questioning Approaches on Children's Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Learning during Cooperative, Inquiry-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Teaching students to ask and answer questions is critically important if they are to engage in reasoned argumentation, problem-solving, and learning. This study involved 35 groups of grade 6 children from 18 classrooms in three conditions (cognitive questioning condition, community of inquiry condition, and the comparison condition) who were…

  5. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 9: General science. [experimental design in Astronomy, Biology, Geophysics, Aeronomy and Materials science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives and planning activities for the Apollo-Soyuz mission are summarized. Aspects of the space flight considered include the docking module and launch configurations, spacecraft orbits, and weightlessness. The 28 NASA experiments conducted onboard the spacecraft are summarized. The contributions of the mission to the fields of astronomy, geoscience, biology, and materials sciences resulting from the experiments are explored.

  6. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  7. Application of the Test of Scientific Literacy Skills in the Assessment of a General Education Natural Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Jennifer Turner

    2014-01-01

    The peer-reviewed and psychometrically validated Test of Scientific Literacy Skills developed by Gormally et al. was used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a general education natural science program. By comparing the scores of students who had already taken at least one course in this area with the scores of those who had not, and by…

  8. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  9. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  10. A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic nonlinearity and demonstrate that it accommodates many different classes of scientific-based parameterizations as special cases. The model is presented in a hierarchical Bayesian framework and is illustrated with examples from ecology and oceanography. ?? 2010 Sociedad de Estad??stica e Investigaci??n Operativa.

  11. The science of general practice. A keynote address to the Wonca Europe Conference in Warsaw, Poland, September 2011.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Nigel

    2011-12-01

    The principles of the science of general practice are those of all good science-open-minded enquiry, the critical evaluation of data derived from experiment or observation, problem solving and the publication of results. The use of combined qualitative and quantitative methods of scientific investigation enables us to get closer to the realities of clinical practice. A number of exemplary individual general practitioners have made exceptional contributions to clinical practice and our discipline-in particular, Edgar Hope Simpson and Lawrence Craven, whose work has not been widely recognized. Scientific research in general practice needs to be both credible and robust, aligned with our values and be relevant to our clinical practice. PMID:22111553

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "UAP (Universal Availability of Publications) and User Training for Categories of Grey Literature" (Dieter Schmidmaier, Mining Academy Freiberg, East Germany); (2) "Resource Sharing in Science…

  13. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  14. Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and students using a standard or traditional laboratory curriculum on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on a specific topic, chemical equilibrium. The SWH helps students do inquiry science laboratory work by structuring the laboratory…

  15. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to…

  16. The Conservation of Energy Concept in Ninth Grade General Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, William; And Others

    Discussed is an instructional approach, "concept-distillation," which involves experiences, games, and puzzles that have the "distilled essence" of the basic concepts of the physical sciences. This approach is designed to impart a vivid and dramatic meaning and structure of the sciences for transfer in scientific thinking. The materials consist of…

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Online Information Service of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology" (Ryuko Igarashi, Japan); (2) "A View from the Chip--The Influence of Information Technologies on Libraries…

  18. Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and students using a standard or traditional laboratory curriculum on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on a specific topic, chemical equilibrium. The SWH helps students do inquiry science laboratory work by structuring the laboratory…

  19. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  20. A Twenty-Year Survey of Science Literacy among College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie; Johnson, Elizabeth; King, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    First results from a 20-year survey of science knowledge and attitudes toward science among undergraduates are presented. Nearly 10,000 students taking astronomy as part of a general education requirement answered a set of questions that overlap a science literacy instrument administered to the general public by the National Science Foundation.…

  1. A Twenty-Year Survey of Science Literacy among College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie; Johnson, Elizabeth; King, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    First results from a 20-year survey of science knowledge and attitudes toward science among undergraduates are presented. Nearly 10,000 students taking astronomy as part of a general education requirement answered a set of questions that overlap a science literacy instrument administered to the general public by the National Science Foundation.…

  2. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  4. [A proposal for a nursing sciences curriculum in the general nurse 1st level degree in Italy].

