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|The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring Greek elementary physical educators' knowledge of student assessment. A multiple-choice questionnaire comprised of items about concepts, methods, tools, and types of student assessment in physical education was designed and tested. The initial 35-item…
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Aggelousis, Nicolaos; Vassiliadou, Olga
BACKGROUND: There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA) questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP) scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. METHODS: A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n =
|Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background and objective The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire for assessing nutritional knowledge among overweight adults. The questionnaire should reveal knowledge about current dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, everyday food choices, and conditions related to overweight. Design The first draft of the nutrition knowledgequestionnaire (113 items) was based on literature review. To ensure content validity and expert-assessed face validity, an expert panel examined the questionnaire. Thereafter, the questionnaire was tested for user friendliness and ambiguity by five students. The questionnaire was pilot tested in a group of obese adults, similar to the target group. The results were analyzed for item difficulty and internal consistency and comments made by respondents were taken into account. Two student groups, differing in nutritional expertise, answered the questionnaire on two occasions to test construct validity and test–retest reliability. After the retest, a total overview of the questionnaire was made by the expert panel. The final questionnaire consisted of 91 items. Subjects The pilot study was conducted in obese adults waiting for a gastric bypass operation (n=33). Construct validity (n=34) and test–retest reliability (n=27) was tested in two student groups: public health nutrition students and construction students. Results Results from the pilot study showed that internal consistency of the three first sections together was 0.84, measured by Cronbach's ?. Test of construct validity showed that public health nutrition students scored significantly better than construction students (p<0.001 for all sections), and test–retest reliability for all sections together was 0.82 (Pearson's r). Conclusion The knowledgequestionnaire had reasonable content-, face-, and construct validities and overall good reliability. The questionnaire can be a useful tool for measuring nutrition knowledge among obese adults.
Feren, Anne; Torheim, Liv E.; Lillegaard, Inger T. L.
OBJECTIVE: Initiatives promoting the reduction of high-salt food consumption by consumers need to be partly based on current levels of salt knowledge in the population. However, to date there is no validated salt knowledgequestionnaire that could be used to assess population knowledge about dietary salt (i.e. salt knowledge). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and validate a salt knowledgequestionnaire. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted on an online web survey platform using convenience, snowball sampling. The survey questionnaire was evaluated for content and face validity before being administered to the respondents. SETTING: Online survey. SUBJECTS: A total of forty-one nutrition experts, thirty-two nutrition students and thirty-six lay people participated in the study. RESULTS: Item analyses were performed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the test items. Twenty-five items were retained to form the final set of questions. The total scores of the experts were higher than those of the students and lay people (P < 0·05). The total salt knowledge score showed significant correlations with use of salt at the table (? = -0·197, P < 0·05) and inspection of the salt content in food products when shopping (? = 0·400; P < 0·01). CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire demonstrated sufficient evidence of construct validity and internal consistencies between the items. It is likely to be a useful tool for the evaluation and measurement of levels of salt knowledge in the general population. PMID:23507427
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaireassessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
It is generally recognized that there is a need for improved teaching of nutrition in medical schools and for increased education of the general population. A questionnaire, derived in part from a study of physician knowledge, was administered to first year medical students in order to assess their knowledge of various aspects of nutrition and metabolism, and as a teaching
Objective: This paper describes the development of a reliable and valid questionnaire to provide a comprehensive measure of the nutritional knowledge of UK adults. The instrument will help to identify areas of weakness in people’s understanding of healthy eating and will also provide useful data for examining the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour which, up until now, has
Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) Arkela-Kautiainen et al. 2005 See reference #75 Methods Relation between the Finnish MDHAQ (Finn-MDHAQ) function
|This questionnaire is intended to help college faculty and administrators assess the adequacy of the general education curriculum and determine the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes needed by students, and as a tool for program evaluation, innovation, and implementation. It can also be used by college and university students to assess and…
In addition to the subject objective, the relationship of specified personality variables (i.e., trait anxiety, locus of control, response tendency towards threat, and denial) to behavioral and psychological responses to the threat of nuclear war were assessed. The quantitative questionnaire, titled the Nuclear Reaction Scale, was composed of items selected from issues discussed in the psychological literature on the threat of nuclear war. These issues included: psychic numbing, cognitive reality, perceptions of likelihood and survival, nuclear illusions, and attention to the threat of nuclear war. A standardization sample of 360 college students was administered the Nuclear Reaction Scale, Trait Anxiety Scale, Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Facilitation-Inhibition Scale, and Haan Denial Scale. Three additional subsamples, identified as Military, Nuclear Freeze, and Church, were given the Nuclear Reaction Scale to assess the validity of the scale. A factor analysis of the Nuclear Reaction Scale indicated a nine-factor solution that described issues such as concern perceptions, likelihood, survivability, and control over the threat of nuclear war. A number of strong relationships existed between computed factors on the Nuclear Reaction Scale. Demographic comparisons found significant differences related to sex and political affiliation.
Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaireassessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34–0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50–0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.
Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Mastersson, Nadia
Health professionals recommend education of patients about COPD. There is no satisfactory instrument to measure their knowledge and therefore to assess the results of education. A multiple-choice questionnaire (BCKQ) has been designed and tested. Each of 13 topics contains five statements for which there is a right or wrong answer. Its validity and consistency has been assessed, and the test
R White; P Walker; S Roberts; S Kalisky; Paul H. White
A questionnaire study was performed involving 76 farms with a total of 380,207 pigs to assess the welfare of pigs kept in Hungary based on the animal welfare legislation of the European Union. Most significant deficiencies were found in the fulfillment of the provisions relating to space requirements, the stall microclimate and the behavioural needs of the animals. PMID:11402682
A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each…
It is generally recognized that there is a need for improved teaching of nutrition in medical schools and for increased education of the general population. A questionnaire, derived in part from a study of physician knowledge, was administered to first year medical students in order to assess their knowledge of various aspects of nutrition and metabolism, and as a teaching tool to transmit information about the subject. The performance of first year students was consistent with a generally educated population but there were surprising deficits in some fundamental areas of nutrition. Results of the questionnaire are informative about student knowledge, and immediate reinforcement from a questionnaire may provide a useful teaching tool. In addition, some of the subject matter can serve as a springboard for discussion of critical issues in nutrition such as obesity and markers for cardiovascular disease. A major barrier to improved teaching of nutrition is the lack of agreement on some of these critical issues and there are apparent inconsistencies in recommendations of government and health agencies. It seems reasonable that improved teaching should address the lack of knowledge of nutrition, rather than knowledge of official guidelines. Student awareness of factual information should be the primary goal.
We have developed and evaluated a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for use in program evaluation. Formative work led to the development of the 62-item HIV-KnowledgeQuestionnaire (HIV-K-Q), which was administered to 409 women and 227 men. Item analyses resulted in the deletion of 17 items that were either too easy or did not correlate
Michael P. Carey; Dianne Morrison-Beedy; Blair T. Johnson
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstrated. Both males and females showed poor knowledge about and entertained conservative attitudes. Surprisingly, normal subjects were no different from patients with sexual problems.
A patient health questionnaire was developed for use in family practice to help identify lifestyle risk factors, assess health care needs, and better understand patients. This article discusses the questionnaire's development and practical application. Images Figure 3
Electronic questionnaires for pain assessment are becoming increasingly popular. There have been no published reports to establish the equivalence or psychometric properties of common pain questionnaires administered via desktop computers. This study compared responses to paper (P) and touch screen electronic (E) versions of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain Disability Index (PDI), while examining the role of
Andrew J Cook; David A Roberts; Michael D Henderson; Lisa C Van Winkle; Dania C Chastain; Robin J Hamill-Ruth
There has been a surge in both public and professional interest in the field of female sexual medicine. Questionnaires are useful to assess sexual function. In the field of male sexual medicine, the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire is considered the gold standard self-assessment instrument. In the field of female sexual medicine, no such instrument exists. A major reason
The Situational Outlook Questionnaire has been in use for many years as an assessment of the climate that supports change, innovation, and creativity. This study reports the descriptive statistics, internal consistency, factor structure, and other psychometric results from a sample of 4,730 respondents. Further areas for improvement of the questionnaire and assessment approach are identified. PMID:17564220
Despite being essential to the success of participatory ergonomics (PEs) programs, there are currently no known quantitative measures that capture the employees' perspective of PE program effectiveness. The present study addresses this need through the development of the Employee Perceptions of Participatory Ergonomics Questionnaire (EPPEQ). The questionnaire is designed to assess five key components that are based on a review of the available literature: Employee Involvement, Knowledge Base, Managerial Support, Employee Support, and Strain related to ergonomic changes. In Phase 1, a sample of employees and ergonomists working at a manufacturing plant was used to develop and test an initial set of items. In Phase 2, data was collected from a nation-wide sample of employees representing a wide range of jobs and organizations to cross-validate the results from Phase 1. Phase 2 results indicate that the five EPPEQ subscales demonstrate sound convergent validity and are also correlated with traditional indicators of PE program success. Implications and uses of the EPPEQ are discussed. PMID:21094334
Matthews, Russell A; Gallus, Jessica A; Henning, Robert A
Five questionnaires for assessing the usability of a website were compared in a study with 123 participants. The questionnaires studied were SUS, QUIS, CSUQ, a variant of Microsoft's Product Reaction Cards, and one that we have used in our Usability Lab for several years. Each participant performed two tasks on each of two websites: finance.yahoo.com and kiplinger.com. All five questionnaires
...and Programs Directorate; AssessmentQuestionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...new collection request, AssessmentQuestionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...be prompted with the VCAT Assessmentquestionnaire and will answer various questions...
Two theories of assessing function knowledge were compared for intuitive physics. The choice assessment theory, derived from Piaget, presents subjects with two physical situations, each specified by the values of two physical variables; subjects choose the situation which will yield the greater value of a dependent variable. Functional measurement presents subjects with a single physical situation; subjects make a quantitative estimate of the dependent variable. Forty subjects made both choice and functional measurement responses for two situations of intuitive physics. The choice theory showed substantial frequencies of stepwise rules, implying that subjects failed to integrate the two given physical variables. Functional measurement, in contrast, showed that most subjects integrated the two variables, following exact addition or multiplication rules. It is concluded that functional measurement gives a more correct assessment of function knowledge and should be useful in science instruction.
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses' pain management practices being readily available. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low reliability and validity. Modifications to the questionnaire were made on the basis of these results and the feedback provided by experts in pediatric pain management. Subsequent testing demonstrated good validity and reliability, suggesting that the questionnaire is appropriate for measuring nurses' knowledge and attitudes in relation to pediatric pain management. PMID:23972870
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In order to address HIV infection among college students, a comprehensive measure is needed that can be used with samples from culturally diverse populations. Therefore, this paper assessed the reliability and validity of an HIV/AIDS questionnaire that measures fours dimensions of HIV/AIDS awareness--factual knowledge, prejudice, personal risk,…
Objective: Depression has been reported to occur frequently after stroke. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of questionnaire measures for screening for depression after stroke.Design: Cross-sectional correlational study between questionnaire measures of mood and psychiatric interview.Setting: Hospital and community.Participants: Stroke patients were recruited from hospital wards and from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy.Main
N. B. Lincoln; C. R. Nicholl; T. Flannaghan; M. Leonard; E Van der Gucht
Clergy provide the majority of marriage preparation in the United States; however, little is known about the use of premarital assessments and their relationship to clergy effectiveness in providing premarital education. A nationwide survey investigated the use of premarital assessmentquestionnaires (PAQs), specifically Facilitating Open Couple Communication, Understanding, and Study (FOCCUS), PREmarital Personal and Relationship Evaluation (PREPARE), and RELATionship Evaluation
AbstractObjective: To determine the level of knowledge of emergency contraception among 14 and 15 year olds.Design: Confidential questionnaire survey.Setting: 10 secondary schools in Lothian, south east Scotland.Subjects: 1206 pupils predominantly (98.7%) aged 14 and 15 in the fourth year of secondary school.Main outcome measures: Knowledge of the existence of emergency contraception; of its safety, efficacy, and time limits; and of
We describe a new tool, the Physicians' Practice AssessmentQuestionnaire (PPAQ), designed for the global self-assessment of implementation of asthma and COPD guidelines, as determined by the percentage of patients in whom physicians estimate that they implement guidelines key recommendations. Some of its properties were assessed by a group of 47 general practitioners (GPs), and test-retest data were obtained in repeating the questionnaire at a 5-week interval without intervention in a sub-group of 28 practitioners. Answers to the various questions were globally reproducible. The lowest scores (recommendations implemented in less than 50% of their patients) were: 1) for both asthma and COPD: referral for patient education, provision of a written action plan and regular assessment of inhaler technique, 2) for asthma: referral to a specialist for difficult to control asthma or uncertain diagnosis, and 3) for COPD: assessment of lung function and disability according to specific criteria and referral to a rehabilitation program. The analysis showed sufficient internal consistency for both questionnaires (Cronbach alphas 0.7617 for asthma and 0.8317 for COPD). Pearson's correlations indicated good test-retest (r = 0.6421, p = 0.0002 for asthma; r = 0.6801, p < 0.0001 for COPD). In conclusion, the PPAQ is a new tool to assess implementation of asthma and COPD guidelines; it has the potential to identify care gaps that can be specifically targeted for intervention. PMID:20797841
Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Devlin, Hollie; O'Donnell, Denis E
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Italian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Italian CHAQ was already published in the literature and was therefore revalidated while the Italian CHQ was fully cross culturally adapted with 3 forward and 3 backward translations, and than validated. A total of 1,192 subjects were enrolled: 404 patients with JIA (16% systemic onset, 31% polyarticular onset, 21% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 32% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 788 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Italian version of the CHAQ-CHQ are reliable, and valid tools for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA. PMID:11510339
Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Pistorio, A; Malattia, C; Viola, S; Cavuto, S; Alessio, M; Alpigiani, M G; Buoncompagni, A; Corona, F; Cortis, E; Falcini, F; Gerloni, V; Lepore, L; Sardella, M L; Strano, C G; Zulian, F; Gado-West, L; Tortorelli, A; Fantini, F; Martini, A
During the last 10 years, we have witnessed an impressive increase in the number of studies examining knowledge about osteoporosis. The aim of the present paper is to examine the status of research on knowledge about osteoporosis by reviewing and analyzing the current literature as it pertains to assessment of knowledge about osteoporosis, factors associated with knowledge, and relationship between
The USDA Forest Service and Environmental Protection Agency have cooperatively developed a knowledge base for assessment and monitoring of ecological states and processes in sixth-code watersheds. The knowledge base provides a formal logical specification for evaluating watershed processes, patterns, general effects of human influence, and specific effects on salmon habitat. The knowledge base was designed in the NetWeaver knowledge base
Keith M. Reynolds; Mark Jensen; James Andreasen; Iris Goodman
|Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)|
A short scale was developed and validated that assesses consumers' knowledge about nutrition. Sixty-four nutrition knowledge items were derived from consumer interviews and expert recommendations about healthy eating. Items were administered as a postal survey to a sample of consumers randomly drawn from the directory (response rate=37%, N=1043). Twenty items were retained to build the final nutrition knowledge scale. Internal reliability, criterion and construct validity were acceptable. Associations of the scale with self-reported food consumption frequencies indicated limited correlation of nutrition knowledge with food choice. Widespread nutrition knowledge gaps in consumers were revealed. PMID:21310201
Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen
A questionnaire was used to measure plant use knowledge for 18 plants from 40 randomly selected Winikina Warao respondents\\u000a of two villages in the Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela. Five use values are presented: reported use (RU) value for each plant\\u000a and plant part; plant part value (PPV); specific use (SU) value; intraspecific use value (IUV); and overall use value (OUV).
This study is based on a visual inspection and a questionnaire survey about sanitation in central Nepal. A total of 201 people\\u000a from different groups were asked about their knowledge about eco-toilets, the fertilizer value of human urine and wood ash.\\u000a Farmers were the least educated and least aware of most of the topics asked. Although the majority of educated
The assessment of personality and related interpersonal dynamics among non-English-speaking populations offers many challenges to psychologists. Nonverbal culture-free or culture-fair instruments often fall short of adequately navigating the complex demands of non-Western cultural and ideological influences. Despite nearly a decade of America's presence within the Middle East, there remains a paucity of useful psychological assessment instruments available for use with non-English-speaking Arab populations in the region. A modified version of the Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality, motivation, and interpersonal style among a small sample of Iraqi Arab male job applicants (n = 56). The various cross-cultural challenges and lessons learned from this assessment process are discussed and specific recommendations are provided. PMID:22730851
Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum.
...Information (PCII) Office Self- AssessmentQuestionnaire AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...Information Collection Request, PCII Officer Questionnaire. DHS previously published this ICR...level. See 6 CFR 29.4(d). This questionnaire is designed to gather information...
We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey to assess the extent to which hospital medical and nursing staff were familiar with the written policies and procedures of infection control and their intended course of action in situations where no formal policies were available. All 25 full time medical staff below the grade of consultant and 70 of 163 permanent nursing
We describe the design of a knowledge-building environment and examine the role of knowledge-building portfolios in characterizing\\u000a and scaffolding collaborative inquiry. Our goal is to examine collaborative knowledge building in the context of exploring\\u000a the alignment of learning, collaboration, and assessment in computer forums. The key design principle involved turning over\\u000a epistemic agency to students; guided by several knowledge-building principles,
The ability to identify schematic knowledge is an important goal for both assessment and instruction. In the current paper, schematic knowledge of statistical probability theory is explored from the declarative-procedural framework using multiple methods of assessment. A sample of 90 undergraduate introductory statistics students was required to…
BACKGROUND: Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. METHODS: A short questionnaire was designed,
Badminton is an "intermittent" racquet sport, requiring technical skill and sport-specific-fitness. This study aimed to assess the nutritional knowledge of badminton players to shape the delivery of future support, and to facilitate fuelling and recovery strategies. In addition, the suitability and safety of current supplementation practices was assessed amongst these players. A dietary questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and supplement use was administered online to 26 players on the GB Badminton Squad. The questionnaire was comprised of the following sections; 1) awareness of dietary recommendations; 2) knowledge of food sources of nutrients; 3) making practical food choices; 4) awareness of diet-disease associations; and (5) knowledge of antioxidant vitamins. Players scored 71% on awareness of dietary recommendations, 62% on knowledge of food sources of nutrients, and 68% on using knowledge to make food choices. However, the group scored far lower on the technical questions regarding disease-associations and antioxidants (48% and 18%, respectively). The group scored highest on questions mentioning sugar, and lower for questions mentioning fat (73% vs 55%, p=0.01). Although 24 athletes (92.3%) were aware of the "100% ME" initiative, and the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of banned substances, 10 athletes (39%) considered their knowledge of "supplement safety", as only capable of scoring of 1 or 2 out of 5. Future education should use this awareness of healthy eating and knowledge of carbohydrate and protein to shape educational strategies on fuelling and recovery, whilst strategies should also focus on increasing athletes' knowledge of "supplement safety". PMID:24159114
Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health as well as a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared with dietary calcium intake measured by a 3-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home,
Andrea Hacker-Thompson; Trina P. Robertson; Deborah E. Sellmeyer
|Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…
A knowledge-based method for systems engineering risk assessment has been automated in an expert system tool. Expert COSYSMO performs systems engineering risk assessment in conjunction with cost estimation using the Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model (COSYSMO). The technique is an extension of COSYSMO which supports project planning by identifying, categorizing, quantifying, and prioritizing system-level risks. Workshops and surveys with seasoned
|The 1990 Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (AFT, NCME, & NEA, 1990) made a documentable contribution to the field. However, the Standards have become a bit dated, most notably in two ways: (1) the Standards do not consider current conceptions of formative assessmentknowledge and skills, and (2) the Standards…
An assessment of pharmacists' practice knowledge was developed as part of a multi-year project investigating continuing competence. Trained pharmacy practitioners used a previously validated competency blueprint to prepare 673 assessment items. Each item was related to a specific competency and presented in a selection-type format. Using a series of three pretests, the item pool was refined through an examination of
David W. Fielding; Gordon G. Page; W. Todd Rogers; Michael Schulzer; G. Moody; Carol C. O'byrne
OBJECTIVE--To determine the level of knowledge of emergency contraception among 14 and 15 year olds. DESIGN--Confidential questionnaire survey. SETTING--10 secondary schools in Lothian, south east Scotland. SUBJECTS--1206 pupils predominantly (98.7%) aged 14 and 15 in the fourth year of secondary school. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Knowledge of the existence of emergency contraception; of its safety, efficacy, and time limits; and of where to obtain it. RESULTS--1121 (93.0%) fourth year pupils aged 14-16 had heard of emergency contraception. 194 girls (32.7%) and 168 boys (27.5%) had experienced sexual intercourse. Of girls who had experienced sexual intercourse, 61 (31.4%) had used emergency contraception. Knowledge of correct time limits was poor, sexually active girls being the most knowledgeable. Pupils attending schools ranked lower than the national average for academic attainment were less likely to have heard of emergency contraception and more likely to have been sexually active. 861 (76.8%) pupils knew they could obtain emergency contraception from their doctor. 925 (82.5%) pupils believed emergency contraception to be effective but 398 (35.5%) thought it more dangerous than the oral contraceptive pill. CONCLUSIONS--One third of sexually active girls aged under 16 in Lothian have used emergency contraception. This may help explain the fairly constant teenage pregnancy rates despite increasing sexual activity. Scottish teenagers are well informed about the existence of emergency contraception. However, many do not know when and how to access it properly. Health education initiatives should target teenagers from less academic schools as they are more likely to be sexually active at a young age and are less well informed about emergency contraception.
Background and purpose The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Methods Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. Results A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledgeassessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. Conclusion The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.
In a sample of 149 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1986, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire responses on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. They also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports o...
Although cough and sputum production may impact patients' well being and functioning in COPD and chronic bronchitis, there is no validated instrument for cough and sputum symptoms and their impact on patients' daily activities. To fill that gap, we developed and validated a specific, multilingual Cough and Sputum AssessmentQuestionnaire (CASA-Q) that evaluates clinical symptoms and their impact on patients with COPD or chronic bronchitis. In a three-country validation study (n=671), there was adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas, 0.80-0.91) and test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients>0.70) for the CASA-Q. The cough impact and sputum impact domains correlated with the SGRQ impact domain and SGRQ total score, as did the cough impact domain with the SF-36 social functioning domain. The cough symptom and sputum symptom domains correlated with sputum wet weight (p<0.05; r=-0.56), but not with cough recordings. The mean CASA-Q cough symptom and sputum symptom domain scores indicated responsiveness towards both worse and improved symptoms, whereas the impact domains scored already in the upper third of the scale range, indicating the need for further improvement of its properties. Differences in the CASA-Q domain scores by smoking status (current vs. former smokers) were highest for cough symptoms and lowest for sputum impact. These data indicate that the CASA-Q may be a useful measure of cough and sputum production, and their impact in patients with COPD and/or chronic bronchitis. Further validation will need to assess the responsiveness of the CASA-Q to changes in symptoms. PMID:18662868
|This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students'…
Because the structure, development, and functioning of a family plays an important role in health and illness, preparing nursing students to assess families in health care settings is of critical importance. A quasi-experimental design using a pre- and postcourse questionnaire was used to examine students’ perceived knowledge about family assessment and perceived difficulty applying family assessment in the clinical setting.
Angel Chu Kee Lee; Shing On Leung; Polly Siu LingChan; Joyce Oi Kwan Chung
Background Light exposure at night is now considered a probable carcinogen. To study the effects of light on chronic diseases like cancer, methods to measure light exposure in large observational studies are needed. We aimed to investigate the validity of self-reported current light exposure. Methods We developed a self-administered semiquantitative light questionnaire, the Harvard Light Exposure Assessment (H-LEA) questionnaire, and compared photopic scores derived from this questionnaire with actual photopic and circadian measures obtained from a real-life 7-day light meter application among 132 women (85 rotating night shift workers and 47 day workers) participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Results After adjustment for age, BMI, collection day, and night work status, the overall partial Spearman correlation between self-report of light exposure and actual photopic light measurements was 0.72 (P<0.001; Kendall ? =0.57) and 0.73 (P<0.0001; Kendall ? =0.58) when correlating circadian light measurements. There were only minimal differences in accuracy of self-report of light exposure and photopic or circadian light measurement between day (r=0.77 and 0.78, respectively) and rotating night shift workers (r=0.68 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence of the criterion validity of self-reported light exposure using the H-LEA questionnaire. Impact: This questionnaire is a practical method of assessing light exposure in large scale epidemiologic studies.
