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1

Science Sampler: Thinking about students' questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

Turner, Jaclyn

2006-11-01

2

Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

Goodwin, Alan

2003-01-01

3

Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

2010-01-01

4

Science in General Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

Read, Andrew F.

2013-01-01

5

The Future of General Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that the future of general science education represents a crossroads for competing views not only of educational objectives but also of the trends for the role of science in society. Focuses on the question of whether general science education has a common identifiable ideal conducive to the future of a global scientific culture. (JJK)

Gago, Jose Mariano

1991-01-01

6

Science's Big Questions / Deep Impact Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast addresses two issues. The first segment consists of discussion and interviews with researchers about what they believe to be the biggest remaining unanswered questions in science. In the second segment, a project scientist with NASA's Deep Impact mission talks about what researchers have learned about Comet Tempel-1 in the few days after the probe's collision with it.

7

Research in Science Education: New Questions, New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented is a compilation of papers focusing on new questions and new directions for research in science education. Papers are grouped into one of three related fields of research: (1) analysis of curriculum materials, especially science textbooks; (2) investigations of science understandings of students and experts; and (3) investigations of the contextual factors of science classrooms. A general introduction precedes each of these three sections and summarizes and compares papers. Individual papers describe a particular problem related to one of the general areas, the theoretical base underlying the research and how the problem is being investigated, and selected research findings. Topics include: (1) textbook assessment; (2) analysis of science textbooks; (3) structure, strategies, and comprehension in learning; (4) concept of change in scientific reasoning; (5) understanding and problem-solving in physics; (6) implications of classroom research for science and math instruction; (7) mathematics classroom inquiry; and (8) the case for the participant/observer in mathematics classrooms.

Robinson, James T.

2006-10-09

8

Science Fiction and the Big Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advocates of space science promote investment in science education and the development of new technologies necessary for space travel. Success in these areas requires an increase of interest and support among the general public. What role can entertainment media play in inspiring the public ­ especially young people ­ to support the development of space science? Such inspiration is badly needed. Science education and funding in the United States are in a state of crisis. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. This paper draws on interviews with professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, as well as students interested in those fields. The interviewees were asked about their lifelong media-viewing habits. Analysis of these interviews, along with examples from popular culture, suggests that science fiction can be a valuable tool for space advocates. Specifically, the aspects of character, story, and special effects can provide viewers with inspiration and a sense of wonder regarding space science and the prospect of long-term human space exploration.

O'Keefe, M.

9

Asking the Right Questions: Atmospheric Sciences Research and Societal Needs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, those who conduct federally funded research in the United States have been asked by their patrons, the public and their elected representatives, to demonstrate more efficacy with respect to societal needs. Although there is a long record of efforts to improve connections of research with societal needs, a problem exists in that in recent decades the production of scientific knowledge seems to have outrun its effective use by society. Current debate asks questions such as the following: In what different ways has society understood the connections of research with societal needs? What are the implications of such understandings for the structure and conduct of atmospheric sciences research? How can society (and especially sponsors of science) accurately and meaningfully assess the contributions of the atmospheric sciences to societal needs? This paper seeks to shed light on dimensions of these questions through discussion of the relationship of atmospheric sciences research with societal problems. Because the atmospheric sciences have an extended record of experience in connecting research with practical problems, the lessons of that experience have significance for current efforts to improve the relation of the atmospheric sciences with society's needs. In addition, these lessons have broader relevance for more general understandings of the evolving relationship of science and society.

Pielke, Roger A., Jr.

1997-02-01

10

Science education: A meta-analysis of major questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-institutional endeavor was initiated to integrate the findings of extant research studies directed toward the major science education research questions. The research questions were selected by a largely empirical process of identifiying the most frequently researched questions in the literature. These questions were assigned to various researchers who developed coding sheets and procedures with many features in common. This

Ronald D. Anderson; Stuart R. Kahl; Gene V. Glass; Mary Lee Smith

1983-01-01

11

Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation.

Meghan Groome

2007-01-01

12

Are We Asking the Right Questions in Science and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we focus on the importance of asking effective questions in both management and the science that serves the management process. Part of this process involves making a clear distinction between management questions and scientific (or researc...

C. W. Fowler L. Hobbs

2009-01-01

13

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental en Español (Spanish) Síntomas y tratamiento en Español (Spanish) Prevención y ...

14

Questioning ‘Open questioning’ in early years science discourse from a social semiotic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes the background of the children. In this paper we develop this

Diane Harris; Julian Williams

2007-01-01

15

Setting Generalization of Question-Asking by Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporated motivational procedures to teach question-asking to three children (ages three and five). All children learned to use questions in relation to items they had previously been unable to label and demonstrated generalization of spontaneous question-asking to new items and to their home environments with their mothers, with concomitant…

Koegel, Lynn Kern; Camarata, Stephen M.; Valdez-Menchaca, Marta; Koegel, Robert L.

1998-01-01

16

Question Stems and Stories to Stimulate Science!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fox Hill Primary School is part of a family of schools in Sheffield that is piloting the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust Primary Specialism for Science. In parallel to this work, Fox Hill participated in the Smarter Schools project from September 2008-2009. This project, funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust, was set up by the…

Smith, Suzanne

2010-01-01

17

Improving Teacher Questioning in Science Inquiry Discussions through Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores questioning practices adopted by elementary teachers while facilitating science inquiry discussions prior and subsequent to their participation in a summer institute in which they were provided with scholarly descriptions of inquiry-based teacher questioning (i.e., typologies of questions used by discourse analysts to…

Oliveira, Alandeom W.

2010-01-01

18

Using "What If.." Questions to Teach Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widening knowledge base students will need to be more flexible in their learning habits. Traditionally, teaching school science often involves teacher-centred methods like lectures, experimental demonstration or guided inquiry. Plain knowledge dissemination will not adequately prepare students to cope with the changing world. Hence,…

Tan, Kok Siang

2007-01-01

19

Science question level and its relationship to seventh graders' interest and achievement in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science question level and its relationship to science topic interest level and achievement in reading, mathematics, and science\\u000a were explored for eight classes of seventh graders (n=106). Each student completed a science topic interest rating scale,\\u000a wrote four science questions (two on least interesting topics, and two on most interesting topics), and completed scholastic\\u000a aptitude tests. The questions were rated

Santine Cuccio-Schirripa

1999-01-01

20

In Praise of Questions: Elevating the Role of Questions for Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If scientific inquiry is to be part of the focus in secondary school science, teachers must develop learning situations in which question posing is essential and they must help students learn how to pose scientifically oriented questions. In focusing on questions, teachers and students both play an important role the classroom. Teachers provide rich inquiry-based opportunities for students, while students engage in exploring the phenomena they encounter in class.

Milne, Catherine

2008-01-01

21

Science questions for the Magellan continuing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magellan has completed two mapping cycles around the planet Venus, returning high resolution synthetic aperture images and altimetry data of over 95 percent of the planet's surface. Venus is dominated by low lying volcanic plains with an impact crater population indicating an average surface age of about 500 million years. Highland regions either tend to be characterized by volcanic shield complexes and rifting or by complex ridged terrain. Successful as the primary mission of Magellan has been, significant scientific questions remain to be addressed with imaging and gravity data that will be collected over the next several years.

Saunders, R. S.; Stofan, E. R.

1992-01-01

22

Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

23

The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all\\u000a levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook,\\u000a lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that\\u000a allow learners to immediately appreciate

David Lustick

2010-01-01

24

Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

Reinsvold, Lori Ann

25

Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of power to the engagement of student with subject matter. Two classroom sessions were observed and teacher-student interactions audio recorded. Data were transcribed and a method was developed for analyzing teacher-student interactions, power dynamics, and types of questions asked. Results revealed that teacher talk was twice as frequent as students' talk; questions were primarily closed-ended and task-oriented; and students asked few questions. The teacher exercised power by keeping activities organized and conventional, and utilizing subject matter. The developed methods showed us the complexity of question and power dynamics in classroom discourse and have implications for professional development and research.

Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

2012-11-01

26

Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

Grinnell, Max

2009-02-20

27

Cosmic Questions: Engaging science museum audiences with current astronomical research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Cosmic Questions: Our Place in Space and Time" is a major new traveling exhibition and education project that will enable millions of Americans to learn how recent discoveries have shed light on-and raised new questions about-our place in the cosmos. Created by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory with funding from the National Science Foundation and from NASA's Office of Space Science, the highly interactive exhibition opened at Boston's Museum of Science this past fall. In February 2003 it began its 3-year national tour under the management of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Staff from the Museum of Science, in partnership with the CfA, developed a comprehensive set of educational programs, activities and events for museum staff, for teachers and students, and for public audiences. Both the exhibition and accompanying programs involve audiences in learning about the tools, techniques, and research that have allowed us to find some amazing answers to such enduring questions as: What is our place in the universe? Was there a beginning to time? How do we fit in? Evaluation data- including extensive observations, exit interviews, and follow-up phone surveys- suggest that a large majority of visitors could describe new learning and articulate new questions they had as a result of experiencing Cosmic Questions exhibits and programs. Indeed, the evaluation report states that "those interviewed often volunteered an unusual amount of reflective comments compared to visitors at other exhibits." This presentation will highlight how the content, approach, design, development and implementation of this project were (and continue to be) shaped by the significant involvement and contributions of astronomers, observatories and space science education and public outreach programs.

Dussault, M.; Gould, R.; Sneider, C.; Cohen, S.

2003-05-01

28

The question of PC in medicine, science, and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question whether political correctness in the medical, mental health, and scientific professions is good for the physical and mental health of the society as a whole is a serious one. It posits the underlying assumption that there could be something harmful to society's welfare in the position of establishment science and medicine. It additionally recognizes that treatment health practitioners

Daniel W. Miller

1996-01-01

29

Planetary Science Questions for the Manned Exploration of MARS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major goal of a manned Mars mission is to explore the planet and to investigate scientific questions for which the intensive study of Mars is essential. The systematic exploration of planets was outlined by the National Academy of Science. The nearest a...

D. P. Blanchard

1986-01-01

30

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

2012-01-01

31

Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise that Generates Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exercise that engages students in asking their own questions is provided and a description on the way in which it was applied in a large introductory chemistry-class is presented. Suggestions are offered to instructors regarding the way the exercise needs to be used, including several variations applicable to different topics in general

Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Nickel, Anne-Marie

2005-01-01

32

Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

2006-11-01

33

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students’ Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students’ interest in science by using their self-generated\\u000a questions. We investigated students’ interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among\\u000a them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample\\u000a may represent a group of students who have a

Gultekin Cakmakci; Hatice Sevindik; Meryem Pektas; Asli Uysal; Fatma Kole; Gamze Kavak

2011-01-01

34

The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of

Mijung Kim

2006-01-01

35

A comparative study of six decades of general science textbooks: Evaluating the evolution of science content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the science content expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which areas and in what way does the science content change? (3) Are new scientific findings reflected in 8th and 9th grade U.S. general science textbooks? Twenty-six themes were identified which reflect five areas in science: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology, and Process of Science. Trends in science content in U.S. 8th and 9th grade general science textbooks, as revealed by this data sample, indicated no statistically significant change in depth of coverage in Physics and Process of Science over the past 60 years, no significant change in depth of coverage in Earth Science and Biology in the last 40 years, and no significant change in coverage in Chemistry over the last 30 years. Additionally, a total of sixteen new discoveries were found in the textbook sample. For classroom teachers this information may alert them to the necessity of going beyond the textbook in preparing students for life in a global society. In educational practice, this research supports and reinforces the need for inquiry learning and socioscientific curricula. It may also influence educators to challenge assumptions regarding the value and selection of the traditional classic science content.

Lewis, Anna

36

Planetary science questions for the manned exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major goal of a manned Mars mission is to explore the planet and to investigate scientific questions for which the intensive study of Mars is essential. The systematic exploration of planets was outlined by the National Academy of Science. The nearest analogy to the manned Mars mission is the Apollo program and manned missions to the Moon, but the analogy is limited. The case is argued here that Mars may have to be explored far more systematically than was the pre-Apollo Moon to provide the detailed information necessary if plans are made to use any of the resources available on Mars. Viking missions provided a wealth of information, yet there are great gaps in the fundamental knowledge of essential facts such as the properties of the Martian surface materials and their interaction with the atmosphere. Building on a strong data base of precursor missions, human exploration will allow great leaps in understanding the Martian environment and geologic history and its evolutionary role in the solar system.

Blanchard, Douglas P.

1986-01-01

37

New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell removed, pressure began to build in the compressed rocky kernel of Earth and eventually the rigid crust began to crack. The major energy source for planetary decompression and for heat emplacement at the base of the crust is the stored energy of protoplanetary compression. In response to decompression-driven volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and fold-mountain ranges form to accommodate changes in curvature. One of the most profound mysteries of modern planetary science is this: As the terrestrial planets are more-or-less of common chondritic composition, how does one account for the marked differences in their surface dynamics? Differences among the inner planets are principally due to the degree of compression experienced. Planetocentric georeactor nuclear fission, responsible for magnetic field generation and concomitant heat production, is applicable to compressed and non-compressed planets and large moons. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated based upon an analogy with the deep-Earth mass ratio relationships. The origin and implication of Mercurian hydrogen geysers is described. Besides Earth, only Venus appears to have sustained protoplanetary compression; the degree of which might eventually be estimated from understanding Venetian surface geology. A basis is provided for understanding that Mars essentially lacks a 'geothermal gradient' which implies potentially greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than previously expected. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

Marvin Herndon, J.

2014-05-01

38

Student-generated questions: a meaningful aspect of learning in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to (a) identify the types of questions that students ask during science learning, (b) explicate the role of students' questions in the knowledge construction process, particularly in educational discourse, (c) investigate the relationship between students' questions and approaches to learning and (d) discuss some emergent issues related to student questioning. Six Grade 8 students were observed

Christine Chin; David E. Brown

2002-01-01

39

Question: Do Standardized Tests Measure General Cognitive Skills? Answer: No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Stanford and CTBS achievement batteries were analyzed, two major findings emerged: (1) the test items included only nine of the 22 general cognitive operations; and (2) the required general cognitive operations had little to do with student achievement on these tests. Implications and alternative assessment techniques are discussed.…

Marzano, Robert J.; Costa, Arthur L.

1988-01-01

40

Culture Wars in the Classroom: Prospective Teachers Question Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whether studying about the nature(s) of science contribute to a prospective teachers' effectiveness as a teacher. Argues that a course studying the cultural wars over science contributes to prospective teachers' professional growth because it elicits tacit beliefs about school science as it introduces more complex understanding.…

Sullenger, Karen; Turner, Steve; Caplan, Hart; Crummey, Joe; Cuming, Rick; Charron, Cynthia; Corey, Beth

2000-01-01

41

Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children.  

PubMed Central

We conducted an investigation to evaluate the effects of a training strategy for teaching autistic students generalized responses to three forms of wh--questions (what, how, and why). Students were taught, using modeling and reinforcement procedures, to answer questions with magazine pictures as the referents. Each question form was divided into two or more subcomponents reflective of common social usage and was taught within the context of a modified multiple probe design across subcomponents. Following acquisition of each subcomponent, generalization to natural context and storybook questions was assessed; additional probes were conducted to assess responding over time and whether acquisition of responses to questions promoted question-asking skills. Results showed that the picture training procedure was effective in teaching a generalized response to questions for which the relevant cue was visible, whereas specific generalization programming was required for situations in which the relevant cue was not visible. All acquired responses were durable over time.

Secan, K E; Egel, A L; Tilley, C S

1989-01-01

42

Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

1993-01-01

43

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science curriculum reform and teaching are discussed in this paper.

Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

2012-06-01

44

Questions, Claims, and Evidence: The Important Place of Argument in Children's Science Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions, Claims, and Evidence presents a new approach to science teaching that engages students fully by linking literacy and inquiry. Step by step, Questions, Claims, and Evidence immerses students in scientific inquiry and writing. It transforms experiments from following directions and making notes into chances to pose and answer questions that interest students. But Questions, Claims, and Evidence doesn't only support student learning. It improves your science teaching by: � broadening your professional knowledge with the latest research and theory � providing self-evaluation tools for monitoring your performance � answering frequently asked questions about the Questions, Claims, and Evidence approach. Try something new that will motivate your students and improve their writing abilities. Read Questions, Claims, and Evidence , and don't be surprised if your students agree with this fifth grader's sentiment: "I love the way that we do science now because I learn more and I get to do more. I actually feel like I am smart."

2008-04-01

45

General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation Outreach Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy for all students is a national goal. The General Atomics (GA) Foundation Outreach Program is committed to playing a major role in enhancing pre-college education in science, engineering and new technologies. GA has received wide recognition for its Sciences Education Program, a volunteer effort of GA employees and San Diego science teachers. GA teacher/scientist teams have developed inquiry-based education modules and associated workshops based on areas of core competency at GA: Fusion -- Energy of the Stars; Explorations in Materials Science; Portrait of an Atom; DNA Technology. [http://www.sci-ed-ga.org]. Workshops [teachers receive printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on" modules] have been presented for 700+ teachers from 200+ area schools. Additional workshops include: University of Denver for Denver Public Schools; National Educators Workshop; Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials; Update '96 in Los Alamos; Newspapers in Education Workshop (LA Times); American Chemical Society Regional/National meetings, and California Science Teachers Association Conference. Other outreach includes High School Science Day, school partnerships, teacher and student mentoring and the San Diego Science Alliance [http://www.sdsa.org].

Winter, Patricia S.

1997-11-01

46

Questions about STDP as a General Model of Synaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

According to spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), the timing of the Na+ spike relative to the EPSP determines whether LTP or LTD will occur. Here, we review our reservations about STDP. Most investigations of this process have been done under conditions in which the spike is evoked by postsynaptic current injection. Under more realistic conditions, in which the spike is evoked by the EPSP, the results do not generally support STDP. For instance, low-frequency stimulation of a group of synapses can cause LTD, not the LTP predicted by the pre-before-post sequence in STDP; this is true regardless of whether or not the EPSP is large enough to produce a Na+ spike. With stronger or more frequent stimulation, LTP can be induced by the same pre-before-post timing, but in this case block of Na+ spikes does not necessarily prevent LTP induction. Thus, Na+ spikes may facilitate LTP and/or LTD under some conditions, but they are not necessary, a finding consistent with their small size relative to the EPSP in many parts of pyramidal cell dendrites. The nature of the dendritic depolarizing events that control bidirectional plasticity is of central importance to understanding neural function. There are several candidates, including backpropagating action potentials, but also dendritic Ca2+ spikes, the AMPA receptor-mediated EPSP, and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSPs or spikes. These often appear to be more important than the Na+ spike in providing the depolarization necessary for plasticity. We thus feel that it is premature to accept STDP-like processes as the major determinant of LTP/LTD.