    PubMed

    Ausili, Davide; Baccin, Giliola; Talamona, Adele; Sironi, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a proposal for a nursing curriculum in general, clinical and paediatric nursing sciences (this scientific area is named MED/45 in Italian legislation) at the first cycle of higher education for general nurses in Italy (level 6 according to the European Qualifications Framework). Future change in university syllabus, need to revise nursing curriculum starting from specific competences acquisition, lack of professional national nursing standards, and uncertain evolution of a scientific academic sector for nurses in Italy, led to this work. It consists in evaluation and revision of what has been implemented in a nursing pre-registration degree at University of Insubria. Key principles orienting nursing sciences educational activities revision of this degree course has been the following: centrality of the person in the curing process, choice of a conceptual nursing model to guide personalisation of care, development of therapeutic relationship skills, and adherence to professional principles and values. Aims, educational objectives, and educational activities planned to teach nursing discipline in the three year course, are presented in this paper. Nursing discipline has been articulated into four knowledge areas: general nursing, nursing methodology, clinical nursing (general and applied), advanced nursing practice. Evaluation of this curriculum, implemented since 2000 and modified in 2008, helped the students to acquire a clear professional identity. Further comments are added in the conclusion on matching educational objectives to didactic units, identification of four knowledge areas for nursing sciences, and choice to deal with advanced nursing practice during the third year of the degree course. PMID:19356324

  5. The Importance of History and Epistemology in the Designing of Earth Science Curriculum Materials for General Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David; Praia, Joáo; Marques, Luís

    2000-01-01

    The value and importance of writing, trialling and using curriculum materials which incorporate an epistemological and historical dimension are illustrated with reference to the teaching and learning of what is widely recognised as the most recent revolution in scientific knowledge. This relates to the percursor ideas of continental drift and sea floor spreading and finally to a modern understanding of the cyclical workings of the shells of the outer parts of the Earth. These latter processes have become incorporated into what is now known in academia and even the media as plate tectonic theory. The events and factors relating to the ways in which scientific knowledge was gained during the course of this revolution (1840-1975) and the degree to which it can be analysed in Khunian terms are outlined. The educational rationale for, and the desirability of, incorporating elements of this revolution and its epistemological origins into the Portuguese National Science Curriculum at ages 13-14 and 15-17 years, and the explanation of the ways in which this was carried out, are highlighted by reference to the four phases of a relatively novel curriculum model. Students', teachers' and teacher educators' evaluations of the effectiveness of these procedures are explained.

  6. Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Barnes, R.; Fox, N. J.; Fox, P. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Morrison, D.; Pallamraju, D.; Papitashvili, V.; Ridley, A.; Talaat, E. R.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose collective behavior determines the global system response. Continuing progress requires access to a vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualization. However, it also requires the development of new tools that bring these advances into contact with groups of interdisciplinary and international researchers so they can be used to attack grand challenge science issues in a manner not previously possible. This presentation describes the results of an eGY showcase project to develop a testbed online conference series for this purpose. The conference series is a collaborative effort between the CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS and NSF Atmospheric Sciences Programs. Lessons learned in developing this first interface, as well as a discussion of key elements and how they worked will be presented.

  7. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. 76 FR 3918 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Medical Sciences Council, January 27, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to January 28, 2011, 5 p.m., National Institutes of... published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2010, 75 FR 79386. The open session of the meeting, held on January 28, 2011, has been changed to begin at 8 a.m. The meeting is partially closed to...

  9. 78 FR 13364 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 19, 2013. Time: 8... Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access...

  10. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General

    PubMed Central

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests. PMID:24465151

  11. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  12. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This ninth grade student manual was developed to be used in conjunction with some of the experimental science activities described in the teacher's guide. It contains laboratory worksheets for: (1) measurement; (2) basic energy concepts; (3) heat energy; (4) light; (5) sound; (6) electricity; and (7) present and future energy resources. Additional…

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

  14. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  15. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Science and Technology Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection focus on science and technology libraries: (1) "Human Aspects of Electronically-Stored Information: The Library User" (A. J. Meadows, United Kingdom); (2) "Untersuchung Menschlicher Aspekte bei den Elektronisch Gespeicherten Informationen: Ansichten des Leiters eines Bibliothekskollektives = Human Aspects of…

  16. Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1295994802 Griguer, Corinne Pose

  17. Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296831143 Finn, Olivera Pose

  18. Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296761243 Hecht, Toby Pose a

  19. Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302545047 Lerman, Michael Pose

  20. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Betsy Blizard

    1994-01-01

    Presents a group of 21 innovative science activities from teachers nationwide designed to sharpen elementary students knowledge of science. The article is part of a package of 100 creative ideas for keeping elementary students enthused about learning in language arts, science, social studies, and math. (SM)

  1. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  2. Lost in the Translation: Writing about Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2002-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don't trust your sources (or your editors); waste people's time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don't expect anyone to understand you; don't expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid 'hardening of the categories'; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  3. Lost in the Translation: Writing About Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2009-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don’t trust your sources (or your editors); waste people’s time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don’t expect anyone to understand you; don’t expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid “hardening of the categories”; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  4. 78 FR 50427 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... 552b(c)(4) and 552b(c)(6), Title 5 U.S.C., as amended. The grant applications and the discussions could... Medical Sciences Council. Date: September 19-20, 2013. Closed: September 19, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m... 20892, (301) 594-4499, hagana@nigms.nih.gov . Any interested person may file written comments with...

