The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring Greek elementary physical educators' knowledge of student assessment. A multiple-choice questionnaire comprised of items about concepts, methods, tools, and types of student assessment in physical education was designed and tested. The initial 35-item…
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Aggelousis, Nicolaos; Vassiliadou, Olga
BACKGROUND: There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA) questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP) scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. METHODS: A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n =
Debra K Creedy; Ruth M Cantrill; Marie Cooke
The purpose of this study was the psychometric testing of a questionnaire to assess nurses' opinions, subjective norms, perceived difficulties, and knowledge related to palliative care. The 63-item MOVE2PC Questionnaire was tested among 219 nurses in groups differing in education and experience. The intra-rater agreement was moderate to good (??>?.5?max ), and internal consistency was good (alpha?=?.77). Construct validity was demonstrated by between-groups differences in knowledge, opinions, and perceived difficulties. Responsiveness was shown by improved scores after an education program. Time of completion was 20 minutes, and 99% skipped at most five items, demonstrating feasibility. Findings support the usefulness of the instrument for assessing nurses' knowledge and views on palliative care. PMID:23813723
Witkamp, Frederika E; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes
objectives study assess knowledge practices associated pesticide agricultural community Palestine determine prevalence self-reported health symptoms related pesticide exposure. Methods cross-sectional questionnaire study agricultural farm workers Nablus district Palestine interviewed knowledge practices pesticide use.
Search instead for objectives study assess knowledge practices associated pesticide agricultural community Palestine determine prevalence self-reported health symptoms related pesticide exposure. Methods cross-sectional questionnaire study agricultural farm workers Nablus district Palestine interviewed knowledge practices pesticide use. ?
Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire used to assess the level of general knowledge about cervical cancer, its primary and secondary prevention, and to identify sources of information about the disease among schoolgirls and female students. Methods The questionnaire development process was divided into four phases: generation of issues; construction of a provisional questionnaire; testing of the provisional questionnaire for acceptability and relevance; field-testing, which aimed at ensuring reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Field-testing included 305 respondents of high school female Caucasian students, who filled out the final version of the questionnaire. Results After phase 1, a list of 65 issues concerning knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention was generated. Of 305, 155 were schoolgirls (mean age±SD, 17.8±0.5) and 150 were female students (mean age±SD, 21.7±1.8). The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was 0.71 (range for specific questionnaire sections, 0.60 to 0.81). Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.89 to 0.94. Conclusion The Cervical-Cancer-Knowledge-Prevention-64 has been successfully developed to measure the level of knowledge about cervical cancer. The results confirm the validity, reliability and applicability of the created questionnaire. PMID:24761210
Jaglarz, Katarzyna; Kamzol, Wojciech; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
Purpose The aim of this study is to determine the perceived familiarity of medical residents with statistical concepts, assess their ability to integrate these concepts in clinical scenarios, and investigate their susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy and the conjunction fallacy. Methods A multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey of Greek medical residents was performed. Participants were asked to indicate their familiarity with basic statistical concepts and answer clinically oriented questions designed to assess their biostatistics knowledge and cognitive biases. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical models were used for the evaluation of data. Results Out of 153 respondents (76.5% response rate), only two participants (1.3%) were able to answer all seven biostatistics knowledge questions correctly while 29 residents (19%) gave incorrect answers to all questions. The proportion of correct answers to each biostatistics knowledge question ranged from 15 to 51.6%. Residents with greater self-reported familiarity were more likely to perform better on the respective knowledge question (all p<0.01). Multivariate analysis of the effect of individual resident characteristics on questionnaire performance showed that previous education outside Greece, primarily during medical school, was associated with lower biostatistics knowledge scores (p<0.001). A little more than half of the respondents (54.2%) answered the gambler’s fallacy quiz correctly. Residents with higher performance on the biostatistics knowledge questions were less prone to the gambler’s fallacy (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence intervals 1.12–1.70, p=0.003). Only 48 residents (31.4%) did not violate the conjunction rule. Conclusions A large number of medical residents are unable to correctly interpret crucial statistical concepts that are commonly found in the medical literature. They are also especially prone to the gambler’s fallacy bias, which may undermine clinical judgment and medical decision making. Formalized systematic teaching of biostatistics during residency will be required to de-bias residents and ensure that they are proficient in understanding and communicating statistical information. PMID:24646439
Msaouel, Pavlos; Kappos, Theocharis; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Apostolopoulos, Alexandros P.; Lekkas, Ioannis; Tripodaki, Elli-Sophia; Keramaris, Nikolaos C.
Background: Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States, yet a comprehensive and evidence-based heart disease knowledge assessment is currently not available. Purpose: This paper describes the two-phase development of a novel heart disease knowledge questionnaire. Methods: After review and critique of the…
Bergman, Hannah E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moser, Richard P.; Scholl, Sarah; Klein, William M. P.
Background and objective The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire for assessing nutritional knowledge among overweight adults. The questionnaire should reveal knowledge about current dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, everyday food choices, and conditions related to overweight. Design The first draft of the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (113 items) was based on literature review. To ensure content validity and expert-assessed face validity, an expert panel examined the questionnaire. Thereafter, the questionnaire was tested for user friendliness and ambiguity by five students. The questionnaire was pilot tested in a group of obese adults, similar to the target group. The results were analyzed for item difficulty and internal consistency and comments made by respondents were taken into account. Two student groups, differing in nutritional expertise, answered the questionnaire on two occasions to test construct validity and test–retest reliability. After the retest, a total overview of the questionnaire was made by the expert panel. The final questionnaire consisted of 91 items. Subjects The pilot study was conducted in obese adults waiting for a gastric bypass operation (n=33). Construct validity (n=34) and test–retest reliability (n=27) was tested in two student groups: public health nutrition students and construction students. Results Results from the pilot study showed that internal consistency of the three first sections together was 0.84, measured by Cronbach's ?. Test of construct validity showed that public health nutrition students scored significantly better than construction students (p<0.001 for all sections), and test–retest reliability for all sections together was 0.82 (Pearson's r). Conclusion The knowledge questionnaire had reasonable content-, face-, and construct validities and overall good reliability. The questionnaire can be a useful tool for measuring nutrition knowledge among obese adults. PMID:22007155
Feren, Anne; Torheim, Liv E.; Lillegaard, Inger T. L.
In recent decades, the American diet has emerged in our country as a reference model food, particularly among young people, to the detriment of the Mediterranean diet, an healthy eating pattern rich in fruits and vegetables, olive oil, whole grains and fish. Even in Europe, North American habits are widespread at the expense of traditional northern nutritional powers, characterized by a lot of fish, wild game meat that are much thinner than from farm animals, rye, oats, cabbage, root vegetables. Given this background, in Pavia (Italy) and Tampere (Finland) we conducted a pilot study with the objective to assess and compare the eating habits and nutrition knowledge in school-age children using 2 questionnaires entitled "what do you eat?" and "what do you know about diet and health?". The results of the first questionnaire clearly shows that, among young people of both countries, there is the loss of traditional food: the Mediterranean and the Finnish diet. All the boys wear it with a low frequency fish, fruit and vegetables, and instead a high frequency of adverse health foods, such as potato chips and sweet drinks. The answers to questions which relate to nutrients and their properties, show that children of all groups have little knowledge about these topics. The use of questionnaires, such as those administered by us, can be easily performed to investigate the dietary habits and the nutritional level of culture, due to make nutrition education interventions aimed at correcting poor eating habits. PMID:22509620
Rondanelli, M; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M; Monteferrario, F; Perna, S; Viale, M; Ashorn, M; Giacosa, A
Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
Diabetes mellitus affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, thus patients should monitor carbohydrate intake and eat a heart-healthy diet using nutrition labels. To assess carbohydrate counting skills, knowledge of heart-healthy diet, and nutrition...
Walker, Ann Christine
Objectives Most evidence-based practice (EBP) edu- cational assessment tools evaluated to date have focused on specific knowledge components or tech- nical skills. Other important potential barriers to the adoption of EBP, such as attitudinal, perceptual and behavioural factors, have yet to be studied, especially in the undergraduate setting. Therefore, we devel- oped and validated a knowledge, attitude and beha- viour
Janice M Johnston; Gabriel M Leung; Richard Fielding; Keith Y K Tin; Lai-Ming Ho
There is currently no questionnaire available that comprehensively assesses patients' understanding, self-efficacy and satisfaction with the education component of pulmonary rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to develop the Understanding COPD (UCOPD) questionnaire. The key stages in the development of the UCOPD questionnaire were: (i) Generation of questions, and assessment of face and content validity, user-centredness, acceptability and feasibility; (ii) Assessment of plain English and readability; (iii) Assessment of structural validity; (iv) Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency; (v) Assessment of the responsiveness, convergent validity and floor and ceiling effects. The UCOPD questionnaire assesses understanding, self-efficacy and use of key self-management skills (Section A) and satisfaction (Section B). It has good validity and practical properties, and readability was acceptable. It has good test-retest reliability (Section A: ICC range: 0.87 to 0.96; Section B: Wilcoxon: p > 0.05) and internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha range: 0.78 to 0.95). It is responsive to pulmonary rehabilitation (Mean change: About COPD: 18.26 [12.12 to 24.40]%, Managing Symptoms 20.94 [13.86 to 28.01]%, Accessing Help and Support 24.06 [14.53 to 33.60]%, Total 20.59 [14.43 to 26.75]%, p < 0.001). It had a moderate correlation with the Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire (BCKQ): pre-pulmonary rehabilitation: r = 0.41, p = 0.02; post-pulmonary rehabilitation: r = 0.35, p = 0.047. In conclusion, the UCOPD questionnaire offers the opportunity to assess the benefit of the education component of pulmonary rehabilitation in terms of its effect on understanding, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Further research is needed across different pulmonary rehabilitation settings to demonstrate the robustness of the UCOPD questionnaire, and to establish the minimum clinically important difference. PMID:22409266
O'Neill, Brenda; Cosgrove, Denise; MacMahon, Joseph; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Bradley, Judy M
In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.
Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan
It is generally recognized that there is a need for improved teaching of nutrition in medical schools and for increased education of the general population. A questionnaire, derived in part from a study of physician knowledge, was administered to first year medical students in order to assess their knowledge of various aspects of nutrition and metabolism, and as a teaching tool to transmit information about the subject. The performance of first year students was consistent with a generally educated population but there were surprising deficits in some fundamental areas of nutrition. Results of the questionnaire are informative about student knowledge, and immediate reinforcement from a questionnaire may provide a useful teaching tool. In addition, some of the subject matter can serve as a springboard for discussion of critical issues in nutrition such as obesity and markers for cardiovascular disease. A major barrier to improved teaching of nutrition is the lack of agreement on some of these critical issues and there are apparent inconsistencies in recommendations of government and health agencies. It seems reasonable that improved teaching should address the lack of knowledge of nutrition, rather than knowledge of official guidelines. Student awareness of factual information should be the primary goal. PMID:15649324
Makowske, Mary; Feinman, Richard D
Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:24652054
Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus
Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three facets-reports, peer ratings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 435-448. Other references include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A
Gross, James J.
A patient health questionnaire was developed for use in family practice to help identify lifestyle risk factors, assess health care needs, and better understand patients. This article discusses the questionnaire's development and practical application. Images Figure 3 PMID:8616290
Mitchell, J. D.
The Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), a brief questionnaire to assess attachment characteristics in adolescents, was developed and validated in a large normative sample (n = 691) and a sample of 133 adolescents in psychiatric treatment. The AAQ is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 3 scales of 3 statements each, with Likert-type responses from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Availability
Malcolm West; M. Sarah Rose; Sheila Spreng; Adrienne Sheldon-Keller; Kenneth Adam
Objective To develop and evaluate the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge of community pharmacists in Portugal about microbial resistance and the antibiotic dispensing process. Methods This study was divided into the following three stages: (1) design of the questionnaire, which included a literature review and a qualitative study with focus-group sessions; (2) assessment of face and content validity, using a panel of experts and a pre-test of community pharmacists; and, (3) pilot study and reliability analysis, which included a test-retest study covering fifty practising pharmacists based at community pharmacies in five districts situated in Northern Portugal. Questionnaire reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 95% confidence interval) computed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Results The correlation coefficients were fair to good (ICC>0.4) for all statements (scale-items) regarding knowledge of and attitudes to antibiotic resistance, and ranged from fair to good to excellent for statements about situations in which pharmacists acknowledged that antibiotics were sometimes dispensed without a medical prescription (ICC>0.8). Cronbach's alpha for this section was 0.716. Conclusions The questionnaire designed in this study is valid and reliable in terms of content validity, face validity and reproducibility. PMID:24599387
Roque, Fatima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa
Background and Purpose Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks are the main features of narcolepsy, but rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hyposmia, and depression can also occur. The latter symptoms are nonmotor features in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). In the present study, IPD-proven diagnostic tools were tested to determine whether they are also applicable in the assessment of narcolepsy. Methods This was a case-control study comparing 15 patients with narcolepsy (PN) and 15 control subjects (CS) using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Autonomic Test (SCOPA-AUT), Parkinson's Disease Nonmotor Symptoms (PDNMS), University of Pennsylvania Smell Test, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, Beck Depression Inventory, and the RBD screening questionnaire. Results Both the PN and CS exhibited mild hyposmia and no deficits in visual tests. Frequent dysautonomia in all domains except sexuality was found for the PN. The total SCOPA-AUT score was higher for the PN (18.47±10.08, mean±SD) than for the CS (4.40±3.09), as was the PDNMS score (10.53±4.78 and 1.80±2.31, respectively). RBD was present in 87% of the PN and 0% of the CS. The PN were more depressed than the CS. The differences between the PN and CS for all of these variables were statistically significant (all p<0.05). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of dysautonomia and confirm the comorbidities of depression and RBD in narcolepsy patients. The spectrum, which is comparable to the nonmotor complex in IPD, suggests wide-ranging, clinically detectable dysfunction beyond the narcoleptic core syndrome.
Klein, Gilles; Vaillant, Michel; Pieri, Vannina; Fink, Gereon R.; Diederich, Nico
Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments
Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher
Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. Results There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19–21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex). PMID:24886447
Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice. PMID:22768098
Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciaran M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter
...and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...new collection request, Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...be prompted with the VCAT Assessment questionnaire and will answer various questions...
The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685
Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos
The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685
Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos
Background Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students’ KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students. Methods In this study, 2500 students from 3 universities (including one medical university) in Northeastern China participate in the questionnaire survey on students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi square test were used to analyze questionnaire-related discrete and categorical variables respectively, in order to assess the impact of the medical curriculum on students’ KAP towards antibiotics. Results 2088 (83.5%) respondents (MS-1236 and NS-852) were considered valid for analysis. The level of knowledge of MS on the proper use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of NS (p?0.0001). However, based on their responses on actual practice, MS were found to rely on antibiotics more than NS (p?0.0001). Moreover, the knowledge and attitude of MS towards antibiotic use improved with the increase in grade with discriminate use of antibiotics concurrently escalating during the same period. Conclusions This study indicates that Chinese medical curriculum significantly improves students’ knowledge on antibiotics and raises their attention on antibiotic resistance that may result from indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The study also shows an excessive use of antibiotics especially among the more senior medical students, signifying a deficiency of antibiotics usage instruction in their curriculum. This might explain why there are frequent abuses of antibiotics in both hospital and community settings from a certain angle. PMID:24321449
In order to address HIV infection among college students, a comprehensive measure is needed that can be used with samples from culturally diverse populations. Therefore, this paper assessed the reliability and validity of an HIV/AIDS questionnaire that measures fours dimensions of HIV/AIDS awareness--factual knowledge, prejudice, personal risk,…
Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Hughes, Leslie
Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors that may affect fertility but do not always act accordingly. Primary prevention or, respectively, health promotion is thus necessary to prevent further increases in the number of infertile couples. PMID:24771934
Fugener, J.; Matthes, A.; Strauss, B.
Three studies assessing the Eating and Exercise Behavior Questionnaire indicated that it is reliable and useful in studying the eating patterns of the obese, differences in behavioral cue responses to eating, and multiple and single session weight loss training effectiveness.The research utility of the instrument is discussed. (CB)
Brandon, Jeffrey E.; And Others
Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school
G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi
This study was designed to develop the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Q--SPACE) based on student perceptions. Twenty-eight items rated on 4-point Likert scales were administered to 244 middle school students in 9 schools. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying structure of the items and 2 factors were extracted: physical environment (PE) and social environment (SE).
Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Lucie Lévesque; Ronald R. Holden
AbstractObjective: To determine the level of knowledge of emergency contraception among 14 and 15 year olds.Design: Confidential questionnaire survey.Setting: 10 secondary schools in Lothian, south east Scotland.Subjects: 1206 pupils predominantly (98.7%) aged 14 and 15 in the fourth year of secondary school.Main outcome measures: Knowledge of the existence of emergency contraception; of its safety, efficacy, and time limits; and of
Anna Graham; Lora Green; Anna F Glasier
Ninety seven teachers of diabetic pupils in Liverpool completed a questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge of diabetes mellitus and the sources from which they had obtained information. The survey aimed to evaluate their understanding and to aid in planning an alternative policy of teacher education. Only 24 teachers (25%) seemed to have adequate understanding of diabetes and there was
A J Bradbury; C S Smith
Four studies are reported on the derivation and assessment of a hypermasculinity scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire measure of hypermasculine values was derived from an initial 122 items, rated on a seven-point scale by 600 men from eight categories, based on occupation or sport interest. Factor analysis and item reduction produced 26- and 16- item scales (Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire, HVQ and Short Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire) with high internal consistencies. There were substantial differences between categories, consistent with predictions based on their gender-stereotypic connotations. Study 2 involved the scales being administered to another similarly composed sample: again high internal consistency and unidimensionality (in a confirmatory factor analysis) were found, and a similar association with category membership. Test-retest reliability was high. In Study 3, the concurrent and discriminative validity of the HVQ was studied, by comparing it with an existing measure of hypermasculinity, male role norms, attitudes to women's rights, gender-related traits, and trait aggression. Associations were found with other gender scales, and there was a moderate association with trait physical aggression. The range of associations reflected the items on the scale, which involve toughness, the need to avoid femininity, and control of women's sexuality, themes familiar from ethnographic accounts of masculinity. Study 4 showed that the HVQ was associated with hostile but not benevolent sexism, and replicated its association with trait aggression. PMID:19793409
Introduction HIV/AIDS, the most important health problem in Africa, is the leading cause of death on the continent. Ignorance on HIV/AIDS status will hamper treatment and prevention. To investigate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in a rural area, we performed a questionnaire study on HIV/AIDS knowledge in men living in Banga Bakundu, a rural village in Cameroon. Methods Forty-eight men, aged 17-66 years, were interviewed. They were divided in 2 groups: ?29 years, being those young enough to be able to have knowledge about HIV/AIDS at the time of their first sexual contact, and those > 29 years who weren't. A semi-structured clinical interview was performed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, sexual activity, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its prevention. Results There is an overall good HIV/AIDS knowledge and what should be done about it. Men with a higher level of education and more HIV/AIDS knowledge seem to take less preventive measures. The differentiation per age group showed that age influenced the data on knowledge and behaviour. Conclusion Our data are consistent with other studies. Remarkable is the difference in HIV/AIDS knowledge between the 2 age groups, and the relation between HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual habits and prevention. Sufficient HIV/AIDS knowledge did not lead to significant changes in sexual behaviour. The questionnaire showed to provide sufficient information and was easy to use. Further research should be performed. PMID:24876900
Versteegh, Hendt Paul; Bakia, Affuenti; Koopman, Hendrik Maria; Kraaij, Vivian; Versteegh, Florens Gerard Adriaan
Background: Traumatic injuries to teeth and their supporting structures during childhood are one of the major problems faced by the dentist in day to day practice. Children usually encounter minor accidents in their routine activities and hence, it of utmost importance to provide emergency care to reduce such outcomes. Most of children with dental trauma present late for treatment due to lack of awareness and knowledge among parents/caretakers resulting in unfavorable long-term prognosis. This study was conducted to evaluate by means of a questionnaire, the knowledge, and usual attitude of the parents/caretakers about the management of avulsed tooth in children of age group 5-14 years. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire containing 6 questions was distributed among 200 parents/caretakers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of parents toward avulsed tooth and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0. Results: A lack of technical information regarding the preservation and management of avulsed tooth was observed among the parents/caretakers. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion showed that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.04. Conclusion: These data reinforce the need to provide the population with some important information regarding the emergency management of avulsed tooth. This warrants the need of effective communication between dental professionals and caretakers for better handling of dental emergencies.
Nikam, Atul Pralhad; Kathariya, Mitesh D; Chopra, Kirti; Gupta, Aditi; Kathariya, Renuka
Introduction Efficacy of chronic cough treatment is ambiguous. The aim of the study was to analyze chronic cough alleviation after specific treatment and the relationship between cough etiology and treatment efficacy. Material and methods A stepwise diagnostic approach was used to diagnose cough etiology in non-smoking adults with chronic cough. In all patients specific treatment was applied. Two different questionnaires – a visual analog scale and a 5-degree scale – were used to assess cough severity before and after 4-6 months of treatment. Results A significant correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment results of both questionnaires was found (Spearman coefficient 0.43, p = 0.0003 and 0.73, p < 0.0001, respectively). Baseline questionnaire analysis revealed no differences in cough severity between patients with different cough causes or multiple cough causes. Although specific treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cough severity in the entire group, only partial improvement was noted. According to the visual analogue scale, a decrease of cough severity by at least 50% was achieved only in 54.4% of patients (37/68). Similarly, satisfactory improvement was noted in only 54.4% (37/68) of patients when using the 5-point scale. There were three sub-groups of patients, in whom no relevant decrease of cough severity was observed despite treatment: patients with 1. three coexisting cough causes, 2. non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and 3. chronic idiopathic cough. Conclusions Cough severity does not depend on its etiology. Efficacy of chronic cough treatment in non-smoking patients is only moderate.
Grabczak, Elzbieta M.; Arcimowicz, Magdalena; Domeracka-Kolodziej, Anna; Domagala-Kulawik, Joanna; Krenke, Rafal; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Tarchalska-Krynska, Bozena; Krasnodebska, Paulina; Chazan, Ryszarda
This study is based on a visual inspection and a questionnaire survey about sanitation in central Nepal. A total of 201 people\\u000a from different groups were asked about their knowledge about eco-toilets, the fertilizer value of human urine and wood ash.\\u000a Farmers were the least educated and least aware of most of the topics asked. Although the majority of educated
Surendra K. Pradhan; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski
A short scale was developed and validated that assesses consumers' knowledge about nutrition. Sixty-four nutrition knowledge items were derived from consumer interviews and expert recommendations about healthy eating. Items were administered as a postal survey to a sample of consumers randomly drawn from the directory (response rate=37%, N=1043). Twenty items were retained to build the final nutrition knowledge scale. Internal reliability, criterion and construct validity were acceptable. Associations of the scale with self-reported food consumption frequencies indicated limited correlation of nutrition knowledge with food choice. Widespread nutrition knowledge gaps in consumers were revealed. PMID:21310201
Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen
Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum. PMID:22112146
Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)
Alexander, Melody W.