Lisman, John; Spruston, Nelson

2010-01-01

47

Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

2013-01-01

48

Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the

Anne Burgess Davidson

1999-01-01

49

Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

Muller, Ruth

2012-01-01

50

Using Teacher Questions to Look at Science Consultant Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a coding form to classify the type of teacher concerns expressed to consultants assisting in the implementation of a science program. Shows that the utilization of consultants differs depending on the emphasis on in-class consulting. (AL)

Mahan, J. M.

1972-01-01

51

Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of biological issues which can be addressed during long-term space missions is briefly discussed. These issues include structure, from cell to organ to organism; function, the regulation of systems such as immunology, neural sciences, and behavior; and reproduction and development.

Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

1992-01-01

52

Science Questions for the Post-SIRTF and Herschel Era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents include the following: 1. SIRTF. Long wavelength surveys planned for SIRTF. Galaxy Discovery Rates for Future Missions. Impact of SIRTF s Improved Resolution at 160um: Resolving the Background. 2. Polarimetry. Submillimeter Polarimetry - The State of Play. Magnetic Vectors Across the Orion Molecular Cloud Core. Neutral and Ionized Molecular Spectral Lines. Variation of Polarization With Wavelength. The Polarization Spectrum. Submillimeter Polarimetry - Looking Ahead. 3.Confusion. Confusion at 500, 600 micron. 4. Extragalactic Science. Do Massive Black Holes and Galaxy Bulges form Together? 5. Galactic Science. Can We See the First Generations of Stars and Metal Formation? The Birth of Planets and the Origins of Life. Spatial Resolution at 100 microns. Far-ir/Sub-mm Transitions of Linear Carbon Clusters. Predicted Spectra of Glycine.

Werner, Michael

2004-01-01

53

National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences' (NIGMS) Science Education website brings together award-winning booklets on topics like cell biology and genetics, their in-house magazine, interactive games, and a scientific image gallery for those who hold science close to their heart. First-time visitors will notice that there are two primary areas here: "Publications" and "School Resources". The "Publications" area includes "Findings" (their in-house magazine) and the very helpful "Biomedical Beat" news digest. This digest is published monthly, and it contains research news and educational updates from the NIGMS. The "School Resources" area includes interactive games that deal with Nobel Prize winners and proteins, along with suggestions on how to most effectively use the resources here with different grade levels.

54

Questions as a tool for bridging science and everyday language games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students' questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.

Lundin, Mattias

2007-01-01

55

How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

Kwah, Helen

2012-12-01

56

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

57

Repetitions and Contrasts: Using Essential Questions to Frame Unit Plans in General Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, an approach to unit plans using essential questions is described within the context of general music education and illustrated in the unit "Repetition and Contrasts: Understanding Music Through Form." This unit is founded on the essential question: As musicians, how do we use form to organize and understand music?…

Scott, Sheila

2014-01-01

58

Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.  

PubMed

Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. PMID:24768172

Wells, Peter G

2014-06-15

59

Cognitive Levels of Questioning Demonstrated by Test Items That Accompany Selected Fifth-Grade Science Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the cognitive levels of questioning of end-of-chapter test items accompanying selected fifth-grade science textbooks. The extent to which test items emphasized high level questioning and significant differences among texts in the distribution of knowledge and above-knowledge-level test items were also investigated.…

Risner, Gregory P.

60

Test Questions Employed by Science Teachers in Public Junior High and Middle Schools of Louisiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to answer two questions: (1) What cognitive skills are emphasized by written test items constructed by eighth grade science teachers in the public schools of Louisiana? and (2) Are there differences of emphasis on the cognitive skills when comparisons are made among test questions from those teachers based on the following…

Schilling, Guy Von

61

Burning Questions in Gravity-Dependent Combustion Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building upon a long history of spaceflight and ground based research, NASA's Combustion Science program has accumulated a significant body of accomplishments on the ISS. Historically, NASAs low-gravity combustion research program has sought: to provide a more complete understanding of the fundamental controlling processes in combustion by identifying simpler one-dimensional systems to eliminate the complex interactions between the buoyant flow and the energy feedback to the reaction zone to provide realistic simulation of the fire risk in manned spacecraft and to enable practical simulation of the gravitational environment experienced by reacting systems in future spacecraft. Over the past two decades, low-gravity combustion research has focused primarily on increasing our understanding of fundamental combustion processes (e.g. droplet combustion, soot, flame spread, smoldering, and gas-jet flames). This research program was highly successful and was aided by synergistic programs in Europe and in Japan. Overall improvements were made in our ability to model droplet combustion in spray combustors (e.g. jet engines), predict flame spread, predict soot production, and detect and prevent spacecraft fires. These results provided a unique dataset that supports both an active research discipline and also spacecraft fire safety for current and future spacecraft. These experiments have been conducted using the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Microgravity Science Glovebox and the Express Rack. In this paper, we provide an overview of the earlier space shuttle experiments, the recent ISS combustion experiments in addition to the studies planned for the future. Experiments in combustion include topics such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes.

Urban, David; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

2012-01-01

62

Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests

Ayelet Baram-Tsabari; Ricky J. Sethi; Lynn Bry; Anat Yarden

2006-01-01

63

Beginning Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about the Use of Anchoring Questions in Science: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current science education reform efforts highlight the importance of engaging students in scientifically oriented questions as a central dimension of inquiry-based elementary science. However, elementary teachers, particularly beginning teachers, must often overcome a variety of challenges to engage their students in reform-minded,…

Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

64

Science Questions and Broad Outline of Technology Needs of the Decade 2013-2022  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an overview of the top priority science questions outlined in the Planetary Exploration Decadal Survey, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022." The recommended mission portfolio, along with expected infrastructure challenges, should drive investments over the decade. The instrument and technology needs for the next decade will be presented, with a summary of progress since the Decadal.

SlIllon-Miller, A. A.

2012-01-01

65

Selective attentional effects of textbook study questions on student learning in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selective attentional model used to explain recent mathemagenic and related research findings also predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. Furthermore, the chances of such dysfunctional selective attention are increased when students are provided with a mere sampling (partial set) of study questions covering only portions of the diagram and are decreased when students are provided with a population (complete set) of questions or a no-question treatment. As predicted, using the Newman-Keuls procedure (p <0.05), the population and no-question treatment groups outperformed the sampling-question group which, in turn, outperformed a placebo-control group. It was concluded that researchers and teachers should be aware that encouraging students to concentrate on selective portions of critical information can result in inadequate processing of such specialized science materials as flow diagrams.

Holliday, William G.

66

What's in a domain: Understanding how students approach questioning in history and science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and science content. In two studies, students read history and science passages and then generated questions they would ask to make sense of the content. Nine categories of questions were identified to discern patterns of inquiry across both domains. Results indicate that while age and prior knowledge may play a role in the way students ask questions by domain there are persistent main effects of domain across both studies. Specifically, across both studies students ask questions regarding the purpose or function of ideas in science passages, whereas history passage are more regularly met with questions for supplemental information to complete a student's understanding. In contrast to extant research on developmental status or experience within a content area, current work suggests that domains themselves hold unique properties, which may influence how students approach questioning across domains.

Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

67

Science with Large Solar Telescopes: Addressing Key Science Questions with New Observing Modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the capabilities of existing and future large solar telescopes with an emphasis on the key science questions that these instruments must address. Large solar telescopes coming online now, as well as the 4-meter ATST coming online in 2018 are tasked with extending high resolution and polarimetric investigations from the lower atmospheric regions into the higher regions and connecting the dynamics between the two. The overall goal is to understand the interaction of flows and magnetic fields in the convection zone down to O(10) km scales and the magnetohydrodynamic transport, storage, and release of energy in the upper atmosphere leading to coronal heating and eruptive events. The ATST in particular will have unique opportunities to address this goal with new observations of the infrared atmosphere at very high spatial resolution and with coronagraphic capabilities. We discuss some of the multi-instrument ATST observing programs that will investigate such topics as small-scale magnetoconvection and energetic events in the lower atmosphere and energy release in filament eruptions.

Berger, T.

2012-12-01

68

On Park's Open Questions and Some Fixed-Point Theorems for General Contractive Type Mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we answer two fixed-point questions of Park by constructing ten nontrivial examples and prove some fixed-point theorems for general contractive type mappings which, in turn, generalize, improve, and unify some results due to Fisher, Hegedüs, Hegedüs and Szilágyi, Hikida, Kasahara, Park, Park and Rhoades, and others.

Zeqing Liu

1999-01-01

69

National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Inside Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences has worked to create this excellent series of articles that help explain "how basic biomedical research - from the history of a field to the people doing cutting-edge work today - lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention." First-time visitors might want to check out articles like "What Students Want to Know About Cells," "Remarkable RNAs," and "Forecasting Flu" to get the flavor of the site. Each article contains illustrative material, such as photos, charts, diagrams, and links to other relevant publications. Visitors can share these articles via email or sign up to receive the site's free newsletter. Finally, visitors can also locate articles by general topic: Cell Biology, Genetics, Pharmacology, and several others.

2013-01-25

70

A Comparative Study of Six Decades of General Science Textbooks: Evaluating the Evolution of Science Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which…

Lewis, Anna

2008-01-01

71

Climate Change Science Instruction using a Model: Students Asking Quantitative Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The act of asking a question is arguably the most important part of the scientific process as it is the starting point of the scientific inquiry. And while students learn much from asking questions, they are often reticent to do so in the class-room and more often than not the instructor asks the questions while the students answer them. Here we present results from an investigation of quantitative scientific questions asked by students in an undergraduate course about climate change science about one of the main processes driving climate and climate change: radiative forcing. This course is an inquiry-based course in which questions are explicitly solicited from students in different forms. One topic of relevance to the concept of radiative forcing (effects of clouds, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land-use changes on climate) is studied each week. Students, after much preparation and scaffolding, must produce a research-level question that can be addressed by an up-to-date, accurate radiative transfer model with which they have become familiar at the beginning of the course. Students must then run, analyze and present results from an experiment they design for the model to address their scientific question. Our presentation will address how the nature of students' questions evolved over the six weeks dedicated to the applications of the radiative forcing concept, based on weekly submitted individual questions and group's question. Our analysis will look at both individual and class asking-question characteristics. We will analyze the relationships between the individual questions and the quality of group's question and look at the influence of group dynamics on the nature and quality of the groups' questions.

Gautier, C.

2004-12-01

72

Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater engagement with relevant sociopolitical thought in fields typically outside the purview of science education. Drawing from thinkers Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Judith Butler, and Louis Althusser this paper attempts to extend some key ideas coming from Ken Tobin, Larry Bencze, and Lyn Carter and advocates science educators taking up notions of ideology, discourse, and subjectivity to engage globalization and neoliberalism. Subjectivity (and its constitution in science education) is considered alongside two relevant textbook examples and also in terms of its importance in formulating political and culturally relevant questions in science education.

Bazzul, Jesse

2012-12-01

73

Linking General Education and Science Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational project involves prospective science teachers in implementing a natural science course for nonscience majors. The model creates a space for nonscience majors to experience learner-centered teaching practices while giving prospective teachers an opportunity to apply their science and science education course knowledge and learning.…

Talanquer, Vicente; Morgan, Del; Maeyer, Jenine; Young, Krista

2007-01-01

74

Attitudes of Undergraduate General Science Students Toward Learning Science and the Nature of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigated general science students' attitudes regarding the acquisition of scientific knowledge and the nature of science by administering a 32-item attitudinal survey. To assemble a representative array of epistemological attitudes at our institution and to determine the impact of instruction, we administered this survey to over 250 students from 19 sections of three general science courses. We characterized the instructional styles for each course using three broad categories: Traditional, Transitional, and Learning-centered. This paper focuses on the impact those different instructional styles had on students' epistemological beliefs.

Marx, Jeffrey; Mian, Shabbir; Pagonis, Vasilis

2010-01-18

75

Students' Questions and Discursive Interaction: Their Impact on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…

Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

76

Instructional Effect on Question Asking Behavior of Prospective Peace Corps Science and Mathematics Volunteer Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of an instructional program which was developed to introduce questioning techniques to prospective teachers was investigated. Thirty prospective Peace Corp science and mathematics teachers were observed during their training program peer-teaching sessions. After premeasure observation, the experimental group received instruction on…

Adhikary, Poorna Kanta

77

Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

2010-01-01

78

Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2011-01-01

79

Differential effects of verbal aptitude and study questions on comprehension of science concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective attention models predict that verbatim study questions can divert students from meaningfully encoding attributes of science concepts. The aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis predicts that such questions can be particularly dysfunctional to low-ability students. These predictions assume the measurement of true comprehension of concepts as a criterion. Eighth-grade students (n = 217) were randomly assigned to a text-only, text-question or a placebo treatment. The text verbally described five fossil types. The questions consisted of 28 fill-in-the-blank queries about the text. The posttest required students to visually identify and discriminate 40 fossil specimens as to fossil type. Comprehension of the concepts clearly took place-a fact substantiated by the very low scores obtained by the placebo group. As predicted (p < 0.05), low-verbal students performed better when provided with a text-only rather than a text-question treatment. In contrast, high-verbal students were less effected by the verbatim study questions. Main effects among these groups were also detected. Apparently such questions can overprompt students, resulting in their copying of words from a text to an answer-blank without semantically encoding (i.e., comprehending) the copied words.

Holliday, William G.; Whittaker, Harold G.; Loose, Kenneth D.

80

General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

Rochester City School District, NY.

81

General Chemistry and Materials Science: The Interrelationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the Ninth Annual Worcester Polytechnic Institute Conference on Chemical Education that focused on the incorporation of materials science into chemistry courses as examples of chemical phenomena and on the identification of what chemistry a college graduate should possess to work in the area of materials science. (JRH)

Beall, Herbert

1996-01-01

82

General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation: Education Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains a set of 12 inquiry-based modules for grades 8-12 on materials science, chromatics, electricity, and season changes. Each module is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. The materials were developed to engage students with highly unique hands-on materials to study color concepts, incandescent light bulbs, DC circuits, and more. The modules include detailed lesson plans with objectives, student activity guides, assessments, and background information for teachers. Accompanying hands-on lab materials may be purchased at a very low cost from the publisher.

Woolf, Lawrence

2009-05-25

83

Grand Research Questions in the Solid-Earth Sciences Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, Earth scientists have made great strides in understanding our planet’s workings and history. Yet this progress has served principally to lay bare more fundamental questions about the Earth. Expanding knowledge is generating new questions, while innovative technologies and new partnerships with other sciences provide new paths toward answers. A National Academies committee was established to frame some of the great intellectual challenges inherent in the study of the Earth and planets. The goal was to focus on science, not implementation issues, such as facilities or recommendations aimed at specific agencies. The committee canvassed the geological community and deliberated at length to arrive at 10 questions: 1. How did Earth and other planets form? 2. What happened during Earth’s “dark age” (the first 500 million years)? 3. How did life begin? 4. How does Earth’s interior work, and how does it affect the surface? 5. Why does Earth have plate tectonics and continents? 6. How are Earth processes controlled by material properties? 7. What causes climate to change—and how much can it change? 8. How has life shaped Earth—and how has Earth shaped life? 9. Can earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and their consequences be predicted? 10. How do fluid flow and transport affect the human environment? Written for graduate students, colleagues in sister disciplines, and program managers funding Earth and planetary science research, the report describes where the field stands, how it got there, and where it might be headed. Our hope is that the report will spark new interest in and support for the field by showing how Earth science can contribute to a wide range of issues—including some not always associated with the solid Earth—from the formation of the solar system to climate change to the origin of life. Its reach goes beyond the United States; the report is being translated into Chinese and distributed in China.

Linn, Anne M.

2008-12-03

84

A two-question method for assessing gender categories in the social and medical sciences.  

PubMed

Three studies (N = 990) assessed the statistical reliability of two methods of determining gender identity that can capture transgender spectrum identities (i.e., current gender identities different from birth-assigned gender categories). Study 1 evaluated a single question with four response options (female, male, transgender, other) on university students. The missing data rate was higher than the valid response rates for transgender and other options using this method. Study 2 evaluated a method of asking two separate questions (i.e., one for current identity and another for birth-assigned category), with response options specific to each. Results showed no missing data and two times the transgender spectrum response rate compared to Study 1. Study 3 showed that the two-question method also worked in community samples, producing near-zero missing data. The two-question method also identified cisgender identities (same birth-assigned and current gender identity), making it a dynamic and desirable measurement tool for the social and medical sciences. PMID:22989000

Tate, Charlotte Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N; Youssef, Cris P

2013-01-01

85

Technological Innovation Science as General Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this paper is to provide some suggestions about the technological innovation science temporal lecture in Nagoya Institute of Technology in 2005. It was a unique lecture in terms of the following 3 points : 1) The lecture was not designed for graduated students of MOT course but for bachelor students in engineering. 2) The lecture was based on the case studies from history of Japanese industrial technology. 3) The lecture was focused on studying the vested or basic technology caused the technological innovation. It was shown that the lecture was useful for the students as an introduction of MOT and it also promoted a better understanding of manufacturing basic knowledge and engineers? ethics.

Mabuchi, Koichi

86

Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to survey science teachers about their instructional activities should include operational definitions, methods of classifying single activities into 2 or more instructional categories, and questions that are more accurate in describing quality science instructional activities.

Davidson, Anne Burgess

87

Integrated Science General Education Program (ISGE): Bioastronomy Connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, NSF-supported, General Education (GE) science curriculum, synthesizes and unifies the key theories and evidence of seven natural sciences using natural systems processes as Integrative Themes. The considerably reformulated subject matter is completely built on interdisciplinary concepts and methods fundamental to newly emerging cross-disciplinary fields like bioastronomy. The year of ISGE study incorporates 15 built-in computer based multimedia features and 10 special learning features to help non-science students learn more science, faster, and with better understanding. Results from seven test course offerings are reported. ISGE intends to be an initial example of the ``living, evolving'' knowledge bases needed for a space-faring species.