  5. 76 FR 24499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions set forth in sections 552b(c)(4... Sciences Council. Date: May 19-20, 2011. Closed: May 19, 2011, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Activities, NIGMS, NIH, DHHS, 45 Center Drive, Room 2AN24H, MSC6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200, (301)...

  6. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  7. General Education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science College Courses Serve as a Vehicle for Improving Science Literacy in the United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, E.

    2011-10-01

    Every year approximately 500,000 undergraduate college students take a general education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science (EASS) course in the Unites States. For the majority of these students this will be their last physical science course in life. This population of students is incredibly important to the science literacy of the United States citizenry and to the success of the STEM career pipeline. These students represent future scientists, technologists, business leaders, politicians, journalists, historians, artists, and most importantly, policy makers, parents, voters, and teachers. A significant portion of these students are taught at minority serving institutions and community colleges and often are from underserved and underrepresented groups, such as women and minorities. Members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) at the University of Arizona have been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of instructional strategies and materials that are explicitly designed to challenge students' naïve ideas and intellectually engage their thinking at a deep level in the traditional lecture classroom. The results of this work show that dramatic improvement in student understanding can be made from increased use of interactive learning strategies. These improvements are shown to be independent of institution type or class size, but appear to be strongly influenced by the quality of the instructor's implementation. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies.

  8. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  9. Children's Questions and Science Teaching: An Alternative Approach. [and] Floating and Sinking: Some Teaching Suggestions. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 117 [February 1984 and November 1983 Versions].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Fred; Osborne, Roger

    Two booklets were developed by the Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--to help teachers adopt an approach to primary science teaching which would enhance children's understanding of floating and sinking. Both booklets were designed to enable teachers to reconceptualize their teaching task from activity-driven, didactic teaching to…

  10. Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W., Ed.

    This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

  11. The effect of inclusion classrooms on the science achievement of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Matthew Robert

    General education and Special Education students from three high schools in Rutherford County were sampled to determine the effect on their academic achievement on the Tennessee Biology I Gateway Exam in Inclusion classrooms. Each student's predicted and actual Gateway Exam scores from the academic year 2006--2007 were used to determine the effect the student's classroom had on his academic achievement. Independent variables used in the study were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, grade point average, type of classroom (general or Inclusion), and type student (General Education or Special Education). The statistical tests used in this study were a t-test and a Mann--Whitney U Test. From this study, the effect of the Inclusion classroom on general education students was not significant statistically. Although the Inclusion classroom allows the special education student to succeed in the classroom, the effect on general education students is negligible. This study also provided statistical data that the Inclusion classroom did not improve the special education students' academic performances on the Gateway Exam. Students in a general education classroom with a GPA above 3.000 and those from a household without a low socioeconomic status performed at a statistically different level in this study.

  12. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk, it turned out that the two types of questions performed very closely on all the three measures.

  13. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  14. Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 9: General Science. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

    This is the last pamphlet in a series of nine discussing the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for secondary and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method, references…

  15. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  16. Distributing Learning Over Time: The Spacing Effect in Children’s Acquisition and Generalization of Science Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time, rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5–7 year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on one of three schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. PMID:22616822

  17. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  18. From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-05-01

    A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012.The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) "On the threshold of a peta era"; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Scientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute"; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) "Major stages of the Soviet Atomic Project"; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "History of the Astronomy history ". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486-492 • Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493-502 • Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502-509 • History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509-530

  19. A Comparison of Preservice and In-Service Earth and Space Science Teachers' General Mental Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta; Rubba, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    This study compares inservice (n=30) and preservice (n=30) earth and space science teachers on general mental abilities, content knowledge, Gagnean levels of content knowledge, and procedural knowledge in solving earth and space science problems. Results support Norman's theory of learning that inservice teachers function at the tuning mode of…

  20. THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF INTERIM TESTING IN THE USE OF AN AUTO-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN AN AREA OF GENERAL SCIENCE FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHELL, WILLIAM B.; TRIPP, JOHN D.