/suburban areas. Students in Florida, Indiana, Missouri, and Utah completed a researcher-designed questionnaire assessing knowledge and perceptions on factors influencing SAE participation. A response rate of 43.3% (N = 120, n = 52) was achieved...
Lewis, Lauren Joanna
The recent implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998 has important implications for UK psychiatric practice but previous studies have demonstrated that psychiatrists generally have poor knowledge of mental health law. The aims of this study were to assess psychiatrists' knowledge of the Human Rights Act and to examine whether knowledge is related to seniority or experience. Questionnaires were sent to 154 psychiatrists in the Northern Region, testing both their factual knowledge of the Human Rights Act and their ability to apply it to clinical scenarios. Ninety-mix psychiatrists responded and they demonstrated good overall knowledge and ability to apply the Human Rights Act However, half of the respondents were not aware that the Act only imposes a duty on public authorities and that a lack of active treatment in itself does not constitute a breach of the Act Specialist registrars and consultants scored significantly higher than SHOs but there was no significant difference between the specialist registrars and consultants. The scores of psychiatrists who had detained at least one patient under the Mental Health Act 1983 over the last six months were significantly higher than those who had not. The implications of these findings are discussed. There is still a need for further training on relevant aspects of the Human Rights Act. PMID:12741658
Passmore, Kirsty; Leung, Wai-Ching
Background Light exposure at night is now considered a probable carcinogen. To study the effects of light on chronic diseases like cancer, methods to measure light exposure in large observational studies are needed. We aimed to investigate the validity of self-reported current light exposure. Methods We developed a self-administered semiquantitative light questionnaire, the Harvard Light Exposure Assessment (H-LEA) questionnaire, and compared photopic scores derived from this questionnaire with actual photopic and circadian measures obtained from a real-life 7-day light meter application among 132 women (85 rotating night shift workers and 47 day workers) participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Results After adjustment for age, BMI, collection day, and night work status, the overall partial Spearman correlation between self-report of light exposure and actual photopic light measurements was 0.72 (P<0.001; Kendall ? =0.57) and 0.73 (P<0.0001; Kendall ? =0.58) when correlating circadian light measurements. There were only minimal differences in accuracy of self-report of light exposure and photopic or circadian light measurement between day (r=0.77 and 0.78, respectively) and rotating night shift workers (r=0.68 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence of the criterion validity of self-reported light exposure using the H-LEA questionnaire. Impact: This questionnaire is a practical method of assessing light exposure in large scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:21737411
Bajaj, Archna; Rosner, Bernard; Lockley, Steven; Schernhammer, Eva S.
Objective To develop and validate the Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ) as a disease-specific, self-administered questionnaire for evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Methods We developed and validated this new questionnaire, using a standardized procedure which included item development, pilot-testing and psychometric validation. Of the patients who participated in psychometric validation, those whose clinical conditions were judged to be stable were asked to answer the survey questionnaire twice, in order to assess test-retest reliability. Results Content validity of the initial questionnaire was evaluated via two pilot tests. After these tests, we made minor revisions and finalized the initial version of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed with two domains, one psycho-social and the other physical. For psychometric assessment, analyses were performed on the responses of 192 adult patients with various types of hypopituitarism. The intraclass correlations of the respective domains were 0.91 and 0.95, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.96 and 0.95, indicating adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency for each domain. For known-group validity, patients with hypopituitarism due to hypothalamic disorder showed significantly lower scores in 11 out of 13 sub-domains compared to those who had hypopituitarism due to pituitary disorder. Regarding construct validity, the domain structure was found to be almost the same as that initially hypothesized. Exploratory factor analysis (n?=?228) demonstrated that each domain consisted of six and seven sub-domains. Conclusion The AHQ showed good reliability and validity for evaluating QOL in adult patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:22984490
Ishii, Hitoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Kaji, Hidesuke; Hanew, Kunihiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yamashiro, Sayuri; Takano, Koji; Chihara, Kazuo
This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…
1 6/30/09 PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE COMPLETING A QUESTIONNAIRE Policy on Assessment for Possible or psychological disability that can be documented should submit the documentation along with the disability questionnaire. Disability verification forms and the Disability Questionnaire can be downloaded from the Student
Gallo, Linda C.
Though focus groups are widely used for development of interventions, little is known about their utility in questionnaire construction, particularly for health surveys in a south-eastern African-American population. In this study, focus groups aided in the development of questions, question sub-components, and response options identifying factors that may influence dietary behavior. Information was used for a survey of dietary knowledge, blood pressure knowledge, and measured blood pressure in a church-based, stratified random sample of middle-class African Americans in North Carolina. Each session, conducted in six churches, lasted 1-1 1/2 hours and had four to nine participants; thirty-four individuals participated. Recorded responses were reviewed and summarized by trained personnel. Results indicate that participants had a general understanding of hypertension, its risk factors, and modes of prevention. However, some misconceptions existed regarding blood pressure and sources of sodium. Television was the most common source of health information. Cost and Southern cultural traditions were deemed the major influences on dietary behavior. Many believed stress was strongly related to blood pressure. The focus group process generated useful information for developing questions about nutrition knowledge, blood pressure knowledge, and health attitudes and beliefs of the target population for the epidemiologic survey that followed. PMID:9681284
Carter-Edwards, L; Bynoe, M J; Svetkey, L P
Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636
Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia
The authors of this volume's stimulus papers have taken on the challenge of developing measures of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). This task involves multiple decisions and considerations, including: (1) How does one specify the body of knowledge being assessed? What warrants are offered for those choices?; (2) How does one…
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
The practice of supervision is crucial to the development of novice and future school psychologists. Given the changes in contemporary practice, it is valuable to determine the supports and continuing education opportunities that could benefit supervisors. One hundred forty-two school psychology supervisors completed a 34-item questionnaire that surveyed the following: (a) their practice as school psychologists, (b) their use of
Rosemary Flanagan; Patrick Grehan
The practice of supervision is crucial to the development of novice and future school psychologists. Given the changes in contemporary practice, it is valuable to determine the supports and continuing education opportunities that could benefit supervisors. One hundred forty-two school psychology supervisors completed a 34-item questionnaire that…
Flanagan, Rosemary; Grehan, Patrick
Although provider knowledge is a potential barrier in the dissemination of evidence-based services for youth, research in this area is currently limited by a lack of instrumentation. The present study examined the utility of the Knowledge of Evidence-Based Services Questionnaire (KEBSQ), a 40-item self-report measure designed to assess reporter…
Stumpf, Roxanna E.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Chorpita, Bruce F.
Patient satisfaction in performing activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire modified from the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The HAQ includes questions to determine a patient's degree of difficulty and need for help and assistive devices in ADL. A modification of the HAQ (MHAQ) was developed to include questions concerning perceived patient satisfaction regarding the same ADL, along with perceived change in degree of difficulty. In order to add additional questions while maintaining the length of the questionnaire in a format suitable in routine care, the number of ADL included in the MHAQ was reduced from 20 to 8. Information regarding degree of difficulty derived from 8 questions in the MHAQ is comparable with that derived from 20 questions in the HAQ. The response of a patient that a specific activity is associated with difficulty in functional capacity was not inevitably associated with the absence of patient satisfaction; 43.7% of patients responding "with some difficulty" and 19.1% of patients responding "with much difficulty" expressed satisfaction with their functional capacity. A major determinant of expression of patient satisfaction was perceived change in difficulty: 81.4% of patients noting that their function was "less difficult now," in contrast to 16.9% of patients responding "more difficult now," expressed satisfaction. These studies suggest that data regarding patient satisfaction and perceived change in difficulty can be assessed to more completely characterize patients' functional status in ADL. PMID:6639693
Pincus, T; Summey, J A; Soraci, S A; Wallston, K A; Hummon, N P
Mental imagery may occur in any sensory modality, although visual imagery has been most studied. A sensitive measure of the vividness of imagery across a range of modalities is needed: the shorter version of Bett's Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery (Sheehan, , J. Clin. Psychology, 23, 386) uses outdated items and has an unreliable factor structure. We report the development and initial validation of the Plymouth Sensory Imagery Questionnaire (Psi-Q) comprising items for each of the following modalities: Vision, Sound, Smell, Taste, Touch, Bodily Sensation, and Emotional Feeling. An exploratory factor analysis on a 35-item form indicated that these modalities formed separate factors, rather than a single imagery factor, and this was replicated by confirmatory factor analysis. The Psi-Q was validated against the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (Reisberg et al., , Appl. Cogn. Psychology, 17, 147) and Marks' (, J. Mental Imagery, 19, 153) Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VVIQ-2). A short 21-item form comprising the best three items from the seven factors correlated with the total score and subscales of the full form, and with the VVIQ-2. Inspection of the data shows that while visual and sound imagery is most often rated as vivid, individuals who rate one modality as strong and the other as weak are not uncommon. Findings are interpreted within a working memory framework and point to the need for further research to identify the specific cognitive processes underlying the vividness of imagery across sensory modalities. PMID:24117327
Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Deeprose, Catherine; Baugh, Sarah-Jane; Ganis, Giorgio
This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…
Brock, Rebecca L.; Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci
The contribution of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to patient management was investigated in patients attending two rheumatology clinics. Additional interventions occurred in 55 (36%) of 147 patients completing the HAQ after the questionnaires had been inspected. It was particularly useful for the review patients compared to the new attenders. The HAQ is a more rational approach to outpatient
JB Young; MA Chamberlain
In a sample of 140 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1966, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire response on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. hey also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports of environmental tobacco smo...
The assessment of Knowledge Grid is important to its design, development and maintenance. The difference between Knowledge Grid and website in structure and content determines that the current website assessment approaches are not suitable for assessing the Knowledge Grid. This paper proposes a fuzzy collaborative assessment approach combining the objective and subjective assessment strategies. The objective assessment strategy integrates the
Hai Zhuge; Jie Liu
The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their…
Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai
-assessed exercises 6 (b) With hindsight, how many hours per week do you think you ought to have spent equally enjoyable? 5. (a) What aspects of the course are you finding most difficult and why? (b) How might week. Course: 1. (a) For this course, roughly how many hours per week have you been spending
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. Aims: To investigate symptoms of…
Archer, Sally K.; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of unidentified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and determine the screening accuracy of the Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cigarette smokers who had a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years and were aged 30 years or older were recruited from 36 centers from February 18, 2009, to May 29, 2009. A total of 1575 patients completed a Web-based survey including the 5-item LFQ. Spirometry was performed on patients with an LFQ total score of 18 or less and on a subset scoring more than 18. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients at risk of airflow obstruction as measured by the LFQ (score, ?18) in whom an airflow obstruction was confirmed by spirometry. RESULTS: Of the patients who completed the LFQ, 849 (54%) had standardized spirometry data available. On the basis of LFQ and spirometry results, the estimated prevalence of possible COPD was 17.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.3%-20.6%). At a cut point of 18 or less, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LFQ were 88%, 25%, 21%, and 90%, respectively. Approximately 1 in 5 patients (21%) aged 30 years or older and 1 in 4 (26%) aged 50 years or older scored 18 or less on the LFQ and had a ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration to forced vital capacity less than 0.70. CONCLUSION: On the basis of postbronchodilator spirometry results using weighted estimates, approximately 1 in 5 patients (21%) aged 30 years or older with a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years seen in a primary care setting is likely to have COPD. The LFQ could be a helpful COPD case-finding tool for clinicians to identify patients who need further evaluation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01013948 PMID:21531880
Mintz, Matthew L.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Mannino, David M.; Donohue, James F.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Grellet, Catherine A.; Gilsenan, Alicia W.; McLeod, Lori D.; Dalal, Anand A.; Raphiou, Ibrahim H.; Prillaman, Barbara A.; Crater, Glenn D.; Cicale, Michael J.; Mapel, Douglas W.