Troncale, Len

2004-06-01

88

The Concept of Ideology in Analysis of Fundamental Questions in Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the concept of `ideology' in interpretation of science education curricula, textbooks and various practises is reviewed, and examples are given by referring to Norwegian curricula and textbooks. The term is proposed to be used in a broad sense about any kind of action-oriented theory based on a system of ideas, or any attempt to approach politics in the light of a system of ideas. Politics in this context is about shaping of education, and is related to forces (i.e., hypothetical impacts of idea systems) which may legitimise, change, or criticise social practices. The focus is (although not in every case) on the hidden, unconscious and critical aspects. The notion ideological aspects is proposed to be related to metaphysical-ontological, epistemological and axiological claims and connotations. Examples of educational issues concerning e.g., aims, compartmentalisation, integration, and fundamentally different ideas about truth, learning and man are mentioned. Searching for a single and unifying concept for the discussing of all of science education's fundamental questions seems however in vain. Therefore a wide range of concepts seems necessary to deepen our understanding of ``the fundamental questions''.

Säther, Jostein

89

The reliability of patients' judgements of care in general practice: how many questions and patients are needed?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of questions and patients that are needed to achieve reliable measurements of patients' judgements of care in general practice. DESIGN: Sensitivity study, using generalisibility theory and real data from surveys of patients. SUBJECTS: 739 patients with chronic illness from 23 general practitioners in The Netherlands. MAIN MEASURES: The reliability coefficients of scores per patient and scores per general practitioner for patients' judgements of nine dimensions of care in general practice. RESULTS: For most dimensions the reliability per patient was 0.80 or higher if three questions were used, but for the evaluation of the "organisation of appointments" and "premises" five questions had to be used. To reach a reliability coefficient of 0.80 per general practitioner three questions and 90 patients, or five questions and 60 patients, were needed for most dimensions. Even more patients or questions were needed for the dimensions "availability for emergencies", premises, and "continuity". A reliability of 0.70 per general practitioner could be achieved if three questions and 60 patients were used, except for availability for emergencies and premises, for which more patients or questions were required. CONCLUSIONS: Surveys of patients can only provide reliable information if the samples of questions and patients are large enough. It is important to distinguish between the reliability of scores per patient and the reliability per care provider, as well as between different dimensions of care. The reliability per patient is good for most dimensions if three questions are used, but a good reliability per care provider requires more questions or patients.

Wensing, M; van de Vleuten, C; Grol, R; Felling, A

1997-01-01

90

A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

2010-01-01

91

Supporting General Educators' Inclusive Practices in Mathematics and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a state-funded project at Southeastern Louisiana University that offered coursework and direct classroom assistance to general educators attempting to include students with disabilities for mathematics and science instruction. Thirty-five general educators in five parish school systems participated. A sequence of three credit…

Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Al-Juraid, Sarah E.; Stuker, Jodi D.

92

On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

Nunez, Rafael

2012-01-01

93

75 FR 65363 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review...Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2010-10-22

94

75 FR 63843 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review...Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2010-10-18

95

78 FR 67374 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Genomes to Natural Products. Date: November...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2013-11-12

96

General Education Astronomy Students’ Worldviews And Beliefs About The Role Of Science In Society: Initial Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, we began a new research project to uncover general education astronomy students’ worldviews, their ideas about the role science plays in society, and the effects instruction has on these beliefs. Over the course of the spring 2012 semester, we collected students’ written responses to several open-ended, provocative questions that investigate students’ ideas about the impact science has had on areas such as the economy, their daily lives, and their fundamental beliefs about the nature of reality. This talk will present our preliminary findings from this project. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0833364 and Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Teske, J.; Meyers, M.; Mendelsohn, B.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

2012-05-01

97

Question, Problem, Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions and question-formulating strategies are central to science. In many ways the formulation of a question forms the basis for high-quality instruction in science. Effective questioning has a strong connection to cognitive theory. The sentence start

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

98

Classifying End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems for Selected General Chemistry Textbooks Used in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science textbooks have a major influence on teaching and learning. Teachers and instructors at all educational levels use them regularly not only as a guide for course content and sequence but also in the design of homework assignments and assessment probes. From this perspective, textbook questions and problems can be expected to have a strong…

Davila, Kariluz; Talanquer, Vicente

2010-01-01

99

COPS science questions revisited: What have we learned so far from COPS?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) was an international field campaign carried out in summer 2007 with the overall goal to advance the quality of forecasts of orographically-induced convective precipitation by 4-dimensional observations and modeling of its life cycle. The pre-convective environment, the formation of clouds and the onset and development of precipitation were observed in a low-mountain area in south-western Germany and eastern France covering the Vosges Mountains, the Rhine Valley, and the Black Forest Mountains during 18 Intensive Observations Periods from June 1 to August 31, 2007, under different forcing conditions. Meanwhile, in the nearly five years since the COPS field phase, a large number of results on analyses of selected COPS IOPs and of continuous measurements during the COPS period have been published; in a special issue of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society alone, 21 papers appeared in January 2011. A second special issue on COPS results is currently in preparation for the Meteorologische Zeitschrift (MetZ). In this contribution, we will revisit the original science questions of COPS, summarize the results gained so far from COPS, and discuss questions which still remain open.

Behrendt, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Richard, E.; Dorninger, M.; Di Girolamo, P.; Corsmeier, U.; Kalthoff, N.; Bauer, H.-S.

2012-04-01

100

Making a Map of Science: General Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Tertiary Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…

Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.

2002-01-01

101

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

102

Cooperative General Science Program. Progress Report 1966-74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a final report on an experimental program in curriculum development. Four undergraduate colleges in the Atlanta University Center (Clark, Morehouse, Morris Brown, and Spelman) have cooperated to develop a 1-year course in general science for use in liberal arts colleges. This program has proven successful in developing and presenting…

Puri, O. P.

103

"Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

Larson, James H.

1982-01-01

104

[The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].  

PubMed

The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed. PMID:21322192

Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

2010-12-01

105

Answers to Science Questions From the Stop Faking It! Guy (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children , proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best

Robertson, William C.

2009-10-08

106

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

107

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students.

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

108

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

109

Interdisciplinary Science Courses for College General Education Requirements: Perspectives of Faculty at a State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…

Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

110

The Early Years: Young Questioners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children are often described as natural scientists and their curiosity as a basic human trait. They amaze adults with perceptive questions and extended explorations of the environment. Asking questions is part of the National Science Education Teaching Standards B and E, and Content Standard A, Science as Inquiry, for grades K-4. Because asking questions is central to inquiry and learning in general, science teachers are especially investigated in having all their students use this process skill. A lesson is included with this article.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2006-09-01

111

Questions as a tool for bridging science and everyday language games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure\\u000a in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school\\u000a science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose\\u000a of

Mattias Lundin

2007-01-01

112

Questioning the Cultural Function of Science Education: An Endorsement and Response to Rudolph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endorses John L. Rudolph's argument that the time spent on "the nature of science as a thing-in-itself" is less than the time spent "seeking greater consensus about what social function we wish our image of science to serve". Focuses on Dewey's and Schwab's ideas to discuss the function and practice of science education. (Contains 14 references.)…

Garrison, Jim

2003-01-01

113

Journeys into Inquiry-Based Elementary Science: Literacy Practices, Questioning, and Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching literacy in inquiry-based science-teaching settings has recently become a focus of research in science education. Because professional scientists' uses of reading, writing, and speaking are foundational to their work, as well as to nonscientists' comprehension of it , it follows that literacy practices should also be central to science

Howes, Elaine V.; Lim, Miyoun; Campos, Jaclyn

2009-01-01

114

I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

Rice, Diana C.

2005-01-01

115

Impact of Online Support for Teachers' Open-Ended Questioning in Pre-K Science Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of teacher supports in enhancing teachers' open-ended questioning in pre-k activities. The blended teacher supports included online video demonstrations of questioning techniques and companion workshop activities. Twenty-five teachers received the blended supports while the control group did not. The data consisted of…

Lee, Youngju; Kinzie, Mable B.; Whittaker, Jessica Vick

2012-01-01

116

So Much More than Just a List: Exploring the Nature of Critical Questioning in Undergraduate Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is…

Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

2014-01-01

117

Contexts for Questioning: Two Zones of Teaching and Learning in Undergraduate Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions are currently undertaking a challenging process in moving from teacher-orientated to student-focused approaches. Students' ability to asking questions is fundamental to developing critical reasoning, and to the process of scientific enquiry itself. Our premise is that questioning competences should become a central…

Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina; Moreira, Aurora; Watts, Mike

2012-01-01

118

Learning by Doing: Science in a Large General Education Class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching science in a large (150+ students) class can be a challenge. This is especially true in a general education science class that is populated by non-science majors, athletes, and students with math phobias, as well as students with a variety of learning disabilities. To illustrate Newton's Laws, we used The Egg Fling: knocking a pie pan from under a raw egg which then falls straight down into a container of water. Newton's Laws are projected on an overhead in constant view of the students, and an ELMO is used to give a live, big-screen view to engage even those in the back of the large lecture room. Students make predictions, watch the demo, then refine or correct predictions as we discuss which laws are illustrated. The Laws are later related to students’ science fiction books and the GEMS Moons of Jupiter activity. Reading classic science fiction books allows students to see how our understanding of the universe and our technology have changed over the last 150 years, also adding a writing component to the class. Student preceptors are critical to the success of this approach, leading small group discussions that could not easily be done with the whole class. Preceptors receive training before they lead activities or discussions with groups of 10 to 15 peers. Students do live sky observations and informal measurements to track the motion and phases of the Moon against the background stars, but use technology (Heavens Above and Starry Night) to track and understand the rising and setting of the Sun and its relation to the reason for the seasons. Using a combination of live demonstrations with technology, short assessments, and student preceptors makes teaching a large group possible, effective, and fun.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Moore, R. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

2007-12-01

119

Evaluating a Science Diversity Program at UC Berkeley: More Questions than Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars…

Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M.

2003-01-01

120

Moving Science Classes to the Community: A Question of Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators and policy makers argue that science literacy and numeracy are vital skills for successfully participating in the economy of this century. But how do educators increase the levels of scientific literacy, let alone make science a subject for all students, when the subject matter itself has been keeping students away? In this article,…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2007-01-01

121

Neoliberal Ideology, Global Capitalism, and Science Education: Engaging the Question of Subjectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater…

Bazzul, Jesse

2012-01-01

122

"White Blankets May Make You Smarter" and Other Questionable Social Science Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social sciences are awash with studies of varying quality. The process of getting published is supposed to sort the good from the bad and, through feedback and editing, make the good better. Ideally, that is how the system should and usually does work--but it does not always work that way. One problem with social science research is that the…

Blimling, Gregory S.

2004-01-01

123

Challenging Accepted Wisdom: Looking at the Gender and Science Education Question through a Different Lens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates a group of women scientists' understanding of themselves and science. Uses a mixture of conventional qualitative research methods and techniques developed for use in psychotherapy. Discusses contradictory results to some of the assumptions on which past work on girls and science education is based. Explores implications of these…

Gilbert, Jane; Calvert, Sarah

2003-01-01

124

The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

125

Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.

Hoffman, Michelle

2013-04-01

126

English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (with an Emphasis on Chemistry).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that ...

G. Wiggins

1972-01-01

127

Que es la Ciencia? What Is Science? A Question for All Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide offers classroom techniques for teaching science to bilingual elementary students. Recommendations are made for improving teaching by: lowering students' affective filters; providing comprehensible input; providing for language output; creating a supportive environment; adjusting classroom teaching style; teaching…

Spurlin, Quincy; Blanco, George

128

Using the Power of Media to Communicate Science: A Question of Style?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational effects of the style, content, and quality inherent in several multimedia and desktop-publishing products available to science teachers, including books, interactive software, videos, and computer simulations. (JJK)

Imhof, Heidi

1991-01-01

129

Using the Science Writing Heuristic To Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and students using a standard or traditional laboratory curriculum on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on a specific topic, chemical equilibrium. The SWH helps students do inquiry science laboratory work by structuring the laboratory notebook in a format that guides students to answer directed questions instead of using a traditional laboratory report format. In the SWH approach, students must make a claim (inference) about what was learned through the laboratory experiment and provide evidence to support that claim. Then, through group discussion, reflection and writing, students continue to negotiate meaning from experiments they conducted. Two teaching assistants were each assigned one standard lab section and one SWH lab section. Subjects in this study were students enrolled in a second-semester general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. A baseline chemistry knowledge score was computed for the subjects in this study. The standard laboratory group had a higher average baseline chemistry score compared to the SWH group. The results of an analysis of covariance indicated that the SWH students exhibited a better overall understanding of chemical equilibrium compared to students using a standard approach in the general chemistry laboratory.

Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

2007-12-01

130

Cooperative General Science Project-A Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-semester program which includes topics from biological and physical sciences at the conceptual level with limited mathematics. The program utilizes multimedia and includes some history of science and science processes. (TS)

Puri, Om P.

1971-01-01

131

Developing a general conceptual framework for avian conservation science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avian conservation science in North America has produced a variety of monitoring programs designed to provide information on population status of birds. Waterfowl surveys provide population estimates for breeding ducks over most of the continent, the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) provides indexes to population change for >400 breeding bird species, and many other surveys exist that index bird populations at a variety of scales and seasons. However, many fundamental questions about bird population change remain unanswered. I suggest that analyses of monitoring data provide limited understanding of causes of population change, and that the declining species paradigm (Caughley 1994) is sometimes an inefficient approach to increasing our understanding of causes of population change. In North America, the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI) provides an opportunity to implement alternative approaches that use management, modeling of population responses to management, and monitoring in combination to increase our understanding of bird populations. In adaptive resources management, modeling provides predictions about consequences of management, and monitoring data allow us to assess the population consequences of management. In this framework, alternative hypotheses about response of populations to management can be evaluated by formulating a series of models with differing structure, and management and monitoring provide information about which model best predicts population response.

Sauer, J.R.

2003-01-01

132

Cooperative Learning in Third Graders' Jigsaw Groups for Mathematics and Science with and without Questioning Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is much support for using cooperative methods, since important instructional aspects, such as elaboration of new information, can easily be realized by methods like "jigsaw." However, the impact of providing students with additional help like a questioning training and potential limitations of the method concerning the (minimum)…

Souvignier, Elmar; Kronenberger, Julia

2007-01-01

133

Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

2013-01-01

134

Examining Science Teacher's Understandings of the NOS Aspects through the Use of Knowledge Test and Open-Ended Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of science aspects (NOS) are the most emphasized theme in many curriculum and reform attempts. Teachers as a curriculum implementer in the classroom play important role for policy, arrangements and classroom experiences on NOS understandings of students. Researchers generally assessed the teachers' NOS conceptions using open-ended…

Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Cakiroglu, Jale

2010-01-01

135

English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (With an Emphasis on Chemistry).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that the scientific community keep aware of developments in the Soviet Union. To meet this need, a…

Wiggins, Gary

136

1 Ps ychophy siological Science : Interdisciplinary Approaches to Classic Questions About the Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiology is an old idea but a new science. It is a likely assumption that ever since man began to experience himself as an object of his own awareness he has had some intuitive notion that bodily changes were, in some measure, related to his moods, his sentiments, his frustrations, his elations. How to relate these dual aspects of human

JOHN T. CACIOPPO; LOUIS G. TASSINARY; GARY G. BERNTSON

137

How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

Kwah, Helen

2012-01-01

138

Computing Life: National Institute of General Medical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers are embedded in much of what we do, whether it's a form of instant communication or the navigation of city streets via a GPS unit. Computers have also proved to be extremely useful to scientific researchers, a fact not lost on the people at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The NIGMS has created this virtual online booklet titled "Computing Life" in order to inform young people about the various scientific and medical careers that are open to them and to educate people more generally about the role of computers in scientific inquiry and discovery. The homepage features a set of "Featured Topics" that contains video clips of researchers talking about their work, interactive games, and role-playing exercises. These intriguing topics include "Movie Mania", "The Next Top Protein Model", and "Made Possible By"". In the "Web Extras" area, visitors can watch short films (including a simulation of potential pandemic flu in the United States), listen and watch interviews, and take a crack at a crossword puzzle. Visitors who get hooked on the site may wish to sign up to receive updates via their RSS feed.

139

Intermediate General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) Science: A Missed Opportunity for a Focus on Procedural Understanding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the role of a new vocational science qualification in the UK, the Intermediate General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) science, and how it relates to science-based employment. Reports the results of a small intervention study in which ideas about evidence were explicitly taught within Intermediate GNVQ science. (Contains 23…

Duggan, Sandra; Gott, Richard

2000-01-01

140

High-seas Biodiversity and Genetic Resources: Science and Policy Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global efforts to protect marine genetic resources and high-seas biodiversity peak in 2010, a very eventful year for the conservation and study of high-seas biodiversity, with developments that put relevant policy and scientific directions at a significant crossroads. With these timely developments come important conservation, equity, and research questions: How do we protect deep-seas biodiversity against irresponsible exploitation in hard-to-monitor areas? How do we equitably govern the use of marine genetic resources while also fostering advanced scientific research?

Richard Blaustein (freelance writer;)

2010-06-01

141

The need for a lunar base - Answering basic questions about planetary science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After assessing the state of current understanding of the planetological characteristics of the moon, attention is given to numerous questions that have arisen about the history of the moon and to prospective methods for their investigation through lunar exploration. One such exploratory mission will be that of the unmanned Lunar Geoscience Observer; the greatest prospects for important discoveries, however, are foreseen in manned lunar exploration. More sophisticated instruments and preliminary analyses are noted to be possible in manned exploration, although the possibility of contamination of samples is greater.

Taylor, G. J.

1985-01-01

142

75 FR 7484 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs...

2010-02-19

143

Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the General Chemistry Laboratory to Improve Students' Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis describes the effects of using the science writing heuristic (SWH) in the general chemistry laboratory on the students' academic performance. The technique has found to be extremely important factor in a student's learning process and achievement in science.

Poock, Jason R.; Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

2007-01-01

144

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

145

Science in Your Watershed - General Introduction and Hydrologic Definitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can study an introduction to hydrologic techniques, questions, and processes. An extensive glossary of terms from the entire field of surface-water hydrology is included. References and a list of links to specific topics are also included.