Bajaj, Archna; Rosner, Bernard; Lockley, Steven; Schernhammer, Eva S.
|Although provider knowledge is a potential barrier in the dissemination of evidence-based services for youth, research in this area is currently limited by a lack of instrumentation. The present study examined the utility of the Knowledge of Evidence-Based Services Questionnaire (KEBSQ), a 40-item self-report measure designed to assess reporter…
Stumpf, Roxanna E.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Chorpita, Bruce F.
|This questionnaireassesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes toward drugs in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 105 items (multiple choice, yes/no, or completion) are concerned with personal and demographic data, "book" knowledge of drugs, "street" knowledge of drugs (drug argot and the like),…
Background Complementary and alternative medicines are increasingly used by the general population. A survey was conducted to ascertain the knowledge of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) amongst paediatric physicians, and whether seniority increases the likelihood of its use being considered in consultations, or of families discussing it. Methods Anonymous survey of general paediatric doctors in a large inner-city district general hospital (DGH) and tertiary children's centre (TC) using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was calculated using Minitab. Results 43/49 (88%) questionnaires were returned correctly. 13 (30%, CI 17 – 46%) doctors had personally used CAMs. 24 (56%, CI 40 – 71%) of their families had used CAMs. 13 (30%, CI 17 – 46%) had received formal CAMs education. 21 (49%, CI 40 – 71%) could name a total of 5 types of CAMs. Consultants were significantly more likely to ask about CAM use than middle-grades and juniors (p < 0.05, CI 48 – 93%, 35 – 90%, 8 – 33% respectively) and have had a clinical encounter where they felt it was significant. 32 (74%, CI 59 – 86%) of the clinicians had been asked about CAMs. 33 (77%, CI 61 – 88%) of doctors had successful CAM use reported to them, and 20 (47%, CI 31 – 62%) had failure of CAMs reported to them. Conclusion CAM use is relatively common in paediatric doctors and their families. They have received little formal CAMs education. Consultants were more likely than juniors to ask about CAM use and have had a clinical encounter where it played a significant part. Around half of all doctors irrespective of grade have been asked about CAMs in a clinical encounter.
Fountain-Polley, Simon; Kawai, Grace; Goldstein, Amanda; Ninan, Titus
|The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their…
Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai
Nina Thornburg's (1988) Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire was distributed to 326 randomly selected Illinois psychologists. Of 117 usable questionnaires received, the mean score for knowledge questions was 7.5 of a maximum score of 18. Respondents were most knowledgeable about near-death elements of peace, out-of-body transcendence, and tunnel\\/light phenomena. The mean score for the attitude portion of the instrument
Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p?=?0.23) or gender (p?=?0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted. PMID:23900623
Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs.
``Calibration'' is an aspect of metacognition that describes how well students assess their own knowledge. One tool that can help to assess student calibration is the knowledge survey (KS). On a KS, students rate their confidence in their ability to answer questions related to course content. A comparison of a student's confidence level with their actual performance on course exams gives an indication of the student's metacognitive calibration. We report on a study that explores students' responses to a KS in introductory physics and chemistry courses serving both STEM and non-STEM populations. In many courses, Delta (the difference between KS-score and final exam score, a measure of calibration) was anti-correlated with final exam performance. No relationship was found between Delta and students' scientific reasoning abilities. We also report preliminary findings on how calibration differs for questions of a quantitative nature vs. those of a more conceptual nature.
Objective: To develop and test an evidence-based scale to assess nurses' knowledge of stroke.Design: Question development by a multidisciplinary group of experts in stroke. Two self-completion questionnaire surveys.Setting: Two stroke units, one general medical and two elderly care wards in three hospitals in the North-East of England.Subjects: Fifty-eight qualified nurses.Interventions: Scale to assess nurses' knowledge of stroke.Results: The overall response
Lois Thomas; Kate Harrington; Helen Rogers; Peter Langhorne; Monica Smith; Senga Bond
Most real-life decisions require the decision maker to make trade-offs in order to fulfill multiple conflicting objectives. This is especially true in medical decision making while selecting the optimal therapy plan from among competing therapy plans for a patient. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a framework to specify these trade-offs for optimal decision making based on the preferences of the decision maker. However traditional preference-assessment techniques are difficult to implement and rarely elicit the true preferences of the decision maker. We describe a new preference-assessment method based on the concept of knowledge maintenance where the preference model is changed each time it makes an incorrect recommendation. The method is implemented in a decision-theoretic system to evaluate competing three-dimensional radiation treatment plans. The preference-assessment method leads to preference models which perform better than preference models elicited using traditional assessment techniques.
Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended for use with terminally ill cancer patients. The 1st stage of measure development involved interviews with 13 palliative care experts and 30 terminally ill patients. Qualitative analysis of the patient interviews culminated in the development of a set of potential questionnaire items. In the 2nd study phase, we evaluated these preliminary items with a sample of 314 participants, using item response theory and classical test theory to identify optimal items and response format. These analyses generated an 8-item measure that we tested in a final study phase, using a 3rd sample (n = 228) to assess reliability and concurrent validity. These analyses demonstrated strong support for the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire providing greater explanatory power than existing measures of hopelessness and found little evidence that this assessment was confounded by illness-related variables (e.g., prognosis). In summary, these 3 studies suggest that this brief measure of hopelessness is particularly useful for palliative care settings. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of the measure to other populations and contexts.
Objective: The Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire (SADQ) was developed to detect depressed mood in aphasic patients in the community. Design: Correlation analysis between new questionnaire and established measures.Setting: Patients at home.Methods: Seventy stroke patients who had been discharged from hospital were assessed on the SADQ, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Wakefield Depression Inventory. The SADQ was also
|This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnairesassessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy is a well-recognized public health problem. Accurate assessment of prenatal alcohol exposure is especially important to identify women in need of intervention. In this study, a 36-item prenatal questionnaire was utilized to survey a representative sample of prenatal care providers to examine prevalence rates of exposure. The questionnaire included three common screening tools for alcohol use
Larry Burd; John Martsolf; Marilyn G. Klug; Ellen O'Connor; Marlene Peterson
The contribution of the Stanford Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) to patient management was investigated in patients attending two rheumatology clinics. Additional interventions occurred in 55 (36%) of 147 patients completing the HAQ after the questionnaires had been inspected. It was particularly useful for the review patients compared to the new attenders. The HAQ is a more rational approach to outpatient
Standardised health status questionnaires are widely used to obtain subjective assessments of health. However, little research has investigated the meaning of the data they produce. Statistical tests will highlight some problems with the structure and wording of a questionnaire but they cannot shed any light on the way in which respondents interpret questions or their intended meaning when they select
Exercise dependence (or addiction) is a clinical condition associated with physical and psychological risk. A critical evaluation of the diverse aetiological models and methodological issues in the assessment of the condition highlighted the need to develop a questionnaire measuring maladaptive beliefs about the consequences of not exercising. The paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Exercise Beliefs Questionnaire
|Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…
Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.
Objective. We sought to examine primary care providers' gout knowledge and reported treatment patterns in comparison with current treatment recommendations. Methods. We conducted a national survey of a random sample of US primary care physicians to assess their treatment of acute, intercritical and tophaceous gout using published European and American gout treatment recommendations and guidelines as a gold standard. Results. There were 838 respondents (response rate of 41%), most of whom worked in private practice (63%) with >16 years experience (52%). Inappropriate dosing of medications in the setting of renal disease and lack of prophylaxis when initiating urate-lowering therapy (ULT) accounted for much of the lack of compliance with treatment recommendations. Specifically for acute podagra, 53% reported avoidance of anti-inflammatory drugs in the setting of renal insufficiency, use of colchicine at a dose of ?2.4 mg/day and no initiation of a ULT during an acute attack. For intercritical gout in the setting of renal disease, 3% would provide care consistent with the recommendations, including initiating a ULT at the appropriate dose with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ?6 mg/dl and providing prophylaxis. For tophaceous gout, 17% reported care consistent with the recommendations, including ULT use with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ?6 mg/dl and prophylaxis. Conclusion. Only half of primary care providers reported optimal treatment practices for the management of acute gout and <20% for intercritical or tophaceous gout, suggesting that care deficiencies are common. PMID:23620554
Harrold, Leslie R; Mazor, Kathleen M; Negron, Amarie; Ogarek, Jessica; Firneno, Cassandra; Yood, Robert A
Six-hundred and sixty-two nurse students (aged 25.2 ± 4.11 years; 153 were males) answered a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire about smoking habits and knowledges in a large urban Teaching School of Nursing. The overall response rate was 88%. Current smokers were 336 (51%), former smokers 80 (12%). Nurse students claimed to know the dangers of tobacco and nurse training seemed to
|Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of unidentified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and determine the screening accuracy of the Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cigarette smokers who had a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years and were aged 30 years or older were recruited from 36 centers from February 18, 2009, to May 29, 2009. A total of 1575 patients completed a Web-based survey including the 5-item LFQ. Spirometry was performed on patients with an LFQ total score of 18 or less and on a subset scoring more than 18. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients at risk of airflow obstruction as measured by the LFQ (score, ?18) in whom an airflow obstruction was confirmed by spirometry. RESULTS: Of the patients who completed the LFQ, 849 (54%) had standardized spirometry data available. On the basis of LFQ and spirometry results, the estimated prevalence of possible COPD was 17.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.3%-20.6%). At a cut point of 18 or less, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LFQ were 88%, 25%, 21%, and 90%, respectively. Approximately 1 in 5 patients (21%) aged 30 years or older and 1 in 4 (26%) aged 50 years or older scored 18 or less on the LFQ and had a ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration to forced vital capacity less than 0.70. CONCLUSION: On the basis of postbronchodilator spirometry results using weighted estimates, approximately 1 in 5 patients (21%) aged 30 years or older with a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years seen in a primary care setting is likely to have COPD. The LFQ could be a helpful COPD case-finding tool for clinicians to identify patients who need further evaluation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01013948
Mintz, Matthew L.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Mannino, David M.; Donohue, James F.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Grellet, Catherine A.; Gilsenan, Alicia W.; McLeod, Lori D.; Dalal, Anand A.; Raphiou, Ibrahim H.; Prillaman, Barbara A.; Crater, Glenn D.; Cicale, Michael J.; Mapel, Douglas W.
Validation Studies of the The Short Questionnaire to assess Health–enhancing Physical activity (SQUASH) Wendel-Vos et al. 2003 See reference #65 Methods Relationship between SQUASH and CSA Activity Monitor (Spearman correlations) Sample 36 men and 14
|Objective: To assess the cultural competence of dietetics majors. Design: Self-administered questionnaire. Setting: Classrooms at 7 universities. Participants: Two hundred eighty-three students--98 juniors (34.6%) and 185 seniors (65.4%)--recruited during class time. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge was measured using a multiple-choice test,…
McArthur, Laura H.; Greathouse, Karen R.; Smith, Erskine R.; Holbert, Donald
There is little information available about incidences and causes of foodborne illnesses that can help the government develop policies, which prevent them in the UAE. This study includes a group of multinational subjects (males and females), residing in Al Ain, UAE, and of an age ranging between 15 and 55 years. A questionnaire designed to assess “Knowledge” and “Practice” of public
The mother?to?infant relationship is usually assessed by behavioural observation. In order to evaluate mothers' emotional and cognitive response to their infants, Condon and Corkindale [(1998) The assessment of parent?to?infant attachment: development of a self?report questionnaire instrument, Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 16, 57–76] have developed a self?administered questionnaire. The aim of the present study is the Italian validation of
A. Scopesi; P. Viterbori; S. Sponza; P. Zucchinetti
This study aims to investigate the disease-related knowledge of gout patients and doctors in south China and to identify the important targets of education for patients and doctors. A cross-section survey of 154 primary gout patients and 185 doctors who may see gout patients was conducted with a modified questionnaire with ten items of gout-related knowledge. The participants were considered to have gout-related knowledge if he or she correctly answered seven or more items. One hundred and forty-nine valid questionnaires from patients, 33 from rheumatology physicians, and 151 from non-rheumatology doctors were collected for statistical analysis. The mean correctly answered items of three groups were 6.6?±?2.2, 9.6?±?0.53, and 8.0?±?1.4, with rate of being considered to have knowledge about gout 51.7, 100, and 90.1 %, respectively (P?0.05). The correct answer rate for each particular item was over 80 % in the rheumatology physician group. Patients or non-rheumatology doctors knew the optimal serum uric acid (sUA) level (48.3 vs 55.6 %), the need to take lifelong urate-lowering drugs (29.5 vs 43.6 %), that allopurinol is a urate-lowering drug (55.7 vs 76.0 %), and how to prevent attacks induced by urate-lowering therapy (ULT) (60.4 vs 74.0 %). Logistic regression showed that higher education predicted which patients had gout-related knowledge. Both the gout patients and non-rheumatology doctors in south China had poor knowledge on ULT. Since many gout patients do not see rheumatologists, our data suggest that further education should focus on patients and non-rheumatologists and emphasize the use of urate-lowering drugs, treatment duration, the target sUA level, and prophylaxis against acute attacks. PMID:23857664
Aim To measure the level of agreement and application of 10 international recommendations for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to a target of remission/low disease activity. Methods A 10-point Likert scale (1=fully disagree, 10=fully agree) measured the level of agreement with each of 10 recommendations. A 4-point Likert scale (never, not very often, very often, always) assessed the degree to which each recommendation was being applied in current daily practice. If respondents answered ‘never’ or ‘not very often’, they were asked whether they would change their practice according to the particular recommendation. Results A total of 1901 physicians representing 34 countries participated. Both agreement with and application of recommendations was high. With regard to application of recommendations in daily practice, the majority of responses were ‘always’ and ‘very often’. A significant percentage of participants who were currently not applying these recommendations in clinical practice were willing to change their practice according to the recommendations. Conclusion The results of this survey demonstrated great support of ‘Treating RA to Target’ recommendations among the international rheumatology community. Additional efforts may be needed to encourage application of the recommendations among certain clinicians who are resistant to changing their practice.
Haraoui, Boulos; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd; Codreanu, Catalin; Da Silva, Jose Pereira; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Durez, Patrick; Emery, Paul; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Gibofsky, Allan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Graninger, Winfried; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Jannaut Pe?a, Maria Jose; Kalden, Joachim; Kvien, Tore K; Laurindo, Ieda; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Santos Moreno, Pedro; Pavelka, Karel; Poor, Gyula; Cardiel, Mario H; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; van der Heijde, Desiree
This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum. PMID:21854234
Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S
A paradox of volcanology is that the most fundamental part of its knowledge – the observation of volcanic processes and objects – is less strict and less well organized compared with experimental and theoretical approaches determined by these observations. The object of this study is the knowledge resulting from volcanological observations, and the objective is to give this knowledge strict
C. A. Pshenichny; V. P. Moukhachov; Z. V. Khrabrykh
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results: Based on item–total correlations and principal components analysis, the authors eliminated 3 items and calculated average intention ratings
Erin E. Bonar; Erica Hoffmann; Harold Rosenberg; Elizabeth Kryszak; Kathleen M. Young; Lisham Ashrafioun; Shane W. Kraus; Erin E. Bannon
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results: Based on item-total correlations and principal components analysis, we eliminated three items and calculated average intention ratings across
Erin E. Bonar; Erica Hoffmann; Harold Rosenberg; Elizabeth Kryszak; Kathleen M. Young; Lisham Ashrafioun; Shane W. Kraus; Erin E. Bannon
We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that…
Bernard, Larry C.; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R. Patricia
|Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures…
The Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) is a new method for assessing cognitive representations of illness. The IPQ is a theoretically derived measure comprising five scales that provides information about the five components that have been found to underlie the cognitive representation of illness. The five scales assess identity - the symptoms the patient associates with the illness, cause - personal
John Weinman; Keith J. Petrie; Rona Moss-morris; Rob Horne
Background Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. Methods The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. Results In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. Conclusion This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement.
In the first study of nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward near-death phenomena and patients who have experienced them (NDErs), 20 registered nurses in Intensive or Cardiac Care Units completed a questionaire containing 29 true\\/false\\/undecided statements about near-death phenomena (alpha reliability .83), 29 Likert items concerning attitudes toward such phenomena (alpha .84), and 25 Likert items concerning attitudes toward care
A watershed is a complex ecosystem. Assessment of watershed condition entails consideration of numerous issues and factors. The problem is complex, the issues are not well defined, and data are often lacking. These characteristics suggest that a knowledge- based approximate reasoning approach is especially useful for watershed assessment. This paper describes a knowledge base for watershed assessment for sediment (WAS).
Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery.
The modified Scleroderma Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (SSc HAQ) is a functional score to assess systemic sclerosis (SSc) comprising the HAQ disease index (HAQ-DI) plus five specific visual analogue scales (VAS). Since it was validated in English-speaking patients only, its general use in any other language necessitates prior cross-cultural adaptation and validation. We designed this study to assess its value in
C. Georges; O. Chassany; L. Mouthon; K. Tiev; C. Toledano; O. Meyer; Z. Marjanovic; C. Heneggar; T. Papo; B. Crickx; D. Sereni; J. Cabane; D. Farge
Objective To design and validate a condition-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire for the assessment of women with anal incontinence.Design A psychometric study by postal survey.Setting South Manchester University Hospital, UK.Sample Two hundred and twenty women with known anal incontinence.Method The questionnaire was adapted from the King's Health Questionnaire, a condition-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire for the assessment of
Holistic management of the organization also covers psychosocial risk management. Gathering information about psychosocial work-related hazards is the first step of the psychosocial risk management. In this process, the identification of the occupational indicators on work-related stress must be done. The paper presents a review of the measures available to assess psychosocial work-related hazards which are available in Poland. The following measures are included: Psychosocial Working Conditions, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI), Subjective Assessment Work Characteristics Questionnaire, Objective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, HSE Indicator Tool, Brief Scale of Vocational Stress, questionnaire "Psychosocial Factors" and Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching. Besides the basic information about the measures (e.g. scales, examples of items, psychometric parameters), critical assessment of each measure in relation to its usefulness is also provided. The main conclusion is that a well-specified goal of diagnosis and planned intervention is the key issue while choosing a questionnaire. The review of tools available in Poland can be of great help for occupational health and safety professionals, and support them in the work aimed at improvement of psychosocial working-conditions. PMID:22779330
|This collection of reproducible instruments is designed to help trainers evaluate the performance of their students and to evaluate their success of the training itself. Part 1 discusses assessments and their use. Part 2 contains a topic and assessment matrix and includes 50 assessments that measure various job-related attitudes, knowledge, and…
Background The side effects and burden of anticoagulant treatments may contribute to poor compliance and consequently to treatment failure. A specific questionnaire is necessary to assess patients' needs and their perceptions of anticoagulant treatment. Methods A conceptual model of expectation and satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was designed by an advisory board and used to guide patient (n = 31) and clinician (n = 17) interviews in French, US English and Dutch. Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or pulmonary embolism (PE). Following interviews, three PACT-Q language versions were developed simultaneously and further pilot-tested by 19 patients. Linguistic validations were performed for additional language versions. Results Initial concepts were developed to cover three areas of interest: 'Treatment', 'Disease and Complications' and 'Information about disease and anticoagulant treatment'. After clinician and patient interviews, concepts were further refined into four domains and 17 concepts; test versions of the PACT-Q were then created simultaneously in three languages, each containing 27 items grouped into four domains: "Treatment Expectations" (7 items), "Convenience" (11 items), "Burden of Disease and Treatment" (2 items) and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" (7 items). No item was deleted or added after pilot testing as patients found the PACT-Q easy to understand and appropriate in length in all languages. The PACT-Q was divided into two parts: the first part to measure the expectations and the second to measure the convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction, for evaluation prior to and after anticoagulant treatment, respectively. Eleven additional language versions were linguistically validated. Conclusion The PACT-Q has been rigorously developed and linguistically validated. It is available in 14 languages for use with thromboembolic patients, including AF, PE and DVT patients. Its validation and psychometric properties have been tested and are presented in a separate manuscript.
|Knowledge of mathematical equivalence, the principle that 2 sides of an equation represent the same value, is a foundational concept in algebra, and this knowledge develops throughout elementary and middle school. Using a construct-modeling approach, we developed an assessment of equivalence knowledge. Second through sixth graders (N = 175)…
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Matthews, Percival G.; Taylor, Roger S.; McEldoon, Katherine L.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide the results from empirically testing the effects of different combinations of organizational forms and combinative capabilities on the efficiency, scope and flexibility of firm-level knowledge integration, given the influence of knowledge types and forms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is based on a case-study methodology employed to collect data from ten
Background Studies on the epidemiology of fecal impaction are limited by the absence of a valid and reliable instrument to identify the condition in the elderly. Our aim is to validate a questionnaire for identifying fecal impaction in the elderly and to assess the impact of cognitive impairment and the aid of a proxy on its reliability. Methods We developed a 5 questions’ questionnaire. The questionnaire was presented to twenty doctors to test its face validity. Feasibility was pre-tested with ten non institutionalized subjects who completed the questionnaire twice, once alone or with the help of a proxy, and another along with the researcher. For the validation of the questionnaire all residents in a single nursing-home were invited to participate, allowing the self-decision of using a proxy. Medical records of all subjects were abstracted without knowledge of subjects’ answers and agreement between fecal impaction according to self-reported and medical records analyzed. Physical impairment was measured with the Barthel’s test and cognitive impairment with the mini-mental test. Results In the face validity only minor changes in wording were suggested. In the feasibility pre-test all subjects were able to understand and complete the questionnaire and all questions were considered appropriate and easily understandable. One-hundred and ninety-nine of the 244 residents participated in the study (mean age 86,1?±?6,6). One hundred and forty two subjects understood all questions; not understanding them was inversely associated with cognitive impairment score (aOR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91). One hundred and sixty decided to use a proxy; the use of a proxy was inversely associated with educative level (0.13 (0.02-0.72), minimental’s score (0.85; 0.76-0.95) and Barthel’s score (0.96; 0.94-0.99). Agreement between medical records and self-completed questionnaire was 85.9% (kappa 0.72 (0,62- 0,82). Disagreement was unrelated to education and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our simple questionnaire is reliable for identifying fecal impaction in the elderly by self-report. Limitation imposed by cognitive impairment is minimized with the aid of a proxy.
BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores
Berend Terluin; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Herman J Adèr; Henrica CW de Vet; Brenda WJH Penninx; Marleen LM Hermens; Christine A van Boeijen; Anton JLM van Balkom; Jac JL van der Klink; Wim AB Stalman
The authors developed the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children with the aim of assessing the constructs of the interpersonal circumplex model, that is, Dominance and Love and their possible combinations, via third- to fifth-grade children's self- and peer reports. In the three studies presented herein, the authors examined several…
Di Blas, Lisa; Grassi, Michele; Luccio, Riccardo; Momente, Silvia
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) are widely studied components of Gray's sensitivity to reinforcement model. There is growing interest in integrating the BAS and BIS into models of risk for psychopathology, however, few measures assess BAS and BIS functioning in children. We adapted a questionnaire…
|The authors developed the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children with the aim of assessing the constructs of the interpersonal circumplex model, that is, Dominance and Love and their possible combinations, via third- to fifth-grade children's self- and peer reports. In the three studies presented herein, the authors examined several…
Di Blas, Lisa; Grassi, Michele; Luccio, Riccardo; Momente, Silvia
|Since 2003, the Essential Skills Series training program developed by the Canadian Evaluation Society has been offered to more than 15 groups in the province of Quebec. The evaluations of these workshops were based on the participants' reactions collected by a Participant Feedback Questionnaire. This article describes the process used to assess…
|In this study, a close-ended questionnaire examining all aspects of photosynthesis simultaneously has been developed and administered to 290 Greek pupils aged 13. It contains complementary or logically related items that permitted us to assess the understanding of each aspect by carrying out crossanalysis. The main findings are: that pupils are…
Research Findings: In the past 20 years school districts have increasingly adopted classroom-based social and emotional development programs. The dissemination of these programs, however, has surpassed our understanding of and ability to assess factors that influence program implementation. The present study responded to this gap by developing a questionnaire that focuses on teacher perceptions of implementation support and teacher attitudes
David Schultz; Archana Ambike; Laura M. Stapleton; Celene E. Domitrovich; Cindy M. Schaeffer; Barbara Bartels
|This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo
The lack of standardization in shiftwork research has been recognized. In response, a battery of selfreport questionnaires has been developed, which might usefully be employed in assessing the impact of different types of shift systems on large groups of individuals. The scales included reflect the most pertinent issues within shiftwork research, and were chosen on the basis of being both
Jane Barton; Evelien Spelten; Peter Totterdell; Lawrence Smith; Simon Folkard; Giovanni Costa
|Objective and Participants: A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaireassessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. Methods: The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average…
|The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…
Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent
This paper presents the results of an assessment of a safety climate questionnaire in UK primary and secondary healthcare settings. Surveys were sent to four Acute Trusts and nine Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and responses were received from 722 hospital and 585 primary care staff. Factor analysis and reliability analyses were undertaken, with the result that 2 Teamwork factors were
A. Hutchinson; J. E. Dean; K. L. Cooper; M. Patterson; A. McIntosh; C. B. Stride; C. M. Smith; B. E. Laurence
|There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…
Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David
|Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one…
Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Matt, Georg E.; Rock, Cheryl L.; de la Rosa, Ruth; Conway, Terry L.; Romero, Romina A.
Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of affective instability in psychiatric outpatients either with a borderline personality diagnosis (BPD; n=58) or with a current major depressive episode or dysthymia (MDD/DYS; n=42). We examined the agreement of three trait measures of affective instability (Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale – Affective Instability scale, Affect Intensity Measure, and the Affect Lability Scales) and one retrospective mood recall task with EMA indices of mood and mood instability. Results indicate only modest to moderate agreement between momentary and questionnaireassessments of trait affective instability; agreement between recalled mood changes and EMA indices was poor. Implications for clinical research and practice and possible applications of EMA methodology are discussed.
The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled The Primary
D. Ray Reutzel; Janice A. Dole; Sylvia Read; Parker Fawson; Kerry Herman; Cindy D. Jones; Richard Sudweeks; Jamison Fargo
|Assessments, embedded with teachers' implicit (i.e. tacit) domain knowledge, play an important role in evaluating "comprehension of a subject". The knowledge on the importance of both the concepts and their relationships of a subject, if captured, made explicit, and shared around, may greatly help teachers construct more effective assessments.…
|This paper describes the Developmental Knowledge and Management Practices Scale. It is designed for assessing the primary care physicians' knowledge of development and their management practices when faced with children exhibiting evidence of handicap. The scale may be useful for assessing the inservice training needs of primary care physicians…
|In response to the demand for sound science assessments, this article presents the development of a latent construct called knowledge integration as an effective measure of science inquiry. Knowledge integration assessments ask students to link, distinguish, evaluate, and organize their ideas about complex scientific topics. The article focuses…
Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Linn, Marcia C.