Background: To provide preliminary validation data on a self- or informant-report multidimensional questionnaire of symptoms associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: Participants from 2 trials (n = 125), the Arizona APOE Cohort and the Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Center, completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Neurodegenerative Symptoms questionnaire (MANS) and other related measures. Results: Measures of central tendency are provided for the sample
Dona E. C. Locke; Kara B. Dassel; Geri Hall; Leslie C. Baxter; Bryan K. Woodruff; Charlene Hoffman Snyder; Bruce L. Miller; Richard J. Caselli
BACKGROUND: Influenza is among the most common infectious diseases. The main protection against influenza is vaccination. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and validated for use in clinical trials to assess subjects' perception and acceptance of influenza vaccination and its subsequent injection site reactions (ISR). METHODS: The VAPI questionnaire was developed based on interviews with vaccinees. The initial version was administered
Catherine Chevat; Muriel Viala-Danten; Carla Dias-Barbosa; Van Hung Nguyen
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results Based on item-total correlations and principal components analysis, we eliminated three items and calculated average intention ratings across the remaining 28 items. The resulting scale had appropriate unidimensionality and excellent internal consistency. Correlations of intention questionnaire scores with measures of drinking history, alcohol outcome expectancies, sensation seeking, and impression management provided some support for criterion and discriminant validity of the questionnaire. Conclusion This questionnaire could be employed as an outcome measure to evaluate prevention programs and as a clinical tool to identify clients who have little intention to employ drinking reduction strategies in heavy drinking situations. PMID:22686362
Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S
Multidimensional, multisymptom approaches to cancer symptom assessment and management have been emphasized across health disciplines. However, each dimension that is assessed significantly increases patient\\/subject burden. Efficient, reliable, and valid assessment of the critical dimensions of patients' most salient symptoms is important in clinical and research settings. The Symptom Representation Questionnaire (SRQ), derived from information processing theory, assesses critical cognitive and emotional factors that
Heidi Scharf Donovan; Sandra Ward; Paula Sherwood; Ronald C. Serlin
In reviewing the family assessment literature, there appears to be a need for behaviorally based report procedures capable of describing important aspects of family functioning. Thus far, most activity in this direction has involved the development of methods of evaluating marital relationships with relatively little attention to parent-adolescent assessment. This article introduces an adaptation of the Areas of Change Questionnaire
Theodore Jacob; Ruth Ann Seilhamer
The Multicultural Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) is a validated and easy-to-administer tool for assessing individuals' multicultural competencies (Narvaez & Hill, 2010). The current study examined the utility of the MEQ for assessing the impact of undergraduate diversity courses. A total of 137 students in six university-designated diversity…
You, Di; Matteo, Elizabeth
A Spanish-language questionnaire designed for measuring the impact of asthma on quality of life in adults was developed. It was derived, by the application of a rigorous translation protocol, from a previously validated, English-language Asthma Quality of Life (AQL) questionnaire which had been developed in Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish AQL questionnaire using a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Two hundred ninety-four clinically stable subjects with asthma (168 women, mean baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1] = 85% predicted), aged 17-70, attended for the initial baseline assessment. All subjects completed the AQL questionnaire and a full history and physical examination were performed. The clinical assessment of severity was based on the classification recommended by the Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA). One week after the initial assessment subjects completed the AQL questionnaire for a second time. Six months later, subjects were assessed clinically and completed all the assessment measures at baseline. Principal components analysis of the AQL questionnaire responses at the baseline visit revealed a structure that was almost identical to that seen in the original English-language questionnaire. The questionnaire was shown to be internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha 0.91 for total score and 0.80-0.86 for the four subscales) and repeatable (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.91 for the total scale and 0.78-0.92 for the subscales). The finding of expected strong correlations with the subject's global assessment of severity (p = 0.70) and dyspnea (p = 0.63), a weak inverse correlation with FEV1 (p = -0.17), and good discrimination among the four GINA severity categories (F3,291 = 37.16, p < 0.0001) supports the construct validity of the questionnaire. AQL scores increased with age (p = 0.31) and were higher in women (p < 0.005). The AQL was responsive to both improvement (mean change 1.02, p < 0.0001) and deterioration (mean change -1.13, p < 0.001) in the severity of asthma over a 6-month period. This disease-specific, Spanish-language AQL questionnaire was shown to have sound psychometric properties which make it suitable for use in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies where it is appropriate to assess the impact of asthma on the quality of life of individual patients. PMID:9751069
Perpiñá, M; Belloch, A; Marks, G B; Martinez-Moragón, E; Pascual, L M; Compte, L
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results: Based on item-total correlations and principal components analysis, we eliminated three items and calculated average intention ratings across
Erin E. Bonar; Erica Hoffmann; Harold Rosenberg; Elizabeth Kryszak; Kathleen M. Young; Lisham Ashrafioun; Shane W. Kraus; Erin E. Bannon
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results: Based on item–total correlations and principal components analysis, the authors eliminated 3 items and calculated average intention ratings
Erin E. Bonar; Erica Hoffmann; Harold Rosenberg; Elizabeth Kryszak; Kathleen M. Young; Lisham Ashrafioun; Shane W. Kraus; Erin E. Bannon
Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format
D. K. Bird
Aim To measure the level of agreement and application of 10 international recommendations for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to a target of remission/low disease activity. Methods A 10-point Likert scale (1=fully disagree, 10=fully agree) measured the level of agreement with each of 10 recommendations. A 4-point Likert scale (never, not very often, very often, always) assessed the degree to which each recommendation was being applied in current daily practice. If respondents answered ‘never’ or ‘not very often’, they were asked whether they would change their practice according to the particular recommendation. Results A total of 1901 physicians representing 34 countries participated. Both agreement with and application of recommendations was high. With regard to application of recommendations in daily practice, the majority of responses were ‘always’ and ‘very often’. A significant percentage of participants who were currently not applying these recommendations in clinical practice were willing to change their practice according to the recommendations. Conclusion The results of this survey demonstrated great support of ‘Treating RA to Target’ recommendations among the international rheumatology community. Additional efforts may be needed to encourage application of the recommendations among certain clinicians who are resistant to changing their practice. PMID:21803747
Haraoui, Boulos; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd; Codreanu, Catalin; Da Silva, Jose Pereira; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Durez, Patrick; Emery, Paul; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Gibofsky, Allan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Graninger, Winfried; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Jannaut Pe?a, Maria Jose; Kalden, Joachim; Kvien, Tore K; Laurindo, Ieda; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Santos Moreno, Pedro; Pavelka, Karel; Poor, Gyula; Cardiel, Mario H; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; van der Heijde, Desiree
"Calibration" is an aspect of metacognition that describes how well students assess their own knowledge. One tool that can help to assess student calibration is the knowledge survey (KS). On a KS, students rate their confidence in their ability to answer questions related to course content. A comparison of a student's confidence level with their actual performance on course exams gives an indication of the student's metacognitive calibration. We report on a study that explores students' responses to a KS in introductory physics and chemistry courses serving both STEM and non-STEM populations. In many courses, Delta (the difference between KS-score and final exam score, a measure of calibration) was anti-correlated with final exam performance. No relationship was found between Delta and students' scientific reasoning abilities. We also report preliminary findings on how calibration differs for questions of a quantitative nature vs. those of a more conceptual nature.
Lindsey, Beth A.; Nagel, Megan
Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately after the course, as well as 3 months later. Immediately after the course the participants' knowledge of breastfeeding had increased significantly compared to controls. Both their clinical and counselling skills also improved significantly. When assessed 3 months later, the scores remained high with only a small decrease. The implementation of the course was also evaluated. The methods used were participatory observation, key interviews and focus group discussion. In the 33 sessions of the course, the average score was 8.43 out of 10. Scores were highest for content and methodology of the theory sessions, and lowest for "use of time", "clinical management of lactation", and "discussion of clinical practice". "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course" therefore effectively increases health workers' knowledge and their clinical and counselling skills for the support of breastfeeding. The course can be conducted adequately using the material and methodology proposed, but could be more satisfactory if the time allocated to exercises and clinical practice sessions were increased. PMID:10427934
Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F.