146

Some Cross-Linguistic Generalizations About Yes-No Questions and Their Answers. Working Papers on Language Universals, No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hypotheses concerning the linguistic structure of yes-no questions and their answers are considered as hypotheses relating to the abstract structure of yes-no questions and to this abstract structure in all human languages. The universal base hypotheses are the following: (1) The abstract representation of all yes-no questions includes two…

Moravcsik, Edith A.

147

The science\\/technology interaction: Implications for science literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science literacy includes understanding technology. This raises questions about the role of technology in science education as well as in general education. To explore these questions, this article begins with a brief history of technology education as it relates to science education and discusses how new conceptions of science and technological literacy are moving beyond the dichotomies that formerly characterized

Fernando Cajas

2001-01-01

148

Science Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General Education Science Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies [Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. Journal of Science Education and Technology 3: 227–238; Udo, M. K., Ramsey, G. P., Reynolds-Alpert, S., and Mallow, J. V. (2001). Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety? Journal of Science Education and Technology 10: 237–247] of science anxiety in various student cohorts suggested that nonscience majors

M. K. Udo; G. P. Ramsey; J. V. Mallow

2004-01-01

149

President's Proposed Budget for FY04 Generally Favorable for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration look like winners in the Bush Administration's proposed U.S. federal budget for fiscal year 2004. However, NASA and several other science agencies fare more modestly. The overall $2.23 trillion budget proposal now goes to Congress.The proposed FY04 budget, which relies on deficit spending, includes $122.7 billion for research and development, a 6.7 percent increase over the administration's FY03 request. As this issue of Eos went to press, Congress was still trying to reach agreement on the federal budget for FY03.

Showstack, Randy

150

Tips for a Physician in Getting the Right Job, Part XII: General Questions for the Applicant to Ask.  

PubMed

The type and caliber of the questions asked by a job hunter is one of the ways an interviewer will evaluate the candidate. Questions that show poor preparation should not be asked, such as failure to read what the employer sent to the job seeker or not doing elementary research on the practice, the organization, or the community. Asking about insignificant details also is not helpful. Not having any good questions to ask is a negative in an interview. This article discusses many possible important questions for the applicant to ask during an interview. PMID:24873801

Harolds, Jay A

2014-07-01

151

Developing Civic Engagement in General Education Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we promote student and civic engagement amongst our students? At Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, the political science courses in the First Year Learning Communities Program have been using the "New York Times" as a supplemental reader to increase student engagement both inside and outside the classroom. The paper will examine the…

Huerta, Juan Carlos; Jozwiak, Joseph

2008-01-01

152

The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) including physical, sexual and emotional violence, causes short and long term ill-health. Brief questions that reliably identify women experiencing IPV who present in clinical settings are a pre-requisite for an appropriate response from health services to this substantial public health problem. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) developed from the Abuse

Hardip Sohal; Sandra Eldridge; Gene Feder

2007-01-01

153

General Systems Theory--The Skeleton of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years increasing need has been felt for a body of systematic theoretical constructs which will discuss the general relationships of the empirical world. This is the quest of General Systems Theory. It does not seek, of course, to establish a single, self-contained \\

Kenneth E. Boulding

1956-01-01

154

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

155

Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes this school building, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and construction team, a general building description, and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

Design Cost Data, 2003

2003-01-01

156

question_1296401928 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

157

question_1298614465 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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158

question_1298857225 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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159

question_1297460130 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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160

question_1309291494 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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161

question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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162

question_1309291793 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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163

question_1309292133 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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164

question_1309292190 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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165

question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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166

question_1302126805 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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167

question_1296513894 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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168

question_1297125849 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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169

question_1309532294 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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170

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Cancer.gov

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171

question_1296826063 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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172

question_1296786622 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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173

question_1297107652 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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174

question_1295643225 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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175

question_1297424940 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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176

question_1297423727 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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177

question_1296830406 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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178

question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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179

question_1296157694 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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180

question_1296057192 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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181

question_1296826774 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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182

question_1296657942 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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183

question_1302559585 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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184

question_1314022426 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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185

78 FR 8549 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: Marriott Courtyard Chevy Chase, 5520 Wisconsin Avenue, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

2013-02-06

186

78 FR 28601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: DoubleTree by Hilton Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

2013-05-15

187

77 FR 59936 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grant applications. Place: Marriott Courtyard 5520 Wisconsin Avenue Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD Scientific Review Officer Office of Scientific Review National Institute of General Medical Sciences National Institutes of...

2012-10-01

188

77 FR 62245 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3An-12, Bethesda, MD 20892, zacharya@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-10-12

189

75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial Scientific Peer Review and Merit Evaluation of Grant Applications for NIGMS MIDAS Initiative. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-11-24

190

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An.18B, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, NRSA...

2013-06-21

191

77 FR 64812 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3An12C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2763, seetharams@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; NIGMS Predoctoral T32 Review SEP. Date: November 16, 2012....

2012-10-23

192

76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 25, 2011. Time...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2011-03-03

193

78 FR 13364 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 19, 2013. Time...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2013-02-27

194

77 FR 15378 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Peer Review of Systems Biology (P50) Grant. Applications Date: April 5, 2012...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2012-03-15

195

Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

Brown, I. Foster

2008-01-01

196

Notes on a General Education Course in the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate general education course offered at Harvard College during the 1950s and 1960s. Looks at the course's use of lectures, section meetings, and term papers. Emphasizes the mutual learning of the undergraduates and their graduate section leaders, course content, and adjustments to changing student attitudes and temperaments.…

Reisman, David

1980-01-01

197

Environmental Science Literacy in Science Education, Biology and Chemistry Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions whether biology majors are more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, preservice science teachers, and a general population sample of 1,492 students. Indicates that preservice science teachers are significantly more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, but not more science literate than biology majors.…

Robinson, Mike; Crowther, David

2001-01-01

198

Chemistry as General Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

Tro, Nivaldo J.

2004-01-01

199

Questions that Do versus Questions that Do Not Arise: A Case for Improvisation in the Teaching of Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a general theory of improvisation and its role in the teaching of science. Includes a definition of improvisation, a discussion of curiosity-motivated and logically motivated questions, and illustrative examples from physics. (JN)

Tsuma, Orren G. K.

1985-01-01

200

PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

SMITH, GARY R.

201

Science Fiction and General Semantics as Interdisciplinary/Cross-Cultural Teaching Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General semantics and science fiction are disciplines that can be incorporated in lectures for public speaking and other speech communication classes. Alfred Korzybski's theories of general semantics lend themselves to researching, preparing, delivering interpersonal communication messages, and establishing student interest in foreign languages,…

Drake, Harold L.

202

General Education in Library and/or Information Science Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on general education in higher education generally and in library and/or information science education and training specifically, is reviewed. Drawing from this review and from the findings of an empirical study conducted in South Africa, this article discusses curriculum development in LIS education and training in both the university…

Raju, J.

2004-01-01

203

Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld  

SciTech Connect

Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

Malamud, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Science and Technology Interactive Center, Aurora, IL (United States)

1994-08-01

204

question_1332002134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

205

Smoking Intensity and its Relation to General Health of the Students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Considering the need for a better understanding of smoking among the student population and its impact on their mental health and their success, this study was conducted in Kerman Medical Sciences University. Methods This cross-sectional study on 772 students, chosen by random sampling, was conducted in 2007. Subjects were assessed with 28-question questionnaires that included demographic questions, questions about smoking, fagerstrom nicotine dependence test, and a general health questionnaire (GHQ). Findings The prevalence of smoking was 15. 8%. Records of failing in high school and conditional failures of a university semester in smokers were significantly higher than non-smokers. The average scores of the mental health questionnaires showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.001). Based on the results, 35.2% of smokers and 5.9% of non-smokers had mental illnesses. Conclusion Since cigarette dependence in teens and youth are significantly high and failures in education and mental health disorders are more common among them, it is necessary that the authorities pay more attention to the social skill training and timely diagnosis of mental disorders.

Nasirian, Mansoureh; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Asadollahi, Somayeh

2013-01-01

206

Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit. The unit materials included features meant to support teachers in eliciting and working with students' ideas and questions as a source for student-led investigations. We present three contrasting cases of teachers to highlight evidence that shows teachers' differing strategies for eliciting students' ideas and questions, and for developing their ideas, questions and questioning skills. Results from our cross case analysis provide insight into the ways in which teachers' enactments enabled them to work with students' ideas and questions to help advance learning. Consistent with other studies, we found that teachers could readily elicit ideas and questions but experienced challenges in helping students develop them. Findings suggest a need for more specified supports, such as specific discourse strategies, to help teachers attend to student thinking. We explore implications for curricular tools and discuss a need for more examples of effective discourse moves for use by teachers in orchestrating scientific discourse.

Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

2012-11-01

207

The Rationale and Challenge for the Integration of Science Studies in the Revision of General Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broadened view of scientific literacy for general education revision is detailed, including the history, philosophy, and sociology of science and science and technology studies. We provide a case study from an interdisciplinary college, argue for the integration of science studies into general education curricula, and discuss barriers to success.

Hammer, Christy; Dusek, Val

2006-01-01

208

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

209

The knowledge most worth having: Otis W. Caldwell (1869 1947) and the rise of the general science course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1860 Herbert Spencer asked the famous rhetorical question `What Knowledge is of Most Worth?' The unequivocal answer was science. Giving greater attention to science and scientific knowledge would not only produce additional scientists; more important, argued Spencer, it would make better parents, better church-goers, better citizens and workers, better artists and better consumers of art. It would lead to

John M. Heffron

1995-01-01

210

The knowledge most worth having: Otis W. Caldwell (1869–1947) and the rise of the general science course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1860 Herbert Spencer asked the famous rhetorical question ‘What Knowledge is of Most Worth?’ The unequivocal answer was science. Giving greater attention to science and scientific knowledge would not only produce additional scientists; more important, argued Spencer, it would make better parents, better church-goers, better citizens and workers, better artists and better consumers of art. It would lead to

John M. Heffron

1995-01-01

211

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by ``questioning their answers.''

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

212

Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general

Taber, Keith S.

2010-01-01

213

IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on scientific/technical information and libraries presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Library Ethics and the Special Library Network in Science and Technology" (Dieter Schmidmaier, East Germany); (2) "The Dissemination of Patent Information by Libraries: An Example Demonstrating the Necessity of Libraries in the…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

214

General system theory: Toward a conceptual framework for science and technology education for all  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we suggest using general system theory (GST) as a unifying theoretical framework for “science and technology education for all.” Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics and change, the ability to represent the relationship between the micro-level and macro-level of analysis, and the

David Chen; Walter Stroup

1993-01-01

215

Internal Consistency of Medical Students' Scores in General and Baisc Science Exams, Kerman University, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Course-based assessment is a method to gather, analyze, disseminate, and use course data to improve student learning. We assessed the associations between medical students' scores in basic sciences and general courses in a university in Iran and compared these scores with their scores in comprehensive exam. Methods: We collected the scores of medical students in their courses

Haghdoost A; Esmaeili A

2006-01-01

216

77 FR 71430 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of P01 Grant Applications- Vitamin D. Date: December 10, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2012-11-30

217

76 FR 67467 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; NIGMS Conference Grants. Date: November 15, 2011. Time: 12 p...3AN18A, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435-3825, hydec@nigms.nih.gov. This notice is being published less than 15...

2011-11-01

218

77 FR 38846 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel NIGMS Postdoctoral T32 Training Grant Review. Date: July 20, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To...

2012-06-29

219

76 FR 10380 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, NIGMS Special Emphasis Panel MORE-4 IN. Date: March 23, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

2011-02-24

220

75 FR 12242 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; NIGMS PSI-Biology Centers for Membrane Proteins. Date: April 9-10...Room 3AN18, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 435-3825, hydec@nigms.nih.gov (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2010-03-15

221

General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the student laboratory manual that was designed to accompany some of the experimental activities found in the teacher's guide to this general science course for ninth graders. It contains laboratory worksheets for lessons on such topics as: (1) soil; (2) hazardous waste; (3) wildlife refuges; (4) the water cycle; (5) water…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

222

Using Self-Reflection to Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video…

Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

2009-01-01

223

Conceptions of the Nature of Science--Are They General or Context Specific?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigates the relationship between general and context-specific conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The categorization scheme by Osborne et al. (J Res Sci Teach 40:692-720, "2003") served as the theoretical framework of the study. In the category "nature of scientific knowledge", the certainty, development, simplicity,…

Urhahne, Detlef; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Juergen

2011-01-01

224

Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)\\/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information

L. J. Allison; H. A. Pfuderer; B. N. Collier

1979-01-01

225

75 FR 43180 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Research Centers in Trauma, Burn, and Peri-Operative Injury (P50). Date: August 17, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-07-23

226

75 FR 69090 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Research Centers in Trauma, Burn and Peri-Operative Injury. Date: December 3, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-11-10

227

77 FR 33477 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Trauma, Burn and Peri-Operative Injury Research Centers. Date: June 26, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review...

2012-06-06

228

Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered…

Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

2012-01-01

229

General Education Engagement in Earth and Planetary Science through an Earth-Mars Analog Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.

Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.

2012-12-01

230

[Science Modules: Teaching Tactics, Questioning Techniques, Planning Short-Term Teaching Strategies, and Planning Long-Term Teaching Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are four modules (from Appendix A), developed for a study at Central Michigan University, focusing on competency-based materials in science methods education for elementary school teachers. The Teaching Tactics Module is an attempt to combine process teaching skills and inquiry. Four teaching tactics are emphasized: initiating, focusing,…

Oana, Robert G.; Eiszler, Charles F.

231

A Study of the Questioning Behavior of Teachers in the Science Curriculum Improvement Study Teaching the Unit on Material Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has identified two main types of lessons: invention lessons, where the teachers introduce concepts, and discovery lessons in which children apply the concepts to new situations. The transcripts of tape recordings of the same sequence of four lessons, two invention and two discovery, of four teachers in the…

Kondo, Allan Kiichi

232

Examining Teachers’ Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students’ Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort\\u000a on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers’ instructional moves to elicit and develop students’ ideas and\\u000a questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit.\\u000a The unit materials included features

Christopher J. Harris; Rachel S. Phillips; William R. Penuel

233

General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

2012-12-01

234

Computational Math, Science, and Technology (C-MST) Approach to General Ed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we present a computational approach to teaching general education courses that expose students to science and computing principles in engaging contexts, including modeling and simulation, games, and history. The courses use scalable curriculum modules organized in layers of increasing difficulties in order to balance learning challenges and student abilities. We describe the computational pedagogy followed in these modules and courses, with particular attention to the simulation-based course, namely introduction to computational science, to present a case study for those considering similar initiatives.

Yasar, Osman

235

The value of asking questions.  

PubMed

Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of "facts" rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

Vale, Ronald D

2013-03-01

236

Principal engineering design questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of principal questions is key to providing a common direction in the developing field of engineering design research. A general engineering framework can be utilized to identify these principal questions. This general framework rigorously defines variables and indicates relationships among the fundamental engineering variables of geometric form, material form, performance, behavior, environmental constraints, environmental conditions, space, and time.

Ronald Samuel LaFleur

1992-01-01

237

An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†  

PubMed Central

The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists.

Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

238

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

239

Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

NCI’s Provocative Questions Project seeks to go beyond the questions that are self-evident or that have been studied for many years. NCI asked investigators to propose intriguing questions that need attention or have stumped us in the past.

240

Postdoctoral Training in the Biomedical Sciences. An Evaluation of NIGMS [National Institute of General Medical Sciences] Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes in detail a study of postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences. Highlights of the study indicate: (1) During the 1958-70 period, 8,685 postdoctorals, equally divided between MD's and PD's, were supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), at a total cost of $86.5 million. (2) Directors of the…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

241

Proposed Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

242

Earth Science in GCSE Science Syllabuses and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds variable coverage of Earth Science topics in the United Kingdom among General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) double-award science syllabuses and examination papers. Concludes that the levels of error in the examination papers were high and that Earth Science questions showed lower levels of demand and higher levels of recall than…

King, Chris; Brooks, Mike; Gill, Robin; Rhodes, Alan; Thompson, David

1999-01-01

243

Science & Safety: Making the Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

244

Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank

2011-01-01

245

The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

2010-01-01

246

Curiosity Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

2010-01-01

247

Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.  

PubMed

The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N?=?36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. PMID:22616822

Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

2012-01-01

248

How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

2008-06-01

249

IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

250

The Driving Question Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Schwartz, Yael

2008-11-01

251

Patient Safety in Tehran University of Medical Sciences' General Hospitals, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to focus on creating opportunities for patients’ participation at all levels of health systems in order to promote their ability to improve patient safety and quality of services. The general aim of this study was to determine patient safety level in Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ (TUMS) general hospitals, Tehran, Iran from patients’ perspective and to determine the contributory factors on their perspective. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In the spring 2011, the list of clinical departments of the six general hospitals affiliated to TUMS was obtained through the Website of TUMS. By using stratified random sampling, the sample size was calculated 300 patients. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and its validity and reliability were acceptable. Descriptive statistics, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyzing the data. Results: Totally, 60% of patients were female. Patient safety was evaluated high by 60% of respondents. The unmarried or educated or employed individuals tend to score lower than others. Conclusion: TUMS’s general hospitals are enough safe from patients’ perspective, patient safety should be improved. In clinical governance, contributing patients’ perspective to the improvement of patient safety reforms is critical in generating new models of good practice.

ARAB, Mohammad; AKBARI SARI, Ali; MOVAHED KOR, Elham; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; TOLOUI RAKHSHAN, Shiva; EZATI, Mohammad

2013-01-01

252

National Science Foundation, Office of the Inspector General Semiannual Report to the Congress, March 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is charged with supporting and strengthening all research discplines, and providing leadership across the broad and expanding frontiers of science and engineering knowledge. It is governed by the National Science Boar...

2012-01-01

253

A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is operational. In a first phase, climate scientists (and their friends!) are invited to jump in for free, submit climate articles and help design its development. Once an initial content is in place, the second phase will start consisting in an active promotion campaign to reach at the general public and enroll citizens. In this presentation, I will discuss the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future.

Bourqui, Michel

2014-05-01

254

Critical Questions in Wetland Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

255

General Programmatic Terms and Conditions for Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC) Cooperative Agreements  

NSF Publications Database

... Programmatic Terms and Conditions for the Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC ... NSF Grants Officer. 2. Program Description: Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers ...