    THE EFFECT OF INTERIM TESTING ON THE IMMEDIATE ACHIEVEMENT AND THE SUBSEQUENT RETENTION OF COLLEGE SCIENCE STUDENTS IS EXAMINED. EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM TWO INTACT GENERAL SCIENCE CLASSES FOR STUDENTS OF TEACHER EDUCATION. BOTH GROUPS WERE TAUGHT ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING THROUGH THE USE OF PROGRAMED…

  1. Answering Questions About Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.

    1977-01-01

    Lists suggestions for aiding teachers in answering student questions about sex, including hints for classroom discussions, questioning and answering techniques, and appropriate role for the teacher. Also lists resources (textbooks, filmstrips, pamphlets and reports) for answering questions about sex. (CS)

  2. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  3. The general social survey-national death index: an innovative new dataset for the social sciences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social epidemiology seeks in part to understand how social factors--ideas, beliefs, attitudes, actions, and social connections--influence health. However, national health datasets have not kept up with the evolving needs of this cutting-edge area in public health. Sociological datasets that do contain such information, in turn, provide limited health information. Findings Our team has prospectively linked three decades of General Social Survey data to mortality information through 2008 via the National Death Index. In this paper, we describe the sample, the core elements of the dataset, and analytical considerations. Conclusions The General Social Survey-National Death Index (GSS-NDI), to be released publicly in October 2011, will help shape the future of social epidemiology and other frontier areas of public health research. PMID:21978529

  4. A bottom-up, scientist-based initiative for the communication of climate sciences with the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter

    2015-04-01

    This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch

  5. The General Philosophy Behind the New Integrated and Co-ordinated Science Courses in N.S.W. and the Science Foundation for Physics Textbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messel, H.; Barker, E. N.

    Described are the science syllabuses and texts for the science courses written to fulfill the aims of the new system of education in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The science course was developed in two stages: (1) A four year integrated science syllabus for grades 7-10, and (2) separate courses in physics, chemistry, and biology with…

  6. High Score... for the Science Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airee, S. K.; Loebbaka, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a "High School Science Bowl" organized by the University of Tennessee at Martin Chapter of American Chemical Society Student Affiliates. The contest consists of two parts: a preliminary written test of 25 objective questions from biology, chemistry, general science and an afternoon session patterned after television's "College Bowl."…

  7. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  8. QUESTIONS IN CHINESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TSAO, WEN YEN

    THIS ARTICLE, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND CHINESE, IS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE PRESENTATION OF QUESTIONS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE. QUESTIONS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS--(1) PURE QUESTIONS, (2) RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, AND (3)…

  9. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  10. Planning a Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  11. Science Applications of the RULLI Camera: Photon Thrust, General Relativity and the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D.; Thompson, D.; Buck, S.; Des Georges, R.; Ho, C.; Remelius, D.; Shirey, B.; Gabriele, T.; Gamiz, V.; Ulibarri, L.; Hallada, M.; Szymanski, P.

    RULLI (Remote Ultra-Low Light Imager) is a unique single photon imager with very high (microsecond) time resolution and continuous sensitivity, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technology allows a family of astrophysical and satellite observations that were not feasible in the past. We will describe the results of the analysis of recent observations of the LAGEOS II satellite and the opportunities expected for future observations of the Crab nebula. The LAGEOS/LARES experiments have measured the dynamical General Relativistic effects of the rotation of the earth, the Lense-Thirring effect. The major error source is photon thrust and a required knowledge of the orientation of the spin axis of LAGEOS. This information is required for the analysis of the observations to date, and for future observations to obtain more accurate measurements of the Lense-Thirring effect, of deviations from the inverse square law, and of other General Relativistic effects. The rotation of LAGEOS I is already too slow for traditional measurement methods and Lageos II will soon suffer a similar fate. The RULLI camera can provide new information and an extension of the lifetime for these measurements. We will discuss the 2004 LANL observations of LAGEOS at Starfire Optical Range, the unique software processing methods that allow the high accuracy analysis of the data (the FROID algorithm) and the transformation that allows the use of such data to obtain the orientation of the spin axis of the satellite. We are also planning future observations, including of the nebula surrounding the Crab Pulsar. The rapidly rotating pulsar generates enormous magnetic fields, a synchrotron plasma and stellar winds moving at nearly the velocity of light. Since the useful observations to date rely only on observations of the beamed emission when it points toward the earth, most descriptions of the details of the processes have been largely theoretical. The RULLI camera's continuous sensitivity and high time resolution should enable better signal to noise ratios for observations that may reveal properties like the orientation of the rotational and magnetic axes of the pulsar, the temperature, composition and electrical state of the plasma and effects of the magnetic field.