A study is described which examined the relationships between law-related knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of high school students. Participants were 457 students in grades nine through 12 from four high schools near Phoenix, Arizona. Three questionnaires were administered: (1) a 65-item social attitude questionnaire on…
Carroll, James L.; And Others
Purpose The purpose of the study was to assess the performance of a short diabetes knowledge instrument (SDKI) in a large multi-ethnic sample of older adults with diabetes and to identify possible modifications to improve its ability to document diabetes knowledge. Research Design and Methods A sample of 593 African American, American Indian, and white female and male adults 60 years and older, with diabetes diagnosed at least two years prior, was recruited from eight North Carolina counties. All completed an interview that included a 16-item questionnaire to assess diabetes knowledge. A subsample of 46 completed the questionnaire a second time at a subsequent interview. Item-response analysis was used to refine the instrument to well-performing items. The instrument consisting of the remaining items was subjected to analyses to assess validity and test-retest reliability. Results Three items were removed after item-response analysis. Scores for the resulting instrument were lower among minority and older participants, as well as those with lower educational attainment and income. Scores for test-retest were highly correlated. Conclusions The SDKI (13 item questionnaire) appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate knowledge about diabetes. Assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of older adults suggests that this instrument can be used to measure diabetes knowledge in diverse populations. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether or not this instrument can detect changes in knowledge resulting from diabetes education or other interventions. PMID:24163359
Quandt, Sara A.; Ip, Edward H.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Saldana, Santiago; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Nguyen, Ha; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Objective Acute pelvic pain is a common reason for emergency room visits that can indicate a potentially life-threatening emergency (PLTE). Our objective here was to develop a triage process for PLTE based on a self-assessment questionnaire for gynecologic emergencies (SAQ-GE) in patients experiencing acute pelvic pain. Methods In this multicenter prospective observational study, all gynecological emergency room patients seen for acute pelvic pain between September 2006 and April 2008 completed the SAQ-GE after receiving appropriate analgesics. Diagnostic procedures were ordered without knowledge of questionnaire replies. Laparoscopy was the reference standard for diagnosing PLTE; other diagnoses were based on algorithms. In two-thirds of the population, SAQ-GE items significantly associated with PLTEs (P?0.05) by univariate analysis were used to develop a decision tree by recursive partitioning; the remaining third served for validation. Results Of 344 derivation-set patients and 172 validation-set patients, 96 and 49 had PLTEs, respectively. Items significantly associated with PLTEs were vomiting, sudden onset of pain, and pain to palpation. Sensitivity of the decision tree based on these three features was 87.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 81%-94%) in the derivation set and 83.7% in the validation set. Derivation of the decision tree provided probabilities of PLTE of 13% (95% CI, 6%-19%) in the low-risk group, 27% (95% CI, 20%-33%) in the intermediate-risk group and 62% (95% CI, 48%-76%) in the high-risk group, ruling out PLTE with a specificity of 92.3%; (95% CI, 89%-96%). In the validation dataset, PLTE probabilities were 16.3% in the low-risk group, 30.6% in the intermediate-risk group, and 44% in the high-risk group, ruling out the diagnosis of PLTE with a specificity of 88.6%. Conclusion A simple triage model based on a standardized questionnaire may assist in the early identification of patients with PLTEs among patients seen in the gynecology emergency room for acute pelvic pain. PMID:25180047
Objective: To assess the cultural competence of dietetics majors. Design: Self-administered questionnaire. Setting: Classrooms at 7 universities. Participants: Two hundred eighty-three students--98 juniors (34.6%) and 185 seniors (65.4%)--recruited during class time. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge was measured using a multiple-choice test,…
McArthur, Laura H.; Greathouse, Karen R.; Smith, Erskine R.; Holbert, Donald
The assessment of patient satisfaction has become an important concern in the evaluation of health services. Measures of satisfaction must be valid and reliable if they are to be used widely. This paper reports the development of a new questionnaire to assess patients' satisfaction with consultations together with initial tests of the questionnaire's reliability and validity. Principal components analysis of the patients' assessments of care revealed three factors of satisfaction: the professional aspects of the consultation, the depth of the patient's relationship with the doctor, and the perceived length of the consultation. The consultation satisfaction questionnaire is reliable under the conditions of this study and may have a role in research, medical education and audit. PMID:2282225
BACKGROUND: There are several questionnaires available to assess quality of life in breast cancer, however the choice of the best questionnaire often does not take into account the adequacy of these questionnaires' measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To test the measurement properties of two generic quality of life questionnaires and one quality of life questionnaire specific for women with breast cancer. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after surgery for breast cancer. The assessment included application of the SF-36, WHOQOL-bref, and FACT-B+4 questionnaires as well as the Global Perceived Effect and Pain Numerical Rating scales. The participants were interviewed on three occasions to investigate internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness. RESULTS: Most of the instruments' domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.66 to 0.91). Reliability varied from poor to substantial (ICC2,1 between 0.39 and 0.87) and agreement varied from negative to very good. The SF-36 presented doubtful agreement and showed floor and ceiling effects in three domains. The domains of the generic questionnaires presented moderate to good correlation with the FACT-B+4 (Pearson varying from 0.31 to 0.69). The internal responsiveness varied from small to large (ES varying from -0.26 to 0.98) and external responsiveness was found in only some of the instruments' domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the measurement properties tested for the WHOQOL-bref and FACT-B+4 were adequate as was their ability to assess quality of life in women with breast cancer. The SF-36 showed inadequacy in agreement and floor and ceiling effects and should not be used in women with breast cancer. PMID:25075998
Oliveira, Indiara S.; Costa, Luciola C. M.; Manzoni, Ana C. T.; Cabral, Cristina M. N.
There is a paucity of studies that have systematically and comprehensively investigated the knowledge level, attitudes and the pattern of sexual behaviours related to HIV and AIDS in higher education settings in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study attempted to fill a void in knowledge. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, employing a self-administered questionnaire as the main data collection tool. More than 400 higher education students completed a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS. About three quarters of respondents demonstrated comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS, and the majority of respondents expressed positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. Despite demonstrating high knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, the results show that sexual behaviours among students in higher education are characteristically risky, and do not significantly differ from youth in the general population. PMID:24088049
BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health workers and the general community in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Poor knowledge and awareness about childhood autism, especially among health workers can compromise early recognition and interventions which had been known to improve prognosis in children with autism. In formulating policy and designing interventions for these children,
Muideen O Bakare; Peter O Ebigbo; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Nkem C Menkiti
The outcome of continuing education programs is often based on self-assessment. We evaluated the relationship of self-assessment of knowledge based on rating scales with scores obtained on objective validated tests in evidence-based medicine workshops. In the West Midlands region (1998), 55 participants attended three workshops in critical appraisal of the medical literature.They completed two self-assessment questionnaires: one used a rating scale to subjectively examine the level of knowledge of six different literature appraisal issues; the other objectively assessed participants' literature appraisal knowledge in those issues using validated multiple true-false questions. Comparison of subjective scores reflecting understanding of specific literature appraisal issues with corresponding objective test scores revealed a poor correlation (r(s) ranged from -0.29 to 0.60 for the different knowledge issues assessed). Perception of ones level of knowledge did not always correlate with correctly possessed knowledge. In some instances, those who thought they were knowledgeable actually possessed incorrect knowledge. Therefore, continuing medical education programs should focus on objective, not subjective tests to assess outcome. PMID:11260751
Khan, Khalid S.; Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Dwarakanath, Linga S.; Taylor, Rod
BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores
Berend Terluin; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Herman J Adèr; Henrica CW de Vet; Brenda WJH Penninx; Marleen LM Hermens; Christine A van Boeijen; Anton JLM van Balkom; Jac JL van der Klink; Wim AB Stalman
Since 2003, the Essential Skills Series training program developed by the Canadian Evaluation Society has been offered to more than 15 groups in the province of Quebec. The evaluations of these workshops were based on the participants' reactions collected by a Participant Feedback Questionnaire. This article describes the process used to assess…
Dagenais, Christian; Dargis-Damphousse, Luc; Dutil, Julie
Objective. Given the directive of the American Academy of Pediatrics to test children for tu- berculosis (TB) only if they are at high risk for the dis- ease, we sought to determine how well a risk assessment questionnaire can predict a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) result among children seen in a medical office setting. Methods. In a prospective observational
Hervey Froehlich; Lynn M. Ackerson; Pius A. Morozumi
Background: This study aimed to assess valved speech and related issues in total laryngectomy patients with the help of the validated Voice Prosthesis Questionnaire (VPQ). Patients and Methods: We identified 61 patients who had undergone a surgical voice restoration with a valve following total laryngectomy and who were sent the VPQ by mail. Results: Fifty-one patients (37 males) completed the
R. Kazi; A. Singh; J. De Cordova; A. Al-Mutairy; L. O’Leary; C. M. Nutting; P. Clarke; P. Rhys-Evans; K. J. Harrington
In this study, a close-ended questionnaire examining all aspects of photosynthesis simultaneously has been developed and administered to 290 Greek pupils aged 13. It contains complementary or logically related items that permitted us to assess the understanding of each aspect by carrying out crossanalysis. The main findings are: that pupils are…
Marmaroti, Panagiota; Galanopoulou, Dia
Objectives: Fatigue has become a major issue of concern in the care of cancer patients, as it has been shown to compromise their quality of life in a significant and lasting way. However, there is a lack of economic and specific measures. The Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) has been developed based on thorough interviews and tested on a large mixed
M. E. Beutel; A. Hinz; C. Albani; E. Brähler
Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a parent questionnaire in the assessment of emergent and early literacy skills of preschool children with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers to determine the relationship between parent report and more formal measures of early literacy, as well as to…
Objective. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) has been commonly used in rheumatology to quantify functional disability in patient groups, but current general population values of this index are not available. This study was undertaken to establish normative values for the HAQ DI in a general population and to analyze its correlates. Methods. The HAQ DI (range of
Eswar Krishnan; Tuulikki Sokka; Helen Hubert; Pekka Hannonen
Background The side effects and burden of anticoagulant treatments may contribute to poor compliance and consequently to treatment failure. A specific questionnaire is necessary to assess patients' needs and their perceptions of anticoagulant treatment. Methods A conceptual model of expectation and satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was designed by an advisory board and used to guide patient (n = 31) and clinician (n = 17) interviews in French, US English and Dutch. Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or pulmonary embolism (PE). Following interviews, three PACT-Q language versions were developed simultaneously and further pilot-tested by 19 patients. Linguistic validations were performed for additional language versions. Results Initial concepts were developed to cover three areas of interest: 'Treatment', 'Disease and Complications' and 'Information about disease and anticoagulant treatment'. After clinician and patient interviews, concepts were further refined into four domains and 17 concepts; test versions of the PACT-Q were then created simultaneously in three languages, each containing 27 items grouped into four domains: "Treatment Expectations" (7 items), "Convenience" (11 items), "Burden of Disease and Treatment" (2 items) and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" (7 items). No item was deleted or added after pilot testing as patients found the PACT-Q easy to understand and appropriate in length in all languages. The PACT-Q was divided into two parts: the first part to measure the expectations and the second to measure the convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction, for evaluation prior to and after anticoagulant treatment, respectively. Eleven additional language versions were linguistically validated. Conclusion The PACT-Q has been rigorously developed and linguistically validated. It is available in 14 languages for use with thromboembolic patients, including AF, PE and DVT patients. Its validation and psychometric properties have been tested and are presented in a separate manuscript. PMID:19196486
Prins, Martin H; Marrel, Alexia; Carita, Paulo; Anderson, David; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Crijns, Harry; Consoli, Silla; Arnould, Benoit
Although the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA) can be used to identify patients with gag reflex, it does not provide information about patient sensitivity to dental procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of GPA in determining patient sensitivity (i.e. gag reflex) in response to intra-oral radiography and impression-taking procedures. The study included 95 patients (65 women; mean age, 44·2 ± 13·4 years) undergoing dental treatment at a Turkish dental school. Patients completed the patient section of the GPA before their dental examination. An observing dentist monitored and scored the gag reflex of patients during each step of intra-oral radiographic examination and impression taking. The overall sensitivity of the patient to the entire process was also recorded. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. Patients with GPA scores of 1·00-1·74 did not show any gagging or displayed only mild discomfort during the procedures. Patients with GPA scores of 1·75-3·24 showed moderate gagging, which was managed with prophylactic and suppressive precautions. Patients with GPA scores of 3·25-4·00 were unable to complete the procedures because of gagging. Differences (all P < 0·001) were found between the three groups for the observed responses of patients during radiography (F, 203·343), impression (F, 175·035) and radiography + impression procedures (F, 228·319), with no significant difference between women and men. In conclusion, GPA may be helpful for the prediction of patient sensitivity to dental treatments. PMID:22642624
Akarslan, Z Z; Biçer, A Z Y
Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1) type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2) frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3) attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4) theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability) and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity). Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables) were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention) was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89%) had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68). Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity), percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%). Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses). Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and the 'causal mechanism' of interventions that target infant feeding practices to prevent early obesity. PMID:21510900
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-?) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-? therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge.
Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra
Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions), mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.
Bird, D. K.