256

Methods and successes of New York University workshops for science graduate students and post-docs in science writing for general audiences (readers and radio listeners)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and science administrators often stress the importance of communication to the general public, but rarely develop educational infrastructures to achieve this goal. Since 2009, the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University has offered a series of basic and advanced writing workshops for graduate students and post-docs in NYU's eight scientific divisions (neuroscience, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, and computer science). The basic methodology of the NYU approach will be described, along with successful examples of both written and radio work by students that have been either published or broadcast by general interest journalism outlets.

Hall, S. S.

2012-12-01

257

Science Education for Everyone: Why and What?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What the author explores in this essay is not so much the "whether" of general science education, but the "why." What exactly constitutes good science education, and how can one recognize when students have received it? Once this question has been answered, the answer to the "what" question--the actual content of the curriculum--is relatively easy…

Trefil, James

2008-01-01

258

Earth System Science Education in a General Education Context: Two Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The teaching of Earth System Science (ESS) to non-science majors is examined in a large lecture format class at a state university and in small classes with a significant research component at a liberal arts college. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of both approaches reveal some of the challenges educators face as they work to advance students' integrated understanding of the Earth system. Student learning on selected concepts in the large lecture format class was poorly or negatively correlated with the amount of class time spent on the topic, even when the time was spent in teacher-student dialogue or in cooperative learning activities. The small class format emphasized student participation in research, which was found to be particularly effective when the class operated as a three-week intensive block and student use of computer models to simulate the dynamics of complex systems, which was found to be more effective when the class was held in a ten-week quarter. This study provides some clarification as to the utility of specific pedagogical frameworks (such as constructivism and experiential education) in the teaching of ESS to a general education audience and emphasizes the importance of carefully defining educational goals (both cognitive and affective) as a part of the curriculum design.

Herring, J. A.

2004-12-01

259

Education Partnerships: Museums as Mediators Between Science, Educators and the General Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Exploratorium, a museum of science, art and human perception in San Francisco, has been partnering with polar scientists to bring their work to the general public, students and teachers before and during the International Polar Year, 2007-9. Last year, Exploratorium producers connected with scientists on the ANDRILL sediment coring project out of McMurdo, Antarctica in a series of live programs and web postings that were broadcast on the museum floor and on the Internet. This work builds on an NSF-funded project in 2001 that brought four museum educators to Antarctica on a six-week Web expedition and will continue over the next two field seasons in Antarctica and the Arctic field season in summer 2008. Over the next 18 months, the Exploratorium's "Ice Stories" will partner museum media and web producers with polar scientists working in the field to bring their research to the Internet and museum audience via live Webcasts, video clips, blogs, podcasts, and other media platforms. The museum will curate polar field reports from scientists and educators into a continuously updated Web portal on the Exploratorium's award-winning Website and highlight the ongoing research in museum programming, floor demonstrations, and exhibits. There is excellent potential for these partnerships between formal and informal science to be expanded by creating additional links with formal educators in classroom and out-of-classroom settings.

Miller, M. K.

2007-12-01

260

Answering Essay Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, ``Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?'' Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

Debuvitz, William

2008-03-01

261

Active Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether the technique of having students ask "active questions" (in the form of "I understand that...but I don't understand...") enhanced critical thinking and overall performance in the classroom. Subjects, 164 students in six tenth-grade biology sections and four junior-senior astronomy/geology sections, responded to a…

Williams, Steven F.

262

Questioning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…

Martin, Nikki

2003-01-01

263

Questor's Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

2009-01-01

264

A study of the test-retest reliability of the self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the test–retest reliability of two self-perceived recovery questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), and to assess whether remembering previous answers influences reliability. The self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions were administered to 46 patients with recent WAD 6 weeks after recruitment and again 3–5 days later. At follow-up, we also asked participants if they remembered their previous answers. We used the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to measure the reliability of the original ordinal response structure and kappa statistics for dichotomized responses. The ICC [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for the general recovery and for the change in neck pain questions were 0.70 (0.60–0.80) and 0.80 (0.72–0.87), respectively. The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the general recovery question was 0.81 (0.64–0.99) when recovery was defined as “completely better” or “much improved”. The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the change in neck pain question was 0.80 (0.62–0.99) when recovery was defined as “very much better” or “better”. Our analysis suggests that the test–retest reliability may be higher for participants who remembered their previous responses. In conclusion, our results suggest that self-perceived recovery questions have adequate reliability for use in epidemiological research of WAD.

Ngo, Trung; Stupar, Maja; Boyle, Eleanor; Shearer, Heather

2010-01-01

265

A study of the test-retest reliability of the self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the test-retest reliability of two self-perceived recovery questions in patients with recent whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), and to assess whether remembering previous answers influences reliability. The self-perceived general recovery and self-perceived change in neck pain questions were administered to 46 patients with recent WAD 6 weeks after recruitment and again 3-5 days later. At follow-up, we also asked participants if they remembered their previous answers. We used the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to measure the reliability of the original ordinal response structure and kappa statistics for dichotomized responses. The ICC [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for the general recovery and for the change in neck pain questions were 0.70 (0.60-0.80) and 0.80 (0.72-0.87), respectively. The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the general recovery question was 0.81 (0.64-0.99) when recovery was defined as "completely better" or "much improved". The kappa statistic (95% CI) for the change in neck pain question was 0.80 (0.62-0.99) when recovery was defined as "very much better" or "better". Our analysis suggests that the test-retest reliability may be higher for participants who remembered their previous responses. In conclusion, our results suggest that self-perceived recovery questions have adequate reliability for use in epidemiological research of WAD. PMID:20130932

Ngo, Trung; Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Shearer, Heather

2010-06-01

266

A Reconstruction of Structure of the Atom and Its Implications for General Physics Textbooks: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presentation of the Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr models of the atom in general physics textbooks based on criteria derived from history and philosophy of science. Forty-one general physics…

Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2004-01-01

267

101questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by math educator Dan Meyer, randomly displays photos and brief videos contributed by Meyer or visitors to the site. The photos and videos are in intended to be "perplexing" and to promote wondering. Visitors to the site are encouraged to post questions inspired by the images. Many of these can be used in the classroom to spark inquiry and initiate mathematics investigations. The page links to a related blog.

2012-03-01

268

Does science education need the history of science?  

PubMed

This essay argues that science education can gain from close engagement with the history of science both in the training of prospective vocational scientists and in educating the broader public about the nature of science. First it shows how historicizing science in the classroom can improve the pedagogical experience of science students and might even help them turn into more effective professional practitioners of science. Then it examines how historians of science can support the scientific education of the general public at a time when debates over "intelligent design" are raising major questions over the kind of science that ought to be available to children in their school curricula. It concludes by considering further work that might be undertaken to show how history of science could be of more general educational interest and utility, well beyond the closed academic domains in which historians of science typically operate. PMID:18702401

Gooday, Graeme; Lynch, John M; Wilson, Kenneth G; Barsky, Constance K

2008-06-01

269

Research & Teaching: Approaching Scientific Literacy Goals in General Education Science Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of implementing new approaches in science teaching which will elevate citizen concerns to science-related issues confronting society. Outlines a biology application course designed to counteract current problems in this area. (RT)

Yager, Robert E.

1989-01-01

270

General Didactics and Instructional Design: eyes like twins A transatlantic dialogue about similarities and differences, about the past and the future of two sciences of learning and teaching.  

PubMed

Although General Didactics (GD) and Instructional Design (ID) have not shown many points of contact in the past, there are some obvious parellels from the perspective of their historical development. This will be examined in detail in this article. More specifically, we speak about model building, which has characterized General Didactics and Instructional Design for some decades. However, the models of General Didactics and Instructional Design are not problem-free with regard to the continuity and advancement of both disciplines. First, we will describe the historical roots of both disciplines and examine which elements of theory are of central importance. Second, we will try to answer the question of which kind of model building could be considered as predominant and what problems result from this predominance. In order to do this, we will describe empirical studies on the use of instructional models and discuss these studies from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Third, we will draw inferences for future processes of model building in order to prevent the same problems that happened in the past from happening again. Finally, we will discuss the issue of what General Didactics can learn from Instructional Design and vice versa. PMID:23961346

Zierer, Klaus; Seel, Norbert M

2012-01-01

271

General Programmatic Terms and Conditions for the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Education (NSEE) Cooperative Agreement, (NSF 05-543)  

NSF Publications Database

... links science museums and other informal science education organizations with nanoscale science and ... informal science education (ISE)-research organization collaboration, links science museums and ...

272

Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

273

Asking Questions, All the Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

274

Mnemonic instruction of eighth-grade science vocabulary: A focus on retention, and specific vs. general transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There were three goals to this study: (a) to teach eighth-grade students how to use a mnemonic to improve their knowledge of science vocabulary; (b) to investigate retention on an immediate, 2-day, and 2-week retention test among students who use of the method of loci, pegword, keyword mnemonics or free study to study eighth-grade science vocabulary; and (c) to understand whether students could transfer use of a mnemonic under both specific and general transfer conditions. One-hundred and eight eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (e.g., method of loci, pegword, keyword, or free study). Over a 2-week period, students learned their assigned mnemonic device, were tested on immediate, 2-day, and 2-week delay retention of science vocabulary examples and definitions, and were tested on their ability to transfer their mnemonic under a specific transfer condition (study metal alloy uses) and a general transfer condition (study Revolutionary War battle events). The results of this study indicate that students who used the keyword mnemonic to study both science vocabulary examples and definitions outperformed students who used the method of loci and free study methods to study this information. Results also demonstrate that students can use the pegword mnemonic to study science vocabulary definitions. Results also indicate that students who used the keyword and pegword mnemonics retained science vocabulary examples and definitions over time. Additionally, results suggest that students using the keyword mnemonic could transfer the use of a mnemonic under specific transfer and general transfer conditions. The results of this study provide evidence to researchers and teachers that the keyword and pegword mnemonics may help improve eighth-grade students' science knowledge.

Richmond, Aaron S.

275

Generating HRD Related "General Knowledge" from Mode 2 "Design Science" Research: A Cumulative Study of Manager and Managerial Leader Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates how Mode 2 "design science" research can generate HRD related "general knowledge" in support of evidence-based practice. It describes a "derived-etic" study that compares and contrasts the findings of six previous "emic" studies previously carried out within six different public and private/corporate sector organizations in…

Hamlin, Robert G.

2007-01-01

276

Effects of Computer-Based Diagnostic Instruction and Non-Diagnostic Instruction on Laboratory Achievement in General Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of computer-based diagnostic testing on the laboratory achievement of 91 preservice elementary teachers were assessed. These teachers were enrolled in one of four laboratory sections of a general science course. Intact classes were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. All students completed the same laboratory activities…

McKenzie, Danny L.; Karnau, Sally A.

277

Scientific Inquiry and Science Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND SCIENCE TEACHING Using the Internet, a science teacher provided students access to hundreds of ultraviolet (UV) photographic images of the outer atmosphere of Earth. Upon examining the images, students discovered numerous dark “holes” in the outer atmosphere. The teacher posed a general question for the students--What could possibly explain the “dark holes”? The teacher asked the students

RODGER W. BYBEE

278

A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic nonlinearity and demonstrate that it accommodates many different classes of scientific-based parameterizations as special cases. The model is presented in a hierarchical Bayesian framework and is illustrated with examples from ecology and oceanography. ?? 2010 Sociedad de Estad??stica e Investigaci??n Operativa.

Wikle, C. K.; Hooten, M. B.

2010-01-01

279

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

280

A Process-Conceptual Scheme Approach for Junior College General Education Science Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing related literature and consulting with scientists and science educators, the investigator identified seven processes of science (observing, describing-communicating, predicting, inferring, factor identification, experimental analysis, and experimental design) and ten scientific conceptual schemes (matter-energy-forces, interaction,…

Middleton, Lennie Small, Jr.

281

Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and students using a standard or traditional laboratory curriculum on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on a specific topic, chemical equilibrium. The SWH helps students do inquiry science laboratory work by structuring the laboratory…

Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

2007-01-01

282

IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Online Information Service of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology" (Ryuko Igarashi, Japan); (2) "A View from the Chip--The Influence of Information Technologies on Libraries…

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

283

IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "UAP (Universal Availability of Publications) and User Training for Categories of Grey Literature" (Dieter Schmidmaier, Mining Academy Freiberg, East Germany); (2) "Resource Sharing in Science

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

284

The Conservation of Energy Concept in Ninth Grade General Science, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is an instructional approach, "concept-distillation," which involves experiences, games, and puzzles that have the "distilled essence" of the basic concepts of the physical sciences. This approach is designed to impart a vivid and dramatic meaning and structure of the sciences for transfer in scientific thinking. The materials consist of…

Shockley, William; And Others

285

Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries*  

PubMed Central

A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

Hollander, Sue M.

2000-01-01

286

A Comparison of the Effects of Observational Learning and Self-Rating on the Acquisition and Retention of a Questioning Behavior by Elementary Science Teacher Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effect of a film-mediated model to the effect of a self rating, written model in developing trainees' ability to ask appropriate classroom questions. Showed no significant difference between the two methods. (PR)

Koran, John J., Jr.

1970-01-01

287

76 FR 7573 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MBRS Chemistry. Date: March 7, 2011. Time: 8 a...Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental...93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

2011-02-10

288

General Programmatic Terms and Conditions for Nanoscale Science and Engineering Cooperative Agreements, (NSF 04-043)  

NSF Publications Database

... Science and Engineering (NSE) Cooperative Agreements, (NSF 04-043) 1. Key Personnel: Except for the ... by an NSF Grants Officer. 2. For Cooperative Agreements (CAs) awarded under the NSE Solicitation ...

289

76 FR 10038 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-02-23

290

76 FR 10043 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-02-23

291

77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An12F, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2881, sunshinh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-06-15

292

76 FR 13197 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-03-10

293

75 FR 63493 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-10-15

294

77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-06-15

295

75 FR 71134 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN-12F, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2881, sunshinh@nigms.nih.gov. Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-11-22

296

75 FR 18218 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN-18, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-2848, latkerc@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-04-09

297

75 FR 69092 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-594-2771. johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-11-10

298

77 FR 60448 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-10-03

299

77 FR 19678 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive Room 3An18B, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-04-02

300

76 FR 2914 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18K, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3907, pikbr@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-01-18

301

75 FR 35075 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-594-2771. johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-06-21

302

76 FR 62080 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical [[Page 62081

2011-10-06

303

76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18A, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-435-3825, hydec@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-10-19

304

77 FR 14407 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An12F, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-594-2881, Sunshinh-@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-03-09

305

76 FR 68486 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18J, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-2773, laffanjo@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2011-11-04

306

75 FR 12242 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN-12, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2886, zacharya@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2010-03-15

307

General performance indexes calculated for research institutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences based on scientometric indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of research institutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences were assessed multidimensionally. Taking into accountgoals and tasks of the institutes,weighted scientometric indicators were suggested. The weights of the individual indexes weredistributed among the institutes by the values of their indicators. The sum of the individual weighted scores representing special aspects\\u000a of the total activity yields aGeneral Performance Index (GPI)

P. Vinkler

1998-01-01

308

DEVELOPMENT OF A STORAGE-RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GENERALIZATIONS WERE CLASSIFIED AND FIELD TESTED, AND A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED DURING THIS PROJECT. THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INVOLVED ORGANIZING GENERALIZATIONS INTO A LOGICAL SYSTEM OF 10 CATEGORIES. THE CODING PLAN WAS TO ASSIGN A 10-DIGIT NUMERIC CODE TO EACH GENERALIZATION AND CATEGORY. TWO DECKS OF CARDS WERE CODED AND PRODUCED, AND A…

ADAIR, CHARLES H.; BARBE, RICHARD H.

309

Development and Evaluation of Computer-Administered Analytical Questions for the Graduate Record Examinations General Test. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-06P.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three new computer-administered item types for the analytical scale of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test were developed and evaluated. One item type was a free-response version of the current analytical reasoning item type. The second item type was a somewhat constrained free-response version of the pattern identification (or…

Bridgeman, Brent; Rock, Donald A.

310

IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

311

78 FR 70311 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An.22, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, sidorova@nigms.nih.gov. This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed...

2013-11-25

312

The Development and Affective Evaluation of a Minicourse Structure for General Education Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were: to determine the degree to which student attitudes were changed by the use of minicourses and to produce a model which could be used by other academic departments interested in the use of minicourses. The study included 240 students in four sections of Earth Science at the University of Northern Colorado. Each…

Anderson, Jack Ronald; Kubicek, Leonard

313

Science Education Information Report, General Bibliography Series 30, Teacher Characteristics, Student Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are 49 citations of documents related to teacher and student characteristics in science and mathematics education. The documents included represent research reviews, conference reports, research reports, position papers, textbooks, manuals, speeches, and other types. Citations are categorized in alphabetical order by author, and indicate…

ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

314

General Education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science College Courses Serve as a Vehicle for Improving Science Literacy in the United States.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year approximately 500,000 undergraduate college students take a general education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science (EASS) course in the Unites States. For the majority of these students this will be their last physical science course in life. This population of students is incredibly important to the science literacy of the United States citizenry and to the success of the STEM career pipeline. These students represent future scientists, technologists, business leaders, politicians, journalists, historians, artists, and most importantly, policy makers, parents, voters, and teachers. A significant portion of these students are taught at minority serving institutions and community colleges and often are from underserved and underrepresented groups, such as women and minorities. Members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) at the University of Arizona have been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of instructional strategies and materials that are explicitly designed to challenge students' naïve ideas and intellectually engage their thinking at a deep level in the traditional lecture classroom. The results of this work show that dramatic improvement in student understanding can be made from increased use of interactive learning strategies. These improvements are shown to be independent of institution type or class size, but appear to be strongly influenced by the quality of the instructor's implementation. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies.

Prather, E.

2011-10-01

315

General practice and the new science emerging from the theories of 'chaos' and complexity.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the general practice world view and introduces the main features of the theories of 'chaos' and complexity. From this, analogies are drawn between general practice and the theories, which suggest a different way of understanding general practice and point to future developments in general practice research. A conceptual and practical link between qualitative and quantitative methods of research is suggested. Methods of combining data about social context with data about individuals and about biomedical factors are discussed. The paper emphasizes the importance of data collected over time and of considering the multiplicative interactions between variables. Finally, the paper suggests that to develop this type of research, general practice many need to reassess systems of categorizing and recording appropriate data.