  12. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PMID:24341924

  13. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  14. Reference Service Upgraded: Using Patrons' Reference Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Business Administration-Economics Library staff at the University of Texas at Austin evaluated 18,738 reference questions gathered over a three-year period. Steps were taken to reduce the directional and informational questions with the expectation of increasing the number of general reference questions. (Author)

  15. Literacy, science, and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVittie, Janet Elizabeth

    In examining the connections between literacy, science and science education, I laid out a number of questions. For example, what sorts of literate tools might facilitate writing to learn, and do children who are just becoming literate use these tools? I then examined the writing of children in science class in an attempt to determine if their writing can indeed facilitate their learning. The results of this research could help teachers make decisions about the use of writing in the learning of science. The kinds of literate tools I identified as being potentially helpful were transitionals---those words or grammatical devices which demonstrate how ideas are connected. Also, I suggested that data tables, sentences and paragraphs were also useful for students to learn. I found that grade 5/6 students used a wide range of literate tools, but that they were much more competent with those tools which were both oral and literate than those which could only be used for writing (punctuation, sentences, paragraphs, and data tables). When I attempted to determine if the children used their writing to learn, I found very little evidence that this was certainly so. However, there was some evidence that paragraphs had the potential to create a "dialogue" between student writing and thinking, so the students could make more explicit connections between science ideas. Lastly, I noticed certain gender difference in the classroom. Because of this, I contrasted the writing of the girls with the writing of the boys. I learned the girls were generally much more capable writers than the boys. More interesting, however, was that the girls generally attempted to explain their science concepts in different ways than did the boys. The girls were more likely to rely on their own reasoning, whereas the boys were more likely to persist in using culturally created science explanations. The research findings have important implications for analyzing students' learning and for finding ways to facilitate learning for both girls and boys.

  16. Windows to the Universe: an Internet Resource Bringing the Earth and Space Sciences to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Alexander, C. J.; Burek, M.; Kozyra, J.; Lenhart, E.; Linker, J.; Mastie, D.; Ceritelli, M.; Thoenes, H.; Orselli, P.; Weymouth, T.

    1997-07-01

    Windows to the Universe is a World Wide Web site that presents information about the Earth and Space sciences as well as related historical and cultural topics to the general public in an attractive and user-friendly way. The site makes extensive use of graphically annotated button panels to allow intuitive navigation through the site. The site is graphics intensive, providing access to a rich archive of images, movies, animations and data collected by satellites, spacecraft, and ground-based instruments. Intended primarily as an innovative information resource for museums, libraries, and classrooms, content within Windows to the Universe is developed to complement K-12 science education needs. Content is available at three levels of sophistication, approximating the elementary, middle, and high school levels, and resources are available on-line for teachers including standards-based keyword search capabilities and classroom activities. Supplementary CD-ROMs are available for Mac and Windows-95 platforms that allow rapid access to images on the site, rather than requiring the user to download images over the Internet. This award-winning site is funded by the NASA Public Use of Remote Sensing Data Bases Program.

  17. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  18. Assessing students' learning outcomes, self-efficacy and attitudes toward the integration of virtual science laboratory in general physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatty, Sundara L.

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in online delivery of higher education in the United States. Recent developments in web technology and access to the internet have led to a vast increase in online courses. For people who work during the day and whose complicated lives prevent them from taking courses on campus, online courses are the only alternatives by which they may achieve their goals in education. The laboratory courses are the major requirements for college and university students who want to pursue degree and certification programs in science. It is noted that there is a lack of laboratory courses in online physics courses. The present study addressed the effectiveness of a virtual science laboratory in physics instruction in terms of learning outcomes, attitudes, and self-efficacy of students in a Historically Black University College. The study included fifty-eight students (36 male and 22 female) of different science majors who were enrolled in a general physics laboratory course. They were divided into virtual and traditional groups. Three experiments were selected from the syllabus. The traditional group performed one experiment in a traditional laboratory, while the virtual group performed the same experiment in a virtual laboratory. For the second experiment, the use of laboratories by both groups was exchanged. Learner's Assessment Test (LAT), Attitudes Toward Physics Laboratories (ATPL), and Self-Efficacy Survey (SES) instruments were used. Additionally, quantitative methods such as an independent t-test, a paired t-test, and correlation statistics were used to analyze the data. The results of the first experiment indicated the learning outcomes were higher in the Virtual Laboratory than in the traditional laboratory, whereas there was no significant difference in learning outcomes with either type of lab instruction. However, significant self-efficacy gains were observed. Students expressed positive attitudes in terms of liking as well as interests in performing experiments in virtual laboratories. No gender differences were observed in learning outcomes or self-efficacy. The results of the study indicated that virtual laboratories may be a substitute for traditional laboratories to some extent, and may play a vital role in online science courses.