The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological\\u000a functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological\\u000a assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children\\u000a and
Annika LindLeena; Leena Haataja; Liisi Rautava; Anniina Väliaho; Liisa Lehtonen; Helena Lapinleimu; Riitta Parkkola; Marit Korkman
The SRS-22 questionnaire is specifically designed for the assessment of quality of life in spinal deformity patients. This\\u000a study is the first to use it to assess the quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients under brace treatment\\u000a and compares the results with an observational group matched by age and curve magnitude. Forty-six patients were enrolled\\u000a into each group.
Kenneth M. C. Cheung; Elaine Y. L. Cheng; Samantha C. W. Chan; Kelvin W. K. Yeung; Keith D. K. Luk
Objective: The study was conducted to assess the relative validity of a 170-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) adapted for use in the elderly.Design and subjects: The study was carried out in a sample of 80 men and women aged 55–75 y participating in a community based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The two-step dietary assessment comprised a
K Klipstein-Grobusch; JH den Breeijen; RA Goldbohm; JM Geleijnse; A Hofman; DE Grobbee; JCM Witteman
The aim of this study was to assess UK clinicians’ knowledge of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney diseases\\u000a (NIDDK) criteria for painful bladder syndrome (PBS)\\/interstitial cystitis (IC). A questionnaire survey was distributed nationally\\u000a to 100 gynaecologists and urologists. The main outcome measure was to determine whether respondents knew the NIDDK diagnostic\\u000a criteria for PBS\\/IC. All respondents cared
Fiona Marsh; Mary A. E. Garthwaite; Jennifer Southgate; Carmel Ramage
How people perceive the nature of a hazardous substance may determine how they respond when potentially exposed to it. We tested a new Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances (PATHS) questionnaire. In Study 1 (N = 21), we assessed the face validity of items concerning perceptions about eight properties of a hazardous substance. In Study 2 (N = 2030), we tested the factor structure, reliability and validity of the PATHS questionnaire across four qualitatively different substances. In Study 3 (N = 760), we tested the impact of information provision on Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances scores. Our results showed that our eight measures demonstrated good reliability and validity when used for non-contagious hazards.
Amlot, Richard; Page, Lisa; Pearce, Julia; Wessely, Simon
Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any\\u000a behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development\\u000a and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman; Jill R Landsbaugh; Annie Schiff; Wendy Hardeman; Ken K Ong; Simon J Griffin
Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the
MAURICIO HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA; ISABELLE ROMIEU; SOCORRO PARRA; JUAN HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA; HERLINDA MADRIGAL; WALTER WILLETT
Science education needs valid, authentic, and efficient assessments. Many typical science assessments primarily measure recall of isolated information. This paper reports on the validation of assessments that measure knowledge integration ability among middle school and high school students. The assessments were administered to 18,729 students in…
|This study addresses the development of a teacher questionnaire to assess the social participation of pupils with special needs in regular primary schools and is divided into 2 parts. In the 1st part, the construction of the questionnaire is described. The questionnaire consists of 30 statements related to 4 key themes of social participation: …
Koster, Marloes; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els J.; Lutje Spelberg, Henk C.
|The level of accurate health knowledge that young adult women possess regarding selected information dealing with nutrition; disease; and over-the-counter, prescription, and social drugs is discussed. Sections include the introduction, methods, results, discussion, and implications for biology teachers. (KR)|
Over 4400 stable angina pectoris patients were followed for six months, after the addition of nitroglycerin patches to their usual treatment. Qol items were assessed by means of the SF-36 questionnaire and some clinical parameters were followed as well: during the study, the frequency of attacks decreased regularly and significantly (from 3.49/ week to 0.99/week), as did the amount of sublingual nitroglycerin tablets (from 2.65/day to 0.50/day). All 8 items of the SF-36 questionnaire improved significantly. Moreover, there was a modest, but significant correlation between the decrease in attacks and rescue-medication and the improvement in the Qol. The SF-36 questionnaire appears to be an adequate tool to follow the changes in Qol in stable angina pectoris patients over time. PMID:9217916
This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnairesassessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits, psychological symptoms, contextual influences) were administered to young adults in committed dating relationships. The same measures were administered twice via paper-and-pencil and/or Internet methods over a 2-week period. Method order was counterbalanced among participants, and temporal stability was controlled. Intrapersonal and interpersonal measures generally remained reliable when administered online and demonstrated quantitative and qualitative equivalence across methods. The implications of online administration of questionnaires are discussed, and specific recommendations are made for researchers who wish to transition to online data collection. PMID:20881103
Background Research on the influence of the physical environment on physical activity is rapidly expanding and different measures of environmental perceptions have been developed, mostly in the US and Australia. The purpose of this paper is to (i) provide a literature review of measures of environmental perceptions recently used in European studies and (ii) develop a questionnaire for population monitoring purposes in the European countries. Methods This study was done within the framework of the EU-funded project 'Instruments for Assessing Levels of Physical Activity and Fitness (ALPHA)', which aims to propose standardised instruments for physical activity and fitness monitoring across Europe. Quantitative studies published from 1990 up to November 2007 were systematically searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, TRIS and Geobase. In addition a survey was conducted among members of the European network for the promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA Europe) and European members of the International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) to identify published or ongoing studies. Studies were included if they were conducted among European general adult population (18+y) and used a questionnaire to assess perceptions of the physical environment. A consensus meeting with an international expert group was organised to discuss the development of a European environmental questionnaire. Results The literature search resulted in 23 European studies, 15 published and 8 unpublished. In these studies, 13 different environmental questionnaires were used. Most of these studies used adapted versions of questionnaires that were developed outside Europe and that focused only on the walkability construct: The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), the abbreviated version of the NEWS (ANEWS) and the Neighborhood Quality of Life Study (NQLS) questionnaire have been most commonly used. Based on the results of the literature review and the output of the meeting with international experts, a European environmental questionnaire with 49 items was developed. Conclusion There is need for a greater degree of standardization in instruments/methods used to assess environmental correlates of physical activity, taking into account the European-specific situation. A first step in this process is taken by the development of a European environmental questionnaire.
Spittaels, Heleen; Foster, Charlie; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; Oja, Pekka; Sjostrom, Michael; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The testing and checking phases of a questionnaire are briefly described in this paper, identifying the common errors due to incorrect formulation of questions and the main issues. The theoretical methods for "testing" a questionnaire has been examined in the first section, in the second section the testing process for a specific questionnaire for assessing the patient's acceptability of a dry powder device (the Handling Questionnaire) has been described, together with the grading of improvement achieved. PMID:19350839
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-developed colorectal cancer screening\\u000a questionnaire. Methods We conducted 36 cognitive interviews and made iterative changes to the questionnaire to improve comprehension. The revised\\u000a questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 201 participants. The primary outcome was agreement between questionnaire responses\\u000a and medical records for whether or
Deborah A. Fisher; Corrine I. Voils; Cynthia J. Coffman; Janet M. Grubber; Tara K. Dudley; Sally W. Vernon; John H. Bond; Dawn Provenzale
Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology) and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology). Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs), although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this) However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help).
Congenital malformations (CM) are considered as 10 leading causes for global burdens of the disease. The study aimed to assess the knowledge on CM among pregnant residents of Tbilisi. Investigation was carried out on the base of "D. Gagua Clinic", LLC, Tbilisi. 470 women, visiting the clinic for antenatal monitoring, were involved in the study to provide an appropriate assessment of pregnant. Assessment of basic knowledge of the women was conducted according to the specially developed questionnaire and completed by the respondents at their visiting to the doctors. The level of knowledge on prevention of CM among the pregnant residents of Tbilisi is low while relationship to CM in the first place is associated with this group of population. The knowledge on CM is comparatively higher in women older than 30 and among the pregnant with higher education. Certain differences in the level of knowledge on CM was found among temporary unemployed women (housewives) and employed respondents. The differences in knowledge on CM among women with first and second delivery were not revealed. On the background of the obtained results it should be concluded that the level of knowledge on CM among reproductive age women residents of Tbilisi is not satisfactory. There is direct evidence of low preventive activity and bareness of measures regarding to family planning as well. PMID:23388526
Gagoshidze, G; Mirvelashvili, E; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D
Background Postnatal care is the neglected area of pregnancy care, despite repeated calls to improve it. Changes would require assessment, which should include women's views. No suitable satisfaction questionnaire exists to enable this. Aim To develop a multidimensional psychometric postnatal satisfaction self-completion instrument. Setting Ten maternity services in south west England from 2006-2009. Method Sources for questions were literature review, fieldwork, and related published instruments. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation was used to develop the final WOMen's views of Birth Postnatal Satisfaction Questionnaire (WOMBPNSQ) version. Validity and internal reliability were assessed. Questionnaires were mailed 6-8 weeks postnatally (with one reminder). Results The WOMBPNSQ comprises 36 seven-point Likert questions (13 dimensions including general satisfaction). Of 300 women, 166 (55.3%) replied; of these 155 (95.1 %) were white, 152 (93.8%) were married or cohabiting, 135 (81.3%) gave birth in a consultant unit, 129 (78.6%) had a vaginal delivery; and 100 (60.6%) were multiparous. The 12 specific dimensions were: support from professionals or partner, or social support; care from GP and health visitor; advice on contraception, feeding baby, the mother's health; continuity of care; duration of inpatient stay; home visiting; pain after birth. These have internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.624 to 0.902). Various demographic and clinical characteristics were significantly associated with specific dimensions. Conclusion WOMBPNSQ could be used to assess existing or planned changes to maternity services or as a screening instrument, which would then enable in-depth qualitative assessment of areas of dissatisfaction. Its convergent validity and test-retest reliability are still to be assessed but are an improvement upon existing postnatal satisfaction questionnaires.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceived learning needs and their level of importance in patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction at hospitalization and follow-up clinic visit and to assess the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire.DESIGN: Longitudinal, exploratory.SETTING: West Coast university-affiliated medical center and clinics that serve primarily a veteran population.PATIENTS: Twenty-eight adults who were admitted with a diagnosis of angina
Mildred L. Czar; Mlittnsg Ed; Marguerite M. Engler
There is growing demand for translations of health status questionnaires for use in multinational drug therapy studies and for population comparisons of health statistics. The International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project is conducting a three-stage research program to determine the feasibility of translating the SF-36 Health Survey, widely used in English-speaking countries, into other languages. In stage 1, the
Ware John E. Jr; Susan D. Keller; Barbara Gandek; John E. Brazier; Marianne Sullivan
Part I discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part II describes the reliability of the JCQ scales in a cross-national context using 10,288 men and 6,313 women from 6 studies conducted in 4 countries. Substantial similarity in means, standard deviations, and correlations among the
Robert Karasek; Chantal Brisson; Norito Kawakami; Irene Houtman; Paulien Bongers; Benjamin Amick
Three studies investigated the psychometric properties of the complex postformal thought (PFT) questionnaire (Sinnott, unpublished\\u000a scale, 1998; Sinnott and Johnson 1997), which is a measure of adult cognitive development. The scale was found to be moderately reliable (? = .63). To assess construct\\u000a validity, a comparison of participants’ performance on the PFT scale to their performance on the Need for Cognition scale
Kelly B. Cartwright; M. Paz Galupo; Seth D. Tyree; Jennifer Gavin Jennings
AimsThe aim of this study was to validate the Dutch version of the Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) [H. Hearnshaw, K. Wright, J. Dale, J. Sturt, E. Vermeire, P. Van Royen, Development and validation of the Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) to assess obstacles in living with Type 2 diabetes, Diabetic Med. 24 (2007) 878–882] assessing people living with type 2 diabetes’
M. Vandekerckhove; E. Vermeire; A. Weeren; P. Van Royen
This study assessed the sports nutrition knowledge of current and prospective physical educators/coaches (HPEs) to determine the need for improved education in this area and to compare the nutrition knowledge of HPEs with that of foods and nutrition students (FNSs) and general college students (GENs). A researcher-developed 4-point Likert-type…
An expert system called SEEKS (security evaluation knowledge-based system) has been developed to apply operational planning knowledge to the static security assessment problem. SEEKS performs the contingency selection and remedial action tasks usually conducted offline by an operational planner. Rule-based techniques are used to select contingencies expected to cause steady state bus voltage violations. The selection identifies the most severe
Background: Athletics programmes for secondary schools include a variety of skills, knowledge and cognitive abilities, which are currently assessed through written, practical, oral and/or video-based tests. Skills are traditionally taught in practice-based sessions, while the knowledge aspect is often reinforced in class-based sessions with…
It has become increasingly important to identify torture survivors among subgroups of the American population and to assess the continuing health effects of torture experience. To determine whether survey questionnaires can be effectively used to make such assessments, we reviewed the recent literature on refugee health, on the measurement and treatment of trauma, and in the related areas of survey methodology and cognitive psychology. We conclude that, if properly conducted, the survey approach represents an effective method, and we propose specific recommendations concerning procedures that may be used in surveys of torture survivors to maximize study validity. PMID:9612445
This paper reports the results of a needs assessment survey that was conducted to find out pre-service teachers' background knowledge, experiences and perceptions about their preparation for technology integration at a university in the Middle East USA. A questionnaire with both closed and open-ended items was administered to a group of student…
This paper reports the results of a needs assessment survey that was conducted to find out pre-service teachers' background knowledge, experiences and perceptions about their preparation for technology integration at a university in the Middle East USA. A questionnaire with both closed and open-ended items was administered to a group of student teachers. Participants seemed neutral with regards to feelings
Purpose: To report the psychometrics of the Glaucoma Treatment Compliance Assessment Tool (GTCAT), a new questionnaire designed to assess adherence with glaucoma therapy. Methods: We developed the questionnaire according to the constructs of the Health Belief Model. We evaluated the questionnaire using data from a cross-sectional study with focus groups (n = 20) and a prospective observational case series (n=58). Principal components analysis provided assessment of construct validity. We repeated the questionnaire after 3 months for test-retest reliability. We evaluated predictive validity using an electronic dosing monitor as an objective measure of adherence. Results: Focus group participants provided 931 statements related to adherence, of which 88.7% (826/931) could be categorized into the constructs of the Health Belief Model. Perceived barriers accounted for 31% (288/931) of statements, cues-to-action 14% (131/931), susceptibility 12% (116/931), benefits 12% (115/931), severity 10% (91/931), and self-efficacy 9% (85/931). The principal components analysis explained 77% of the variance with five components representing Health Belief Model constructs. Reliability analyses showed acceptable Cronbach’s alphas (>.70) for four of the seven components (severity, susceptibility, barriers [eye drop administration], and barriers [discomfort]). Predictive validity was high, with several Health Belief Model questions significantly associated (P <.05) with adherence and a correlation coefficient (R2) of .40. Test-retest reliability was 90%. Conclusion: The GTCAT shows excellent repeatability, content, construct, and predictive validity for glaucoma adherence. A multisite trial is needed to determine whether the results can be generalized and whether the questionnaire accurately measures the effect of interventions to increase adherence.
Mansberger, Steven L.; Sheppler, Christina R.; McClure, Tina M.; VanAlstine, Cory L.; Swanson, Ingrid L.; Stoumbos, Zoey; Lambert, William E.
To assess the validity of a questionnaire developed for parents of preschool children to know their physical activity (PA) status, we compared the questionnaire results with the measures of accelerometer for children's activities. Thirty-five preschoolers who wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours daily on 3 weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analyses. Time spent in activities of varied intensity was calculated by applying 15-second ActiGraph count cutoffs (ACC). Parents' perceptions of their children's PA were associated with the percentage of vigorous and moderate physical activity recorded with ACC at r = 0.62 (p = 0.0001). An association was shown between the percentage of a child's time spent in vigorous physical activity, as reported by parents, with that measured by ACC at r = 0.53 (p = 0.001). Results of this study suggest that the designed questionnaire might be a useful tool for assessing children's activity while, additionally, it warrants further investigation on larger samples of children. PMID:23304910
The aim of this research was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ). Study 1 focused on the compilation and pilot testing of potential questionnaire items. Consistent with self-determination theory, items were devised to tap into six forms of motivation: amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The purpose of the second study (N = 556) was to empirically examine the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Items were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses to determine the fit of the a priori model. In addition, the validity of the questionnaire was assessed through links with the theoretically related concepts of intrinsic need satisfaction, well-being, and goal orientation. Together with test-retest reliability (Study 3), these results showed preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Finally, using an independent sample (N = 254), the fourth study confirmed the factor structure and supports the use of the CMQ in future coaching research. PMID:22605361
McLean, Kristy N; Mallett, Clifford J; Newcombe, Peter
A method and system for knowledgeassessment and learning that assesses the true knowledge of a human subject. The invention incorporates non-one dimensional testing techniques to obtain the subject's knowledge and associated confidence level. The invention produces an assessment or test profile, including formative and summative evaluation, which is correlated to a database of learning materials and presented to the subject for review and/or reeducation of the substantive response. The invention accommodates various test queries without regard to the specific nature of the queried subject. The present invention is adaptable for use in microprocessor-based stand alone computers, individual use or distributed in a client-server environment of a communication network. The system incorporates a plurality of user-interfaces and web browser dialog controls inputting the queries, administering the assessment, providing feedback to the system user and/or the test subject and providing learning materials according to the assessment profile.
Bruno; James E. (Los Angeles, CA); Smith; Charles J. (Encinitas, CA); Blank; Arthur (Encinitas, CA); Schiedel; Len (Encinitas, CA); Serling; Bob (Cardiff by the
The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an argument that…
This site from the University of Massachusetts-Amherst describes classroom communication systems (CCSs). CCSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall. CCSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise. The site also features links to other informative sites.
Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to compare two parent completed questionnaires, the Modified Simonds & Parraga Sleep Questionnaire (MSPSQ), and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), used to characterize sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both questionnaires have been used in previous work in the assessment and treatment of children with ASD and sleep disturbance. Participants and methods Parents/caregivers of a sample of 124 children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of six years completed both sleep questionnaires regarding children’s sleep behaviors. Internal consistency of the items for both measures was evaluated as well as the correlation between the two sleep measures. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also conducted to examine the predictive power of the MSPSQ. Results More than three quarters of the sample (78%) were identified as poor sleepers on the CSHQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the items on the CSHQ was 0.68 and Cronbach’s alpha for items on the MSPSQ was 0.67. The total scores for MSPSQ and CSHQ were significantly correlated (r =.70, p<.01). After first identifying the poor sleepers based on the CSHQ, an area under the curve was 0.89 for the MSPSQ. Using a cut off score of 56 on the MSPSQ, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .70. Conclusions In this sample of children with ASD, sleep disturbances were common across all cognitive levels. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to the CSHQ, the MSPSQ has adequate internal consistency. The two measures were also highly correlated. A preliminary cut off of 56 on the MSPSQ offers high sensitivity and specificity commensurate with the widely used CSHQ.
Aim To assess physicians’ knowledge and practices for obtaining patients’ informed consent to medical procedures. Methods An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. Results Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P?=?0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P?=?0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P?0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P?0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P???0.05 for all questions). Conclusion Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process.
How people perceive the nature of a hazardous substance may determine how they respond when potentially exposed to it. We tested a new Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances (PATHS) questionnaire. In Study 1 (N = 21), we assessed the face validity of items concerning perceptions about eight properties of a hazardous substance. In Study 2 (N = 2030), we tested the factor structure, reliability and validity of the PATHS questionnaire across four qualitatively different substances. In Study 3 (N = 760), we tested the impact of information provision on Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances scores. Our results showed that our eight measures demonstrated good reliability and validity when used for non-contagious hazards. PMID:23104995
Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa; Pearce, Julia; Wessely, Simon
SummaryBackground: The Psoriasis Quality of Life (PQOL) questionnaire was developed based on a US-wide epidemiologically balanced population of psoriasis patients to assess quality of life. Objective: A shortened form of the PQOL questionnaire was used in a clinical trial to assess its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Methods: The PQOL questionnaire contains 41 items in two domains (psychosocial and physical). 71
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off scores using the 90th percentile were derived from a normative group of 508 individuals. These cut-offs correctly identified 78-100% of cases within clinical criterion groups of specific disorders. The clinical sample also completed other validated scales assessing gambling, eating, alcohol, and drug use. Correlations were typically.7 with relevant SPQ scales. The SPQ food, drug, and alcohol scales were at least equivalent to validated comparison scales in the strength of their relationship to relevant clinical criterion groups. Internal consistency was high for all scales, and test-retest reliability was generally good. This clinically useful instrument provides a broad assessment of addictive problems, thereby benefiting both the treatment provider and the client. PMID:12573676
Christo, George; Jones, Susan L; Haylett, Samantha; Stephenson, Geoffrey M; Lefever, Robert M H; Lefever, Robin
Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of affective instability in psychiatric outpatients either with a borderline personality diagnosis (n = 58) or with a current episode of major depressive disorder or dysthymia (n = 42). The authors examined the agreement of 3 trait measures of affective instability-the Affective Instability subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale (L. C. Morey, 1991), the Affect Intensity Measure (R. J. Larsen, E. Diener, & R. Emmons, 1986), and the Affect Lability Scales (P. D. Harvey, B. R. Greenberg, & M. R. Serper, 1989)-and 1 retrospective mood recall task with EMA indices of mood and mood instability. Results indicate only modest to moderate agreement between momentary and questionnaireassessments of trait affective instability; agreement between recalled mood changes and EMA indices was poor. Implications for clinical research and practice and possible applications of EMA methodology are discussed. PMID:19719353
|People use external knowledge representations (KRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with KRs is central to be-coming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, KRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. We describe five key roles of KRs in assessment: (1)…
Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.
Information and communication technology is applied by law enforcement agencies in intelligence and investigation work. Assessment\\u000a of risk caused by criminal gangs is an example of risk and technology in policing. This paper applies the knowledge management\\u000a technology stage model to criminal risk assessment.
Objective: To assess the ability of a 16-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure consumption of cereal foods, fruit and vegetables in Chinese Singaporeans.Design: Subjects completed the questionnaire twice, at the beginning and end of a six-week period during which they also provided three 24 h diet recalls. Estimates of intake from the questionnaire were compared with those from diet
Because the structure, development, and functioning of a family plays an important role in health and illness, preparing nursing students to assess families in health care settings is of critical importance. A quasi-experimental design using a pre- and postcourse questionnaire was used to examine students' perceived knowledge about family assessment and perceived difficulty applying family assessment in the clinical setting. The Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) was taught in an elective nursing course, "Families in Health and Illness," offered at the University of Hong Kong. At the completion of the course, 46 senior baccalaureate nursing students showed a significant increase in their perceived understanding of all subcategories in CFAM compared with the control group of 43 senior baccalaureate nursing students who completed an elective nursing course in women's health. Teaching family nursing assessment in undergraduate programs may be useful in ensuring that nurses attend to families in practice. PMID:20407000
Objectives Health risk assessment (HRA) questionnaires have become a popular tool to help quantify health issues within populations. Over the last decade HRAs have increasingly been delivered in the online environment. The objective of this study was to create and validate an HRA that is optimized for delivery via the Internet. Design After an iterative process of user testing and interface design the RedBrick Health Assessment (RBHA) was validated against known domain specific questionnaires with 464 working Americans, and with medical claims data from over 25,000 employees. Setting All consumer testing, data capture and analysis occurred at the offices of RedBrick Health Corporation, Minneapolis, USA and via a secure online portal. Participants Individuals in full-time employment in the USA, who were between 18 and 65 years of age at the time inquiry. Main outcome measures Correlation of the included RBHA domains with the output from known gold standard health question sets for each assessed health domain. Results The iterative development process employed in creating the RBHA produced a tool that had a high degree of user acceptability. The domains demonstrated good correlations with relevant gold standard questionnaire measures, good internal consistency, and acceptable sensitivity and specificity when compared to gold standard risk stratification and high-risk classification (specificity of domains ranged from 76–94%). A test–retest correlation co-efficient of 0.7, or greater, was achieved 8 weeks after initial completion. Conclusions The RBHA is a new breed of HRA that has been specifically developed for capturing health status information in an online environment. At its heart is user centricity and this focus has enabled the creation of a tool that is not only highly engaging but also captures accurate and robust health status information.
Mills, Peter R; Masloski, Wendy S; Bashaw, Carole M; Butler, Jolene RW; Hillstrom, Molly E; Zimmerman, Eric M
Objectives/Hypothesis Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common condition that is associated with otologic and rhinologic symptoms. The complete assessment of ETD is limited without a valid symptom score. We developed and conducted initial validation of the seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire (ETDQ-7), a disease-specific instrument to assess symptoms with respect to ETD. Study Design Validation study. Methods The ETDQ-7 was developed using standard survey methodology. The ETDQ-7 was completed by a group of 50 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with ETD and 25 non-ETD patients who served as a control group. Tympanometry was used as a criterion standard to distinguish the two groups. A subset of respondents repeated the ETDQ-7 at a time point 4 weeks later. Results Content validity for the ETDQ-7 was established by focus group and review of the literature. Reliability testing indicated acceptable internal consistency for the entire instrument (Cronbach ? = .71). The test–retest reliability indicated good correlation between the two questionnaires completed by the same patient 4 weeks apart (r = 0.78). The ETDQ-7 was able to discriminate between patients with ETD and those without (P < .001), indicating excellent discriminant validity. Conclusions The ETDQ-7 is a valid and reliable symptom score for use in adult patients with ETD that may facilitate clinical practice by highlighting the impact of ETD. Further testing is needed to determine its usefulness in assessing treatment response.
McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Christos, Paul J.
BACKGROUND: Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF) questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according
Allen J Taylor; Henry Wong; Karen Wish; Jon Carrow; Debulon Bell; Jody Bindeman; Tammy Watkins; Trudy Lehmann; Saroj Bhattarai; Patrick G O'Malley
|Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic KnowledgeQuestionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…
Given a collection Q of problems, in knowledge space theory Doignon & Falmagne, (International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 23:175-196, 1985) the knowledge state of a student is the collection K ? Q of all problems that this student is capable of solving. A knowledge structure is a pair (Q, ), where is a collection of knowledge states that contains at least the empty set and Q. A probabilistic knowledge structure (PKS) is a knowledge structure (Q, , ?), where ? is a probability distribution on the knowledge states. The PKS that has received the most attention is the basic local independence model BLIM; Falmagne & Doignon, (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 41:1-23, 1988a, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 32:232-258, 1988b). To the best of our knowledge, systematic investigations in the literature concerning the identifiability of the BLIM are totally missing. Based on the theoretical work of Bamber and van Santen (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 29:443-473, 1985), the present article is aimed to present a method and a corresponding computerized procedure for assessing the local identifiability of the BLIM, which is applicable to any finite knowledge structure of moderate size. PMID:22588988
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Body Image Questionnaire (QÜIC) in Spanish adolescents. The sample comprised 254 girls and 189 boys, aged 12-15. Principal component analyses showed that the 18 satisfaction items could be summarized using two moderately interrelated dimensions, torso and head/limbs, with satisfaction with chest/breast and genitals loading on a different factor for boys (torso) and girls (head/limbs). The QÜIC measures of body satisfaction, body problems, general physical appearance and conformity with weight and height presented satisfactory test-retest reliability, internal consistency and convergent validity. Our findings support the use of the QÜIC when assessing body image. PMID:21930733
Penelo, Eva; Espinoza, Paola; Portell, Mariona; Raich, Rosa M
Cultural and linguistic testing of the Handling Questionnaire: a specific instrument for assessing the patient's acceptability of dry powder inhalers. R.W. Dal Negro, M. Guerriero. The testing and checking phases of a questionnaire are briefly described in this paper, identifying the common errors due to incorrect formulation of questions and the main issues. The theoretical methods for \\
|Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…
Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…
The level of expressed emotion (EE) as assessed in the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) has proved to be one of the best predictors of relapse in schizophrenia. The present study describes the development and validation of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status (criticism, emotional overinvolvement) of relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The FQ classifications
Georg Wiedemann; Oliver Rayki; Elias Feinstein; Kurt Hahlweg
Background The sequelae of extremely preterm birth have an impact on the quality of life (QoL) of these children. Standardized assessment of their QoL is rarely done in France. The aim of this study is to examine among all the types of physicians involved in the management of children born extremely preterm, their knowledge, use in routine practice and expectations concerning QoL assessment of these children using standardized questionnaires. Methods Prospective survey among heads of obstetric, neonatal medicine and paediatric neurology departments, by means of questionnaires. Two qualitative methods were used: focus groups and Delphi method. Results Seventy-eight physicians participated (obstetricians 24%, neonatologists 58%, paediatric neurologists 18%). The physicians considered QoL a relevant concept which they assessed subjectively. They expressed a need for information on methods of assessment. An ideal QoL questionnaire was described. Expectations regarding availability of QoL data were expressed from a medical, family and societal perspective. The impact of QoL measurement on the ethical aspect of decision-making was approached, in particular the potential impact of this tool on the decision made. Expectations were found to differ between specialties. Conclusion This original study reports the perspective of experts on taking into consideration the QoL of children born extremely preterm. This is a subjective notion that is difficult to implement and which may influence therapeutic choices.
|This article gives a critique of the methodology of OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It is argued that PISA is invalidated by the fact that the methodology chosen does not constitute an adequate operationalisation of the question of inquiry. Therefore, contrary to the claims of PISA, PISA is not an assessment of the…
Although legal, formal, and informal social controls are frequently used to pressure individuals to enter treatment, motivational consequences of using these tactics have been neglected. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful perspective for understanding client experiences of social controls and highlights the importance of self-determined motivation for long-term behavior change. This study assessed the construct validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief scale derived from SDT to measure identified, introjected, and external treatment motivation. Two independent samples of clients entering Canadian residential and outpatient treatment completed TEQ items (ns = 529 and 623). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-item version of the scale, with 3 factors aligning with SDT motivational subtypes. Subscales showed high internal consistency and correlated as expected with social controls and perceived coercion at treatment entry. The TEQ-9 is a valid option for assessing self-determined motivation in clinical practice and evaluating coerced addiction treatment. PMID:22138201
Currently, no valid and reliable instrument that assesses an individual's burn prevention knowledge exists. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate whether interventions aimed at increasing burn prevention knowledge are effective and useful. This study developed and tested a novel instrument that assessed an individual's burn prevention knowledge. This instrument may be used to evaluate the effect interventions aimed at increasing burn prevention knowledge have on an individual's burn prevention knowledge. Initially, a focus group composed of 22 American Burn Association Burn Prevention Committee members prioritized areas that individuals with increased burn prevention knowledge should be well informed about (ie, scalds, gasoline, elders, juvenile fire setters, and abuse). Then, 39 questions were developed (by the authors) to assess an individual's knowledge in these five priority areas and tested for their reliability and validity. Factor analysis techniques were used to develop the final survey (15 questions, explaining 76% of the variance in responses) that was administered in a larger sample (n = 113) to achieve adequate power for the study. The final survey was administered and tested in a group of pediatric, emergency department and clinic registered nurses for reliability and validity. The final survey developed has moderate interrater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.611), high intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.713), and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.604). In addition, the final survey was determined to have face validity as well as construct validity (five components had eigenvalues >1.0). The survey developed is positioned to be tested in a multisite and multi-investigator study. If results from this study hold consistent in future studies, the survey developed can be used by researchers in future interventional studies aimed at increasing burn prevention knowledge without reservation. PMID:21131850
Background:Food labels may have an important function in communicating nutrition information and have considerable potential to influence food choice and dietary behaviour.Objectives:To assess the validity and reliability of a short (self-complete) questionnaire designed to measure consumers’ use and understanding of food labels.Methods:Questionnaire content was determined by gaps highlighted in a literature review of food labelling. Nineteen questions (49 items) assessing
Folate is required for 1-carbon metabolism and deficiency in folate leads to megaloblastic anemia. Low levels of folate have been associated with increased risk of vascular disease. To investigate whether RDA of folate are met, habitual folate intake needs to be assessed reliably. We developed a FFQ to specifically measure folate intake over the previous 3 months in elderly people in the Netherlands. Major sources of folate intake, i.e. foods contributing to at least 80% of the average folate intake, were identified through an analysis of the second Dutch Food Consumption Survey for the sub-population of men and women aged 50-70. In 2000 and 2001, folate intake was estimated with this questionnaire in 1286 individuals aged 50-75 years. Concentrations of serum and erythrocyte folate served as biomarkers with which relative validity of the questionnaire was assessed. The same FFQ was repeated after 3 years in 803 subjects in order to assess long-term reproducibility. Mean folate intake was estimated to be 196 (SD 69) microg/d. Spearman correlation coefficients between folate intake and serum and erythrocyte concentrations were 0.14 (P < 0.01) and 0.05 (P = 0.06) respectively. Spearman correlations between folate intakes measured at baseline and after 3 years were 0.58 (P < 0.01). 47% of the participants were classified in the same quartiles on the two occasions. Our FFQ showed a weak correlation between folate intake and blood folate concentrations and reproducibility was acceptable. This FFQ is able to rank subjects according to their folate intake. PMID:17521468
van de Rest, Ondine; Durga, Jane; Verhoef, Petra; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Brants, Henny A M
Background: Evaluation of fund of knowledge about SLD among kindergarten and primary school teachers is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of SLD and to plan for specific teacher education to enable early identification of SLD among children. Aim: To assess the knowledge of learning disability among primary school teachers in India and to investigate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out 34 primary school teachers from 2 different schools in Puducherry town agreed to participate in this study with informed consent. We used a multiple choice questionnaire format with a total of 50 questions, 5 choices for each question and a total score of 50. The study was held at the schools where these teachers were employed using pen and paper testing method and data were entered into the computer for statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Total scores on the questionnaire of all teachers were calculated. Content validity, reliability coefficient, discrimination factor, and facility factor were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: 29% of the questions were correctly answered by all 34 teachers. The mean total score for this sample was 14.50 ± 9 and total item score for the 50 items was 9.90 ± 4. Cronbach's (?) reliability was 0.89. Overall discrimination index was + 0.2 and facility factor analysis score was 0.26. Conclusions: Validation of this new screening questionnaire was successful in Indian setting. It has to be used in other settings to extrapolate our findings.
|In this article we propose a novel e-learning system, dedicated strictly to knowledgeassessment tasks. In its functioning it utilizes web-based technologies, but its design differs radically from currently popular e-learning solutions which rely mostly on thin-client architecture. Our research proved that such architecture, while well suited for…
Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = ?.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective.
Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin
Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = -.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective. PMID:22567034
Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin
The objective was to validate the Dutch translation of the 40-item and 5-item Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis AssessmentQuestionnaire (ALSAQ-40, ALSAQ-5). Eighty-one ALS patients participated in this cross-sectional study. The measures used were the ALSAQ-40, the ALSAQ-5, MOS Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). The Dutch ALSAQ-40 was sensitive to differences in disease severity (all scales Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05), had no floor and few ceiling effects (Communication, Eating and Drinking scales), had excellent internal consistency reliability (all scales Cronbach's alpha >0.90, all item to subscale correlations above 0.40) and showed good construct validity as it correlated as expected with SF-36 and ALSFRS-R scores. The total and item scores of the ALSAQ-5 were strongly correlated with the corresponding total and subscale scores of the ALSAQ-40 (Spearman's rho >0.80). The ALSAQ-5 and ALSAQ-40 showed comparable correlations with the subscales of the SF-36 and the ALSFRS-R, except for Activities Daily Living and Independence (ADL). All other results of the Dutch ALSAQ-40 and ALSAQ-5 were comparable to those of the original UK questionnaires. It is concluded that the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the ALSAQ-40 and the ALSAQ-5 are good and similar to those of the original English version. PMID:17453637
Maessen, Maud; Post, Marcel W; Maillé, Rianne; Lindeman, Eline; Mooij, Rob; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H
Purpose of the Study: We tested the ethnic-group measurement invariance of 2 commonly used informant-report scales of patients' dementia symptoms: the Functional AssessmentQuestionnaire (FAQ), a measure of functional abilities, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), a measure of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted multigroup confirmatory factor analyses on 311 Hispanic and 10,863 non-Hispanic White (NHW) outpatients and their informants diagnosed with dementia or normal cognition at their initial Alzheimer's Disease Center evaluations nationwide. RESULTS: We confirmed our hypothesized one-factor FAQ and four-factor NPI-Q models for each ethnic group. We also found evidence for the configural (i.e., number of factors) and factorial (i.e., pattern of factor loadings) invariance of both scales and structural (i.e., factor covariances) invariance of the NPI-Q across groups. However, we did not obtain evidence for ethnic-group scalar (i.e., intercept) invariance for either scale. IMPLICATIONS: The FAQ and NPI-Q were operating similarly across Hispanics and NHWs, suggesting that they can be meaningfully used within and across these groups to measure informant-reported dementia symptomatology. However, their scalar noninvariance indicates that meaningful ethnic-group comparisons of their latent factor mean values cannot be made. PMID:23564287
The frequency of psychopathological symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is often underestimated because of the lack of comprehensive evaluation tools. A total of 486 consecutive non-demented PD patients completed the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90R) self-reported questionnaire, a validated tool for the assessment of psychopathological symptoms on nine dimensions. Somatization, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behaviors were reported by nearly half of the PD patients. They were more likely to occur in females. Disease-related factors such as duration, severity and daily dosages, but not type of dopaminergic medications, were associated with the occurrence of these symptoms. Psychopathological features are frequent in PD and their occurrence is underlined by disease-related factors. PMID:19806311
Repeated interpersonal patterns are central to case conceptualization and treatment planning in interpersonal and attachment-based approaches to therapy. In this study, raters (133 college students, 165 inpatients) provided data on the SASB-based Intrex questionnaire about self-treatment, relationship with a significant other, and remembered interactions with parents in childhood. Within-subject profiles were inspected for precise behavioral matches conforming to three “copy process” patterns: Identification (behaving like an important other), Recapitulation (behaving as if the other person is still present and in charge), and Introjection (treating the self the way another did). Copy process evidence was observed in most individual ratings. Consistent with expectation, non-clinical raters tended to copy a securely-attached pattern of affiliation, low hostility, and moderate degrees of enmeshment and differentiation. Only patients copied maladaptive behavior at greater than base rate expectation. Implications are discussed and recommendations provided for use of Intrex in individual assessment of copy process.
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.
The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables. PMID:24068225
Objectives: A pilot study to evaluate the knowledge about haemophilia in the families enrolled in the Lucknow Haemophilia Society (India), and to assess their attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis (PND). Methods: A questionnaire to assess the knowledge about haemophilia (questionnaire A) and another questionnaire to assess the attitude towards PND (questionnaire B) were distributed. PND was performed by DNA-based linkage analysis.
Gouri Shanker Pandey; Inusha Panigrahi; Shubha R. Phadke; Balraj Mittal
Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…
Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.
|Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…
Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.
BACKGROUND: Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke\\/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke\\/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke\\/TIA.
Andrzej Sloma; Lars G Backlund; Lars-Erik Strender; Ylva Skånér
Summary In older women, knowledge about risk factors for osteoporosis was good, with over 75% responding correctly to questions about\\u000a lifestyle factors, family history, height loss, and menopausal status. However, significant knowledge deficits were identified\\u000a regarding osteoporosis “consequences” and “prevention and treatment.”\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction We examined osteoporosis knowledge by testing the psychometric properties of the 10-item knowledge component of the “Osteoporosis\\u000a and You”
S. M. Cadarette; M. A. M. Gignac; D. E. Beaton; S. B. Jaglal; G. A. Hawker
Background The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional KnowledgeQuestionnaire (GNKQ), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively) and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively). 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.
There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related\\u000a musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in\\u000a the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires for the screening of musculoskeletal status and the studies of factors\\u000a that are believed to affect
L. Sandsjö; P. Larsman; M. M. R. Vollenbroek-Hutten; T. Läubli; B. Juul-Kristensen; A. Klipstein; H. J. Hermens; K. Søgaard
We carried out a questionnaire survey of the caretakers, using 86 riding horses kept in the Equestrian Park, Tokyo (Japan Racing Association). The questionnaire survey used a 5-point scale and a 3-point scale to assess several caretakers’ impressions of each horse’s temperament, on the basis of the norm and the horse’s tendencies in ordinary care and daily training. Factor analysis
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing dietary calcium intake in the general population, since all available questionnaires at present are age- and\\/or gender-specific. A total of 1001 individuals (including children, adults, and elderly people of both genders) were randomly recruited throughout Greece. Estimates of calcium intake from the 30-item
Faidon Magkos; Yannis Manios; Eirini Babaroutsi; Labros S. Sidossis
This study describes the development and validation of a Greek-language instrument that can be used to assess grade 10 students'\\u000a perceptions of their chemistry classroom environment as a means of showing differences between chemistry learning environments\\u000a in Greece (Attica) and Cyprus. The development of the instrument was based on available learning environment questionnaires.\\u000a The questionnaire was administered to 1,394 students
Maria Giallousi; Vassilios Gialamas; Nicolas Spyrellis; Evangelia A. Pavlatou
This study assessed the validity of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) and Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ). Scales within the DAX and DATQ appeared to assess separate, correlated constructs. Aggressive forms of thinking and anger expression correlated positively with each other, trait driving anger, aggressive and risky behavior, some crash-related conditions, general trait anger, and general forms of anger
Jerry L. Deffenbacher; Gail S. White; Rebekah S. Lynch
|This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…
Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.
|Although several different measures have been developed to assess job satisfaction, large-scale examinations of the psychometric properties of most satisfaction scales are generally lacking. In the current study we used meta-analysis to examine the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational AssessmentQuestionnaire Job Satisfaction…
|The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching quality assessmentquestionnaire and assess its reliability by using it with a sample of first-year medical students. Principal components analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation resulted in the development of a 12-item, two-component tool, adequate for use in lectures and small-group…
Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Pinto, Anabela Mota; da Conceicao, Hugo Camilo F.; da Silva, Jose Antonio Pereira
Background: Previous studies on school-based education programs have reported that asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents, teachers and school personnel do not have enough information on asthma. However, the number of education programs including adolescents without asthma is not sufficient. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge of school children about asthma and to investigate whether their knowledge
Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the
Linda LeResche; Donna Strobino; Peggy Parks; Pamela Fischer; Vincent Smeriglio
Despite a lack of conceptual clarity, the importance of cultural change to clinical governance is widely accepted. While generic measures of organizational performance, culture and climate are available, their relationship to clinical governance is unclear. Consequently, there is currently no valid and reliable measure of clinical governance climate. This study aimed to address the deficiency by reducing a pool of clinical governance climate indicators developed via previous qualitative research, describing a latent factor structure and assessing the internal consistency and external validity of the factor model. The resultant instrument, the Clinical Governance Climate Questionnaire (CGCQ), attained high internal consistency and external (discriminant and construct) validity in a study population of healthcare Trust staff. It consists of 60 items distributed across six sub-scales of clinical governance: planned and integrated quality improvement; proactive risk management; absence of unjust blame and punishment; working with colleagues; training and development; and organizational learning. The measure enables those charged with leading the clinical governance agenda in UK healthcare organizations to assess the progress of organizational development initiatives, highlighting areas requiring particular attention. They might also be of interest to those concerned about the negative unintended consequences of performance management. PMID:14613621
We developed a Questionnaire on Everyday Navigational Ability (QuENA) to detect topographical disorientation (TD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). In the QuENA, 3 items were designed to assess landmark agnosia, 2 for egocentric disorientation, 3 for heading disorientation, and 2 for inattention. The PwAD and their caregivers rated QuENA according to which TD symptoms would occur. Regarding the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the caregiver version of the QuENA fits the proposed TD model well but the patient version does not. Regarding the internal consistency, the Cronbach's ? for the caregiver version was 0.91 and that for the patient version was 0.87. A discrepancy existed between the appraisal of navigational abilities by PwAD and by caregivers, and it was correlated with the number of getting lost (GL) events. The caregiver version of QuENA is a feasible, reliable, and valid instrument to assess TD and it also discriminates well between the PwAD with GL and those without. PMID:22467415
Background Physical activity (PA) is important in older adults for the maintenance of functional ability. Assessing PA may be difficult. Few PA questionnaires have been compared to activity monitors. We examined reproducibility and validity of the self-administered Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ) against a triaxial accelerometer (ACTR) (Sensewear® Pro) in older adults. Methods Participants wore the ACTR continuously for two weeks. After 2 (T [time] = 1) and 4 (T = 2) weeks, participants completed the LAPAQ. Since the LAPAQ asks about 2 weeks’ worth of physical activity, the ACTR and LAPAQ coincided at T1. T2 was used to assess the reproducibility of the LAPAQ results only. We calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficients (PCC) to examine reproducibility and validity. For visualization, we used scatterplots and Bland–Altman plots. With a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve we assessed how well the LAPAQ identifies older adults whose activity level is below official recommendations. Results A total of 89 persons were included. Of the participants, 48% were men; median age was 73, and median body mass index was 25. The 2-week mean total duration of activity was 2788 (ACTR, T = 1), 2439 (LAPAQ T = 1), and 1994 (LAPAQ T = 2) minutes. As a reference, 2 full weeks contained 20,160 minutes. Reproducibility of the LAPAQ was moderate (PCC 0.68, 95% CI 0.55–0.80). The median difference between LAPAQ at T = 1 and the ACTR (LAPAQ minus ACTR) was –510 minutes and the PCC was 0.25 (95% CI 0.07–0.44). The area under the ROC curve was 0.73 (95% CI 0.59–0.86). Conclusion LAPAQ underestimates PA and seems unsuitable for exact measurement in older adults. However, it may be used to determine if a person’s PA level is below the recommended level.
Objective: To assess the rate and typology of sexual dysfunction in male subjects receiving trifluoperazine, risperidone, or olanzapine using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), the Psychotropic Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ), and the sexual function section of the modified Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU). Method: The sample included 100 men with psychotic disorders (F2 category of the ICD-10) and receiving trifluoperazine (n = 20), risperidone (n = 30), or olanzapine (n = 50) for at least 3 months’ duration. Subjects with a history of sexual dysfunction prior to antipsychotic intake or chronic medical illness were excluded. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data were collected over a 1½-year period from March 2009 to August 2010. Results: The rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale among the 100 subjects. The rate of sexual dysfunction was 25% on the ASEX, 37% on the PRSexDQ, and 40% on the UKU. Sexual dysfunction in the trifluoperazine, risperidone, and olanzapine groups was 20%, 43%, and 16%, respectively, on the ASEX; 35%, 50%, and 30%, respectively, on the PRSexDQ; and 40%, 50%, and 34%, respectively, on the UKU. The most common sexual dysfunction as assessed on all scales was decreased libido, except for the risperidone group on the ASEX. Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction is quite prevalent in subjects receiving antipsychotic medications. In our study, rate of sexual dysfunction was highest for risperidone, followed by trifluoperazine and olanzapine. However, the rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale. Hence, there is a need for a comprehensive instrument to assess sexual dysfunction in patients receiving antipsychotics.
Expected and experienced negative consequences and expected positive consequences of alcohol use have been widely studied, while little attention has been given to experienced positive drinking consequences. Although existing studies suggest that positive consequences may be important [Park, C.L. (2004). Positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 311-321.; Park, C.L. & Grant, C. (2005). Determinants of positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students: Alcohol use, gender, and psychological characteristics. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 755-765.], it is not clear if they are distinct from expected positive outcomes or uniquely associated with drinking behavior. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a measure that directly assessed specific, real life drinking consequences rather than relying on general past tense derivations ("I forgot my worries") of expectancy items. Such a measure is necessary to determine whether or not positive consequences are distinct from positive expectancies and to assess the unique contribution of positive drinking consequences to drinking behavior. Participants were 423 undergraduate students who completed an online survey; 277 drinkers (56.5% women) completed all data necessary for analyses. Principal components analysis of the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ) identified a single-factor structure with good internal and split-half reliability. The PDCQ also demonstrated discriminant validity relative to a positive expectancy measure and incremental validity in relation to drinking behavior. Although additional studies with heavier drinking populations are needed, the PDCQ may ultimately serve as a valuable research and clinical assessment tool. PMID:17618063
Corbin, William R; Morean, Meghan E; Benedict, Damon
The Health AssessmentQuestionnaire for Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S) was built by adding five new questions related with cervical and lumbar spine functions to HAQ by Daltroy et al. (in J Rheumatol 17(7):946-945, 1990). The aim of this study was to adapt the added five items into Turkish and then to test its reliability and validity. New questions were adapted to Turkish according to 'translation-back translation' method. Seventy-nine patients with ankylosing spondylitis were asked with the Turkish version of HAQ-S (HAQ-S TV). To assess, construct validity patients were evaluated by HAQ, Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI), Maastricht AS Enthesitis Score (MASES), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL), and laboratory variables (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein). Construct validity was investigated with Spearmann's rank correlation coefficient. Reliability of HAQ-S TV was assessed by internal consistency. Inter- and intra-observer reliability were tested with Cronbach's alpha score. HAQ-S TV met set criteria of reliability and validity. Reliability of adapted version was found good with high internal consistency value. (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). In addition to this intra-observer and inter-observer reliability were found adequate for total score of HAQ-S (Cronbach's alphas: 0.999 and 0.998 in order) and also for each added five questions (Cronbach's alphas >0.7). Positive correlations were found between HAQ-S TV and HAQ, BASFI, BASDAI, BASMI, MASES, ASQoL, ESR, and CRP (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that HAQ-S TV was reliable and valid in patients with AS. PMID:21327435
Introduction In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator-guided self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were students attending regular school in 14 high schools located in 14 different districts in eastern Ethiopia. The proportion of in-school adolescents with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was computed and compared by sex. The factors that were associated with the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results Only about one in four, 677 (24.5%), in-school adolescents have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. The knowledge was better among in-school adolescents from families with a relatively middle or high wealth index (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.39 [1.03–1.87] and 1.75 [1.24–2.48], respectively), who got HIV/AIDS information mainly from friends or mass media (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.17–2.27] and 1.55 [1.14–2.11], respectively) and who received education on HIV/AIDS and sexual matters at school (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.59 [1.22–2.08]). The females were less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to males (adjusted OR and [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49–0.75]). Conclusions In general, only about a quarter of in-school adolescents had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Although the female adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection and its effects, they were by far less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. HIV/AIDS information, education and communication activities need to be intensified in high schools.