The management of burns within the first hours of injury has a significant impact on mortality and morbidity. In case of burns disasters, most patients are managed by non-burn practitioners. The knowledge held by our local family physicians is thought to be representative of that of non-burn practitioners, as they had not partaken in any courses or training on burn management beyond graduation. With regard to emergency burn management, the knowledge required is: assessment of burn extent and depth, associated injuries, indications of escharotomy, fluid therapy and airway management, as well as safe transportation. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the knowledge of family physicians - as an indicator of that of non-burn practitioners - on emergency burn management, and design accordingly an appropriate burn educational program. An interview questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in Family Medicine Centers in Ismailia, Egypt, who did not possess a post-graduate degree. A total of twenty-four family physicians (100%) participated in this study. The questionnaire findings showed that, out of a possible score of 25 correct answers, the highest result was 12; achieved by 6 physicians (25%). The highest frequency score was 8 correct responses; obtained by 10 physicians (29.2%). This demonstrated a knowledge deficit among Ismailia's family physicians, and subsequently non-burn practitioners, with regard to burns management, due to gaps in undergraduate teaching. PMID:25249845
Moghazy, A M; Kamel, M H; Farghaly, R M
Summary The management of burns within the first hours of injury has a significant impact on mortality and morbidity. In case of burns disasters, most patients are managed by non-burn practitioners. The knowledge held by our local family physicians is thought to be representative of that of non-burn practitioners, as they had not partaken in any courses or training on burn management beyond graduation. With regard to emergency burn management, the knowledge required is: assessment of burn extent and depth, associated injuries, indications of escharotomy, fluid therapy and airway management, as well as safe transportation. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the knowledge of family physicians - as an indicator of that of non-burn practitioners - on emergency burn management, and design accordingly an appropriate burn educational program. An interview questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in Family Medicine Centers in Ismailia, Egypt, who did not possess a post-graduate degree. A total of twenty-four family physicians (100%) participated in this study. The questionnaire findings showed that, out of a possible score of 25 correct answers, the highest result was 12; achieved by 6 physicians (25%). The highest frequency score was 8 correct responses; obtained by 10 physicians (29.2%). This demonstrated a knowledge deficit among Ismailia’s family physicians, and subsequently non-burn practitioners, with regard to burns management, due to gaps in undergraduate teaching.
Moghazy, A.M.; Kamel, M.H.; Farghaly, R.M.
Rehabilitation in Germany is an important sector of the medical system. Rehabilitation need of insurees who claim rehabilitation benefits is assessed by the financially responsible agency (mostly pension funds). Legal regulations allow little time for this decision so insurers aim at making decisions from the records only. Information on the specific case often is however insufficient. Self-administered questionnaires have been employed in the past to remedy that problem. In this article typical problems are illustrated which arise when administering additional questionnaires to assist the assessment, and solutions for these problems are shown. Important questions concern the instruments that should be used, technical problems of computer-aided assessment and processing of the data, and possible legal objections. Also, general problems and limitations of the approach are discussed. PMID:17315134
Mittag, O; Raspe, H
This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits, psychological symptoms, contextual influences) were administered to young adults in committed dating relationships. The same measures were administered twice via paper-and-pencil and/or Internet methods over a 2-week period. Method order was counterbalanced among participants, and temporal stability was controlled. Intrapersonal and interpersonal measures generally remained reliable when administered online and demonstrated quantitative and qualitative equivalence across methods. The implications of online administration of questionnaires are discussed, and specific recommendations are made for researchers who wish to transition to online data collection. PMID:20881103
Brock, Rebecca L; Barry, Robin A; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci
Background There are few validated instruments measuring parental beliefs about parent–child feeding relations and child compliance during meals. Objective To test the validity of the Feeding Demands Questionnaire, a parent-report instrument designed to measure parents’ beliefs about how their child should eat. Methods Participants were 85 mothers of 3- to 7-year-old same-sex twin pairs or sibling pairs, and their children. Mothers completed the eight-item Feeding Demands Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, plus measures of depression and fear of fat. Statistical analyses Psychometric evaluations of the Feeding Demands Questionnaire included principal components analysis, Cronbach’s ? for internal consistency, tests for convergent and discriminant validities, and Flesh-Kincaid for readability. Results The Feeding Demands Questionnaire had three underlying factors: anger/frustration, food amount demandingness, and food type demandingness, for which subscales were computed. The Feeding Demands Questionnaire showed acceptable internal consistency (? ranging from .70 to .86) and was written at the 4.8th grade level. Mothers reporting greater anger/frustration during feeding were more likely to pressure their children to eat, while those reporting greater demands about the type of foods their children eat were more likely to monitor child fat intake. Mothers reporting greater demands about the amount of food their children eat were more likely to restrict eating, pressure children to eat, and monitor their fat intake. Conclusions The Feeding Demands Questionnaire appears valid for assessing maternal beliefs that children should comply with rules for eating and frustration during feeding. Different demand beliefs can underlie different feeding practices. PMID:18375218
FAITH, MYLES S.; STOREY, MEGAN; KRAL, TANJA V. E.; PIETROBELLI, ANGELO
Introduction This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care), according to the clinicians’ own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. Methods The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach’s ? and various correlation coefficients. Results The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: ?2 of 45.51 (p=0.089), RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. Discussion The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care. PMID:23882165
Nuno-Solinis, Roberto; Berraondo Zabalegui, Inaki; Sauto Arce, Regina; San Martin Rodriguez, Leticia; Toro Polanco, Nuria
Background To successfully implement the recommendations of critical care nutrition guidelines, one potential approach is to identify barriers to providing optimal enteral nutrition (EN) in the intensive care unit (ICU), and then address these barriers systematically. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess barriers to enterally feeding critically ill patients and to conduct preliminary validity testing of the new instrument. Methods The content of the questionnaire was guided by a published conceptual framework, literature review, and consultation with experts. The questionnaire was pre-tested on a convenience sample of 32 critical care practitioners, and then field tested with 186 critical care providers working at 5 hospitals in North America. The revised questionnaire was pilot tested at another ICU (n?=?43). Finally, the questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of ICU nurses twice, two weeks apart, to determine test retest reliability (n?=?17). Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlations (ICC), and kappa coefficients were conducted to assess validity and reliability. Results We developed a questionnaire with 26 potential barriers to delivery of EN asking respondents to rate their importance as barriers in their ICU. Face and content validity of the questionnaire was established through literature review and expert input. The factor analysis indicated a five-factor solution and accounted for 72% of the variance in barriers: guideline recommendations and implementation strategies, delivery of EN to the patient, critical care provider attitudes and behavior, dietitian support, and ICU resources. Overall, the indices of internal reliability for the derived factor subscales and the overall instrument were acceptable (subscale Cronbach alphas range 0.84 – 0.89). However, the test retest reliability was variable and below acceptable thresholds for the majority of items (ICC’s range ?0.13 to 0.70). The within group agreement, an indices reflecting the reliability of aggregating individual responses to the ICU level was also variable (ICC’s range 0.0 to 0.82). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire to identify barriers to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Additional studies are planned to further revise and evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. PMID:24305039
Part I discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part II describes the reliability of the JCQ scales in a cross-national context using 10,288 men and 6,313 women from 6 studies conducted in 4 countries. Substantial similarity in means, standard deviations, and correlations among the
Robert Karasek; Chantal Brisson; Norito Kawakami; Irene Houtman; Paulien Bongers; Benjamin Amick
Sleep disorders are very prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include a diversity of disturbances. Rating scales and questionnaires are widely used to assess the presence and severity of the sleep disorders. The objective is to review rating scales and questionnaires used for assessment of sleep disorders in PD. To this purpose, a description and update of the sleep scales reviewed by the ad hoc Movement Disorder Society task force (MDS-TF) and other sleep disorder assessments was performed. Two specific (Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale and Scales for Outcomes in PD Sleep) and two generic scales (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were "Recommended" by the MDS-TF as they were used in PD patients, by researchers others than their developers and properly validated. Two other generic scales (Inappropriate Sleep Composite Score and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), "Suggested" due to incomplete validation, are also reviewed. Other instruments included in this review are three comprehensive PD-specific instruments for assessing multiple domains in addition to sleep problems (e.g., Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, MDS-UPDRS), and three generic instruments focused on particular disturbances (e.g., International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale, REM behavioral disorders questionnaires), although these latter lack formal validation in PD populations. The "Recommended" instruments cover satisfactorily the needs for screening and evaluation of the nocturnal sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in PD patients. It would be convenient to validate or complete the validation in PD populations of those instruments that cannot be recommended due to the lack of information on their clinimetric attributes. PMID:24756217
Zea-Sevilla, María Ascensión; Martínez-Martín, Pablo
When assessing team environments in youth sport, participants often spend substantial time responding to lots of items in questionnaires, causing a lack of efficiency (i.e. time and effort) and a decrease of data quality. The purpose of this work was to create short-forms of the questionnaires PeerMCYSQ, SCQPeer, TEOSQ, and also to analyse the existing short-form of the SCQCoach. In Study 1 we developed the short-forms of the instruments. We shortened the questionnaires by using both theory driven and data-driven criteria. In Study 2, we used also qualitative and quantitative data with the aim of validating the short-forms. Finally, in Study 3 we tested the last version of the short-forms and sought evidences concerning their criterion validity. The results showed evidence that supports the psychometric merit of these short-forms: (a) significantly less missing values were obtained; (b) all the factors obtained alpha values above .70; (c) confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the short-forms fitted the hypothesized models well; (d) correlations between variables were coherent with expectations, and (e) structural equation modeling results showed significant paths consistent with previous literature. On average, our participants only spent a third of the time used to complete the original questionnaires. PMID:24230940
Alcaraz, Saül; Viladrich, Carme; Torregrosa, Miquel
To assess the validity of a questionnaire developed for parents of preschool children to know their physical activity (PA) status, we compared the questionnaire results with the measures of accelerometer for children's activities. Thirty-five preschoolers who wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours daily on 3 weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analyses. Time spent in activities of varied intensity was calculated by applying 15-second ActiGraph count cutoffs (ACC). Parents’ perceptions of their children's PA were associated with the percentage of vigorous and moderate physical activity recorded with ACC at r=0.62 (p=0.0001). An association was shown between the percentage of a child's time spent in vigorous physical activity, as reported by parents, with that measured by ACC at r=0.53 (p=0.001). Results of this study suggest that the designed questionnaire might be a useful tool for assessing children's activity while, additionally, it warrants further investigation on larger samples of children. PMID:23304910
Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Reveles-Rojas, Claudia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia
Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to compare two parent completed questionnaires, the Modified Simonds & Parraga Sleep Questionnaire (MSPSQ), and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), used to characterize sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both questionnaires have been used in previous work in the assessment and treatment of children with ASD and sleep disturbance. Participants and methods Parents/caregivers of a sample of 124 children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of six years completed both sleep questionnaires regarding children’s sleep behaviors. Internal consistency of the items for both measures was evaluated as well as the correlation between the two sleep measures. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also conducted to examine the predictive power of the MSPSQ. Results More than three quarters of the sample (78%) were identified as poor sleepers on the CSHQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the items on the CSHQ was 0.68 and Cronbach’s alpha for items on the MSPSQ was 0.67. The total scores for MSPSQ and CSHQ were significantly correlated (r =.70, p<.01). After first identifying the poor sleepers based on the CSHQ, an area under the curve was 0.89 for the MSPSQ. Using a cut off score of 56 on the MSPSQ, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .70. Conclusions In this sample of children with ASD, sleep disturbances were common across all cognitive levels. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to the CSHQ, the MSPSQ has adequate internal consistency. The two measures were also highly correlated. A preliminary cut off of 56 on the MSPSQ offers high sensitivity and specificity commensurate with the widely used CSHQ. PMID:22609024
Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan S.; Foldes, Emily; Malow, Beth A.; Wiggs, Luci
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off scores using the 90th percentile were derived from a normative group of 508 individuals. These cut-offs correctly identified 78-100% of cases within clinical criterion groups of specific disorders. The clinical sample also completed other validated scales assessing gambling, eating, alcohol, and drug use. Correlations were typically.7 with relevant SPQ scales. The SPQ food, drug, and alcohol scales were at least equivalent to validated comparison scales in the strength of their relationship to relevant clinical criterion groups. Internal consistency was high for all scales, and test-retest reliability was generally good. This clinically useful instrument provides a broad assessment of addictive problems, thereby benefiting both the treatment provider and the client. PMID:12573676
Christo, George; Jones, Susan L; Haylett, Samantha; Stephenson, Geoffrey M; Lefever, Robert M H; Lefever, Robin
Needs assessment facilitates mental health services planning, provision, and evaluation. This study aimed to (a) validate a new instrument, the Montreal Assessment of Needs Questionnaire (MANQ), and (b) use this to assess variations and predictors of need (number and seriousness) in 297 individuals with severe mental disorders for 18 months, during implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Action Plan. MANQ internal and external validations were adequate. Variables significantly associated with need number and seriousness variations were used to build multiple linear regression models. Autonomous housing, not receiving welfare, not having consulted a health educator, higher level of help from services, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total score, and social support were associated with decreasing need number and seriousness over time. Having a higher education was also associated with decreasing need number. In a reform context, the MANQ's unique ability to detect rapid improvement in patient needs has usefulness for Quebec mental health planning. PMID:25099300
Tremblay, Jacques; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Fleury, Marie-Josée
Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire data with think-aloud measures are generally…
Schellings, Gonny L.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A .M.; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; Meijer, Joost
This study addresses the convergent validity of a new teacher questionnaire to assess the social participation of students with special needs in regular primary schools. The Social Participation Questionnaire (SPQ) consists of four subscales representing four key themes of social participation: friendships/relationships, contacts/interactions,…
Koster, Marloes; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els J.