  19. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  20. Questions about Montessori Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    In three parts, this symposium presentation to the American Montessori Society: (1) comments generally on current perceptions of Montessori education; (2) poses questions about practices in Montessori classrooms that challenge Montessori educators' core beliefs about Montessori education; and (3) discusses the cutting edges of contemporary…

  1. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know ...

  2. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  4. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  5. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  6. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  7. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  8. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  9. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  10. An interpretive study of students' use of scientific reasoning during a collaborative report writing intervention in ninth grade general science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Carolyn W.

    Laboratory report writing should promote learners' ability to reason scientifically from data to conclusions, especially if opportunities for collaborative discussion are provided, yet few studies have examined the use of writing as a tool for the development of scientific reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate scientific reasoning skills used by students in a naturalistic collaborative writing context and changes in students' reasoning discourse over time. During the fall and winter of 1992-1993, three ninth grade general science classes taught by one teacher participated in a collaborative writing intervention. The students wrote ten collaborative laboratory reports over the course of the intervention. Report guidelines were designed by the teacher and the researcher to assist students with their writing. An interpretive research design was used to study the conversations of three target student pairs in depth. Eleven distinct, yet integrated scientific reasoning skills used to support report composition emerged from the data. The emergent scientific reasoning skills reflected the socially constructed nature of reasoning for collaborative writing. Patterns in the data revealed that all target students used reasoning skills in similar ways to: (a) assess prior models of scientific phenomena; (b) generate new models for scientific phenomena; (c) extend models to new situations; and (d) support other forms of reasoning. One of the target pairs improved their reasoning discourse over time by discussing conceptual meanings more fully and bringing specific information into their conversations. The other two target pairs did not change their reasoning discourse systematically throughout the intervention. The findings of this study suggest that an understanding of socially constructed scientific reasoning skills is important for designing meaningful collaborative activities and assessments in science.

  11. Adolescents' questions about sex.

    PubMed

    Davis, S M; Harris, M B

    1983-12-01

    Male and female Anglo, Hispanic and Native American adolescents from urban and rural areas were given a chance to ask anonymous questions about sex. These questions were then used as the bases for subsequent presentations on sex education. The most popular categories of questions were reproduction, sexuality, and contraception, followed by anatomy, venereal disease, pregnancy, abortion, vocabulary, hygiene, and other diseases. Younger adolescents asked significantly more questions in most categories than older ones. Girls asked significantly more total questions and ones concerning pregnancy, contraception, and anatomy than boys. Students attending rural schools asked more questions about venereal disease than those in urban schools, but no other main effects of urban-rural location were found. There were no ethnic differences found. The adolescents' questions ranged from sophisticated to poignantly ignorant, suggesting that the strategy of adapting sex education sessions to fit the concerns of the specific adolescents involved might be valuable. PMID:6643199

  12. Questions and Questioning: Working with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro, Chris; McFall, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who work with early-years children often ask how young children can be encouraged to think about the events, living things, or objects they are investigating and how they can be encouraged to ask appropriate scientific questions. The authors felt that they needed to examine their own practice and that of other teachers in respect to…

  13. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  14. Rules of the Game: Effects of a Game-based Metaphor on Instructional Activity Design and the Use of Student Mentors on Learning Outcomes in a Middle School General Science Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Angie

    This study investigated the effects of a game-like environment on instructional activity design and the use of student mentors on learning outcomes in a middle school general science class. The participants for this study were 165 students, ages 13-14 years old, who were enrolled in 8th grade at a mid-Atlantic middle school. Two research questions were used to conduct the research: 1. Can science content be designed and successfully delivered instructionally using a game-like learning environment? 2. Does the use of student mentors/assistants help direct and maintain the flow of the class away from the technological issues toward the necessary learning outcomes while also increasing the science content understanding acquired by the mentors while also increasing class and student engagement? For this study an introductory biology unit was designed using a game-like curricular structure. Student mentors were utilized in order to aid focus on the content and not the technology. The results indicated that the instructional design of the unit using a game-like environment was successful and students exhibited learning. The mentor students were instrumental in steering their fellow students away from the “Siren’s Call” of the instrument (in this case StarLogo) and enabled increased focus on the content. Keywords: Trivial games, Serious Games, Epistemic Games, Student Mentors, StarLogo, Elaboration Theory.