Griffiths, F; Byrne, D

1998-01-01

316

Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose collective behavior determines the global system response. Continuing progress requires access to a vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualization. However, it also requires the development of new tools that bring these advances into contact with groups of interdisciplinary and international researchers so they can be used to attack grand challenge science issues in a manner not previously possible. This presentation describes the results of an eGY showcase project to develop a testbed online conference series for this purpose. The conference series is a collaborative effort between the CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS and NSF Atmospheric Sciences Programs. Lessons learned in developing this first interface, as well as a discussion of key elements and how they worked will be presented.

Kozyra, J. U.; Barnes, R.; Fox, N. J.; Fox, P. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Morrison, D.; Pallamraju, D.; Papitashvili, V.; Ridley, A.; Talaat, E. R.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

2006-12-01

317

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... ears. Our members living across the country in cities, towns, and rural areas suggested these questions. The ... presently have? Do you recommend I get a port (an implanted device, generally in the chest area, ...

318

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-01-01

319

76 FR 19104 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Anderson, PhD, Program Director, Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry, National Institute of General...Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862,...

2011-04-06

320

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

321

Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

Meltzer, Edmund S.

2006-01-01

322

A Comparison of Two Laboratory Methods for the Teaching of General Physical Science at the College Level: Vicarious Experimentation Versus Conventional Experimentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study comparing two laboratory teaching methods used with a college level general physical science course. The criterion instruments used were: (1) Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal; (2) The Sequential Test of Educational Progress; (3) Nelson-Denny Reading Test; (4) Welch Science Process Inventory; and (5) The Smith Appraisal…

Smith, Melvin Ouston

323

THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF INTERIM TESTING IN THE USE OF AN AUTO-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN AN AREA OF GENERAL SCIENCE FOR TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECT OF INTERIM TESTING ON THE IMMEDIATE ACHIEVEMENT AND THE SUBSEQUENT RETENTION OF COLLEGE SCIENCE STUDENTS IS EXAMINED. EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM TWO INTACT GENERAL SCIENCE CLASSES FOR STUDENTS OF TEACHER EDUCATION. BOTH GROUPS WERE TAUGHT ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING THROUGH THE USE OF PROGRAMED…

SHELL, WILLIAM B.; TRIPP, JOHN D.

324

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

325

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

326

From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012.The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) "On the threshold of a peta era"; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Scientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute"; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) "Major stages of the Soviet Atomic Project"; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "History of the Astronomy history ". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486-492 • Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493-502 • Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502-509 • History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509-530

2013-05-01

327

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 9: General Science. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the last pamphlet in a series of nine discussing the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for secondary and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method, references…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

328

78 FR 35942 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-594-3663, sidorova@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General...Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2013-06-14

329

78 FR 63231 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3An.22, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3663, sidorova@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General...12C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2763, seetharams@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2013-10-23

330

The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

331

Planning a Science Fair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

Ebert, Jim

1976-01-01

332

Celebrating 50 years of the laser (Scientific session of the general meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 13 December 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the general meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the creation of lasers was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 13 December 2010. The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Matveev V A, Bagaev S N Opening speech; (2) Bratman V L, Litvak A G, Suvorov E V (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod) "Mastering the terahertz domain: sources and applications"; (3) Balykin V I (Institute of Spectroscopy, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Ultracold atoms and atom optics"; (4) Ledentsov N N (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "New-generation surface-emitting lasers as the key element of the computer communication era"; (5) Krasil'nik Z F (Institute for the Physics of Microstructures, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod) "Lasers for silicon optoelectronics"; (6) Shalagin A M (Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, RAS, Novosibirsk) "High-power diode-pumped alkali metal vapor lasers"; (7) Kul'chin Yu N (Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch, RAS, Vladivostok) "Photonics of self-organizing biomineral nanostructures"; (8) Kolachevsky N N (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser cooling of rare-earth atoms and precision measurements". The papers written on the basis of reports 2-4, 7, and 8 are published below.Because the paper based on report 6 was received by the Editors late, it will be published in the October issue of Physics-Uspekhi together with the material related to the Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, of 22 December 2010. • Mastering the terahertz domain: sources and applications, V L Bratman, A G Litvak, E V Suvorov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 8, Pages 837-844 • Ultracold atoms and atomic optics, V I Balykin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 8, Pages 844-852 • New-generation vertically emitting lasers as a key factor in the computer communication era, N N Ledentsov, J A Lott Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 8, Pages 853-858 • The photonics of self-organizing biomineral nanostructures, Yu N Kulchin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 8, Pages 858-863 • Laser cooling of rare-earth atoms and precision measurements, N N Kolachevsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 8, Pages 863-870

2011-08-01

333

Conceptual Design of a Generalized Complex Science Resource Query System For Virtual Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growth of NASA mission data centers, there is increased interest in 'virtual observatories', which will provide homogeneous access to heterogeneous resources such as distributed and disparate scientific datasets, models, and tools. A common selling point of the virtual observatory concept is that of providing complex query mechanisms that would not be possible within the current data environment. An example of such a query is: 'what are the solar wind and geophysical indices when at least three near-Earth orbiters are simultaneously observing the auroral region?' As new information discovery and retrieval capabilities are being developed under virtual observatory programs, here we build on those capabilities to design a general mechanism to specify and execute complex, multi-step scientific queries. In our design, complex queries are constructed from a series of smaller processing components that provide data creation (e.g., calculators, models), data retrieval, data conversion (e.g., units, coordinate systems, formats), and data integration (e.g., plotting, analysis) capabilities. Each component resource must be sufficiently well defined via metadata (specifying inputs, processing, outputs) to enable its use as a building block in constructing complex, scientific queries from high-level user requests.

Fortner, B.; Morrison, D.; Immer, E.; Hashemian, M.; Holder, R.

2005-05-01

334

Assessing students' learning outcomes, self-efficacy and attitudes toward the integration of virtual science laboratory in general physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in online delivery of higher education in the United States. Recent developments in web technology and access to the internet have led to a vast increase in online courses. For people who work during the day and whose complicated lives prevent them from taking courses on campus, online courses are the only alternatives by which they may achieve their goals in education. The laboratory courses are the major requirements for college and university students who want to pursue degree and certification programs in science. It is noted that there is a lack of laboratory courses in online physics courses. The present study addressed the effectiveness of a virtual science laboratory in physics instruction in terms of learning outcomes, attitudes, and self-efficacy of students in a Historically Black University College. The study included fifty-eight students (36 male and 22 female) of different science majors who were enrolled in a general physics laboratory course. They were divided into virtual and traditional groups. Three experiments were selected from the syllabus. The traditional group performed one experiment in a traditional laboratory, while the virtual group performed the same experiment in a virtual laboratory. For the second experiment, the use of laboratories by both groups was exchanged. Learner's Assessment Test (LAT), Attitudes Toward Physics Laboratories (ATPL), and Self-Efficacy Survey (SES) instruments were used. Additionally, quantitative methods such as an independent t-test, a paired t-test, and correlation statistics were used to analyze the data. The results of the first experiment indicated the learning outcomes were higher in the Virtual Laboratory than in the traditional laboratory, whereas there was no significant difference in learning outcomes with either type of lab instruction. However, significant self-efficacy gains were observed. Students expressed positive attitudes in terms of liking as well as interests in performing experiments in virtual laboratories. No gender differences were observed in learning outcomes or self-efficacy. The results of the study indicated that virtual laboratories may be a substitute for traditional laboratories to some extent, and may play a vital role in online science courses.

Ghatty, Sundara L.

335

What is Theoretical Computer Science? (Preliminary Version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a bird's eye view of Theoretical Computer Science aimed at a general scientific audience. It then focuses on a selected area within this general field, and discusses some of the applications of results from that area and of the fundamental theoretical questions that drive its de- velopment.

Luca Aceto; Anna Ingolfsdottir

336

Eight Questions Frequently Asked about Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom teachers' engagement in dialogue with their students develops important skills and attitudes. Drawing from a series of inservice teacher education workshops, this paper addresses the following concerns with respect to acquiring and strengthening questioning techniques: (1) "Should all children be asked a variety of question types, or…

Supon, Viola; Wolf, Pat

337

Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-01-01

338

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

339

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

340

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

341

NAEP Questions Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool from the National Center for Educational Statistics provides assessment questions used on the NAEP since 1990. Question searches may be limited by subject, grade, year, or type. Questions returned show their assessed difficulty and the percentage of students that answered correctly. Additionally, each question gives its scoring guide, a sample of student responses, and scoring demographics.

Tool, Naep A.

2006-10-30

342

Who Asks the Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

Hervey, Sheena

2006-01-01

343

Sound Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

2010-01-01

344

Rules of the Game: Effects of a Game-based Metaphor on Instructional Activity Design and the Use of Student Mentors on Learning Outcomes in a Middle School General Science Class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of a game-like environment on instructional activity design and the use of student mentors on learning outcomes in a middle school general science class. The participants for this study were 165 students, ages 13-14 years old, who were enrolled in 8th grade at a mid-Atlantic middle school. Two research questions were used to conduct the research: 1. Can science content be designed and successfully delivered instructionally using a game-like learning environment? 2. Does the use of student mentors/assistants help direct and maintain the flow of the class away from the technological issues toward the necessary learning outcomes while also increasing the science content understanding acquired by the mentors while also increasing class and student engagement? For this study an introductory biology unit was designed using a game-like curricular structure. Student mentors were utilized in order to aid focus on the content and not the technology. The results indicated that the instructional design of the unit using a game-like environment was successful and students exhibited learning. The mentor students were instrumental in steering their fellow students away from the “Siren’s Call” of the instrument (in this case StarLogo) and enabled increased focus on the content. Keywords: Trivial games, Serious Games, Epistemic Games, Student Mentors, StarLogo, Elaboration Theory.

Dowling, Angie

345

Posing Problems for Open Investigations: What Questions Do Pupils Ask?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that explored the types of questions that students ask for open-ended science investigations. Discusses how teachers can help students identify problems and pose questions that are feasible for investigation. (Contains 55 references.) (DDR)

Chin, Christine; Kayalvizhi, G.

2002-01-01

346

Life Sciences and GMOs: Still an Uninsurable Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The title of this paper is a leading question, but the assumptions which it reflects are important, as it summarizes some of the problems faced in Europe today by research, development and commercialization activities based on modern biotechnology. The question implies that ''life sciences and GMOs'' have been and remain uninsurable activities, neither of which is generally true; but the

Mark Cantley

2004-01-01

347

Mix One-Part Astronomy Education Research with One-Part General Education Astronomy Course and You Get a Very Potent Science Literacy Transformation Cocktail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are you doing the job that our society needs you to do? Are you successful at it? How do you know? Over the past decade we have worked closely with hundreds of college instructors, postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads in collaborative research projects designed to help us understand fundamental issues of teaching and learning in college-level general education astronomy and space science courses. The results from these multi-institutional research collaborations have been used to transform classrooms all over the country. We are creating learning environments that significantly improve the science literacies and engagements in STEM of the hundreds of thousands of students taking these courses each year. By moving students along the continuum from non-science majors, to peer instructors, to researchers and curriculum developers, to STEM and STEM education degree seeking students, we are creating the next generation’s “Ambassadors of Science.”

Prather, Edward E.

2012-05-01

348

Formulating a Research Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

2003-08-12

349

Workshops & Outcomes — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The participants of the first Provocative Questions meeting supported the idea that the format of small workshops are a useful means to engage in conversations about questions that might stimulate innovative research on various aspects of cancer.

350

Validating and assessing the sensitivity of the climate model with an ocean general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new version of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), climate model (CM) has been developed using an ocean general circulation model instead of the statistical-dynamical ocean model applied in the previous version. The spatial resolution of the new ocean model is 3° in latitude and 5° in longitude, with 25 unevenly spaced vertical levels.

K. E. Muryshev; A. V. Eliseev; I. I. Mokhov; N. A. Diansky

2009-01-01

351

How To Ask Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to aid teachers, particularly social studies teachers, in improving their classroom questioning techniques. An introductory section notes the importance of effective questioning in the stimulation of thinking and learning. A technique is suggested by which a teacher can measure his question-response patterns by…

Morgan, Jack C.; Schreiber, Joan E.

352

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

353

Questions for Surveys  

PubMed Central

We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge.

Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

354

The Question about Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a list of questions for teachers to ask their literature classes, including questions on the author, the style, the theme, the setting, and the plot. Notes how sequencing these questions can prepare students for other activities in literature appreciation. (RL)

Evans, Ronald

1982-01-01

355

Teachers' Classroom Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

Sahin, Alpaslan

2007-01-01

356

The Questions of Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

Dillon, J. T.

2009-01-01

357

Improving Student Question Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

2009-01-01

358

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

359

Why-Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions that define correct answers to why-questions are discussed. Stated more precisely, a why-question is a question that can be put in English in the form of an interrogative sentence of which the following is true: (1) the sentence begins with...

S. Bromberger

1966-01-01

360

The Inappropriate Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the inappropriate question in the particular context of the Modern Language Association (MLA) interview--interviews for academic positions which take place at the MLA convention. Mentions questions that are illegal as well as inappropriate. Encourages "planning" for inappropriate questions. (PA)

Kress, Susan

1998-01-01

361

Science Fair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your task is to design a science fair project by choosing from a list of questions that I have provided. The questions will narrow down your topic to a specific area in science, however the ultimate topic of your project is up to you! Make sure to pick an area of science that you are interested in, this should be fun! Enjoy! Guidelines For The Project: You may work in pairs, or by yourself. There are to be no more than two people working together on a single project. Partners must be in the same period science class. Research will be done on the project, a works cited page must also ...

Baumes, Ms.

2008-05-15

362

Question-Asking and Question-Exploring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

2012-01-01

363

The "Trickster" and the Questionability of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a question can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…

Stewart, Connie

2009-01-01

364

Five questions to ask about the soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the lecturer to talk mostly about the soil issues that are of main interest to the audience. Every soil science course should involve laboratory and field classes as much as possible. Hands on experience has always been of outmost importance and one hour in the lab or in the field can substitute 3-5 hours of lecturing measuring the absorbed information by students. So, to conclude, if one knows that something is alive, what it is made off, how old it is, what will happen to it during natural processes and also during imposed processes one would develop some respect for it and would be interested in its various characteristics and also, probably, how to save it from degradation. If that is all done while having a chance to touch it, and see it in its natural condition, the result would be even more insightful.

Kasanin Grubin, Milica

2013-04-01

365

Halloween Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may well have the usual "bigger is better" conception about comparing different items. Pumpkins are the perfect object to help engage students in investigative science and answer most of their questions by direct observation.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

366

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of Understanding Science is to provide a fun, accessible, and free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. The process of science is exciting, but standard explanations often miss its dynamic nature. Science affects us all everyday, but people often feel cut off from science. Science is an intensely human endeavor, but many portrayals gloss over the passion, curiosity, and even rivalries and pitfalls that characterize all human ventures. Understanding Science gives users an inside look at the general principles, methods, and motivations that underlie all of science.

2009-01-01

367

When lawyers question children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of some complex question forms frequently used by attorneys who examine and cross-examine witnesses in the courtroom. Fifteen males and 15 females from each of four student populations (kindergarten, fourth grade, ninth grade, and college) viewed a videotaped incident and then responded to questions about the incident. Half the questions were asked in “law-yerese” (i.e.,

Nancy W. Perry; Bradley D. McAuliff; Paulette Tam; Linda Claycomb; Colleen Dostal; Cameron Flanagant

1995-01-01

368

The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

Rees, Martin

2013-01-01

369

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

370

Math Questions Worth Asking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Wendy Petti contains an updated version of Bloom's Taxonomy and sample questions that encourage dialogue with students. The article also includes suggestions for teachers about how to create questions that stimulate higher order thinking. Although there are advertisements on this webpage, the content of the freely available article is a valuable resource for teachers.

Petti, Wendy

2010-05-18

371

Problem of Questioning  

SciTech Connect

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2005-10-31

372

Questions in Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

373

Problem of Questioning  

ScienceCinema

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2011-04-25

374

Validating and assessing the sensitivity of the climate model with an ocean general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new version of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), climate model (CM) has been\\u000a developed using an ocean general circulation model instead of the statistical-dynamical ocean model applied in the previous\\u000a version. The spatial resolution of the new ocean model is 3° in latitude and 5° in longitude, with 25 unevenly spaced vertical\\u000a levels.

K. E. Muryshev; A. V. Eliseev; I. I. Mokhov; N. A. Diansky

2009-01-01

375

Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

Seabury, Marcia Bundy

1995-01-01

376

Principles of asking effective questions during student problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

377

Big Science and Big Big Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his introduction to the science shows feature in "Primary Science" 115, Ian B. Dunne asks the question "Why have science shows?" He lists a host of very sound reasons, starting with because "science is fun" so why not engage and entertain, inspire, grab attention and encourage them to learn? He goes onto to state that: "Even in today's…

Marshall, Steve

2012-01-01

378

A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types

Elena L. Keeling; Kelly M. Polacek; Ella L. Ingram

2009-01-01

379

The Complex Nature of Opening Reference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to review communication theory models and some of the literature from philosophy and linguistics in an attempt to supply a rational explanation for the generality of opening reference questions. (Author)

Eichman, Thomas Lee

1978-01-01

380

Reading Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

Carlson, Kenneth

2005-01-01

381

Deconstructing science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

Trifonas, Peter Pericles

2012-12-01

382

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Students then read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for any additional ideas and add them to the list they produced already. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

383

A Question of Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the life and artwork of Roger Brown and describes the imagery and content of his work entitled "Celebration of the Uncultivated -- A Garden of the World." Provides a reprint of the painting and activities in visual and language arts, the social science, natural science, and geometry. (CMK)

Sartorius, Tara Cady

1999-01-01

384

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

385

Choice in Question Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clarify the position concerning the giving of options in choosing questions on examination papers, and provokes thinking on the curricular and measurement problems associated with it. (Author/PG)

Singha, H. S.