The aim of this project was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the American English version of the Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) and of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in the 32 different member countries of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). This effort forms part of an international study supported by the European Union to evaluate the health-related quality of life in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as compared to their healthy peers. A total of 6,644 subjects were enrolled from 32 countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. A total of 3,235 patients had JIA (20% systemic onset, 33% polyarticular onset, 17% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 30% persistent oligoarticular subtype) while 3,409 were healthy children. This introductory paper describes the methodology used by all the participants. The results and the translated version of both the CHAQ and the CHQ for each country are fully reported in the following papers. The results of the present study show that cross-cultural adaptation is a valid process to obtain reliable instruments for the different socio-economic and socio-demographic conditions of the countries participating in the project. PMID:11510308
BackgroundProfound knowledge of pressure ulcers is important to enable good prevention. Validity and reliability of instruments assessing pressure ulcer knowledge are limited evaluated in previous research.
D. Beeckman; K. Vanderwee; L. Demarré; L. Paquay; A. Van Hecke; T. Defloor
The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that included therapeutic education about regular PA. Patients completed the DPAQ at the end of the week. The mean weekly active energy expenditure was 619.9 ± 374.6 kcal, and the mean DPAQ score was 21.3 ± 3.1/30 points. There were low but significant correlations between total active energy expenditure and the DPAQ score (?=0.4, P=0.009). There were no correlations between peak power output and total DPAQ score. The DPAQ significantly correlates with objective measures given by the MyWellness Key actimeter. The choice between these tools relies on the clinician's appreciation, taking into account patients' characteristics and goals as well as the cost of the method and availability of the tool. PMID:22584380
Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent
Physicians are in need of a simple objective, standardized tool to compare their patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a group and individually, with national standards. The Disability Index of the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ-DI) is a simple, robust tool that can fulfill these needs. However, use of this tool as a quality indicator (QI) is hampered by the unavailability of national reference values or benchmarks based on large, multicentric, heterogenous longitudinal patient cohorts. We utilized the 20-year longitudinal prospective data from 11 data banks of Arthritis Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information to calculate reference values for HAQ-DI. Overall, 6436 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were longitudinally followed for 32,324 person-years over the 20 years from 1981 to 2000. There were 64,647 HAQ-DI measurements, with an average of 19 measurements per person. Overall, 75% of patients were women and 89% were Caucasian; the median baseline age was 58.4 years and the median baseline HAQ-DI was 1.13. Few patients were treated with biologics. The HAQ-DI values had a Gaussian distribution except for the approximately 10% of observations showing no disability. Percentile benchmarks allow disability outcomes to be compared and contrasted between different patient populations. Reference values for the HAQ-DI, presented here numerically and graphically, can be used in clinical practice as a QI measure to track functional disability outcomes and to measure response to therapy, and by arthritis patients in self-management programs.
The purpose of this study was to create and establish the validity of a short questionnaire to measure mothers' perceived support for breastfeeding from the workplace. The items in the workplace breastfeeding support scale (WBSS) were derived from a literature review. The scale was self-administered in central Indiana during the fall of 2005 to a convenience sample of 66 volunteers who were primiparous, 6 to 12 months postpartum, worked outside home, and had initiated breastfeeding prior to the survey. Internal consistency (alpha) and split-half reliability (r) tests and a factor analysis were done to establish reliability and construct validity of the scale. The WBSS showed acceptable reliability (alpha=.77, r=0.86). Content validity was established by review using a panel of experts. Four distinct constructs of the scale were identified that accounted for 62.1% of the total variability of the scale: technical, environmental, facility, and peer support, thus establishing construct validity of the scale. Lactation consultants and worksite lactation program planners can use the WBSS to help mothers returning to work and to assess the needs for improvement of support programs. PMID:18589033
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760
Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E
Purpose To investigate whether the Stanford Health AssessmentQuestionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) can serve as a generic instrument for measuring disability across different rheumatic diseases and to propose a scoring method based on item response theory (IRT) modeling to support this goal. Methods The HAQ-DI was administered to a cross-sectional sample of patients with confirmed rheumatoid arthritis (n = 619), osteoarthritis (n = 125), or gout (n = 102). The results were analyzed using the generalized partial credit model as an IRT model. Results It was found that 4 out of 8 item categories of the HAQ-DI displayed substantial differential item functioning (DIF) over the three diseases. Further, it was shown that this DIF could be modeled using an IRT model with disease-specific item parameters, which produces measures that are comparable for the three diseases. Conclusion Although the HAQ-DI partially functioned differently in the three disease groups, the measurement regarding the disability level of the patients can be made comparable using IRT methods.
van Groen, Maaike M.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Glas, Cees A. W.
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Dutch version (LSQ-DV), to assess chronic pain patients. The study was designed as test-retest. The setting was the general rehabilitation centre. There were 51 patients over 18 years of age, suffering from chronic nonmalignant musculoskeletal pain. The main outcome measures were weighted kappa of test and retest data on the nine questions of the LSQ-DV, and Spearman correlation coefficient (rho) of the test and retest data on the mean LSQ score. The results were as follows: weighted kappa varied from 0.34 to 0.82: eight of the nine weighted kappa values were moderate to almost perfect whereas one ('family life') was low. The rho value of the mean score was 0.74. The conclusion was that the reliability of the LSQ-DV in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain treated in a rehabilitation setting proved moderate to good for most domains, though low for the 'family life' domain. We recommend using the LSQ-DV in clinical practice and research, although the 'family life' score has to be interpreted with caution. PMID:18467935
Boonstra, Anne M; Reneman, Michiel F; Posthumus, Jitze B; Stewart, Roy E; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R
Background and Objectives To determine the level of knowledge of stroke and heart attack (HA) symptoms and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural elderly people who are at risk for CVD. Subjects and Methods A total of 444 adults over the age of 60 living in a rural province of Korea with at least one CVD risk factor participated in this survey. Results A total of 72.5% of the participants had hypertension and 28.4% had diabetes, whereas approximately 40% exhibited over two CVD risk factors. The mean knowledge scores for HA symptoms (4.3/9) were lower than scores for stroke symptoms (5.8/9), and the mean knowledge score for risk factors was 7.3/11. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that old age, low level of education, and low income level were the determining factors for low knowledge levels of stroke and HA symptoms as well as CVD risk factors. A low perceived risk of stroke or HAs also predicted a low knowledge of CVD risk factors. Conclusion Community-wide public campaigns are needed, which are designed to help elderly people in rural areas with low education levels and socioeconomic status at risk for CVD to improve the awareness of stroke and HA.
This paper argues that a scientific basis for presence as it's usually understood in virtual environments research, can not be established on the basis of postexperience presence questionnaires alone. To illustrate the point, an arbitrary mental attribute called colorfulness of the experience is conjured up, and a set of questions administered to 74 respondents with an online questionnaire. The results
Summary Three experimental questionnaires were compared with the Influence of Rheumatic Diseases on Health and Lifestyle (IRGL) questionnaire, a Dutch version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales. Sixty-two patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 35 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), all of whom underwent hip arthroplasty, completed the study.
M. Borstlap; J. L. Zant; R. M. Soesbergen; J. K. Korst
The study aimed to construct a questionnaire for COPD specific anxiety. Anxiety is a prevalent comorbid complication in COPD; however, assessment has focused on anxiety questionnaires in general and not on COPD related fears. Ninety-six patients with COPD (GOLD III/IV) participated in the study. Results of a principal component analysis with Varimax-rotation suggested 5 factors, jointly explaining 64.7% of variance. These factors depict: fear of social isolation, dyspnea related fear, fear of movement, fear of progression of disease, anxiety in relationships, and fear of LTOT. Satisfying internal consistencies (a=0.77-0.89) resulted for all factors. Validity analyses confirmed discriminant and convergent associations, as well as correlations with functional tests. Overall, the COPD-Anxiety-Questionnaire constitutes a reliable and valid measure to assess COPD-related fears. Moreover, it enables the early identification of COPD patients suffering from disease related anxiety. PMID:20401826
Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ? 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
Two methods for obtaining estimates of everyday functioning in elderly patients were described: the Present Functioning Questionnaire (PFQ) and the Functional Rating Scale (FRS). The PFQ obtains information from a collaborative informant with respect to number of reported problems in five areas of everyday functioning: personality; everyday tasks; language skills; memory functioning; and self-care. The FRS integrates assessment information from
|Sedentary behaviors, like television viewing, are positively associated with overweight among young people. To monitor national health objectives for sedentary behaviors in young adolescents, this project developed and assessed the reliability and validity of a brief questionnaire to measure weekly television viewing, usual television viewing,…
Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Harnack, Lisa; Fulton, Janet E.; Jacobs, David R., Jr.; Gao, Shujun; Lytle, Leslie A.; Van Coevering, Pam
BackgroundThe nightly use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the quality of life of patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the psychological and physical impact of OSAS and adherence to the CPAP device.
Loretta Moroni; Margherita Neri; Anna Maria Lucioni; Luca Filipponi; Giorgio Bertolotti
BackgroundEating in the absence of hunger (EAH), studied in the context of laboratory paradigms, has been associated with obesity and is predictive of excess weight gain in children. However, no easily administered questionnaire exists to assess for EAH in children.
Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Lisa M. Ranzenhofer; Susan Z. Yanovski; Natasha A. Schvey; Myles Faith; Jennifer Gustafson; Jack A. Yanovski
Mealtimes in families with young children are increasingly of interest to nutrition and public health researchers, yet assessment tools are limited. Meals in Our Household is a new parent-report questionnaire that measures six domains: 1) structure of family meals, 2) problematic child mealtime behaviors, 3) use of food as reward, 4) parental concern about child diet, 5) spousal stress related
Sarah E. Anderson; Aviva Must; Carol Curtin; Linda G. Bandini
The Student Orientation to School Questionnaire (SOS-Q) is a multidimensional student-centered assessment tool for measuring psychosocial facilitators of student engagement. The SOS-Q is based in research on the self-system models of motivation and direct student input on perceived supports and barriers for high school completion. The current…
Burger, John M.; Nadirova, Anna; Keefer, Kateryna V.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by the Arabic version of ECOS 16 questionnaire. METHODS: 357 postmenopausal women were included in this study. The participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by DXA of the lumbar spine and the total hip as
Fatima E Abourazzak; Fadoua Allali; Samira Rostom; Ihsane Hmamouchi; Linda Ichchou; Laila El Mansouri; Loubna Bennani; Hamza Khazzani; Redouane Abouqal; Najia Hajjaj-Hassouni
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) patients have motor limitations that can affect functionality and abilities for activities of daily living (ADL). Health related quality of life and health status instruments validated to be applied to these patients do not directly approach the concepts of functionality or ADL. The Child Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) seems to be a good instrument to approach
Nívea MO Morales; Carolina AR Funayama; Viviane O Rangel; Ana Cláudia Frontarolli; Renata RH Araújo; Rogério MC Pinto; Carlos HA Rezende; Carlos HM Silva
Summary Physical work capacity was measured by means of a symptom limited, near maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in two populations: (a) a random sample of 95 military officers, and (b) 2014 apparently healthy working males, 40–59 years old. Physical activity during leisure hours was assessed by means of a standardized questionnaire and by a personal interview with the officers and
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Hindi translation of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) and Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) questionnaires. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the migraine patients. For test–retest reliability, the respondents filled the MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires twice, at an interval of three weeks. For validity, the same population of patients filled the headache diary for three months. After three months they filled the MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires again. The patients were subgrouped according to their occupation and level of education. The test–retest reliability and validity were calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach alpha. Results: A total of 236 migraine patients were screened. Seventy-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 69 patients completed the study. The HIT-6 questionnaire was applicable to all the subgroups of patients and had better comprehensibility than the MIDAS. Housewives missed out on the first two questions of the MIDAS and had lower mean MIDAS scores than HIT-6. The test–retest correlation coefficients for the total MIDAS and HIT-6 scores were 0.94 and 0.81, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the total score in the headache diary equivalent and the MIDAS and HIT-6 total score were 0.91 and 0.77, respectively. Cronbach alpha, a measure of internal consistency for the MIDAS questionnaire was > 0.90 at all the compilations. For the HIT-6 questionnaire, it ranged from 0.67 to 0.79. Conclusion: The Hindi versions of MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires were reliable and valid, but could not be interchanged. HIT-6 had better comprehensibility.
Background Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. Methods This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. Results 96% (n?=?1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. Conclusion These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.
Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Hargreaves, James R.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Hayes, Richard J.; Cowan, Frances M.
Women living with HIV (WLH) bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer and may face challenges understanding health information. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of health literacy on WLH cervical cancer screening knowledge and behaviors. WLH were recruited from clinic- and community-based settings in the southeastern USA. The majority of women completing a questionnaireassessing factors related to cervical cancer were African American (90 %). About 38 % of women reported low health literacy. Compared to women with high health literacy, these women were more likely to report having had ?2 Pap tests during the year after HIV diagnosis (p=0.02), and less likely to have had a Pap test <1 year previously (p=0.05). There was no difference in cervical cancer or human papillomavirus knowledge among those with low versus high health literacy. Results revealed mixed finding on the influence of health literacy on screening knowledge and behaviors.
Wigfall, Lisa T.; Brandt, Heather M.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hebert, James R.
There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and 729 relatives of the victims. All participants were evaluated using the 28-item version of the GHQ (GHQ-28). We examined the reliability and external validity of scores on the scale using Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), respectively. The factor structure of the scale was analyzed with varimax rotation. Samejima's (1969) graded response model was used to explore the item properties. The GHQ-28 scores showed good reliability and item-scale correlations. The factor analysis identified 3 factors: anxious-somatic symptoms, social dysfunction, and depression symptoms. All factors showed good correlation with the STAI. Before rotation, the first, second, and third factor explained 44.0%, 6.4%, and 5.0% of the variance, respectively. Varimax rotation redistributed the percentages of variance accounted for to 28.4%, 13.8%, and 13.2%, respectively. Items with the highest loadings in the first factor measured anxiety symptoms, whereas items with the highest loadings in the third factor measured suicide ideation. Samejima's model found that high scores in suicide-related items were associated with severe depression. The factor structure of the GHQ-28 found in this study underscores the preeminence of anxiety symptoms among victims of terrorism and their relatives. Item response analysis identified the most difficult and significant items for each factor. PMID:23205624
Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David
To assess the impact of disease and treatment on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we set out to determine a clinically meaningful change (CMC) on the Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS) and the Trial Outcome Index (TOI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire. We used data from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 5592 (E5592), a
David Cella; David T. Eton; Diane L. Fairclough; Philip Bonomi; Anne E. Heyes; Cheryl Silberman; Michael K. Wolf; David H. Johnson
Objective: To assess the validity of a short calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in young children.Design: Calcium intake from an estimated 4 d diet record (4DDR) was compared with the calcium intake from a 35 item FFQ specifically designed to assess habitual calcium intake and previously validated for adult women.Subjects: Forty-one girls and 26 boys aged 3–6 y
INTRODUCTION: The Health AssessmentQuestionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) is a commonly used instrument to assess functional status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Translations and adaptations of the HAQ-DI have been carried out for use with RA patients in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the HAQ-DI (Thai
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Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and uncertainties. We followed the same approach for each term of risks i.e. hazard, vulnerability, element at risk, exposition. This risk approach can be achieved by a comprehensive use of several artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, which are done through, for example: (1) GIS techniques; (2) FR or T-PDF for qualitatively predicting risks for possible review results; and (3) A Multi-Criteria Evaluation for analyzing weak points. The main advantages of FR or T-PDF involve the ability to express not-fully-formalized knowledge, easy knowledge representation and acquisition, and self updatability. The results show that such an approach points out quite wide zone of uncertainty. REFERENCES Zadeh L.A. 1965 : Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8:338-353.
The construction of a new, valid and reliable questionnaire to measure patient satisfaction is a complex and time-consuming task. It must follow a rigorous, step-by-step approach, and should as a minimum include elements of content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and reliability. The objective of this review is to present a protocol for the construction of a psychometric questionnaire, supplemented by practical aspects for researchers and clinicians. PMID:23926959
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.
Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits. PMID:17166302
O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Dockree, Paul; Moloney, Pauline; Carton, Simone; Robertson, Ian H
Lipodystrophy (LD) includes morphologic changes that are distressing to patients with HIV. We tested the validity of an Italian\\u000a version of the Assessment of Body Change and Distress (ABCD) questionnaire and analysed its relationship to physical and mental\\u000a aspects of Health-Related Quality of Life. Two hundred and fifty-two patients completed the questionnaires. Construct validity\\u000a of the ABCD was tested against
G. Guaraldi; G. Orlando; R. Murri; M. Vandelli; M. De Paola; B. Beghetto; G. Nardini; S. Ciaffi; F. Vichi; Esposito; A. W. Wu
Objective: Training teachers and education professionals on diabetes is crucial for full-time monitoring of diabetic children in schools. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on diabetes in a group of school teachers in Turkey. Methods: Between November 2010 and November 2011, 1054 teachers from three regions of Ankara were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on diabetes. The mean age of the group (27% males, 73% females) was 38.8±8 years. 61.7% of the participants were class teachers, 23.3% were school counselors, and the rest were physical education teachers and administrators. Results: A fair percentage (47.6%) of the participants had a moderate knowledge level on diabetes and 32.4% expressed a lower level of knowledge. A large proportion (94%) gave an accurate definition of diabetes. Of the total group of 1054 teachers, 625 were aware that blood glucose level might decrease in diabetic children during follow-up. Also, 75% believed that diabetic children were eligible for physical education classes. 52.8% of these teachers had no diabetic child in their classes and teachers with a diabetic patient in their family had better knowledge of diabetes compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that school teachers have limited knowledge on diabetes. We believe that their knowledge levels can be improved by widespread training programs. Conflict of interest:None declared.
Background: Quality of Life assessment in oncologic patients evaluates the impact and sequels of the disease ana the adverse effects of available treatments. Aim: To validate in Chile the breast cancer specific-questionnaire (BR23) developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Patients and Methods: After performing a linguistic validation of the BR23 according to EORTC instructions, its psychometric properties were tested in 103 patients with breast cancer whose ages ranged from 34 to 83 years. Internal consistency of the scales was assessed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The test-retest correlations of each scale (n = 83) were evaluated. The correlation of BR23 scales with SF36 version 2 and C30 version 3.0 scales was also assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). Results: Alpha values showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, ranging between 0.702 and 0.917 in all scales of BR23. The statistical analysis revealed significant test-retest correlations in most scales of BR23. The correlations between BR23 and similar domains of C30 and SF36 questionnaires were also significant. The BR23 questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory levels of sensitivity and specificity when compared with the SF-36 scale. Conclusions: The BR23 questionnaire adapted for use in Chile is linguistically appropriate and psychometrically valid. PMID:24121575
Irarrázaval, M Elisa; Rodríguez, Pía F; Fasce, Gerardo; Silva, Fernando W; Waintrub, Herman; Torres, Camilo; Barriga, Carolina; Fritis, Marcela; Marín, Luis
The medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has been controversial, especially in the United States. Marijuana for medicinal use is approved in 14 U.S. states and has recently been considered for legalization in several additional states. Given its demonstrated efficacy in symptom management, marijuana has a potential role in palliative care. This study utilized a 16-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and views of hospice professionals regarding the use of marijuana in terminally ill patients. The study results revealed that, like the general public, hospice health care providers are generally in favor of legalization of marijuana and, if legalized, would support its use in symptom management for their terminally ill patients. PMID:22077541
Uritsky, Tanya J; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Pradel, Françoise
Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaireassessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81%) Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbach’s alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers’ childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers’ experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author.
Objective:?The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a self-administered questionnaire about present and past physical\\u000a activities at work and during leisure time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and design: The questionnaire, covering the period 1970–1993, comprised 12 questions on physical activities at work, and 12, with similar\\u000a wording, for such activities in leisure time. There were also four questions on
Margareta Torgén; Lars Alfredsson; Max Köster; Christina Wiktorin; Kevin F. Smith; Åsa Kilbom
The objective of this study was a psychometric evaluation of the Romanian translated version of ABC-V (Assessment of Burden in Chronic – Venous Disease) questionnaire in patients with uncomplicated varicose disease of lower limbs. All components of the questionnaire were translated from the English version into the Romanian language and after that backwards, discussed, adopted and pre-tested. Evaluation of the final version of the translated questionnaire demonstrated acceptable results: missed questions in 3% of forms, no ceiling effect and low floor effect, good split-half reliability (rs = 0.61,p < 0.01) and significant correlation between test and re-tests cores (rs = 0.86, p < 0.01). There was no significant influence of age and sex upon average ABC-V scores. Study results support the application of ABC-V questionnaire for assessing the severity of chronic venous disease as well as for quantitative evaluation of patient satisfaction and health status improvement after varicose vein treatment in the Romanian-speaking population. PMID:23790788
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2 – 5 completed the CSHQ, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to
Penny Sneddon; Gretchen Gimpel Peacock; Susan L. Crowley
The current paper responds critically to Allen et al.'s recent investigation of the validity of the Role Category Questionnaire measure of interpersonal cognitive complexity. Factual inaccuracies in Allen et al.'s critique are noted, as are deficiencies in conceptualization and design of the two studies reported by these authors. Several advantages in the standard form of the RCQ are described. The
Brant R. Burleson; James L. Applegate; Jesse G. Delia
Although patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience pelvic organ dysfunction of the urinary bladder, bowel and genital organs, an accurate incidence of the dysfunction and its characteristics have yet to be ascertained. We devised a detailed questionnaire on these three pelvic organ functions in PD patients and control subjects, in our search for a hallmark that would distinguish between the
|The present study is a preliminary investigation into the development of a parent self-report instrument, the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ). A large pool of items was rationally derived from a model of parent competency and then administered to 243 parents of children who were making appearances in juvenile court. Exploratory…
Rose, Clark C.; Glaser, Brian A.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.
This questionnaire includes information not available from blood tests, X-rays, or any source other than you. Please try to answer each question, even if you do not think it is related to you at this time. Try to complete as much as you can yourself, but if you need help, please ask.
The objective of this study was to validate the factor structure of Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ; Wilson, 1978; Wilson & Lang, 1981) using a Spanish version. In order to do this, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis on two nonclinical samples containing 195 men and 315 women. Both groups were tested for the structure proposed by Wilson and also for
Juan Carlos Sierra; Virgilio Ortega; Ihab Zubeidat
Objective We hypothesized that young adults would commonly have vitamin D deficiency and that a questionnaire could help identify subjects with the condition. Design Between January and May 2004, we administered a questionnaire to a convenience sample of young adults. We measured each participant’s serum 25(OH)D using a chemiluminescent assay and defined deficiency as a serum 25(OH)D <16 ng/ml. Setting and Subjects We recruited young adults living in Madison, Wisconsin without pre-existing conditions affecting vitamin D and/or calcium metabolism. Results One hundred eighty-four adults (mean age 24 years, 53% women, 90% Caucasian) participated in the study. Nearly three in four adults (71%) had 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/ml and 26% were vitamin D deficient. In multivariate analysis, persons reporting a suntan (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09–0.63, p=0.004), tanning booth use (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.43, p=0.002) and daily ingestion of two or more servings of milk (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.09–0.48, p<0.001) were less likely to be deficient. These three questions provided a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 78%, respectively, for the presence of deficiency. Conclusions The questionnaire is moderately useful to identify young adults likely to be vitamin D deficient. Additional revisions of the questionnaire may improve its ability to predict vitamin D deficiency.
Bolek-Berquist, Jilaine; Elliott, Mary E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Gemar, Dessa; Engelke, Jean; Lawrence, Susan J.; Hansen, Karen E.
One of the characteristics of effective science teachers is a deep understanding of science concepts. The ability to identify, explain and apply concepts is critical in designing, delivering and assessing instruction. Because some teachers have not completed extensive courses in some areas of science, especially in middle and elementary grades, many professional development programs attempt to strengthen teachers' content knowledge. Assessing this content knowledge is challenging. Concept inventories are reliable and efficient, but do not reveal depth of knowledge. Interviews and observations are time-consuming. The Problem Based Learning Project for Teachers implemented a strategy that includes pre-post instruments in eight content strands that permits blind coding of responses and comparison across teachers and groups of teachers. The instruments include two types of open-ended questions that assess both general knowledge and the ability to apply Big Ideas related to specific science topics. The coding scheme is useful in revealing patterns in prior knowledge and learning, and identifying ideas that are challenging or not addressed by learning activities. The strengths and limitations of the scoring scheme are identified through comparison of the findings to case studies of four participating teachers from middle and elementary schools. The cases include examples of coded pre- and post-test responses to illustrate some of the themes seen in teacher learning. The findings raise questions for future investigation that can be conducted using analyses of the coded responses.
McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce M.; Eberhardt, Jan
|Administrators at post-secondary institutions have found that national or regional accreditation is necessary to remain competitive in the higher education market with evidence of assessment considered a positive measure for accreditation. This quantitative study examined the correlation between the ranked levels of knowledge management within…
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the predictive utility of the stages-of-change scales of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA; E. A. McConnaughy, J. O. Prochaska, & W. F. Velicer, 1983) questionnaire in a heroin-addicted polysubstance-abusing treatment sample. Ninety-six participants completed the URICA at the beginning of a 29-week treatment period that required thrice-weekly urine drug
Melinda J. Henderson; Karen K. Saules; Luke W. Galen
The validity of a 77-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for a multicenter case-control study on diet and cancer in Italy was assessed. Trained interviewers administered the same FFQ to 452 volunteers from three Italian provinces (Pordenone, Genoa, and Forli) completed in two different seasons, at an interval of 3 to 10 months. For 395 (130 males, 265 females; median age
Adriano Decarli; Silvia Franceschi; Monica Ferraroni; Patrizia Gnagnarella; Maria Teresa Parpinel; Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Simonetta Salvini; Fabio Falcini; Attilio Giacosa
Objective: The patient-based evaluation of outcome is gaining increased importance. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the reliability,\\u000a validity and responsiveness of the German version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function AssessmentQuestionnaire (SMFA-D)\\u000a in patients undergoing surgical or conservative treatment. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-two patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, rheumatoid arthritis or rotator
Nicole Wollmerstedt; Stephan Kirschner; Herrmann Faller; Achim König
This study estimates the sensitivity and specificity of the social communication questionnaire (SCQ) for autistic spectrum\\u000a disorders in preschool children at high risk for developmental problems referred to a tertiary centre and compares the predictions\\u000a of the SCQ and the referrer. The SCQ was completed by 81 parents prior to multidisciplinary assessment and compared with the\\u000a final diagnosis. The sensitivity
Objective: To examine the predictive power of self-reported assessmentquestionnaire data to explain changes in health- care service utilization and expenditures of a population of Medicare health maintenance organization enrollees during a 2-year period. Study Design: A prospective cohort study with a 2-year postenrollment follow-up period. Multiple robust regression analyses were conducted to examine associations among self- reported health status
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Body Image Questionnaire (QÜIC) in Spanish adolescents. The sample comprised 254 girls and 189 boys, aged 12–15. Principal component analyses showed that the 18 satisfaction items could be summarized using two moderately interrelated dimensions, torso and head\\/limbs, with satisfaction with chest\\/breast and genitals loading on a different factor for boys (torso) and
Eva Penelo; Paola Espinoza; Mariona Portell; Rosa M. Raich
Objective: This study’s objective was to develop a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) xerostomia questionnaire and to evaluate the validity and reliability for the clinical diagnosis of salivary gland dysfunction. Study Design: Thirty-six healthy adults participated in this double-blind, crossover study. Each subject received an antisialagogue (glycopyrrolate) or placebo. Unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular saliva samples were collected 16 times
Satishchandra Pai; Elisa M. Ghezzi; Jonathan A. Ship
This study tested the ability of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify women with low fat intakes. FFQs were completed by 95 control participants of a dietary trial at a mean of 2.9 ± 0.8 years post-randomization. Subjects were selected in approximately equal numbers from women who were low-fat eaters (?30% of energy from fat) and high-fat eaters
Lisa J Martin; Gina A Lockwood; Alan R Kristal; Valentina Kriukov; Carolyn Greenberg; Ann L Shatuck; Norman F Boyd
|Approaches to assessment of prior experiential learning (APEL) sit within Enlightenment theories of knowledge. Alternative epistemologies offered by postmodernist, feminist, and antiracist theories suggest a different basis for assessment: situated knowledge. APEL can give visibility to outsider knowledge and alter the relationship between…
Academics and practitioners have described knowledge as a primary source for competitive advantage for organizations; however, many attempts at instituting knowledge management programs to increase organizational competitiveness do not succeed. Institutin...
Capabilities and their underlying knowledge assets represent a major competitive resource for knowledge-intensive organisations such as e-businesses. The research presented in this paper utilises a series of case studies to identify the key knowledge assets for e-businesses. The paper suggests the Knowledge Assets Map as a framework to identify and manage key capabilities and key assets in today's economy. The
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach’s ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs.
Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz Gomez, Cynthia
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could\\u000a be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ.\\u000a Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation
Introduction Acute cough has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial health and is associated with an impaired quality of life (QOL). The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a validated cough-related health status questionnaire designed for patients with chronic cough. The purpose of this study was to validate the LCQ for the assessment of health related QOL in patients with acute cough and determine the clinical minimal important difference (MID). Methods 10 subjects with cough due to acute upper respiratory tract infection underwent focused interviews to investigate the face validity of the LCQ. The LCQ was also evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. 30 subjects completed the revised LCQ-acute and a cough visual analogue score (VAS: 0-100 mm) within one week of onset of cough and again <2 weeks later and at resolution of cough. The concurrent validity, internal reliability, repeatability and responsiveness of the LCQ-acute were also assessed. Patients also completed a Global Rating of Change Questionnaire that assessed the change in cough severity between visits. The MID was calculated as the change in LCQ-acute score for patients responding to GRCQ category representing the smallest change in health status that patients found worthwhile. Results Health status was severely impaired at baseline affecting all domains; median (interquartile range) total LCQ-acute score 13.0 (3.4). All subjects found the LCQ-acute questionnaire acceptable for assessing their cough. Internal reliability of the LCQ-acute was good for all domains and total score, Cronbach's ? coefficients >0.9. There was a significant correlation between LCQ-acute and VAS (? = -0.48, p = 0.007). The LCQ-acute and its domains were highly responsive to change; effect sizes 1.7-2.3. The MID for total LCQ and VAS were 2.5 and 13 mm respectively. Conclusion The LCQ-acute is a brief, simple and valid instrument to assess cough specific health related QOL in patients with acute cough. It is a highly responsive tool suggesting that it will be particularly useful to assess the effect of antitussive therapy.
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most frequent problem that influenced child nutrition is lack of information about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs. PMID:23221140
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and clinical utility of a brief, informant-based screening questionnaire for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that can be administered in a primary care setting. The Alzheimer’s Questionnaire (AQ) was administered to the informants of 188 patients in 3 dementia clinics (50 cognitively normal, 69 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 69 AD). Total score for the AQ is based upon the sum of clinical symptom items in which the informant responds as being present. Clinical symptoms which are known to be highly predictive of the clinical AD diagnosis are given greater weight in the total AQ score. The mean time of administration of the AQ was 2.6 ± 0.6 minutes. Sensitivity and specificity were found to be high for detecting both AD (98.55, 96.00) and MCI (86.96, 94.00) with ROC curves yielding AUC values of 0.99 and 0.95, respectively. This pilot study indicates that the AQ is a brief, sensitive measure for detecting both MCI and AD and could be easily implemented in a primary care setting.
This study used qualitative interviewing with teachers at three high schools to answer research questions about teachers' assessmentknowledge, school-specific assessment cultures, and teachers' perceptions of the assessment literacy of other key stakeholders. Data analysis revealed shared knowledge and practices across schools--use of formative…
Howley, Marged D.; Howley, Aimee; Henning, John E.; Gillam, Mary Beth; Weade, Ginger
Industrial energy management is critical to achieve and monitor industrial energy efficiency. Decision support systems enable energy managers to form effective strategies to increase profitability by eliminating wasteful practices. A well formulated knowledge base is essential for a decision support system to function. Expert knowledge must be acquired and coded into a knowledge base to be accessible to a decision support system. The primary objective is to devise a methodology to extract expert knowledge acquired through field work or archived in manually generated energy analysis reports. Once the knowledge is extracted it can be codified and stored in a knowledge base that is validated to be usable by an energy management assistant decision support system. The acquisition and codification method is demonstrated by its implementation in the REACTOR energy management software system.
Background Achieving asthma control is a major challenge in children, otherwise symptoms perception remain poor especially at this age. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Asthma Control Test (ACTTM), Asthma Therapy AssessmentQuestionnaire (ATAQTM) and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Methods We studied 80 asthmatic children. Airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed by exercise-induced bronchospasm (Balke Protocol). Asthma control was evaluated using two questionnaires in all subjects: ACT (composed by Childhood-ACT and ACT) and ATAQ. In addition the use of short acting beta 2 agonist agents (SABAs) was assessed for each patient. Non-parametric variables were compared by Chi Square Test. Binomial logistic regression was performed to estimate the two questionnaires Odds Ratio (OR) in finding AHR. Results We have found that ATAQ has a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.72 and 0.45 respectively; instead, ACT has a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.5 and 0.39 respectively in evaluating AHR. Patients with uncontrolled asthma according to ATAQ revealed a significant higher percentage of AHR compared with ACT (72% vs 50%, p < 0.01). Confirming this finding, patients declaring uncontrolled asthma to ATAQ have a significantly higher percentage (34%) of frequent SABAs use than the group with uncontrolled asthma to ACT (21%) (p <0.01). Binomial logistic regression shows how a test revealing uncontrolled asthma is associated with the increasing odds of having AHR according to ATAQ (OR = 3.8, p = 0.05), not to ACT (OR = 0.2, p = 0.1). Conclusions Our results show that ATAQ reflects AHR and asthma control better than ACT. Children with uncontrolled asthma according to ATAQ have higher odds of having AHR and use of rescue medications (SABAs) compared to patients declaring uncontrolled asthma according to ACT. However both questionnaires are not sufficient alone to fully evaluate asthma control in children and it is always necessary to perform functional tests and investigate patients lifestyle, drug use and other important data that a simple questionnaire is not able to point out
Expertise, by definition, refers to the mani-festation of skills and understanding result-ing from the accumulation of a large body of knowledge. This implies that in order to understand how experts perform and why they are more capable than non-experts, we must understand the representation of their knowledge, that is, how their knowl-edge is organized or structured, and how their representations
|In addition to collecting achievement data, international large-scale assessment programmes gather auxiliary information from students and schools regarding the context of teaching and learning. In an effort to clarify some of the opacity surrounding international large-scale assessment programmes and the potential problems associated with less…
Objective: Neuropathic pain syndrome is characterized by chronic, stimulus-independent pain sensation accompanied by hyperalgesia\\/allodynia and paresthesia. Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome displays such features. The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) Pain Scale is an instrument developed and validated to recognize neuropathic pain and set it apart from nociceptive pain. Methods: This study assessed the responses of patients with FM
A respiratory health questionnaire was administered to the workers producing man-made mineral fibers in three glasswool and two rockwool plants in France, in order to detect adverse effects resulting from fiber exposure. The mean ages of the 2024 male participants ranged from 32 to 41 years. The standardized questionnaire was filled in by the industrial physicians: occupational history, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnea, asthma), irritative complaints of the upper airways (nasal fossae and sinuses, pharynx and larynx) were all recorded. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to test for a relationship between possible explanatory variables and these symptoms. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnea) was strongly correlated with age and increased markedly among current smokers. Having adjusted for these confounding factors, significantly elevated Odds Ratios (ORs) for cough and phlegm were observed among the workers of one plant (51% of the whole study population) who had been exposed to fibers for a long time. In the same plant, the ORs for complaints of nasal fossae and sinuses increased significantly with the duration of fiber exposure, and one elevated OR was observed for pharyngeal and laryngeal symptoms. These findings were not consistent with the results observed in the four other plants (49% of the study population), since ORs for all these symptoms were either low or not significantly increased according to the duration of fiber exposure. This lack of similarity among plants could be explained either by differences in interviewers, age, seniority and tobacco consumption, or by secular changes in the industrial processes involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2851556
Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Mur, J M; Caillard, J F; Massin, N; Meyer-Bisch, C; Toamain, J P; Hanser, P; Liet, S; Du Roscoat, M N
The main goal of this research was to examine the reliability and different sources of validity evidence of the Oviedo Schizotypy AssessmentQuestionnaire-Abbreviated (ESQUIZO-Q-A) in nonclinical adolescents. The final sample was made up of 1,455 participants, 705 males (48.5%), with a mean age of 15.92 years (SD = 1.18). The internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .62 to .75. The analysis of its internal structure yielded a three-dimensional solution based on the dimensions: Reality Distortion, Anhedonia, and Interpersonal Disorganization. Likewise, the goodness-of-fit indices derived from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the hypothesized three-factor model were adequate. The three dimensions of the ESQUIZO-Q-A were significantly correlated with the subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The ESQUIZO-Q is a brief and simple self-report with adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of schizotypal traits in nonclinical adolescent populations. Future research should continue to explore the metric quality of the ESQUIZO-Q-A (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) and incorporate the new advances in psychological and educational assessment such as Computerized Adaptive Testing. PMID:22774457
Objective Existing self-report methods for assessing eating disorder symptoms in youth do not adequately measure binge eating and lack sufficient psychometric support. The Youth Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (YEDE-Q), a self-report version of the Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE), was designed to assess the spectrum of eating disorder psychopathology in youth. Method The YEDE-Q was compared to the ChEDE and the Questionnaire for Eating and Weight Patterns-Adolescent version (QEWP-A) in a sample of 35 overweight adolescents aged 12 to 17. Results The YEDE-Q showed significant agreement (p < .001) with the ChEDE on all four subscale scores, the global score, and measurement of objective bulimic episodes. The YEDE-Q and the QEWP-A showed significant agreement (p < .001) on the measurement of shape and weight concerns. Conclusion The YEDE-Q appears promising in the assessment of eating-related pathology in overweight adolescents, but remains in need of validation in children and eating disorder populations.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Wilfley, Denise E.
Background There is increasing evidence that higher intakes of carotenoids could protect against oxidative and light damage in premature\\u000a infants and may promote other health benefits in both mothers during pregnancy and lactation and in newborn infants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study To develop and validate a brief quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) aimed at assessing lutein and zeaxanthin intake\\u000a in women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by the Arabic version of ECOS 16 questionnaire. Methods 357 postmenopausal women were included in this study. The participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by DXA of the lumbar spine and the total hip as well as X-ray examination of the thoraco-lumbar spine to identify subclinical vertebral fractures. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire on clinical and sociodemographic parameters, and osteoporosis risk factors. The Arabic version of the ECOS16 (Assessment of health related quality of life in osteoporosis questionnaire) was used to assess quality of life. Results The mean age was 58 ± 7.8 years, and the mean BMI was 28.3 ± 4.8 kg/m2. One hundred and eight women (30.1%) were osteoporotic and 46.7% had vertebral fractures. Most were categorized as Grade1 (75%). Three independent factors were associated with a poor quality of life: low educational level (p = 0,01), vertebral fracture (p = 0,03), and history of peripheral fracture (p = 0,006). Worse QOL was observed in the group with vertebral fracture in all domains except "pain": Physical functioning (p = 0,002); Fear of illness (p = 0,001); and Psychosocial functioning (p = 0,007). The number of fractures was a determinant of a low QOL, as indicated by an increased score in physical functioning (p = 0,01), fear of illness (p = 0,007), and total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Patients with higher Genant score had low QOL in these two domains too (p = 0,002; p = 0,001 respectively), and in the total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Conclusion Our current data showed that the quality of life assessed by the Arabic version of the ECOS 16 questionnaire is decreased in post menopausal women with prevalent vertebral fractures, with the increasing number and the severity of vertebral fractures.
The spontaneous hand gestures that accompany children's explanations of concepts have been used by trained experimenters to gain insight into children's knowledge. In this article, 3 experiments tested whether it is possible to teach adults who are not trained investigators to comprehend information conveyed through children's hand gestures. In Experiment 1, we used a questionnaire to explore whether adults benefit
Spencer D. Kelly; Melissa Singer; Janna Hicks; Susan Goldin-Meadow
|The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher and school psychologists' knowledge of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). One hundred thirty-two kindergarten through 12th-grade general education teachers, special education teachers, and school psychologists responded to a 24-item questionnaire concerning treatment and possible…
Weyandt, Lisa L.; Fulton, Katherine M.; Schepman, Steve B.; Verdi, Genevieve R.; Wilson, Kimberly G.
Quantitative techniques have traditionally been used to assess software architectures. We have found that early in development process there is often insufficient quantitative information to perform such assessments. So far the only way to make qualitative assessments about an architecture, is to use qualitative assessment techniques such as peer reviews. The problem with this type of assessment is that they
|This study investigated the relationship of teachers' reading knowledge with students' reading achievement using a direct teacher knowledgeassessment rather than indirect proxies (e.g., certification). To address the inequitable distribution of teachers' knowledge resulting from differences in teachers' backgrounds and the disparities in how…
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. METHODS: In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge
Philippa Raymond-Barker; Andrea Petroczi; Eleanor Quested
Background Several questionnaires have been used to measure health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with psoriasis, few have been adapted for use in Spain; none of them was developed specifically for the Spanish population. The purpose of the study was to validate and assess the sensitivity to change of a new questionnaire to measure HRQOL in patients with psoriasis (PSO-LIFE). Methods Observational, prospective, multicenter study performed in centers around Spain. Patients with active or inactive psoriasis completed the PSO-LIFE together with other Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) and Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI). A control group of patients with urticaria or atopic dermatitis was also included. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the PSO-LIFE were assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Validity was assessed by examining factorial structure, the capacity to discriminate between groups, and correlations with other measures. Sensitivity to change was measured using effect sizes. Results The final sample included for analysis consisted of 304 patients and 56 controls. Mean (SD) age of psoriasis patients was 45.3 (14.5) years compared to 38.8 (14) years for controls (p?0.01). Cronbach’s alpha for the PSO-LIFE was 0.95 and test-retest reliability using the ICC was 0.98. Factor analysis showed the questionnaire to be unidimensional. Mean (SD) PSO-LIFE scores differed between patients with psoriasis and controls (64.9 [22.5] vs 69.4 [17.3]; p?0.05), between those with active and inactive disease (57.4 [20.4] vs 76.4 [20.6]; p?0.01), and between those with visible and non-visible lesions (63.0 [21.9] vs. 74.8 [23.9]; p?0.01). The correlation between PSO-LIFE and PASI scores was moderate (r?=??0.43) while correlations with DLQI and PDI dimensions ranged from moderate to high (between 0.4 and 0.8). Effect size on the PSO-LIFE in patients reporting ‘much improved’ health status at study completion was 1.01 (large effect size). Conclusions The present results provide substantial support for the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the PSO-LIFE questionnaire in the population for which it was designed.
Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Results: more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Conclusion: the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into account when planning interventions. Successful interventions should cover hospital management, the infection control team, as well as the health care workers on the wards. PMID:24045391
Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Meulen, R G Van der; Broek, P J Van den
Risky injection practices among injection drug users (IDUs) contribute to the spread of blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. The Blood-borne Virus Transmission Risk AssessmentQuestionnaire (BBV-TRAQ). was developed in Australia to determine risk behaviors for specific infections. Blood testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C was performed on all participants,
Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Lucy E. Napper
Background: Risky injection practices among injection drug users (IDUs) contribute to the spread of blood-borne infections such as HIV, and hepatitis B and C.Method: The Blood borne Virus Transmission Risk AssessmentQuestionnaire (BBV-TRAQ) was developed in Australia to parse out risk behaviors to specific infections. Blood testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C was performed on all participants and
Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Lucy E. Napper
Mealtimes in families with young children are increasingly of interest to nutrition and public health researchers, yet assessment tools are limited. Meals in our Household is a new parent-report questionnaire that measures six domains: 1) structure of family meals, 2) problematic child mealtime behaviors, 3) use of food as reward, 4) parental concern about child diet, 5) spousal stress related to child's mealtime behavior, and 6) influence of child's food preferences on what other family members eat. Reliability and initial face, construct, and discriminant validity of the questionnaire were evaluated between January 2007 and December 2009 in two cross-sectional studies comprising a total of 305 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children (including 53 children with autism spectrum disorders). Internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) for the six domains averaged 0.77 across both studies. Test-retest reliability, assessed among a subsample of 44 parents who repeated the questionnaire after between 10 and 30 days, was excellent (Spearman correlations for the domain scores between two administrations ranged from 0.80 to 0.95). Initial construct validity of the instrument was supported by observation of hypothesized interrelationships between domain scores which were of the same direction and similar magnitude in both studies. Consistent with discriminant validity, children with autism spectrum disorders had significantly higher domain scores for problematic child mealtime behaviors, use of food as reward, parental concern about child diet, and spousal stress, compared to typically developing children. Meals in our Household may be a useful tool for researchers studying family mealtime environments and children's mealtime behaviors.
Anderson, Sarah E.; Must, Aviva; Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.
Mealtimes in families with young children are increasingly of interest to nutrition and public health researchers, yet assessment tools are limited. Meals in Our Household is a new parent-report questionnaire that measures six domains: 1) structure of family meals, 2) problematic child mealtime behaviors, 3) use of food as reward, 4) parental concern about child diet, 5) spousal stress related to child's mealtime behavior, and 6) influence of child's food preferences on what other family members eat. Reliability and initial face, construct, and discriminant validity of the questionnaire were evaluated between January 2007 and December 2009 in two cross-sectional studies comprising a total of 305 parents of 3- to 11-year-old children (including 53 children with autism spectrum disorders). Internal consistencies (Cronbach's ?) for the six domains averaged .77 across both studies. Test-retest reliability, assessed among a subsample of 44 parents who repeated the questionnaire after between 10 and 30 days, was excellent (Spearman correlations for the domain scores between two administrations ranged from 0.80 to 0.95). Initial construct validity of the instrument was supported by observation of hypothesized inter-relationships between domain scores that were of the same direction and similar magnitude in both studies. Consistent with discriminant validity, children with autism spectrum disorders had statistically significantly (P<0.05) higher domain scores for problematic child mealtime behaviors, use of food as reward, parental concern about child diet, and spousal stress, as compared to typically developing children. Meals in Our Household may be a useful tool for researchers studying family mealtime environments and children's mealtime behaviors. PMID:22741169
Anderson, Sarah E; Must, Aviva; Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G
Background. According to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually worldwide and about 465,000 will die from the disease. In Ethiopia breast cancer is the second most often occurring cancer among women. Early diagnosis is especially important for breast cancer because the disease responds best to treatment before it has spread. Objective. To assessknowledge of breast cancer and screening methods among nurses in university hospitals. Method. This cross-sectional descriptive study used simple random sampling on sample of 281 nurses. Structured questionnaires draw out responses about knowledge and screening method of nurses in regard to breast cancer. Bivariate analysis was used principally and variables were then entered to multiple logistic regressions model for controlling the possible effect of confounders and the variables which have significant association were identified on the basis of OR, with 95% CI and P value. Results. The findings of this study revealed that only 156 (57.8%) of them were knowledgeable about breast cancer and its screening and 114 (42.2%) were not. Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with regular course in nursing, family history of respondents, and unit of work. Conclusion and Recommendation. The results of this study indicate that the knowledge of nurses is not satisfying and highlight the need to improve the content in the nursing curriculum and to undergo more workplace training in the area of breast cancer and screening methods. PMID:23986873
Background. According to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually worldwide and about 465,000 will die from the disease. In Ethiopia breast cancer is the second most often occurring cancer among women. Early diagnosis is especially important for breast cancer because the disease responds best to treatment before it has spread. Objective. To assessknowledge of breast cancer and screening methods among nurses in university hospitals. Method. This cross-sectional descriptive study used simple random sampling on sample of 281 nurses. Structured questionnaires draw out responses about knowledge and screening method of nurses in regard to breast cancer. Bivariate analysis was used principally and variables were then entered to multiple logistic regressions model for controlling the possible effect of confounders and the variables which have significant association were identified on the basis of OR, with 95% CI and P value. Results. The findings of this study revealed that only 156 (57.8%) of them were knowledgeable about breast cancer and its screening and 114 (42.2%) were not. Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with regular course in nursing, family history of respondents, and unit of work. Conclusion and Recommendation. The results of this study indicate that the knowledge of nurses is not satisfying and highlight the need to improve the content in the nursing curriculum and to undergo more workplace training in the area of breast cancer and screening methods.
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production.\\u000a In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm\\u000a development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework\\u000a to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators
Marney E. Isaac; Evans Dawoe; Krystyna Sieciechowicz
The construct of attempted eating restriction has been measured in a number of ways in recent years. The Three-Factor Model of Dieting suggests that dieting can be subdivided into three types: (1) frequency of past dieting and overeating (i.e., history of dieting), (2) current dieting to lose weight, and (3) weight suppression, or the difference between an individual's current weight and his or her highest previous weight. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire (DWHQ), a measure that we have used for many years to assess these three dimensions of dieting; (2) provide some recent examples of published research on each type of dieting; (3) discuss some of the nuances of assessing these dieting types; and (4) suggest directions for future research. PMID:23220357
Witt, Ashley A; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R
In most research involving maternal infant attachment, the attachment construct has been assessed by behavioural observation. The problems inherent in this approach, including its high cost and labour-intensive nature, are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that the behavioural approach could be usefully complemented by enquiry into the mother's subjective experiences towards her infant. The development of a 19 item self-report
The aim of this article is to identify the measurement challenges involved in obtaining sensitive health outcomes from Mexican women in both settled and unsettled segments of the United States population and to suggest how cognitive assessment techniques might be better employed to construct culturally and linguistically appropriate survey instruments. These objectives will be illustrated through a project with recent
Robert P. Agans; Natalia Deeb-Sossa; William D. Kalsbeek
|The purpose of this study was to test and assess the reliability and validity of a modified stress scale in a sample of pharmacy graduate students. The modified stress scale was used as part of a larger, nationwide, study whose aim was to investigate the association of stress, perceived academic success and health-related quality of life among…
Konduri, Niranjan; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Worley-Louis, Marcia
|The aim of this article is to identify the measurement challenges involved in obtaining sensitive health outcomes from Mexican women in both settled and unsettled segments of the United States population and to suggest how cognitive assessment techniques might be better employed to construct culturally and linguistically appropriate survey…
Agans, Robert P.; Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Kalsbeek, William
|Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children…
Gates, Philip E.; Otsuka, Norman Y.; Sanders, James O.; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist. Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range= 17- 21; 97 % Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability over 2 weeks (n= 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = 0.41, p = 0.0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823 +/- 387 mg/d) and DRs (822 +/- 330 mg/d; p = 0.988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as "inadequate" (<1000 mg/d) and "adequate" (> or = 1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC= 0.30, p = 0.042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs. PMID:15118194
Ward, Kenneth D; Hunt, Kami Mays; Berg, Melanie Burstyne; Slawson, Deborah A; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; McClanahan, Barbara S; Clemens, Linda H
|Addresses the relationship between the scholarship of teaching and learning (STL) and faculty assessment. Derives two conclusions: (1) significant opportunities exist for sociologists to contribute to STL within faculty assessment ; and (2) conceptual and empirical STL can be conducted within a sociological framework to improve assessment methods…
Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic KnowledgeQuestionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and artefacts and support the models assuming that 'category-specific semantic disorders' are the by-product of the differential weighting that visual-perceptual and functional (or action-related) attributes have in the construction of different biological and artefacts categories. PMID:22771855
|The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…
ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011
BACKGROUND: To identify incorrect beliefs and common knowledge about rheumatic diseases in the general population. METHODS: Participants were selected during the follow-up of a representative cohort of adult population of Porto, Portugal; 1626 participants completed a questionnaire that included general knowledge items about rheumatic diseases. Discrete and continuous latent variable models were used to identify knowledge flaws and the target
The paper presents an application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to support the complex decision making process concerning with the development of causal models showing how organisational knowledge assets contribute to create company’s value. The research is grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, which argues that organisational resources are bundled together. This involves difficulties in understanding
Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.