  15. Questioning the psychoanalyst's authority.

    PubMed

    Tuch, R H

    2001-01-01

    Sources of the trend to question not just the analyst's authority to interpret, but the analyst's use of authority in general, are explored. Out of a wish to circumvent the potentially detrimental effects an analyst's interpretations can have on patients, certain psychoanalysts have modified their analytic techniques with an eye to downplaying the role of their authority. When taken to extremes, this has led analysts to act as if they have little to offer patients in the way of an alternative point of view, and to privilege patients' accounts and interpretations by treating them as if they were objectively true. It is argued that one need not go so far in order to protect patients from the analyst's less than careful use of authority. It is argued further that the judicious use of authority remains an indispensable tool in helping to ready the patient's mind for a consideration of constructs different from those on which the patient has always relied. Finally, becoming comfortable with the aggressive aspect of the use of one's authority may determine the extent to which one is willing to employ one's authority with patients. PMID:11508374

  16. Science Olympiad students' nature of science understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpot, Cindy J.

    2007-12-01

    Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in Science Olympiad did not translate into informed understandings of NOS. There were implications that labs with a set procedure and given data tables did not contribute to informed NOS understandings, while explicit instruction may have contributed to more informed understandings. Exploring these high achieving, Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS was a crucial step to understanding what experiences formed these students' understandings so that teachers may better their practices and help more students succeed in becoming scientifically literate citizens.

  17. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  18. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  19. Five questions to ask about the soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the lecturer to talk mostly about the soil issues that are of main interest to the audience. Every soil science course should involve laboratory and field classes as much as possible. Hands on experience has always been of outmost importance and one hour in the lab or in the field can substitute 3-5 hours of lecturing measuring the absorbed information by students. So, to conclude, if one knows that something is alive, what it is made off, how old it is, what will happen to it during natural processes and also during imposed processes one would develop some respect for it and would be interested in its various characteristics and also, probably, how to save it from degradation. If that is all done while having a chance to touch it, and see it in its natural condition, the result would be even more insightful.

  20. Mix One-Part Astronomy Education Research with One-Part General Education Astronomy Course and You Get a Very Potent Science Literacy Transformation Cocktail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.

    2012-05-01

    Are you doing the job that our society needs you to do? Are you successful at it? How do you know? Over the past decade we have worked closely with hundreds of college instructors, postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads in collaborative research projects designed to help us understand fundamental issues of teaching and learning in college-level general education astronomy and space science courses. The results from these multi-institutional research collaborations have been used to transform classrooms all over the country. We are creating learning environments that significantly improve the science literacies and engagements in STEM of the hundreds of thousands of students taking these courses each year. By moving students along the continuum from non-science majors, to peer instructors, to researchers and curriculum developers, to STEM and STEM education degree seeking students, we are creating the next generation’s “Ambassadors of Science

  1. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Use of Mind Mapping as a Visual-Learning Strategy in General Education Science Classes for Arabic Speakers in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenesha; Copeland-Solas, Eddia; Guthrie-Dixon, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mind mapping was introduced as a culturally relevant pedagogy aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning experience in a general education, Environmental Science class for mostly Emirati English Language Learners (ELL). Anecdotal evidence suggests that the students are very artistic and visual and enjoy group-based activities. It was decided to…

  3. Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

  4. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  5. Social Work and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  6. Any Questions? Want to Stimulate Student Curiosity? Let Them Ask Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…

  7. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  8. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  9. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  10. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  11. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  12. Questions in Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

    This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

  13. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  14. Difficult questions of relativity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chernikov, N.A.

    1987-09-01

    The following concepts are discussed: covariance, invariance, the general, special, and kinematic principles of relativity, coordinate systems and frames of reference, and the energy--momentum tensor of the gravitational field. The relationships between the three canonical theories of gravitation are considered. The theory of the affine connection as applied to these questions is presented. Attention is drawn to inconsistency in terminology and the need for an explanatory dictionary for gravitational specialists. A contribution to the compilation of such a dictionary is made.