1974-01-01

386

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

387

Endocrine System Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

2009-05-01

388

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

389

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

390

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

391

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

392

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

393

Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

394

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

395

The Use of Question Types to Match Questions in FAQFinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

One useful way to find the answer to a question is to search a library of previously-answered questions. This is the idea behind FAQFinder, a Web-based natural language question- answering system which uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files to answer users' questions. FAQFinder tries to answer a user's question by retrieving a similar FAQ ques- tion, if one exists, and

Steven L. Lytinen; Noriko Tomuro

2002-01-01

396

Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

2011-01-01

397

The Nature of Science and Science Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a knowledge-centered science classroom, students work to answer scientifically oriented questions by creating explanations based on evidence. This approach, called science inquiry , is how science is conducted. It creates a learning environment that reflects the culture of science. The National Research Council (1996) states that "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." This free selection describes what science inquiry is and how it should look in the classroom. It includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index. As a special bonus, an inspiring poem and two inquiry-based articles designed for elementary and middle school students are also included.

Doug Ronsberg, There'S M.; Kaitlyn Hood And Jack A. Gerlovich, Inquiring M.; William Straits, A. L.

2008-01-01

398

Postdoctoral Training in the Biomedical Sciences: An Evaluation of NIGMS (National Institute of General Medical Sciences) Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1958, the NIGMS has engaged in and promoted a program of postdoctoral training with two general goals: To enlarge and improve the pool of manpower available for biomedical research; and to provide for advanced training of researchers in the nation's...

1973-01-01

399

Postdoctoral Training in the Biomedical Sciences: An Evaluation of NIGMS [National Institute of General Medical Sciences] Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1958, the NIGMS has engaged in and promoted a program of postdoctoral training with two general goals: To enlarge and improve the pool of manpower available for biomedical research; and to provide for advanced training of researchers in the nation's graduate and medical schools. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of postdoctoral…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

400

Relationships between Classroom Process Variables and Middle-School Science Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science achievement was found to be significantly related to teacher variables and pupil engagement when teacher waiting time (TWT) and question quality were manipulated. Pupil attending and generalizing were enhanced by a mean TWT of 3 seconds when questions were relevant, clear, and at varied cognitive levels. (Author/CM)

Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

1982-01-01

401

Task Force on the Role of General Education in Associate Science Degree Programs. Final Report and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989-90, the General Education Task Force of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) was convened to determine the role of the general education curriculum in the attainment of skills that enhance the likelihood of success among technical college graduates in their careers, homes and communities. The Task Force consisted of at least one…

Weyers, Lori; Langerman, Philip

402

e-Science Infrastructure for the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the term „e-Science“ became popular, it frequently was referred to as “enhanced science” or “electronic science”. More telling is the definition ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it’ (Taylor, 2001). The question arises to what extent can the social sciences profit from recent developments in e-

Ekkehard Mochmann

2009-01-01

403

Questions Kids Ask  

MedlinePLUS

... Northeast Ohio Kidney Walk June 8, 2014 Great Lakes Science Center - Cleveland, OH Colorado Kidney Walk June ... Richmond, VA NKF Golf Classic June 9, 2014 Lake Forest Country Club - Louisville, KY 2014 Kidney Golf ...

404

Common Pesticide Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Ingredients Regulations State Federal International Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Emergency Human Poisonings Pet Poisoning Spills ... read our disclaimer | Contact us NPIC provides objective, science-based information about pesticides and pesticide-related topics ...

405

Try Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Try Science is a website supported by IBM Corporation, the New York Hall of Science (NYHOS), the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC), and science centers worldwide. The site provides a variety of mathematics, science and technology experiments and activities for students. Many of the activities are interactive, although the experiments are largely meant to be conducted offline. A section on Field Trips allows visitors to search for local science centers, which are described as "places where people of all ages can learn at their own pace, engage their curiosity, use their senses to ask and answer questions, and explain to others what they have learned." Webcams are set up to let visitors view activities at select science and technology centers worldwide. A section for teachers provides suggestions for how to use TryScience in the Classroom, discusses how the website meets Standards in the U.S, Australia and United Kingdom, offers some testimony from teachers who have used TryScience, and lists several professional development programs offered by science centers. Parents will also find a section with some helpful information about science and education along with resources on ways to get involved. Sending one of the Try Science experiments home with students is one suggested way that teachers can get parents involved in their kid's science education. Note that many of the pages require Flash plug-ins.

406

Science Literacy of Undergraduates in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science literacy is a matter of broad concern among scientists, educators, and many policy-makers. National Science Foundation surveys of the general public for biannual Science Indicators series show that respondents on average score less than 2/3 correct on a series of science knowledge questions, and less than half display an understanding of the process of scientific inquiry. Both measures are essentially unchanged over two decades. At the University of Arizona, we have gathered over 11,000 undergraduate student responses to a survey of knowledge and beliefs that is tethered in the NSF survey. This non-science major population demographically represents ten million students nationwide. There is a less than 10% gain in performance in the science knowledge score between the incoming freshmen and seniors who graduate having completed their requirement of three science classes. Belief levels in pseudoscience and supernatural phenomena are disconcertingly high, mostly resistant to college science instruction, and weakly correlated with performance on the science knowledge questions. The Internet is rapidly becoming the primary information source for anyone interested in science so students may not get most of their information from the classroom. Educators and policy makers need to decide what aspects of science knowledge and process are important for adults to know. College science educators have major challenges in better in preparing graduates for participation in a civic society largely driven by science and technology.

Impey, Chris

2013-01-01

407

Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

Schon, Isabel

1985-01-01

408

Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

1991-01-01

409

Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

Giudice, Gian Francesco

2012-03-01

410

Bibliographical Sources in Science and Technology, Engineering Reference Books, and General Sources for Financial Ratios and Operating Ratios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selected information sources held by the Arkansas University library which are listed include such general sources as Moody's and Standard and Poor's publications and bibliographies for financial and operating ratios. Reference books for engineering p...

J. Ahrens

1976-01-01

411

Capturing Parents' Individual and Institutional Interest toward Involvement in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents are generally less involved in their children's science education (as compared to reading and mathematics) due to low self-efficacy and a lack of home-school communication. This study examined parental interest and attitudes in science as well as the nature of parent-to-child questioning during an interactive home, school, and community…

Kaya, Sibel; Lundeen, Cynthia

2010-01-01

412

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

413

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Find answers to many common questions about CTRP and its use. The FAQs provide information about what CTRP is and how it works, registering trials and reporting accrual in CTRP, accessing CTRP data, and what resources are available to learn more.

414

Asking the Right Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to teaching, learning, technology, and students, it is very easy to ask the wrong question. Because students in the current generation seem to be technologically savvy, we often want to know how they use technology. So as part of the NLII?s focus on the next generation of learners -- the Net Generation --NLII started talking to…

Oblinger, Diana G.

2005-01-01

415

A Question of Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

416

The Language Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of total communication as the means to educational success for deaf persons is called into question on the basis of Jean Piaget's theory which is said to show that language does not play the major role in learning that traditional education has assigned to it. (GW)

Wolff, Sydney

1972-01-01

417

That Is the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

Korsunsky, Syd

2002-01-01

418

TryScience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TryScience is an education resource that allows students to experience contemporary science and technology. It features interactive adventure experiences, hands-on experiments on science topics that can be performed online or off, links and information for virtual field trips, quizzes and activities based on a topical question, and links to live webcams at science and technology centers around the world.

419

The Roles of Science and Technology in General and Continuing Education. Proceedings of the Conference of the Association of American Colleges (Washington, District of Columbia, December 16-18, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference focused on issues and topics related to the roles of science and technology in general and continuing education. The keynote address is entitled "Technology Transfer to the Third World: The Critical U.S. Challenge for the Eighties" (William Eilers). The section on perspectives on the public understanding of science includes the…

Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

420

Causal or spurious? The relationship of knowledge and attitudes to trust in science and technology.  

PubMed

Survey data on 1217 adults living in Alberta, Canada were collected by Ipsos Reid Public Affairs and made available to us for analysis. The survey questioned participants on issues related to science including their perceived knowledge of science, attitudes toward science, and trust in science and technology. We developed a structural equation model to account for the causal relations implied by the correlations among the variables in the data set. Results show that trust in generalized science and technology is a large determiner of trust in specific technologies, but that trust in specific technologies is not a determinant of overall trust in science and technology. We also found that attitudes towards science have an effect on trust in generalized science and technology whereas perceived knowledge does not. Education and gender contribute to attitudes supporting an increased personal attachment to science, which was the strongest predictor of trust in our model. PMID:23833175

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Reid, Grace; Schroeder, Meadow; Norris, Stephen P

2013-07-01

421

Evidence for Confirmatory Biases in Interviewers' Questioning Strategies Using a Free Question Generation Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection interview is a commonly used procedure for gathering applicant information upon which to base personnel decisions. Synder and Swann (1978) found that people tended to ask questions and generally seek information consistent with their initial beliefs about the person being interviewed. They suggested that this confirmatory questioning

Binning, John F.; And Others

422

China: Strategic Culture Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liu Ji, former Deputy Chairman of the China Academy of Social Sciences, was quoted as saying, 'Individualism, if expanded beyond control, is just like cancer to society. (Individualism) is not suitable for China.' (Hong Kong South China Morning Post, 13 F...

L. S. Disbrow

2002-01-01

423

Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an updated model of the dust aerosol cycle embedded within the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies `ModelE' atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The model dust distribution is compared to observations ranging from aerosol optical thickness and surface concentration to deposition and size distribution. The agreement with observations is improved compared to previous distributions computed by either an

R. L. Miller; R. V. Cakmur; J. Perlwitz; I. V. Geogdzhayev; P. Ginoux; D. Koch; K. E. Kohfeld; C. Prigent; R. Ruedy; G. A. Schmidt; I. Tegen

2006-01-01

424

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both âÂÂtrue-falseâÂÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

425

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The importance of this question depends on what sort of research will be considered important to fund. If we prioritize research on the tumor cell and forget about the host response, we might miss the answer. This has in part been happening in many studies over many years that attempted to find the most effective chemotherapy by testing its effects on the growth of a xenograft in an immunocompromized mouse.

426

A study of student written argument using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based freshman general chemistry laboratory classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the quality of argument found in student science writing. The writing evaluated was produced by students enrolled in inquiry-based college general chemistry laboratory classes which used the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study, Year I (fall 2003) and nineteen freshman students participated in the second year of the study, Year II (fall 2006). A framework using two different types of scoring was devised to evaluate the arguments. The first matrix scored each argument component separately and allocated a Total Argument score while the second matrix evaluated the arguments holistically. Three hundred and sixty-eight samples from thirty-three students were evaluated. Results indicate that students were able to use the SWH framework to produce reasonably good quality arguments which were generated from and embedded in a scientific inquiry. Despite fluctuations, argument scores tended to improve over the course of the semester. The argument scores were higher for Year I student who had the original SWH template than for Year II students who had two additional sections on the original SWH template. In some laboratory investigations, students obtained a higher average Holistic Argument score than an average Total Argument score. The evidence and the claims-evidence relationship components were identified as the most important predictors of the argument scores. Both Year I and Year II student argument scores were significantly correlated with the grade for the general chemistry laboratory course. The findings of this study suggest that science teachers should help students understand the importance of generating strong evidence to support a claim in order to produce a high quality of argument which emerged from scientific inquiry.

Choi, Aeran

427

Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find ?13 = 0.152±0.014, ? 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} ? and ?32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the ?2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined ?13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

2014-09-01

428

CONPTT: Science vs. Non-Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores six criteria of science (Consistent, Observable, Natural, Predictable, Testable, and Tentative (CONPTT)), with definitions and self-check questions. It compares emerging science, non-science, and pseudoscience, with definitions and examples. The activity engages students in analyzing a collection of paragraphs to decide which category each fits into.

Dickhaus, Steven

429

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

430

The effect of cooperative learning on the attitudes toward science and the achievement of students in a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students' attitudes toward science and achievement in BSC 1005L, a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college. Data were gathered on the participants' attitudes toward science and cognitive biology level pre and post treatment in BSC 1005L. Elements of the Learning Together model developed by Johnson and Johnson and the Student Team-Achievement Divisions model created by Slavin were incorporated into the experimental sections of BSC 1005L. Four sections of BSC 1005L participated in this study. Participants were enrolled in the 1998 spring (January) term. Students met weekly in a two hour laboratory session. The treatment was administered to the experimental group over a ten week period. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. Students in the cooperative learning group (nsb1 = 27) were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) and the cognitive biology test at the same time as the control group (nsb2 = 19) (at the beginning and end of the term). Statistical analyses confirmed that both groups were equivalent regarding ethnicity, gender, college grade point average and number of absences. Independent sample t-tests performed on pretest mean scores indicated no significant differences in the TOSRA scale two or biology knowledge between the cooperative learning group and the control group. The scores of TOSRA scales: one, three, four, five, six, and seven were significantly lower in the cooperative learning group. Independent sample t-tests of the mean score differences did not show any significant differences in posttest attitudes toward science or biology knowledge between the two groups. Paired t-tests did not indicate any significant differences on the TOSRA or biology knowledge within the cooperative learning group. Paired t-tests did show significant differences within the control group on TOSRA scale two and biology knowledge. ANCOVAs did not indicate any significant differences on the post mean scores of the TOSRA or biology knowledge adjusted by differences in the pretest mean scores. Analysis of the research data did not show any significant correlation between attitudes toward science and biology knowledge.

Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

431

Teacher's Toolkit: Processing the curriculum through quality questioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-02-01

432

A question of taste.  

PubMed

A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes. PMID:24174461

Mitchison, T J

2013-11-01

433

A question of taste  

PubMed Central

A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes.

Mitchison, T. J.

2013-01-01

434

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

435

48 CFR 2527.7001 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights...Inventions 2527.7001 General. National Science Foundation policies,...

2010-10-01

436

48 CFR 2527.7001 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights...Inventions 2527.7001 General. National Science Foundation policies,...

2013-10-01

437

48 CFR 2527.7001 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights...Inventions 2527.7001 General. National Science Foundation policies,...

2009-10-01

438

Improving Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

2011-01-01

439

Questioning Techniques for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers ideas for asking good questions in the classroom. Recommends that key questions be written down prior to class. Questions should clearly cue students to respond specifically and briefly. Presents examples of types of questions that have been found either to encourage or to inhibit thinking. (JS)

Karmos, Joseph S.; And Others

1990-01-01

440

The Early Years: Investigable Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may not need to teach children to ask questions, just develop that safe place where questions can be voiced, observe children to see the questions in their actions, and develop a culture that appreciates and records questions. An investigable que

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-12-01

441

Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

1981-01-01

442

An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.  

PubMed

This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

2009-01-01

443

Exploring Relationship between Students' Questioning Behaviors and Inquiry Tasks in an Online Forum through Analysis of Ideational Function of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we explored questioning behaviors among elementary students engaging in inquiry science using the "Knowledge Forum", a computer-supported collaborative learning tool. Adapting the theory of systemic functional linguistics, we developed the Ideational Function of Question (IFQ) analytical framework by means of inductive analysis of…

Tan, Seng-Chee; Seah, Lay-Hoon

2011-01-01

444

Facilitating Designs: For Inquiry with the Four-Question Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry is a goal of science education reform. Middle school science teachers and their students can develop understanding of inquiry by using an experimental design format. Facilitating this format with the four-question strategy helps students to design their investigations. An example of varying concentrations of vinegar and water illustrates…

Barrow, Lloyd H.

2008-01-01

445

Scientific Aspects of Two Theological Questions in Thomas Aquinas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of how St. Thomas Aquinas makes use of science in his theological works provides an understanding of the relations of medieval science and the Christian theology of the Middle Ages. Two issues are examined: the problem of the nature and existence of God and the question of the eternity of the world. (RM)

Lattis, James M.

1984-01-01

446

Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy and the Year of Science provide singular opportunities to focus public attention on science in general and the universe in particular in 2009. But what happens on January 1, 2010? How can the science and science education communities build on the initiatives and successes of 2009 to create sustainable programs and efforts to continue to advance science education and literacy objectives for the longer term? The presenter will relate how these questions will be addressed at the annual meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in Millbrae, California, September 12-16, and how the meeting will provide an opportunity for the science, astronomy, and science education and outreach communities to contribute to the discussion and to share their answers and perspectives with the larger community, and to identify ways in which we can forge that future path together.

Manning, James G.

2009-05-01

447

Silent Students' Participation in a Large Active Learning Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…

Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.

2012-01-01

448

Microelectronics in the Curriculum--The Science Teacher's Contribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid advances in microelectronics over the past few years have generally been beneficial, but they have also created some problems, and questions must be asked about the philosophy for including aspects of the new technology in the school curriculum. This statement, prepared by the Microelectronics and Science Education Subcommittee of the…

Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

449

Questions That Matter: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice to Improve College Access and Success. Proceedings of the Pathways to College Network, Institute for Higher Education Policy, and Social Science Research Council Invitational Conference (Washington, DC, June 15, 2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 15, 2006, the Pathways to College Network, the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP), and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) convened more than 135 education leaders, policymakers, policy-shapers, researchers, practitioners, and others from 27 states and the District of Columbia to discuss issues of critical importance to…

Pathways to College Network, 2006

2006-01-01

450

administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's ?

451

Science Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's say you're looking for a job in biotechnology someplace south of Monterey, but north of Santa Barbara. The Science Careers website can help, and it also features high-quality commentary on the state of the science workplace environment. The site is dedicated to "furthering careers in science and technology" and the heart and soul of this site is the science job database. Visitors can search jobs by keywords, U.S. regions, continent, or even perform a more advanced search. On the left-hand side of the site, visitors will find career-focused articles with titles like "Mind Matters: A Low Stress Semester", "Dealing with Debt", and "The Evolving Postdoctoral Experience". Also, visitors can check out the "Science Careers Forum" to ask questions about future employment opportunities and career development.

2009-09-14

452

Roth 401(k): asking the right questions.  