Babic, A.; Mathiesen, U.; Hedin, K.; Bodemar, G.; Wigertz, O.
This concern has led to the development of rapid biodiversity assessment ... The study was meant to identify, select indicators for biodiversity assessment and ... thus empowering them to undertake sustainable management initiatives.
Background The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) is an interesting set of tools for primary care research. A very short version could\\u000a inform policy makers about consumer experiences with primary care (PC) through health surveys. This work aimed to investigate\\u000a the validity and reliability of a selection of items from the child short edition (CS) of the PCAT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A 24 item
Silvina Berra; Kátia B Rocha; Maica Rodríguez-Sanz; M Isabel Pasarín; Luis Rajmil; Carme Borrell; Barbara Starfield
Current efforts to assess higher education have highlighted the need for better evaluation of student outcomes and educational needs. Several recent studies have called for an increase in the use of tests as part of assessment activities. However, assessment research has not evaluated whether tests are an appropriate technique for measuring student outcomes, particularly when women or minority students are
Background Although cervical cancer is ??the second most common tumor among Brazilian women, studies that evaluate the quality of life of these women are still scarce. This situation is explained by the lack of specific and validated tools for this purpose in Portuguese (Brazil). The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the FACT-CX (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix) questionnaire in a population of Brazilian women with cervical cancer. Methods The psychometric properties of the FACT-CX questionnaire were tested in a sample of 100 women diagnosed with cervical cancer who were previously treated in the Barretos Cancer Hospital. We analyzed the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC), confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity (correlation with the SF-36 questionnaire), and discriminant validity by disease stage and two questions related to self-perception of health was also performed. Results The scales had Cronbach´s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.80. However, three scales did not have a statistically significant coefficient greater than 0.70. The ICC ranged from 0.68 to 0.82 and all considered satisfactory. Factor analysis did not generate consistent components. The FACT-G and FACT-CX total scores had good internal consistency and reproducibility, and also correlated well with the General Health and Vitality scales of the SF-36. However, only two FACT-CX scales had a significant correlation with SF-36. Discriminant analysis showed that FACT-CX failed to discriminate groups according to clinical stage but was able to divide the women according to the self-perception of health. Conclusion FATC-CX total score had good internal consistency, reproducibility and discriminant validity. In addition, it correlated well with General Health and Vitality scales of SF-36. However, three scales had questionable internal consistency and only two had significant correlation with SF-36.
Fregnani, Cristiane Menezes Sirna; Fregnani, Jose Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; de Almeida, Ana Maria
Web?based peer assessment is an innovative method that can be used to assess students' learning portfolios in order to improve their learning. However, students cannot easily compare their own evaluation schemes or think reflectively to improve their learning through web?based peer assessment if they do not understand how others perceive the assessment criteria. This study attempts to utilize knowledge acquisition
This article has the following objectives: developing the need for assessingknowledge capital at the national economic level; review of a national case study of how intellectual capital assessment was done in case of one nation state; suggesting implications of use of such assessment methods and needed areas of advancement; and highlighting caveats in existing assessment methods that underscore the
|This is one of a series of reports summarizing the results of the second mathematics assessment conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Nine, 13- and 17-year-olds were assessed during the 1977-78 school year. The assessment measured achievement in various content areas at four levels of cognitive processes (knowledge,…
Background Relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), comorbid illness and experiences of traumatic stressors have been reported for large and different groups. The present study investigated this relationship specifically for patients with psychiatric disorders admitted to a forensic ward because of criminal behavior. Methods In sixteen German and fifteen Sudanese forensic patients the prevalence of PTSD and comorbid symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed and related to traumatic experiences, emotional distress, and stressful life events over four developmental periods. Results In the total sample, subjects had experienced an average of five traumatic events, the first one occurring early in childhood, and 39% met criteria of current, 55% of lifetime PTSD, the diagnosis being more likely in patients with a greater number of reported traumatic experiences. Neglect and emotional abuse in childhood were associated with current PTSD diagnosis. As reported for other populations, comorbid symptoms were frequent with 60% of the sample displaying comorbid anxiety symptoms and 64% comorbid depression. PTSD and comorbidity did not differ between cultures. Conclusion Results suggest that forensic patients experience multiple traumatic events, usually beginning early in development, so that the assessment of PTSD and comorbid anxiety and depression is recommended for the clinical evaluation. Further studies have to substantiate, whether traumatic stress during developmental stages interact with other factors leading to routes of forensic psychopathology.
Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women for such exposures and administered it in eight countries on a subsample (n = 987) of the FGLS participants. The FGLS is a study of fetal growth among healthy pregnant women living in relatively affluent areas, at low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and environmental exposures. We confirmed that most women were not exposed to major environmental hazards that could affect pregnancy outcomes according to the protocol's entry criteria. However, the instrument was able to identify some women that reported various environmental concerns in their homes such as peeling paint, high residential density (>1 person per room), presence of rodents or cockroaches (hence the use of pesticides), noise pollution and safety concerns. This screening tool was therefore useful for the purposes of the project and can be used to ascertain environmental exposures in studies in which the primary aim is not focused on environmental exposures. The instrument can be used to identify subpopulations for more in-depth assessment, (e.g. environmental and biological laboratory markers) to pinpoint areas requiring education, intervention or policy change. PMID:24028080
Enterprise executives are taking note that great potential exists for enhancing knowledge sharing and linking experts within the organization when incorporating social software technologies into their operations. But there are warnings of potential negative effects if ineffective use or even misuse of these technologies occurs. There is relatively little empirical research examining the business impact of social software implementations evolving
Nutrition knowledge and behaviors of Massachusetts adolescents are identified and examined based on gender, community type and whether respondents reported learning nutrition in school. Responses of Massachusetts adolescents are compared to responses from a similar population from the National Adolescent Health Survey (NASHS),The purpose of the study was to provide information for use in planning nutrition education programs and in
Objective: To assess the first-aid knowledge and decision making of interscholastic athletic coaches exposed to athletic injuries. Design and Setting: Survey demographic information, First- Aid Assessment, and Game Situation Data Sheet in 17 metropolitan high schools. Subjects: A total of 17 metropolitan high schools participated in this study, and 104 athletic coaches completed questionnaires. Fifteen different athletic sports were represented in this investigation. Thirty coaches (29%) worked with more than one athletic sport during the year. Male subjects constituted 83% (n = 85) of the sample. Years of coaching experience ranged from first-year coaches to those with more than 28 years of experience. Most coaches (61%, n = 63) investigated were teachers, and the remaining subjects were walk-on coaches. Measurements: Central tendency scores were determined in the demographic analysis. x2 analyses were performed to determine the interaction between First-Aid Assessment and the Game Situation Data. Results: Thirty-eight (36%) of the 104 athletic coaches tested achieved passing scores of 29 or higher, with the total scores ranging from 19 to 34. For the Game Situation Data Sheet, 75% (n = 78) of the coaches selected the same response to 7 questions. Most coaches in this study chose to return injured players to the game. We analyzed the data to determine whether coaches who passed the First-Aid Assessment responded differently than those who did not. (The scenario presented in one question involved a starting player's sustaining injury when losing a close game.) Coaches who passed the First-Aid Assessment tended to return injured starters to the game, whereas those who failed it kept injured players out of the game. x2 analysis on the second question (the team is winning a close game when a regular player is injured) showed no tendency for passing or failing coaches to respond differently. Conclusions: The athletic coaches did not adequately meet first-aid standards as established for this study in accordance with the American Red Cross. In addition, coaches who passed the First-Aid Assessment tended to return an injured starter to the game, whereas those who failed decided to keep the player out of the game. It is critical that an unbiased, objective professional person provide all medical care on the athletic playing field, preferably one who is certified in athletic training.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the predictive utility of the stages-of-change scales of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA; E. A. McConnaughy, J. O. Prochaska, & W. F. Velicer, 1983) questionnaire in a heroin-addicted polysubstance-abusing treatment sample. Ninety-six participants completed the URICA at the beginning of a 29-week treatment period that required thrice-weekly urine drug screens. Multivariate multiple regression analysis indicated that after controlling for demographic variables, substance abuse severity, and treatment assignment, the stages-of- change scales added significant variance to the prediction of heroin- and cocaine-free urine samples. The Maintenance scale was positively related to cocaine-free urines and length in treatment. The implications of these findings for treatment and for measuring readiness among individuals using multiple substances while taking maintenance medications are discussed. PMID:15238052
Henderson, Melinda J; Saules, Karen K; Galen, Luke W
|Performance assessment is an important task in all levels of education, both as input for identifying remedial needs of individual students and for improving general quality of education. Although explicit assessment measures can be obtained through objective standardized testing, it is much more difficult to capture fuzzier, or tacit,…
Despite emphasis and progress in developing collaborative inquiry in computer-supported collaborative learning research, little attention has been given to examining how collective learning can be assessed in computer-supported collaborative learning classrooms, and how students can have agency in assessing their own collaborative process. We…
Objective?The aim of this study was to develop the Transition Readiness AssessmentQuestionnaire (TRAQ), a measure of readiness for transition from pediatric to adult healthcare for youth with special health care needs (YSHCN).?Methods?We administered TRAQ to 192 YSHCN aged 16–26 years in three primary diagnostic categories, conducted factor analysis, and assessed differences in TRAQ scores by age, gender, race, and primary diagnosis type.?Results?Factor analysis identified two TRAQ domains with high internal consistency: Skills for Self-Management and Skills for Self-Advocacy. Each domain had high internal consistency. In multivariate regression models, older age and a primary diagnosis of an activity limiting physical condition were associated with higher scores in Self-Management, and female gender and a primary diagnosis of an activity limiting physical condition were associated with higher scores in Self-Advocacy.?Conclusions?Our initial validation study suggests the TRAQ is a useful tool to assess transition readiness in YSHCN and to guide educational interventions by providers to support transition.
The Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ), an 18-item self-report questionnaireassessing spider phobia, was developed in an attempt to complement the information provided by the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ). Data obtained from 338 undergraduates revealed that the FSQ was able to discriminate phobics from nonphobics, and indicated decrements in phobic responding from pretest to posttest following cognitive therapy. Test-retest data,
Background Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis KnowledgeAssessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women. Methods The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study. Results A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD?=?8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach’s alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar’s test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P?=?0.068). Conclusion The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis KnowledgeAssessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) was found to be reliable as well as acceptable. Further research is needed as to complete the validation of those tools and to use them at larger scale whether in knowledgeassessment or in assessing interventions.
Aim: To assess the validity and the short-term reproducibility of a semi-quantitative, self-administrated food frequency questionnaire and a structured 72-hour recall in a Mediterranean Spanish population.Methods: 44 free-living volunteers participated in the study. Macronutrient, vitamin and mineral intake, recorded on the food frequency questionnaire and the structured 72-h recall were compared with intakes derived from a three-day food record (reference
H. SCHRÖDER; M. I. COVAS; J. MARRUGAT; J. VILA; A. PENA; M. ALCÁNTARA; R. MASIÁ
Background: Reliability or validity studies are important for the evaluation of measurement error in dietary assessment methods. An approach to validation known as the method of triads uses triangulation techniques to calculate the validity coefficient of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ).Objective: To assess the validity of an FFQ estimates of carotenoid and vitamin E intake against serum biomarker measurements and weighed
S A McNaughton; G C Marks; P Gaffney; G Williams; A Green
For all their celebration of experiential learning, current approaches to the assessment of prior experiential learning (APEL) are consistent with and, in some respects, trapped within Enlight-enment theories of knowledge. Alternative epistemologies offered by post-modernist, feminist, and anti-racist theory suggest a different conceptual underpinning for APEL. Reinscribed within an epistemology of situated knowledge, APEL can grant visibility to outsider knowledge
Background The changes in the organization of mental health care services have made the role of the family even more important in caring for patients with mental disorders. Caring may have serious consequences for family caregivers, with a great impact on the quality of family life. This study reports on the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire-European Union (IEQ-EU) into the Greek language. Methods Caregivers of patients with major mental disorders were interviewed to test a modified version of the IEQ-EU questionnaire. Psychometric measurements included reliability coefficients, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory analysis by linear structural relations. To measure the concurrent validity we used the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Results Most caregivers were female (83%), mainly mothers living with the patient (80%), with quite a high level of burden. The Greek version of the IEQ-EU (G-IEQ-EU) demonstrated a good reliability with high internal consistency (? = 0.88), Guttman split-half correlation of 0.71, high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.82) and good concurrent validity with the NHP. A four-factor structure was confirmed for the G-IEQ-EU, slightly different from the original IEQ. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the four-factor model offered modest fit to our data. Conclusions The G-IEQ-EU is a reasonably valid and reliable tool for use in both clinical and research contexts in order to assess the burden of caregivers of patients with mental disorders.
The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also included assessment of supplement intake. Strong correlations between methods were observed for all nutrients (r = 0.63, 0.89, 0.54 for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K, respectively) and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the FFQ overestimated intakes for calcium, by 576 mg/day (95% CI, ?668 to 1,821 mg/day), for vitamin D by 75 IU/day (95% CI, ?359 to 510 IU/day), and forvitamin K by 167 mcg/day (95% CI, ?233 to 568 mcg/day). This pilot study showed promising validation evidence for the use of this FFQ, which focuses on calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in postmenopausal women, as a screening tool in clinicaland research settings.
Pritchard, Janet M.; Seechurn, Tinasha; Atkinson, Stephanie A.
Erectile response to intracavernous pharmacological stimulation is highly susceptible to stress and anxiety provoked by the test-situation. To reduce false-positive diagnosis of veno-occlusive dysfunction and to limit the need for high-dosage pharmacotesting, we developed the Post-Investigation Questionnaire (PIQ-R), a self-report instrument to assess erectile response to pharmacological stimulation after the patient has left the office. In this study veno-occlusive sufficiency was not demonstrated in 80 of 105 patients with erectile dysfunction at the time of pharmaco-penile duplex ultrasonography. PIQ-R detected sufficient erectile response in 40 of these patients, thus reducing false-positive diagnosis of veno-occlusive dysfunction by 50%. We also found that reports of sexual activity after investigation increased interest in auto-injection therapy. PIQ-R is a practical self-report measure to assess erectile response after clinical pharmacotesting, and to more carefully select patients for auto-injection therapy. PMID:8858391
Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty,…
Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K.
|Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…
Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena
|Two experiments involving 125 college and graduate students examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology and biology and assessed cross-domain performance in physics. Patterns of knowledge, interest, and performance fit well with the premises of the Model of Domain Learning.…
Knowledge lies at the very heart of innovation. A firm's ability to create, store and transfer knowledge about technologies, customer needs, and the innovation process itself may well determine success in bringing new products or services to the market. Yet, little is known as to how firms treat these issues in practice. With the aim of assessing current practices in
Two experiments involving 125 college and graduate students examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology and biology and assessed cross-domain performance in physics. Patterns of knowledge, interest, and performance fit well with the premises of the Model of Domain Learning. (SLD)
This paper describes a Web-based and distributed system named QSIA that serves as an environment for learning, assessing and knowledge sharing. QSIA--Questions Sharing and Interactive Assignments--offers a unified infrastructure for developing, collecting, managing and sharing of knowledge items. QSIA enhances collaboration in authoring via online…
Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Barak, Miri; Dan-Gur, Yuval; Toch, Eran
|This study explored the impact of using a socioscientific issue (SSI) based curriculum on developing science content knowledge. Using a multi-level assessment design, student content knowledge gains were measured before and after implementation of a three-week unit on global warming (a prominent SSI) that explored both the relevant science…
|Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…
Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.
|The authors explored the use of the Practice Evaluation Knowledge Scale (PEKS) to assess student perception of acquisition and retention of practice evaluation knowledge from an undergraduate research methods class. The authors sampled 2 semesters of undergraduate social work students enrolled in an introductory research methods course.…
The course content for middle school physical science in Virginia is defined by the Standards of Learning. These eleven categories include topics in scientific experimentation, the nature of matter, chemistry and physics. Content knowledge is essential if teachers are to provide effective teaching, which includes analogies, illustrations, examples, and most importantly, hands-on experimentation. One means of assessing teacher content knowledge
|Drawing from a large efficacy study in upper elementary science, this report had three purposes: First to examine the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical knowledge in upper elementary science; second, to analyze the relationship between teacher knowledge and their assessment practice; and third, to study the relationship between teacher…
Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Mike
Current research on sexuality in the aged suffers from a lack of measuring instruments designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. The present scale is the result of several studies of sexual functioning in the aged, including intervention research, utilizing the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) with aged
In this paper we discuss the impact of differing knowledge structure measurement techniques on assessing instructor mental models for behaviors associated with Situation Awareness. Our goals were, first, to investigate the degree to which an expert model ...
J. Fowlkes L. Martin-Milham R. L. Oser S. M. Fiore
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to confirm quantitatively the previous finding that organizational characteristics influence knowledge management, and to assess whether the national culture of knowledge workers equally affects the management of knowledge. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on data gathered from a questionnaire survey of a Japanese pharmaceutical company's 14 foreign subsidiaries, the effects of organizational characteristics and
|Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
|The present work describes an experience of educational innovation in a university context. Its aim was to determine the relationship between students' frequency of use of online self-assessment with feedback and their final performance on the course, taking into account both learners' motivation and perceived usefulness of these resources for…
Digital Educational Games offer immersive environments through which learners can enjoy motivational and compelling educational experiences. Applying personalization techniques within these games can further enhance the educational potential, but the often realtime and narrative-driven focus of games presents many challenges to traditional adaptation approaches. This paper describes an approach to the realtime assessment of learner skills for personalization that was
Owen Conlan; Cormac Hampson; Neil Peirce; Michael D. Kickmeier-rust
|Self-assessmentquestionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
The aim of this study was to scrutinize the assessment of teacher knowledge in a school?based course at one Swedish pre?service teacher education program. In a general education school?based course, teacher educators visited the student teachers at their school placements and met them and their school mentors in student?teaching conferences to assess their teacher knowledge. The findings primarily show that
A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed
Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
The “Strengths and Difficulties” questionnaire was put to the parents and teachers of 342 schoolchildren aged 7–11 years using\\u000a a non-randomized method. Questionnaire data from parents and teachers on children with ADHD and their peers were then compared.\\u000a The spectrum of impairments arising in ADHD was found not to be restricted to the main symptoms of ADHD. Questionnaires completed\\u000a by
N. N. Zavadenko; T. V. Lebedeva; O. V. Schasnaya; A. N. Zavadenko; O. M. Zlobina; N. A. Semenova
Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to confirm the tendency for parents to underestimate the severity of symptoms and the poor consistency between parents' reports of symptoms and the physicians' evaluation of asthma control. Additionally, the relationship between parents' asthma knowledge and their report of symptoms and estimation of asthma severity was explored. Methods: Fifty children (M?=?10.5 years) and their caregivers were recruited from two Portuguese hospitals. A measure of asthma symptoms report (Severity of Chronic Asthma, SCA) and a subjective evaluation of asthma severity were collected and compared with physicians' ratings of asthma control, as well as parents' knowledge about asthma (Asthma KnowledgeQuestionnaire, AKQ) and emotional disturbance (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI). Results: Although parents' evaluation of perceived asthma severity was moderately correlated to symptoms reported, results confirm an inconsistency between parents' reports of symptoms, their subjective rating of asthma severity and the physician's rating of clinical control, revealing a tendency for parents to underestimate disease severity and to underreport asthma symptoms. Asthma knowledge was not significantly correlated to SCA or to parents' subjective evaluation of asthma severity. Parents with poorer knowledge reported fewer symptoms. Conclusions: Portuguese parents revealed a tendency to overestimate their child's level of asthma control and a low level of asthma knowledge. Parents' education, psychological disturbance and time since diagnosis were associated with asthma knowledge. Parents' knowledge was not related to the child's asthma outcomes or to their subjective evaluation of asthma severity or symptoms reports. Parents' asthma knowledge deficits, underreporting of symptoms and underestimation of asthma severity, may affect parent-provider communication and impede asthma control. PMID:23859138
Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…
|Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…
Chronic spontaneous urticaria has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. The first disease-specific tool to assess quality of life impairment in this condition, the Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CU-Q2oL), was developed recently. The aim of this study was to adapt the original Italian version to the Turkish language and to evaluate its reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. The Turkish version was developed by performing forward- and back-translation. It was then applied to 140 consecutive patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, along with the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the Skindex-29. Disease activity was assessed using the Urticaria Activity Score. Sensitivity to change was measured in 101 patients, who completed the instruments twice at intervals of 4 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the six-scale structure of the original Italian version ("pruritus", "swelling", "impact on life activities", "sleep problems", "limits", "looks") can be retained in the Turkish instrument. Analysis regarding convergent validity showed good correlations of the Turkish CU-Q2oL with the other instruments. In addition, it was found to discriminate well between patients with different levels of urticaria activity, and to be sensitive to change. In conclusion, the Turkish version of CU-Q2oL is a reliable, valid, and sensitive instrument, which will help to characterize better the clinical impact of chronic spontaneous urticaria and treatment outcomes in Turkish patients. Its identical scale structure to that of other CU-Q2oL instruments makes it ideal for cross-cultural comparisons and for its application in future national and multinational studies. PMID:21918791
The primary purpose of this research is to adapt the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire developed by Watkins and Marsick, and examine its validity and reliability in a Korean context. Although the concept of the learning organization is well established, there has not been rigorous validation of the application of the questionnaire in the Korean context. The present research
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaireassessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and
|People use external knowledge representations (EKRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with EKRs is central to becoming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, EKRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Five key roles of EKRs in educational assessment…
Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.
|This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
The purpose of the study was to assess the legal knowledge of preservice teachers completing their educational training at accredited South Florida universities. The population consisted of 372 preservice kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers completing their educational training in any area of public school education.^ The researcher selected areas of school law to assess based on nationwide studies of litigation
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
|This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ) to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size), 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9?±?0.8 years) completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1?±?0.9 years) completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR) in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70). The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%), but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%). The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the validity to that in the current literature suggests that the NZAFFQ may be used among adolescent New Zealanders to identify dietary patterns and rank them according to food group intake.
OBJECTIVE:: To examine the accuracy of knowledge about mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) of veterans and their friends/family members. SETTING:: VA Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS:: One hundred veterans and 50 of their friends/family members. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional survey. MAIN MEASURES:: A 60-item questionnaire was created by drawing both from the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory and from a brain injury knowledge survey developed for use with the general public. RESULTS:: Both groups were equally able to identify true mild TBI items, but both also endorsed numerous items not typical of a mild injury. Self-reported prior TBI and receipt of TBI education were unrelated to the level of knowledge. For both groups, knowing another individual with TBI was unrelated to other aspects of mild TBI knowledge. Only 1 in 5 veterans endorsed receiving brain injury education while in the military. CONCLUSION:: Results of this study may assist in the development of targeted TBI educational interventions for veterans and their friends/family members within the Veterans Affairs system. Ultimately, increased knowledge about mild TBI improves the likelihood that veterans receive care congruent with their needs and may potentially improve outcomes for those with mild TBI. PMID:23524877
A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (-.03; ± .15). One-week test-retest reliability of the questionnaire's estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake. PMID:21558572
Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E; Rush, Elaine C
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a questionnaire for studying satisfaction with housing and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities. Most items were gathered from English language questionnaires. These were translated and adapted to a Swedish context and items concerning housing support were added. Two studies were conducted. The first, a test-retest reliability analysis, was performed in a pilot study with 53 participants; in the second study, which had 370 participants, a five factor solution with good internal consistency emerged. Further development of the questionnaire is discussed. PMID:24066648
Brolin, Rosita; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Brunt, David Arthur
This manual describes the Mathematics AssessmentQuestionnaire (MAQ) and its development, provides relevant background from the research literature, describes approaches to the reporting and uses of the MAQ (including its use in instructional planning), and presents sample responses from students and classes. The MAQ provides teachers and students…
In a previous study, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ) was developed especially for women with breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the LSQ in a randomized sample of Swedish women and to compare the perceived quality of life with that of women suffering from breast cancer. Another aim was to relate
Marianne Carlsson; Elisabeth Hamrin; Ragny Lindqvist
BACKGROUND: The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. METHODS: In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle
James G Logan; James I Cook; Nina M Stanczyk; Sue J Welham
Bone mass increases steadily until age 20-30 years, when peak bone mass (PBM) is acquired. Nutrition plays a critical role in achievement of the optimal genetically programmed PBM, with reduction in the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Intake of nutrients can be estimated through the use of various tools; typically, food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to validate a 21-item, semiquantitative FFQ to assess important nutrient intakes for bone health in Italian schoolchildren 9-10 years of age. Relative validation was accomplished through comparison of the 7-days weighed food record (7D records) with an FFQ developed ad hoc, completed by a group of 75 Italian schoolchildren (36 females, 39 males). Agreement between the two methods was evaluated by Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman analysis applied on the data on intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Particular attention was devoted to nutrients relevant for bone health. Good correlations between the two methods (FFQ and 7D records) were observed for all nutrients. In particular, mean dietary calcium intakes were 725.6 mg/day (95 % CI 683.2-768.1) from 7D records and 892.4 mg/day (95 % CI 844.6-940.2) from the FFQ. These results indicate that our FFQ for schoolchildren aged 9-10 years is highly acceptable as it is an accurate method that can be used in large-scale or epidemiological studies for the evaluation of nutrient intakes important for the prevention of osteoporosis in a similar population. PMID:23543130
Pampaloni, B; Bartolini, E; Barbieri, M; Piscitelli, P; Di Tanna, G L; Giolli, L; Brandi, M L
An important component of an effective AIDS prevention program is the dissemination of relevant information concerning AIDS risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of 411 randomly selected Arab Americans. The results indicate a low level of self-assessedknowledge about AIDS, a high number of misconceptions about the transmission of HIV, and a high level of anxiety about HIV infection. PMID:8200674
Objective Structural validity for the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) has recently been provided for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the HAQ-DI in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) and to compare its performance with that in patients with RA.Methods The HAQ-DI structural validity was first assessed in a
Jason C. Cole; Dinesh Khanna; Philip J. Clements; James R. Seibold; Donald P. Tashkin; Harold E. Paulus; Michael R. Irwin; Sarosh J. Motivala; Daniel E. Furst
This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample—one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) methodology. NPD scores demonstrated moderate convergence for the total scores but weak convergence
Joshua D. Miller; W. Keith Campbell; Paul A. Pilkonis; Jennifer Q. Morse
Objective: To compare different statistical methods for assessing the relative validity of a self-administered, 150-item, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 4-day weighed diet records (WR). Design: Subjects completed the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ and carried out a 4- day WR. Relative agreement between the FFQ and WR for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes was assessed by Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients,
LF Masson; G MCNeill; JO Tomany; JA Simpson; HS Peace; L Wei; DA Grubb; C Bolton-Smith
Objective: Since there is now growing interest in the incorporation of patient-reported outcome measures in cancer clinical trials, a patient-based questionnaire, the Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) was developed to quantify the symptoms and severity of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicians' perspectives regarding the utility and diagnostic value of PNQ. Methods: A
Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82%) agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
Juneja, Deven; Gopal, Palepu B.; Satapathy, Rashmi R.; Raya, Ravichandra; Madgundi, Venugopal V.