  15. Parallel Evolution in Science: The Historical Roots and Central Concepts of General Systems Theory; and "General Systems Theory,""Modern Organizational Theory," and Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don

    The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…

  16. Teaching science through literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that a multidisciplinary, activity rich science curriculum based around science fiction literature, rather than a conventional text book would increase student engagement with the curriculum and improve student performance on standards-based test instruments. Science fiction literature was chosen upon the basis of previous educational research which indicated that science fiction literature was able to stimulate and maintain interest in science. The study was conducted on a middle school campus during the regular summer school session. Students were self-selected from the school's 6 th, 7th, and 8th grade populations. The students used the science fiction novel Maurice on the Moon as their only text. Lessons and activities closely followed the adventures of the characters in the book. The student's initial level of knowledge in Earth and space science was assessed by a pre test. After the four week program was concluded, the students took a post test made up of an identical set of questions. The test included 40 standards-based questions that were based upon concepts covered in the text of the novel and in the classroom lessons and activities. The test also included 10 general knowledge questions that were based upon Earth and space science standards that were not covered in the novel or the classroom lessons or activities. Student performance on the standards-based question set increased an average of 35% for all students in the study group. Every subgroup disaggregated by gender and ethnicity improved from 28-47%. There was no statistically significant change in the performance on the general knowledge question set for any subgroup. Student engagement with the material was assessed by three independent methods, including student self-reports, percentage of classroom work completed, and academic evaluation of student work by the instructor. These assessments of student engagement were correlated with changes in student performance on the standards-based assessment tests. A moderate correlation was found to exist between the level of student engagement with the material and improvement in performance from pre to post test.

  17. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Improving Survival Medical Bibliography Data Reports Related Links Sepsis Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... organ failure, and death. When can you get sepsis? Sepsis can occur to anyone, at any time, ...

  18. Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  20. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...

  1. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  2. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria Salmonella , describes how the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. ...

  3. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria " ... at a number of different points in the food production and marketing chain. On the farm: Good sanitary practices on farms, ...

  4. Choice in Question Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singha, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the position concerning the giving of options in choosing questions on examination papers, and provokes thinking on the curricular and measurement problems associated with it. (Author/PG)

  5. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

  6. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

  7. Redefining the Fundamental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Margaret Ann

    2006-01-01

    Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

  8. Enhancers: five essential questions

    PubMed Central

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Bickmore, Wendy; Dean, Ann; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the human genome contains hundreds of thousands of enhancers, so understanding these gene-regulatory elements is a crucial goal. Several fundamental questions need to be addressed about enhancers, such as how do we identify them all, how do they work, and how do they contribute to disease and evolution? Five prominent researchers in this field look at how much we know already and what needs to be done to answer these questions. PMID:23503198

  9. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  10. Cooperation and Control in Teaching: The Evidence of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Angela B.

    A discussion of classroom communication looks at the function of questions, particularly teacher-initiated pedagogical questions but also other classroom questions, either teacher- or student-initiated. Two fourth grade science lessons, conducted in Brazil by different teachers, are analyzed. Analysis focuses on the relative effects of the…

  11. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  12. 18 CFR 385.714 - Certified questions (Rule 714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified questions... Certified questions (Rule 714). (a) General rule. During any proceeding, a presiding officer may certify or... question arising in the proceeding, including any question of law, policy, or procedure. (b) Notice....

  13. An analysis of the agreement between general and special education teachers' perceptions of science content that is critical for mastery by elementary students with mild disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, Robin Durant

    This quantitative study explored the agreement between general and special education teacher' perceptions of science content at the third and fifth grade levels. Teacher partners were asked to evaluate a chapter of text and determine discrete items that they felt were necessary for students with mild disabilities to learn. Experts in science curriculum and in state and national standards were also asked to evaluate the text. Analyses were then conducted to determine the level of agreement between general and special education teachers as well as the accuracy level of those teachers when compared to the content and standards area experts. The results of the analyses indicated a moderate level of agreement between teachers at both the third and fifth grade level. The accuracy of the teachers' choices, when compared to the experts was lower than hoped, indicating a need for improved training for both pre-service and in-service teachers.

  14. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  15. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  16. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  17. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  18. Latinos in Science: Trends and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochin, Refugio I.; Mello, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    In U.S. coverage of leadership in science and engineering (S&E), Latinos are generally dismissed from consideration. The pipeline metaphor tends to ignore advances made by Latinos in completing doctoral degrees in S&E. New data suggest a better metaphor, the pyramid of higher education, for understanding the progress of Latinos in S&E. Questions…

  19. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  20. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…