PubMed

Roth 401(k) provisions are a newly available feature of 401(k) plans. Roth 401(k) provisions are after-tax savings that generally are tax-free at the time of distribution. Questions arise for plan sponsors about whether the new feature is beneficial, and to whom, and what needs to be done if the plan sponsor decides to offer this provision to its employees. This article tries to answer some of those common questions, including a simple computational analysis to try to answer the important question of how much an employee-participant genuinely benefits from this savings approach. Some practical issues of implementation are touched on, and some unanswered questions are identified. PMID:16833065

Joyner, James F

2006-01-01

453

A reconstruction of development of the periodic table based on history and philosophy of science and its implications for general chemistry textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the periodic table. The historical reconstruction of the periodic table showed that the periodicity of the elements could be construed as an inductive generalization or as a function of the atomic theory. There is considerable controversy with respect to the nature of Mendeleev's contribution, and various alternatives are discussed: ordered domain; empirical law; and a theory with limited explanatory power. Accommodation of the elements according to their physicochemical properties is considered to be the major contribution of the periodic table by all textbooks, followed by contrapredictions of previously unknown elements (30 textbooks), and novel predictions (corrections of atomic mass) of known elements (10 textbooks). The relative importance of accommodation and prediction within an HPS framework is generally ignored. Few textbooks have attempted to explore the possible cause of periodicity in the table and very few textbooks have explored the nature of Mendeleev's contribution. The development of the periodic table as a sequence of heuristic principles in the form of a convincing argument has been ignored. The textbook approach of emphasizing that the development of the periodic table was an inductive generalization, and that Mendeleev had no model or theory, does not facilitate the spirit of critical inquiry that led the scientists to grapple with alternative interpretations, conflicts, and controversies. It is concluded that the development of the periodic table went through a continual critical appraisal (conflict and controversy), in which scientists presented various tentative theoretical ideas to understand the observed phenomena.

Brito, Angmary; Rodríguez, María. A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2005-01-01

454

Question of Life, A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses a definition of life and general conditions necessary to sustain life. Viewers are introduced to the possible past history of Mars as well as its present surface topography and its capacity to support life as we know it. Emphasizes the viking li...

1994-01-01

455

Asthma Management: Review Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A 25-year-old woman visits her physician's office, requesting refills of her albuterol inhaler. She has had asthma with daily symptoms for the past 10 years. She generally uses 2 puffs of her albuterol inhaler 4 times daily. She wakes up with asthma symptoms 1 to 2 nights a week; 2 puffs from her inhaler always brings complete relief of

Gary A. Salzman

2002-01-01

456

Questioning the Equivalence Principle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Equivalence Principle (EP) is not one of the 'universal' principles of physics (like the Action Principle). It is a heuristic hypothesis which was introduced by Einstein in 1907, and used by him to construct his theory of General Relativity. In modern...

T. Damour

2001-01-01

457

How Do Students Learn Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As we search for ways to improve classroom science experiences for students, we repeat the same question over and over: "How do students learn science?" In one sense, how students learn science falls within the realm of cognitive neuroscience. Perhaps a more pragmatic question is, "Which factors or practices most contribute to students' learning of science?" To address this question, it is important to clarify the meaning of "science learning." This chapter discusses factors that the authors and others have found to contribute to students' science learning.

Tharp, Barbara Z.; Moreno, Nancy P.

2006-01-01

458

Forensic science – A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot

2011-01-01

459

Using Student Submitted Questions for Practice in Answering Reference Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real questions, with no predetermined answers, were submitted by students in an introductory reference class and used to supplement instructor developed problems sets for practice in answering reference questions. The methodology and benefits are discussed. (Author/MBR)

Braunagel, Judith S.

1978-01-01

460

Environmental health discipline science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in environmental health. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; animal and human subjects; and research and development. This document summarizes the history and current status of the program elements, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies scientific priorities, and defines critical questions in the three disciplines: (1) Barophysiology, (2) Toxicology, and (3) Microbiology. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Officers and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area. The document is divided into sections addressing these three disciplines.

1991-01-01

461

Bayes for Beginners? Some Pedagogical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ought we to base beginning instruction in statistics for general students on the Bayesian approach to inference? In the long run, this question will be set- tled by progress (or lack of progress) in persuading users of statistical methods to choose Bayesian methods. This paper is primarily concerned with the peda- gogical challenges posed by Bayesian reasoning. It argues, based

David S. Moore

462

Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)

Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

1989-01-01

463

Media Convergence: Creating Content, Questioning Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development, dissemination, and proliferation of multimedia and media convergent texts raise a number of pressing questions for literacy scholars in general and compositionists in particular. What kinds of literacy practices are students developing through their use and composition of multimodal and new media texts? What genres are used in the creation of such texts, and why? Are there particular

Jonathan Alexander

2008-01-01

464

Stop for Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This building-wide science enrichment program consists of a series of posters and accompanying questions designed to pique student interest in science concepts and their application to the world in which we live. Accompanying each poster are question sheets of increasing difficulty levels that students answer and submit at a designated location (collection box, office, etc.). Random prize drawings can be used to recognize/celebrate student participation. The purpose is to expose students to and create school-wide interest about science so students want to "STOP for Science" as displays are changed throughout the year. Although the focus is on enhancing building-wide science interest, content can also be linked directly to science classroom activities through use of accompanying teacher resource guides that provide science background, fun facts, typical questions and misconceptions, and several demonstrations or experiments related to the poster concepts.

2010-04-29

465

Science Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents a general survey of science management both in the USSR and abroad. The problems of scientific research management within the limits of a research team laboratory, institute department, and the national economy as a whole are considered....

G. M. Dobrov

1974-01-01

466

Overnight Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

1981-01-01

467

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

468

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

469

A Revamped Science Expo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By changing the venue from festival to a required academic exposition, the traditional science fair was transformed into a "Science Expo" wherein students were guided away from cookbook experiments toward developing a question about their environment into a testable and measurable experiment. The revamped "Science Expo" became a night for students…

Barth, Lorna

2007-01-01

470

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (January 29, 1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the P L Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS on 29 January 1997. Six reports were presented at this session: (1) D Bimberg, I P Ipatova, P S Kop'ev, N N Ledentsov, V G Malyshkin, V A Shchukin (Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin; A F Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, RAS, St.-Petersburg) 'Spontaneous ordering of semiconductor nanostructures'; (2) I V Kukushkin (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) 'Experimental verification of the skyrmion concept'; 3) N A Gippius, V D Kulakovskii, S G Tikhodeev (Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow; Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) 'Effect of electric field redistribution on the electronic and optical properties of nanostructures'; (4) V V Kapaev, Yu V Kopaev, I V Tokatly (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'Momentum dependence of electron state dimensionality in heterostructures'; (5) V G Lysenko (Institute of Technology Problems for Microelectronics and Highly Purified Materials, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) 'Bloch oscillations in superlattices'; (6) V A Krupenin, S V Lotkhov, Yu A Pashkin, D E Presnov (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'An experimental study of charge effects in ultrasmall tunnel junctions'. An abridge version of the five of above reports is given below.

Bimberg, D.; Ipatova, Iya P.; Kop'ev, P. S.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Malyshkin, V. G.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Gippius, Nikolai A.; Kulakovskii, Vladimir D.; Tikhodeev, Sergei G.; Kapaev, V. V.; Kopaev, Yurii V.; Tokatly, I. V.; Lysenko, V. G.; Krupenin, V. A.; Lotkhov, S. V.; Pashkin, Yurii A.; Presnov, D. E.

1997-05-01

471

A Question of Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study examines the public health issue of asbestos. Students will learn about different types of asbestos and their uses, as well as how people are exposed to and personally harmed by the substance. The material would be appropriate for high school or lower level undergraduate classes. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Branlund, Joy M.

2010-12-24

472

The Sourcebook for Teaching Science: Games for the Science Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to science games and accompanying support material. The games include Science Jeopardy, Science Taboo, Science Bingo, Science Pictionary, Science Baseball, What in the World, and Twenty-One Questions. Each game includes the required materials such as templates, instructions, and sample games. Other links lead to sources for Tangrams, computer games and simulations, and stopwatches and timers that can be downloaded. The science bowl link leads to other sites that test science knowledge. Pull-down menus at this site provide links to other chapters of the Sourcebook for Teaching Science and Internet Resources for Teaching Science.

Herr, Norman

473

Question of the Day: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To answer the questions, refer to the map below and the wind belt map. The question refers to an imaginary continent named "Xeyna," which is populated by a fierce band of female warriors, which is ...

474

Instance-Based Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During recent years, question answering (QA) has grown from simple passage retrieval and information extraction to very complex approaches that incorporate deep question and document analysis, reasoning, planning, and sophisticated uses of knowledge resou...

L. V. Lita

2006-01-01

475

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated the psychological mechanisms that underlie human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. We believe that questioning mechanisms are fundamental components of human cognition and must be integrate...

1992-01-01

476

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. The primary studies investigated questioning during tutoring. We collected and analyzed transcripts of tutoring sessions on research methods (college...

A. C. Graesser

1992-01-01

477

Gallery Walk Questions on Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

478

Gallery Walk Questions on Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about rivers. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

479

Question of the Day Examples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refine the Results Biosphere 2 matches Climate 2 matches Earth surface 1 match Ocean 4 matches Solid Earth 2 matches Results 1 - 10 of 11 matches Question of the Day: Efficiency of Food Production part of Question ...

480

Marian Koshland Science Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marian Koshland Science Museum features state-of-the-art exhibits that present the complexities of science in an engaging and accessible way to the general public. Best enjoyed by visitors ages 13 and older, the museum explores current scientific issues at the core of many of the nationâÂÂs public policy decisions, as presented in reports by the National Academies. The website includes current news from the National Academies as well as field trip overviews, guides, pre- and post-visit activities and webquest activities. There are online exhibits covering Science Behind the Headlines including Putting DNA to Work, Global Warming: Facts and Our Future, and Wonders of Science, covering questions of astrophysics. Each exhibit has extensive online literature broken down into chapters, teaching activities, associated web links, as well as audio and visual teaching tools. The Global Warming module even allows one take part in an online survey (conducted by Pennsylvania State University) regarding the tradeoffs we face in response to global warming. These three exhibits will become traveling exhibits available for other venues.

2011-06-22

481

Marian Koshland Science Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marian Koshland Science Museum features state-of-the-art exhibits that present the complexities of science in an engaging and accessible way to the general public. Best enjoyed by visitors ages 13 and older, the museum explores current scientific issues at the core of many of the nationâs public policy decisions, as presented in reports by the National Academies. The website includes current news from the National Academies, as well as field trip overviews, guides, pre- and post-visit activities and webquest activities. There are three online exhibits covering Science Behind the Headlines, which include Putting DNA to Work, Global Warming: Facts and Our Future, and Wonders of Science, covering questions of astrophysics. Each exhibit has extensive online literature broken down into chapters, teaching activities, associated web links, as well as audio and visual teaching tools. The Global Warming module even allows one take part in an online survey (conducted by Pennsylvania State University) regarding the tradeoffs we face in response to global warming. These three exhibits will become traveling exhibits available for other venues.

482

Assessing student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and attitudes towards science in an undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is lacking in the general chemistry laboratory that explores the concerted affective predictor variables of student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and student attitudes towards science. There is little research on the assessment of variables in the affective domain to determine student experiences in the chemistry laboratory. Student experiences in this study were assessed by determining congruence between student perspectives of their actual and preferred general chemistry laboratory environment using the SLEI, and student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. Correlations between scales from the SLEI, SAI II along with the CCSS that measures self-efficacy in college chemistry were identified. A sample of eighty college students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry laboratory responded to the SLEI, SAI II, and CCSS. A t test indicated there were no significant differences with student cohesiveness, integration, material environment, and rule clarity between the actual and preferred SLEI signifying congruence. There were significant differences between students actual and preferred perception of open-endedness (t = -3.59, df = 28, p = 0.00). Student attitudes towards careers as a scientist could not be determined using pretests and posttests of the SAI II due to a ceiling effect. There were positive significant correlations found between the scales of material environment, integration from the SLEI and the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. There were also positive significant correlations between self-efficacy for everyday applications, and self-efficacy for cognitive skills from the CCSS with the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist. This study is of significance since it is the first study exploring congruence between the actual and preferred student perspectives of the laboratory using the SLEI in a first semester general chemistry laboratory. It is also the first to report correlations between combined affective variables of student perspectives of the laboratory using the SLEI, student attitudes towards careers as a scientist with the SAI II, and self-efficacy in chemistry with the CCSS. Understanding student experiences through the assessment of these affective variables can help educators modify first-semester general chemistry laboratory activities to create a positive experience for students.

Olave, Marcella

483

Fiscal Year 1990 Department of Energy Authorization (Basic Energy Science and General Science and Research). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, February 23, 1989, Volume IV  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) national energy program's for basic and general energy technologies and research programs are presented by DOE officials. Information is provided by panels of Scientific and Technical experts, federal and state officials and academic institutions. A special status review is made of the Superconducting super collider project. Topics also include research in physics, chemistry, mathematics, biological and environmental science and climate research.

Not Available

1989-01-01

484

The Questions of Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

Arcilla, Rene V.

2007-01-01

485

Question Preference in Literature Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 22-item question preference test was developed and administered to different age and ability groups in an attempt to identify "describer/explainer" question preferences. All groups preferred "explainer" questions, but there was a highly significant difference between low and high ability groups. Implications for the classroom are considered.…

Ellis, James

1979-01-01

486

Investigations of Human Question Answering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

Graesser, Arthur C.

487

Pre-Lab Questions: Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of simulation based interactive questions that were used as pre-lab questions at Kennesaw State University. The simulations in this case are based on Davidson's College Physlets. These particular questions focus on magnetism. Magnetism due to a bar magnet, a wire, a loop and a solenoid are explored.

Mzoughi, Taha

2008-07-19

488

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

489

Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

Siemsen, Hayo

2011-03-01

490

Capturing Parents' Individual and Institutional Interest Toward Involvement in Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parents are generally less involved in their children’s science education (as compared to reading and mathematics) due to low self-efficacy and a lack of home-school communication. This study examined parental interest and attitudes in science as well as the nature of parent-to-child questioning during an interactive home, school, and community collaboration in the southeastern United States. Study results, compiled from observations, exit surveys, and interviews revealed largely positive family interactions and attitudes about science learning and increased parental interest toward involvement in elementary science. Parents frequently used productive questioning techniques during activities. These results imply that successful home, school, and community partnerships may elevate levels of parental participation in their children’s science education and the parents’ perception of themselves as being competent in assisting in science.

Kaya, Sibel; Lundeen, Cynthia

2010-11-01

491

Neuroscience discipline science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

1991-01-01

492

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

493

Space human factors discipline science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive areas of behavior, performance, and human factors. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas, and identifies technological priorities. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and Exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters program offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area.

1991-01-01

494

Space Science Education Resource Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Science Education Resource Directory is designed for educators seeking NASA space science educational products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and other settings. The directory can be searched by grade, subject (space, physical or earth science), topic, or keyword. A frequently-asked-questions feature and instructions on using the directory are provided.

495

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (May 14, 1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held on May 14, 1997 at the P L Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Mineev V P, Vavilov M G (Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region) ''De Haas—van Alphen effect in superconductors''; (2) Volkov V A, Takhtamirov E E (Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics, RAS, Moscow) ''Dynamics of an electron with space-dependent mass and the effective-mass method for semiconductor heterostructures''; (3) Sukhorukov A P (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) ''New avenue of investigation in the physics of solitons: parametrically-coupled solitons in a quadratically-nonlinear medium''; (4) Bogatov A P (P N Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) ''Optics of semiconductor lasers''; (5) Korovin S D (Institute of High-Power Electronics, Tomsk) ''Generation of high-power microwave radiation on the base of high-current nanosecond electron beams''; (6) Ardelyan N V, Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Moiseenko S G (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; Institute of Space Research, Moscow) ''Explosion mechanisms of supernovae: the magnetorotational model''; (7) Slysh V I (Astrocosmic Centre of the P N Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) ''Stars, planets, and cosmic masers''. Summaries of four (1, 2, 6, 7) of the reports are given below.

Mineev, V. P.; Vavilov, M. G.; Volkov, V. A.; Takhtamirov, E. E.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.; Bogatov, Alexandr P.; Korovin, S. D.; Ardelyan, N. V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennadi? S.; Moiseenko, S. G.; Slysh, V. I.

1997-10-01

496

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (April 23, 1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held on April 23, 1997 at the P L Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Simonov V I (Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow) 'Structural investigation of single crystals and the structure—properties correlation'; (2) Fridman A M (Institute for Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) 'Giant curls in galaxies'; (3) Balaev A D, Val'kov V V, Gavrichkov V A, Ivanova N B, Ovchinnikov S G, Chernov V K (Kirenskii Institute of Physics, RAS, Krasnoyarsk) 'Quantum oscillations of resistance and magnetization in magnetic semiconductors and semimetals; (4) Brazhkin V V, Lyapin A G, Popova S V, Voloshin R N (Institute of High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow Region), Lyapin S G (Institute of High Pressure Physics and University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford), Klyuev Yu A, Naletov A M (All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute of Diamonds), Mel'nik N N (P N Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'New crystalline and amorphous carbon modifications produced from fullerite at high pressure'; (5) Ragul'skii V V (Institute for Mechanical Problems, RAS, Moscow) 'An experimental study of the optical isotropy of space'; (6) Kravtsov A V, Komberg B V, Lukash V N (Astro-Space Centre of the P N Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'Large-scale structure of the Universe and quasars'. Summaries of the four (1, 3, 4, 5) reports are given below.

Simonov, V. I.; Balaev, A. D.; Val'kov, V. V.; Gavrichkov, V. A.; Ivanova, N. B.; Ovchinnikov, Sergei G.; Chernov, V. K.; Brazhkin, Vadim V.; Lyapin, A. G.; Popova, Svetlana V.; Voloshin, Roman N.; Lyapin, S. G.; Klyuev, Yu A.; Naletov, A. M.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Ragul'skii, Valerii V.; Komberg, Boris V.; Lukash, Vladimir N.

1997-09-01

497

Information Resources in Clinical Medicine: Family Practice, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Surgery, Internal Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for beginning health science librarians, this continuing education course syllabus presents a guide to information resources for answering physicians' questions about patient care. Sources from standard core lists, such as the Alfred Brandon list, are highlighted and described, along with additional titles. General resources covered…

Schwank, Jean; Allen, Joyce

498

Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

499

Student Assistance General Provisions; Federal Pell Grant Program; Academic Competitiveness Grant Program; and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant Program. Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV, Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 668, 690, and 691  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Secretary is adopting as final, with changes, interim final regulations in: 34 CFR part 691 for the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant (National SMART Grant) programs; 34 CFR part 668 (Student Assistance General Provisions); and 34 CFR part 690 (Federal Pell Grant Program).…

National Archives and Records Administration, 2006

2006-01-01

500

Shared Academic Values: Testing a Model of the Association between Hong Kong Parents' and Adolescents' Perception of the General Value of Science and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated parent general value of science operationalized in the 2006 questionnaire of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), as a determinant of adolescents' scientific literacy performance. The transmission of academic values literature is small. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies to date…

Acosta, Sandra; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

2014-01-01