AIMS: The primary aim was to investigate variables affecting compliance in pregnant women recommended for genetic consultation for abnormal screening test results, family predisposition or medical history. Our main focus was on a women's knowledge of particular screening tests, their initial feelings and changes in these feeling with time, as well as variables relevant to further decision making. METHODS: We used an anonymous questionnaire based on previous qualitative research. The questions were formulated by a medical geneticist, and the questionnaires were distributed prior to prenatal screening tests performed by doctors or trained nurses. The research cohort consisted of 271 women aged 16-42 years. Six hypotheses were tested using the statistical programme STATISTICA; significance levels were set to P<0.05. RESULTS: The questionnaire results showed insufficient knowledge. The women were confused about invasive, screening and ultrasound tests. Genetic test recommendation was largely associated with stress in these patients. Between recommendation and consultation, the women mostly looked for support from their partners. There was a surprisingly low percentage of women who looked for help from their medical specialists and a surprisingly high percentage of those who did not seek any help at all. CONCLUSION: Women's distress can be reduced if the information about recommended genetic consultation is conveyed correctly and this can also help them make the right informed decision about their future course of action. PMID:23774847
|Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledgequestionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient…
Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.
Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators.
This study examined the accuracy of two retrospective methods and assessment intervals for recall of sexual behavior and assessed predictors of recall accuracy. Using a 2 [mode: audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) vs. self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)] by 2 (frequency: monthly vs. quarterly) design, young women (N = 102) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants completed baseline measures, monitored their behavior with a daily diary, and returned monthly (or quarterly) for assessments. A mixed pattern of accuracy between the four assessment methods was identified. Monthly assessments yielded more accurate recall for protected and unprotected vaginal sex but quarterly assessments yielded more accurate recall for unprotected oral sex. Mode differences were not strong, and hypothesized predictors of accuracy tended not to be associated with recall accuracy. Choice of assessment mode and frequency should be based upon the research question(s), population, resources, and context in which data collection will occur.
Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Tu, Xin
We studied validity and clinical applicability of the Japanese version of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) assessmentquestionnaire 40 (ALSAQ-40). The original version contains forty questions measuring five areas (domains) of health status: Physical Mobility, ADL/Independence, Eating and Drinking, Communication and Emotional Functioning. Data were obtained from 39 ALS patients and from their physicians at 15 centers in Japan. Patients completed the ALSAQ-40 and the SF-36, and provided information on their age and their status of ventilator use. Their physicians provided information on the date of diagnosis, type of disease and clinical characteristics, and ALSFRS-R. The patients' average age was 58.5 years, and 64% were men. The mean duration since diagnosis was 39.1 months. Forty four percent were classical ALS patients and 46% were receiving a respiratory intervention. Although there was much heterogeneity, the scores for Physical Mobility and ADL/Independence were higher(indicating worse health status)than the scores for the other domains. Item-scale correlations were strong, except for the item "felt embarrassed in social situations" in the Emotional Functioning domain. All the domains had very high internal consistency: Cronbach's alphas ranged 0.95 to 0.97. With regard to the cluster structure of the forty items, the Eating and Drinking domain and the Communication clustered together. The reason might be that the former consisted of only three items and both domains measure bulbar symptoms. Domain scores correlated significantly with scores of related dimensions in the SF-36 and ALSFRS-R, and did not correlate strongly with unrelated domains. The five items of the ALSAQ-5 correlated with all five domain scores on the ALSAQ-40. These results should be interpreted with caution because we analyzed together data from ALS patients with various characteristics. In conclusion, although we may need to add and remove some items and modify the wording of others, the Japanese version of the ALSAQ-40 had high validity and is likely to be useful in evaluating of QOL in ALS patients. Whether the ALSAQ-5 can be used in place of the ALSAQ-40 is a matter for further study. PMID:15328837
The role of science in policy and decision-making has been an issue of intensive debate over the past decade. The concept of knowledge brokerage has been developing in this context contemplating issues of communication, interaction, sharing of knowledge, contribution to common understandings, as well as to effective and efficient action. For environmental and sustainability policy and decision-making the discussion has addressed more the essence of the issue rather than the techniques that can be used to enable knowledge brokerage. This paper aims to contribute to covering this apparent gap in current discussion by selecting and examining empirical cases from Portugal and the United Kingdom that can help to explore how certain environmental and sustainability assessment approaches can contribute, if well applied, to strengthen the science-policy link. The cases show that strategic assessment approaches and techniques have the potential to promote knowledge brokerage, but a conscious effort will be required to design in genuine opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange and transfer as part of assessment processes.
Sheate, William R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning, London (United Kingdom); Partidario, Maria Rosario, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)
A system for knowledgeassessment and encouraging learning comprises transmitting to the a terminal a plurality of multiple choice questions and two-dimensional answers thereto, the answers including a plurality of full-confidence answers consisting of single-choice answers, a plurality of partial-confidence answers consisting of sets of multiple single-choice answers, and an unsure answer. The system further administers a confidence-based assessment (CBA) test that presents to the test subject the plurality of multiple choice questions directed to categorical topics, and the two-dimensional answers thereto, by which the test subject indicates both their substantive answer and the level of confidence category of their answer. The system compiles a knowledge profile from the scored CBA test, and encourages learning so that the user can address knowledge deficiencies as identified through the CBA test.
Formative assessment, the assessment of student understanding to inform learning, has been shown to be a teaching practice that has powerful positive effects on student learning. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), teachers' knowledge specific to teaching particular subject matter, has been posited as an important resource for teachers engaging in formative assessment. However, no research has been conducted into the role
Being able to make claims about what students know and can do in science involves gathering systematic evidence of students' knowledge and abilities. This paper describes an assessment system designed to elicit information from students at many placements along developmental trajectories and demonstrates how this system was used to gather…
|In light of attempts to build a stronger appreciation for knowledge that is often constructed by the dominant Western culture's standards, this article focuses on the efforts to create agency among classroom teachers who teach in rural Alaskan schools. In discussions around the theories of assessment--the focal point of a summer course examined…
|To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now…
|Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assessknowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…
In order to evaluate the usefulness of rapid surveys of indigenous knowledge for assessing trends in biodiversity, a case study was undertaken in two rural communities, Juznajab and Muquenal, in Chiapas, Mexico. This involved the use of a variety of rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques, including semi-structured interviews, transect walks and participatory mapping. These approaches
Augustine Hellier; Adrian C. Newton; Susana Ochoa Gaona
For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new chemistry curriculum for Israeli high school students. As part of this endeavor, we developed the Taste of Chemistry module, which focuses on context-based chemistry, chemical understanding, and higher order thinking skills. Our research objectives were (a) to identify the challenges and difficulties chemistry teachers faced, as well as the advantages they found, while teaching and assessing the Taste of Chemistry module; and (b) to investigate how they coped with teaching and assessing thinking skills that include analyzing data from graphs and tables, transferring between multiple representations and, transferring between chemistry understanding levels. Research participants included eight teachers who taught the module. Research tools included interviews, classroom observations, teachers-designed students' assignments, and developers-designed students' assignments. We documented different challenges teachers had faced while teaching the module and found that the teachers developed different ways of coping with these challenges. Developing teachers' assessmentknowledge (AK) was found to be the highest stage in teachers' professional growth, building on teachers' content knowledge (CK), pedagogy knowledge (PK), and pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). We propose the use of assignments designed by teachers as an instrument for determining their professional growth.
Three experiments tested whether it is possible to teach college students who are not trained investigators to comprehend information regarding knowledge of conservation problems and mathematical equivalence conveyed through children's hand gestures. Findings suggest that instructing adults to attend to gesture enhances their assessment of…
Kelly, Spencer D.; Singer, Melissa; Hicks, Janna; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
|In this study we propose a theoretical construct (called "rhetorical competence") that represents the ability of readers to detect, understand, and use the "linguistic cues" or "discourse markers" that texts contain. We measure one of the three postulated components of rhetorical competence (knowledge of textual integration markers), assessing…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by a job market by systematically analyzing classified advertisements of position openings. It suggests appropriate methodological techniques to conduct such a study and compares these to traditional methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – While this paper discusses several methods used to assess the
Madhav N. Segal; Edmund K. Hershberger; Talaibek Osmonbekov
|We use a construct-based assessment approach to measure learning progression of energy concepts across physical, life, and earth science contexts in middle school grades. We model the knowledge integration construct in six levels in terms of the numbers of ideas and links used in student-generated explanations. For this study, we selected 10…
In this paper, the impact of the introduction of roles and the added value of the introduction of self- assessment on students' level of knowledge construction in asynchronous discussion groups of 10 stu- dents in a first year course Educational Sciences is studied. In addition, the impact of process-based out- comes on product-based outcomes is examined. The results indicate that
Bram De Wever; Hilde Van Keer; Tammy Schellens; Martin Valcke
|The aim of this study was to scrutinize the assessment of teacher knowledge in a school-based course at one Swedish pre-service teacher education program. In a general education school-based course, teacher educators visited the student teachers at their school placements and met them and their school mentors in student-teaching conferences to…
The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline KnowledgeAssessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with
|The main requisite for a functional computerized adaptive testing system is the need of a calibrated item bank. This text presents the tasks carried out during the calibration of an item bank for assessingknowledge of Basque language. It has been done in terms of the 3-parameter logistic model provided by the item response theory. Besides, this…
Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Perez, Tomas A.; Vadillo, Jose A.; Gutierrez, Julian
|Developed and administered 17-item instrument to assessknowledge of specific mental health problems (depression, agitation, disorientation) and behavioral approaches to them to 191 nurse's aides and 21 clinicians with training in behavioral management and experience with older nursing home residents. Aides averaged 11 correct answers; clinicians…
This document was issued in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Public Law 95-95, mandating that NASA and other key agencies submit biennial reports to Congress and EPA. NASA is to report on the state of our knowledge of the upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. This is the sixth ozone assessment report submitted to Congress and the
Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756
|The current study examined whether the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; L. A. Greco, W. Lambert, & R. A. Baer, 2008), a self-report measure of psychological inflexibility for children and adolescents, might be useful for measuring psychological inflexibility for adults. The psychometric properties of the AFQ-Y were examined…
Fergus, Thomas A.; Valentiner, David P.; Gillen, Michael J.; Hiraoka, Regina; Twohig, Michael P.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; McGrath, Patrick B.
|The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and…
|The primary purpose of this research is to adapt the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire developed by Watkins and Marsick, and examine its validity and reliability in a Korean context. Although the concept of the learning organization is well established, there has not been rigorous validation of the application of the…
|This study estimates the sensitivity and specificity of the social communication questionnaire (SCQ) for autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children at high risk for developmental problems referred to a tertiary centre and compares the predictions of the SCQ and the referrer. The SCQ was completed by 81 parents prior to multidisciplinary…
Allen, C. W.; Silove, N.; Williams, K.; Hutchins, P.
This paper describes the development of a new parent questionnaire (“Five to Fifteen”, or the FTF) for elicitation of symptoms and problems typical of ADHD and its comorbidities. The FTF comprises 181 statements related to behavioural or developmental problems that can be endorsed as either “does not apply” (0), applies sometimes or to some extent” (1), “definitely applies” (2), plus
Björn Kadesjö; Lars-Olof Janols; Marit Korkman; Katarina Mickelsson; Gerd Strand; Anegen Trillingsgaard; Christopher Gillberg
To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)\\/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food
Katherine L. Tucker; Lisa A. Bianchi; Janice Maras; Odilia I. Bermudez
The purpose of this study was to modify the Gladys Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (GBFFQ) in both content and format customizing it to the ethnic needs of a specific group of South Asian immigrants residing in the United States. The three steps involved were: (1) standardizing preparation methods of core foods selected from those identified as core foods of the
Background. The underreporting of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure by parents of study children may depend on the instrument used and population studied, underlining the need for questionnaire validation in specific study settings. This study explores the validity of parent-reported ETS exposure in a French multicenter study on asthma.Methods. The study population was composed of 313 children ages 4 to
F. Callais; I. Momas; D. Roche; S. Gauvin; P. Reungoat; D. Zmirou
A panel of experts formulated relevant domains of sexual function with a focus on sexual interest and desire. The resulting 10-item scale, the Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), was examined for reliability (internal consistency and test-retest repeatability), construct validity (concurrent, convergent, and discriminant), sensitivity, and specificity in a clinical trial. A principal components analysis identified three factors (desire, responsiveness, and
RAYMOND C. ROSEN; ROGERIO A. LOBO; BARBARA A. BLOCK; HWA-MING YANG; LISA M. ZIPFEL
Early childhood is a critical period for shaping and influencing feeding and lifestyle behaviors that have implications for future weight and health. With more women in the workforce, families have become reliant on child care. Thus, the child-feeding relationship has become a shared responsibility between the parent and child-care provider. Little is known about the impact of child-care providers on development of early childhood feeding behaviors and subsequent risk for obesity, especially in the Hispanic ethnic group. This research examined child-feeding attitudes, practices, and knowledge of multi-ethnic home-based and center-based child-care providers. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of 72 providers, 50 of whom completed a pre- and post-test on child-feeding knowledge after receiving a 90-minute class based on Satter's division of responsibility feeding model during the spring of 2008. Results indicate many providers had practices consistent with this model. However, substantial differences were reported by Hispanic providers, who were statistically more likely to encourage children to finish meals before dessert, prepare foods they perceived as well-liked by children, coach children to eat foods perceived as appropriate, and not eat with children during meals. A substantial increase in knowledge from 73% correct at pretest to 82% at post-test was noted, with a substantial increase in knowledge on five of 13 questions. However, knowledge was not always congruent with behavior. This study points to differences among providers based on ethnicity, and strongly recommends recruiting Hispanic child-care providers to participate in educational programs and community efforts to prevent obesity. PMID:20184996
Purpose This paper reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) within the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: (1) understanding of EBP concepts, (2) attitudes about EBP, (3) evidence accessing methods, and, (4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument is the Evidence Based Practice Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE) that has four scales, totaling 35 items: EBP knowledge (10), EBP attitudes (10), accessing evidence (9) and confidence in critical appraisal (6). Methods Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees) and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses from KACEs completed by second year dental students, dental residents and dental school faculty using Cronbach alpha. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for students, residents and faculty members. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre - and post - training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the KACE was completed twice by a class of freshmen dental students 17 days apart and the knowledge scale was completed twice by 16 dental faculty 14 days apart. Results Item - to - scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post-hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents and faculty consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students and residents demonstrated statistically significant changes, in desired directions, from pre - to post - test. For the student test-retest, Pearson correlations for KACE scales were: knowledge (0.66), attitudes (0.66), evidence accessing (0.74) and confidence (0.76). For the knowledge scale test-retest by faculty, the Pearson correlation was 0.79. Conclusion The construct validity of the KACE is equivalent to that of instruments that assess similar EBP dimensions in medicine. Item consistency for the knowledge scale was more variable than for other KACE scales, a finding also reported for medically-oriented EBP instruments. The KACE has good discriminative validity, responsiveness to training effects, and test-retest reliability.
Hendricson, William D.; Rugh, John D.; Hatch, John P.; Stark, Debra L.; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R.
Objective: To assess the psychometric properties of an observational screening measure of depressive symptoms (SADQH-10; 10-item Hospital version of the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire) for use in stroke patients with aphasia and to determine the convergent and divergent validity of the SADQH-10.Design: Cross-sectional cohort.Setting: Hospital and community.Participants: Stroke patients with aphasia (n = 165) were recruited through hospital wards and
Christine S Cobley; Shirley A Thomas; Nadina B Lincoln; Marion F Walker
Objective: The problem addressed in the study was to gain a greater understanding of the health benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of the study was to assess general health status, using the short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire, approximately 12 months following CABG, and to document any associations between pre-operative health status, level of social support, coronary artery disease
Grace M Lindsay; Phillip Hanlon; Lorraine N Smith; David J Wheatley
|A key role in the development and deployment of Assistive Technology solutions is that of the "assessor-consultant". Assessor-consultants for the UK-based charity Abilitynet work with clients to develop customized computer-based assistive technology systems and draw on a range of shared knowledge from the assessor-consultant community. We provide…
Objectives There currently exists no reliable or validated tool for the assessment of exercise-related injuries in older adults. The purpose was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire to measure exercise-related injury in older adults participating in supervised exercise programmes. Design The study utilised a repeated survey design. Setting The study took place at one community-based older-adult exercise facility. Participants The questionnaire was administered to 110 community-dwelling older adults (45 men, mean age 75±8?years; 65 women, mean age 71±8?years). All participants completed the survey at both time points. Outcome measures Test–retest reliability of the self-administered written questionnaire was determined at two-time points. The questionnaire asked participants about their exercise-related injury incurred at the facility in the 12?months. Items included the mechanism, cause and site of injury. The minimum requirement for reliability (? coefficient) was set at 0.80. Results 16% (n=18) reported having an injury. Test–retest reliability ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, with all but type of injury (0.76) having ? coefficients greater than 0.80. The lower extremities were the most common site of exercise-related injury. Overexertion movements were the most common cause of injury occurring during strength training exercises. Conclusions The present questionnaireassessing the 12-month recall in older adults is a reliable measure of exercise-related injuries and information gained indicates that older adults can safely participate in exercise activities.
The HAQ has become the pre-eminent patient questionnaire used in rheumatology. It is easily completed by patients, but not easily reviewed and scored in standard clinical care and has some minor psychometric limitations, as do all questionnaires. Modifications of the HAQ been made to facilitate use in standard care, particularly to include 8-10 activities of daily living, along with scores for pain and global status and other information on one side of one page for rapid review by the clinician. A patient questionnaire for standard care should be limited to 2 sides of 1 page, in a format amenable to "eyeball" review by the clinician in 5 seconds or less. It can be scored formally in 15-20 seconds or less, and is useful in patients with all rheumatic diseases. The current version of a multi-dimensional HAQ (MDHAQ) includes scoring templates on the questionnaire to allow formal scoring in less than 15 seconds by a rheumatologist or an assistant, for possible entry onto a paper and/or computerized flow sheet. Various versions of the MDHAQ may also include a "constant" region of physical function, pain and patient global status, and "variable" regions of fatigue, morning stiffness, psychological distress, change in status, a review of systems, a rheumatoid arthritis disease activity self-report joint count (RADAI), review of recent health events, and review of medications. The MDHAQ can be used in the infrastructure of rheumatology care to include quantitative data in standard care of all patients with all rheumatic diseases. PMID:16273781
To develop a cost-effective alternative for evaluating dietary intake in large-scale intervention trials of cancer and cardiovascular disease outcomes, we designed and validated a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We collected 6 to 8 of the 24-hr dietary recalls from 87 adults (ages 30–72 yr) who were randomly assigned to a walnut-supplemented diet or a control diet in a 6-mo
Gina Segovia-Siapco; Pramil Singh; Ella Haddad; Joan Sabaté
Aims: To investigate the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), the health-related quality of life (HRQL), and the correlations between VHI and HRQL in laryngectomees. Methods: Forty-three laryngectomized persons participated (mean age 68;6 years, time since laryngectomy between 0;6 and 12 years). Evaluation of voice handicap was done with the VHI. HRQL was evaluated with questionnaires from the European Organization for Research
Elisabet Lundström; Britta Hammarberg; Eva Munck-Wikland
Objective The theory behind the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) presumes that the “objective” social environment is measurable via self-report\\u000a inventories such as the JCQ. Hence, it is expected that workers in identical work will respond highly similar. However, since\\u000a no studies have evaluated this basic assumption, we decided to investigate whether workers performing highly similar work\\u000a also responded similarly to the
Roger PerssonAse; Åse Marie Hansen; Anne Helene Garde; Jesper Kristiansen; Catarina Nordander; Istvan Balogh; Kerstina Ohlsson; Per-Olof Östergren; Palle Ørbæk
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaireassessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn’s and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and
The NHIS CCS is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment. The NHIS CCS covers a variety of topics, including diet and nutrition.
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SEF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Satisfaction with Teaching Questionnaire was used. In a study by its developers this scale discriminated between students choosing to be teachers and those choosing other…
Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of the Injection Pen AssessmentQuestionnaire (IPAQ) including the following: 1) item and scale characteristics (e.g., frequencies, item distributions, and factor structure), 2) reliability, and 3) validity. Methods Focus groups and one-on-one dyad interviews guided the development of the IPAQ. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parent–child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new Genotropin® disposable pen. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study. Psychometric analyses were conducted separately for each injection pen. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Cronbach’s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons. Conclusions The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint.
Objective To determine the level of knowledge concerning Sudden Unexpected Death in the Young (SUDY) among Canadian medical students and recent graduates (?5?years after graduating). Design A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing a standardised, multiple choice, online questionnaire which assessed basic knowledge of SUDY. Setting Canadian medical schools and residency training programmes. Participants 614 Canadian medical students (in either their penultimate or final year) and recent graduates (?5?years after graduating) completed an anonymous online questionnaire. Primary and secondary outcome measures The level of knowledge regarding molecular aetiology, clinical presentation, pharmacological management and modes of inheritance of six of the commonest conditions causing SUDY, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), long QT syndrome (LQT) and Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome (WPW), were compared between medical students and recent graduates. Questions were broken down into basic knowledge and advanced categories and analysed as a secondary outcome measure. Results Of 614 responses, approximately two-thirds were answered by recent graduates, who generally scored 10% higher on all subject categories than medical students. Overall, questions regarding HCM were best answered (40%), followed by WPW syndrome (32%), CPVT (30%), ARVC (23%), Brugada syndrome (21%) and LQT syndrome (17%). Questions categorised as basic knowledge were answered 30% and 39% correctly in medical student and recent graduate groups, respectively, and those in the advanced category were answered 20% and 25% correctly. Conclusions Survey respondents fared poorly when answering questions regarding SUDY, which may be a reflection of inadequate medical education regarding these disorders. Standardised teaching regarding SUDY needs to occupy a stronger focus in Canadian medical curricula in order to prevent more unnecessary deaths by these syndromes in the future.
Background Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect outcome data on participants. However, a poor response to questionnaires will reduce the statistical power of the study and may introduce bias. A meta analysis of ten trials offering study results, largely in the fields of education and marketing, was shown to be ineffective, with the odds ratio for response with offering research findings is 0.92 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.11). However uncertainty still exists as it is uncertain whether results from such trials can be extrapolated to that of a health care setting. The aim of this study was to assess whether offering participants study results increases the response rates to postal questionnaires. Methods 1038 women aged over 70 years were remotely randomised by computer in a 3:1 ratio. 250 participants did not receive the offer of knowing the results of the trial and 788 participants were offered the results of the trial in a postal questionnaire. The main outcome measure was response rate. Chi square test was used to evaluate the overall differences in response rate between the two groups. An adjusted analysis, adjusting for whether the participant was taking calcium and age was also undertaken. Results The response rates were not significantly different Odds Ratio 0.88 (95% confidence intervals 0.48 to 1.63) p = 0.69. Conclusion Offering study results to women living in the community aged over 70 does not increase response rates to postal questionnaires. Although researchers have an ethical obligation to offer participants study results, since 10% of women did not wish to receive the results, investigators should give participants the option to opt out of receiving the study's results.