This paper describes the Developmental Knowledge and Management Practices Scale. It is designed for assessing the primary care physicians' knowledge of development and their management practices when faced with children exhibiting evidence of handicap. The scale may be useful for assessing the inservice training needs of primary care physicians…
Bennett, Randy Elliot; Lewis, Michael
The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled The Primary
D. Ray Reutzel; Janice A. Dole; Sylvia Read; Parker Fawson; Kerry Herman; Cindy D. Jones; Richard Sudweeks; Jamison Fargo
Objectives/Hypothesis Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common condition that is associated with otologic and rhinologic symptoms. The complete assessment of ETD is limited without a valid symptom score. We developed and conducted initial validation of the seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire (ETDQ-7), a disease-specific instrument to assess symptoms with respect to ETD. Study Design Validation study. Methods The ETDQ-7 was developed using standard survey methodology. The ETDQ-7 was completed by a group of 50 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with ETD and 25 non-ETD patients who served as a control group. Tympanometry was used as a criterion standard to distinguish the two groups. A subset of respondents repeated the ETDQ-7 at a time point 4 weeks later. Results Content validity for the ETDQ-7 was established by focus group and review of the literature. Reliability testing indicated acceptable internal consistency for the entire instrument (Cronbach ? = .71). The test–retest reliability indicated good correlation between the two questionnaires completed by the same patient 4 weeks apart (r = 0.78). The ETDQ-7 was able to discriminate between patients with ETD and those without (P < .001), indicating excellent discriminant validity. Conclusions The ETDQ-7 is a valid and reliable symptom score for use in adult patients with ETD that may facilitate clinical practice by highlighting the impact of ETD. Further testing is needed to determine its usefulness in assessing treatment response. PMID:22374681
McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Christos, Paul J.
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain. PMID:21682912
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children and their parents, and the School Function Assessment (SFA), a school-based functional assessment. One hundred and two children with CP (80.4% dipliegia; 10.8% hemiplegia; 3.9% triplegia; 2.0% quadriplegia; 2.9% unspecified; 60 males, 42 females, mean age 11 years 8 months (SD 3 y 3 mo, range 6-8 y), Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to IV (13.7% Level I 50% Level II 35.3% Level III 1% Level IV), had complete PODCI and SFA assessments. Significant relationships were noted among multiple PODCI subscales and subscales of the SFA, as well as among individual questions. PODCI predicted performance in all 31 subscales of the SFA when comorbidity subscales were included (r =0.35-0.64). The PODCI in-clinic questionnaire provides an accurate reflection of the child's actual participation in the community setting, as assessed by the SFA. PODCI can reliably be used to help ensure that outcomes assessed in the clinic setting reflect function within the community, and can be used to help with treatment planning, goal setting, and improved patient care. PMID:18754919
Gates, Philip E; Otsuka, Norman Y; Sanders, James O; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
Background Bronchiolitis is a distressing respiratory condition and the most common cause of hospitalization during the first year of life. The hospitalization of an infant is a stressful event for parents and deserves careful consideration. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a self-administered instrument that comprehensively assesses the impact on parents of the hospitalization of their infant for bronchiolitis. Methods The Impact of Bronchiolitis Hospitalization Questionnaire (IBHQ©) was developed using a literature review and pre-study interviews with both parents and clinicians. For finalization and psychometric validation, it was included in a multicenter, longitudinal, observational study conducted in France. Parents of infants under the age of 1 year and hospitalized for bronchiolitis were asked to complete the questionnaire at hospital discharge, and 3 months after. Results Seven hundred and seven questionnaires were completed by the parents of the 463 eligible infants. After finalization, based on principal component analyses, the IBHQ included 30 core items allowing the calculation of 7 dimension core scores (Worries and distress; Fear for future; Guilt; Impact on daily organization; Physical impact; Impact on behavior with hospitalized infant; Financial impact), as well as 16 optional items, allowing the calculation of 5 optional dimension scores (Disturbed breastfeeding; Physical reaction of hospitalized infant; Impact on feeding; Impact on behavior with other infants; Siblings’ reaction). Internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the IBHQ were satisfactory. The highest impact was observed for “Worries and distress”, “Fear for future” and “Impact on daily organization” scores. Conclusions The IBHQ is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the multifaceted impact on parents of the hospitalization of their infant for bronchiolitis. PMID:23849687
This paper reports the results of a needs assessment survey that was conducted to find out pre-service teachers' background knowledge, experiences and perceptions about their preparation for technology integration at a university in the Middle East USA. A questionnaire with both closed and open-ended items was administered to a group of student…
Koc, Mustafa; Bakir, Nesrin
This questionnaire assesses neighborhood drug problem concern, drug use practices, knowledge of drugs and agencies dealing with drugs, and views on drug education in persons aged 13 or older. The questionnaire has 31 items (multiple-choice or free response), most with several parts. The items deal with demographic and personal data, problems in…
Glaser, Daniel; Snow, Mary
The scope of this study was to make the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment questionnaire in a group of students in higher education in Portugal. The process of translation and validation consisted of translation, back translation, expert committee review, pre-testing and testing of the psychometric properties. The final version adapted with 30 questions was applied to a sample of 707 university students. The results showed that the instrument demonstrated good overall internal consistency for an instrument used to measure a latent variable. When the items were grouped into domains, it was found that they all contributed equally to the stability of the instrument. The reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation was high. Construct validity tested by the classification capacity of the instrument in four, three and two categories was 67.6%, 67.6% and 100%, with a Kappa index of 0.55, 0.55 and 1.00, respectively. The concurrent validity was also evaluated by correlating it with "My Lifestyle," namely another instrument measuring the same construct. The conclusion was that the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment, is a reliable and valid instrument for lifestyle assessment in young adults. PMID:24897489
Silva, Armando Manuel Marques; Brito, Irma da Silva; Amado, João Manuel da Costa
Objective This study was aimed to assess public knowledge, belief and behavior towards antibiotics use in a general population in the Sultanate of Oman. Methods A 12-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 850 prospective participants by researchers using quota sampling in two governorates of Oman. The data obtained were evaluated to assess the responses to individual questions related to knowledge, belief and behavior of antibiotic use. Median score of the respondents was correlated with participant demographics and status on use of antibiotics. Results A total of 718 completed questionnaires were obtained giving a response rate of 85%. The median total score of the participants was 16 (Interquartile range: 6) out of a possible maximum score of 24. A moderate knowledge and behavior score was observed, while the belief score of the participants was low. A significant difference was observed in the median total score based on age group, educational qualification and employment status. Conclusion Antibiotics are frequently used by the public. An inappropriate belief on antibiotic related aspects was observed and inappropriate behavior was noticed, which are reflections of insufficient knowledge and wrong beliefs. Interventions must be put in place to educate the public on appropriate antibiotic use. PMID:24044058
Jose, Jimmy; Jimmy, Beena; AlSabahi, Al Gahliya Mohammed Saif; Al Sabei, Ghalya Abdullah
Purpose: According with the principles of impartial evaluation of the students' knowledge, with the national trends in ensuring the efficient and effective end-of-course evaluation, the authors developed an original computer-assisted examination system. Materials and Methods: The information discussed at courses and laboratory class, for the Physical Chemistry Course and for the Microbiology and Toxicology Course were transposing into multiple- choice
Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = ?.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective. PMID:22567034
Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin
Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = -.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective. PMID:22567034
Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin
The use of knowledge space theory (KST), to assess students' understanding and integration of the different representations in an introductory chemistry course are described. KST is a useful tool for revealing various aspects of students' cognitive structure in chemistry.
Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Lonjers, Stacy
Background There is currently no validated questionnaire available to assess total sedentary time in older adults. Most studies only used TV viewing time as an indicator of sedentary time. The first aim of our study was to investigate the self-reported time spent by older persons on a set of sedentary activities, and to compare this with objective sedentary time measured by accelerometry. The second aim was to determine what set of self-reported sedentary activities should be used to validly rank people’s total sedentary time. Finally we tested the reliability of our newly developed questionnaire using the best performing set of sedentary activities. Methods The study sample included 83 men and women aged 65–92 y, a random sample of Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam participants, who completed a questionnaire including ten sedentary activities and wore an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 8 days. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the association between self-reported time and objective sedentary time. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Mean total self-reported sedentary time was 10.4 (SD 3.5) h/d and was not significantly different from mean total objective sedentary time (10.2 (1.2) h/d, p?=?0.63). Total self-reported sedentary time on an average day (sum of ten activities) correlated moderately (Spearman’s r?=?0.35, p?0.01) with total objective sedentary time. The correlation improved when using the sum of six activities (r?=?0.46, p?0.01), and was much higher than when using TV watching only (r?=?0.22, p?=?0.05). The test-retest reliability of the sum of six sedentary activities was 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.81). Conclusions A questionnaire including six sedentary activities was moderately associated with accelerometry-derived sedentary time and can be used to reliably rank sedentary time in older persons. PMID:23899190
Provides a technical analysis of the factors involved in the ability of latent semantic analysis to assess student knowledge (grading essays and matching students with appropriate instructional texts). Addresses the role of technical vocabulary, how long the student essays should be, and how one deals with the directionality of knowledge in the…
Rehder, Bob; Schreiner, M. E.; Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Laham, Darrell; Kintsch, Walter; Landauer, Thomas K
Background: Athletics programmes for secondary schools include a variety of skills, knowledge and cognitive abilities, which are currently assessed through written, practical, oral and/or video-based tests. Skills are traditionally taught in practice-based sessions, while the knowledge aspect is often reinforced in class-based sessions with…
van Vuuren-Cassar, Gemma; Lamprianou, Iasonas
The correlation between objective and self-reported measures of physical activity varies between studies. We examined this association and whether it differed by demographic factors or socioeconomic status (SES). Data were from 3,975 Whitehall II (United Kingdom, 2012–2013) participants aged 60–83 years, who completed a physical activity questionnaire and wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 9 days. There was a moderate correlation between questionnaire- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (Spearman's r = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.36). The correlations were higher in high-SES groups than in low-SES groups (P?'s = 0.02), as defined by education (r = 0.38 vs. r = 0.30) or occupational position (r = 0.37 vs. r = 0.29), but did not differ by age, sex, or marital status. Of the self-reported physical activity, 68.3% came from mild activities, 25% from moderate activities, and only 6.7% from vigorous activities, but their correlations with accelerometer-assessed total physical activity were comparable (range of r?'s, 0.21–0.25). Self-reported physical activity from more energetic activities was more strongly associated with accelerometer data (for sports, r = 0.22; for gardening, r = 0.16; for housework, r = 0.09). High-SES persons reported more energetic activities, producing stronger accelerometer associations in these groups. Future studies should identify the aspects of physical activity that are most critical for health; this involves better understanding of the instruments being used. PMID:24500862
Sabia, Severine; van Hees, Vincent T.; Shipley, Martin J.; Trenell, Michael I.; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
The correlation between objective and self-reported measures of physical activity varies between studies. We examined this association and whether it differed by demographic factors or socioeconomic status (SES). Data were from 3,975 Whitehall II (United Kingdom, 2012-2013) participants aged 60-83 years, who completed a physical activity questionnaire and wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 9 days. There was a moderate correlation between questionnaire- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (Spearman's r = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.36). The correlations were higher in high-SES groups than in low-SES groups (P?'s = 0.02), as defined by education (r = 0.38 vs. r = 0.30) or occupational position (r = 0.37 vs. r = 0.29), but did not differ by age, sex, or marital status. Of the self-reported physical activity, 68.3% came from mild activities, 25% from moderate activities, and only 6.7% from vigorous activities, but their correlations with accelerometer-assessed total physical activity were comparable (range of r?'s, 0.21-0.25). Self-reported physical activity from more energetic activities was more strongly associated with accelerometer data (for sports, r = 0.22; for gardening, r = 0.16; for housework, r = 0.09). High-SES persons reported more energetic activities, producing stronger accelerometer associations in these groups. Future studies should identify the aspects of physical activity that are most critical for health; this involves better understanding of the instruments being used. PMID:24500862
Sabia, Séverine; van Hees, Vincent T; Shipley, Martin J; Trenell, Michael I; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
This study deals with pesticide exposure profile in some European countries with a specific focus on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). In all, 55 Bulgarian greenhouse workers, 51 Finnish potato farmers, 48 Italian vineyard workers, 42 Dutch floriculture farmers, and 52 Bulgarian zineb producers entered the study. Each group was matched with a group of not occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure data were gained through self-administered questionnaires and measuring ethylenethiourea (ETU) in two spot urine samples collected, respectively, before the beginning of seasonal exposure (T0), and after 30 days, at the end of the exposure period (T30). Controls underwent a similar protocol. Study agriculture workers were involved in mixing and loading pesticides, application of pesticide mixture with mechanical or manual equipments, re-entry activities, and cleaning equipments. Chemical workers were involved in synthesis, quality controls, and packing activities. The number of pesticides to whom these subjects were exposed varied from one (zineb production) to eight (potato farmers). The use of personal protective devices was variegate and regarded both aerial and dermal penetration routes. EBDC exposure, assessed by T30 urinary ETU, was found to follow the order: greenhouse workers, zineb producers, vineyard workers, potato farmers, floriculture farmers with median levels of 49.6, 23.0, 11.8, 7.5, and 0.9 microg/g creatinine; the last group having ETU at the same level of controls (approximately 0.5 microg/g creatinine). Among agriculture workers, pesticide application, especially using manual equipment, seems to be the major determinant in explaining internal dose. Although the analysis of self-administered questionnaires evidenced difficulties especially related to lack and/or poor quality of reported data, biological monitoring confirms to be a powerful tool in assessing pesticide exposure. PMID:19042950
Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Liesivuori, J; Pennanen, S; Vergieva, T; van Amelsvoort, Lgpm; Bosetti, C; Van Loveren, H; Colosio, C
Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras) residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2%) males, 187 (87.4%) females and 168 (81.2%) eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6%) females, 210 (96.3%) males and 205 (99%) eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%), were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.
Hongal, Sudhir; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Goel, Pankaj; Byarakele, Chandrashekar; Mishra, Priyesh; Jain, Shubham
The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables. PMID:24068225
Martinez, Marcelle Flores; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Estima, Camilla; Leal, Greisse
Background/objective The Self Assessment of Treatment (SAT) questionnaire was developed to reflect key patient reported outcomes of Neuropathic Pain (NP) treatments. This study aimed to understand how patients perceived the relevance and ease of understanding of the questions in the SAT and to recommend modifications based on patient and clinician interviews. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians and NP patients to provide information regarding treatment attributes and the impact of pain. Patients were debriefed on the SAT, a 5-item scale evaluating pain, activity level, quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with treatment (recommend treatment and undergo treatment again). The SAT has a recall period reflecting back to the start of treatment. The qualitative analysis software ATLAS.ti 5.0 was used to analyze patient transcripts. Changes to the SAT were integrated into the questionnaire for a second round of debriefing interviews. Results Three NP clinicians and 44 patients (20 painful diabetic neuropathy, 16 HIV-associated neuropathy and 8 post herpetic neuralgia) with a mean age of 60.3 (12.3) years and an even gender distribution were interviewed. Patient treatment experience included anticonvulsants (73%), antidepressants (34%), opioids (25%), and topical medications (41%). Pain descriptors and treatment attributes were similar across the three NP groups. Pain relief was judged the most important treatment attribute, followed by ability to undertake activities. Sleep improvement was another important attribute. Activity limitations and QOL were perceived as too broad and non-specific, and were split into 3 concepts each (activity limitations was split into self care, daily and physical activities and QOL was split into sleep, emotions, and social function). A 7-day recall period was introduced. The item stem and response options were made consistent, and a baseline and follow-up questionnaires were developed (except for the satisfaction items) to enable monitoring onset of treatment benefit and change over time. Conclusions The content validity of the revised SAT was improved by the qualitative research, and NP treatment benefits are reflected in a more consistent fashion by the changes. Baseline and follow-up versions make it possible to perform assessments of change over time. PMID:23332037
This study assessed the validity of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) and Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ). Scales within the DAX and DATQ appeared to assess separate, correlated constructs. Aggressive forms of thinking and anger expression correlated positively with each other, trait driving anger, aggressive and risky behavior, some crash-related conditions, general trait anger, and general forms of anger
Jerry L. Deffenbacher; Gail S. White; Rebekah S. Lynch
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a valid marker of outcome for chronic dialysis therapy. A wide range of questionnaires are now available which assess different aspects of an individual's health. Appreciation of those factors that contribute to explaining HRQOL items remains poorly defined. The development of disease-specific questionnaires such as KDQOL-SFTm, should allow for such questions to be better
P. Carmichael; J. Popoola; I. John; P. E. Stevens; A. R. Carmichael
The aim of this study was to develop a subjective memory questionnaire for use with elderly people after stroke. A 13-item questionnaire was devised using items identified by 10 stroke patients and taken from existing memory questionnaires. It was tested on 50 elderly stroke patients and 50 elderly control subjects. Validation was carried out using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test
Alison M Davis; Janet M Cockburn; Derick T Wade; Philip T Smith
Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…
Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.
Purpose: To develop a self-administered questionnaire assessing patients’ satisfaction with treatments in Crohn’s disease for use in clinical research and epidemiological studies. Patients and methods: Semi-directive interviews (16) were conducted with patients with severe Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF?). Transcripts were analyzed and concepts related to satisfaction with treatment were extracted and organized into a model. Items were generated using patients’ words. The resulting test version was tested for relevance and comprehension with 7 patients and revised accordingly; the new version was tested with 5 other patients and revised to provide the pilot version. A clinician advisory board was involved at each milestone of the development. Results: The test questionnaire assessed treatment satisfaction through 67 items, organized into 5 sections: treatment efficacy, side-effects, convenience and constraints, overall impact, and satisfaction. Conceptual content of the questionnaire includes comparison with prior state and with expectations, satisfaction, acceptability, and intentions. The questionnaire was generally well accepted and understood by patients; few modifications were made in the structure and item formulation. After the second round of comprehension tests, the pilot version contained 62 items; the questionnaire was named Satisfaction of PAtients in Crohn’s diseasE (SPACE©). Conclusion: The questionnaire is a unique tool to assess treatment satisfaction in patients with Crohn’s disease. A scoring and validation study is currently being performed to finalize and establish its scoring, as well as its psychometric properties. PMID:21904463
Marant, Claire; Arnould, Benoit; Marrel, Alexia; Spizak, Cederic; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Faure, Patrick; Hagege, Herve; Lemann, Marc; Nahon, Stephane; Tucat, Gilbert; Vandromme, Luc; Thibout, Emmanuel; Goldfarb, Gerard
The role of basic ecological knowledge in environmental impact assessment was examined. The focus was primarily on the NEPA process. Experience in population biology and ecosystem studies is discussed, the successes and limits of applicability are highlighted, and implications for long-term research needs are identified. Current attempts to develop a national assessment of acid deposition impacts are reviewed. 48 refs. (ACR)
Hildebrand, S.G.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W.
In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…
Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don
This site from the University of Massachusetts-Amherst describes classroom communication systems (CCSs). CCSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall. CCSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise. The site also features links to other informative sites.
Group, Physics E.; Amherst, University O.
The aim of the study was to develop a simple and reproducible self-reporting questionnaire that identifies individuals with hypermobility. Two hundred and twelve consecutive hypermobile female new attendees to the hypermobility clinic at two London teaching hospitals and a random selection of 57 healthy volunteers completed a 10-part questionnaire. Questions were selected from clinical experience (RG), and assessed musculoskeletal symptoms and past and present physical agility. Of the 212 cases, 30 were hypermobile with no other underlying disorder and 182 fulfilled the 1998 Brighton criteria for benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). Odds ratios for the presence of hypermobility were calculated for each question. Six questions were found to be significant and the model of 'best fit' for sensitivity and specificity contained five of these. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the five-part questionnaire a second cohort of 170 hypermobile cases with BJHS and 50 controls was surveyed. Analysis demonstrated that a positive answer to any two questions in the five-part questionnaire gave the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for detecting hypermobility. The sensitivity and specificity was 84% and 89% respectively in the first cohort and reproduced with values of 84% and 80% in the second cohort. Overall the questionnaire correctly identified 84% of all cases and controls. This simple and reproducible questionnaire for detecting hypermobility could be of particular use as an adjunct in the clinical assessment of chronic, diffuse pain syndromes where hypermobility is often missed yet is potentially treatable. PMID:12723715
Hakim, A J; Grahame, R
Objective To develop a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for older children and adolescents and to demonstrate reproducibility over a 1-year period.Design The youth\\/adolescent questionnaire (YAQ) was based on the validated Nurses’ Health Study food frequency questionnaire and was developed to reflect the eating habits of this age group.Subjects The multiethnic sample consisted of 179 youths (ages 9 to 18 years)
HELAINE R. H ROCKETT; ANNE M WOLF; GRAHAM A COLDITZ
Background: Athletics programmes for secondary schools include a variety of skills, knowledge and cognitive abilities, which are currently assessed through written, practical, oral and\\/or video-based tests. Skills are traditionally taught in practice-based sessions, while the knowledge aspect is often reinforced in class-based sessions with video\\/computer-assisted instruction. Currently, it is still not clear whether these teaching environments have an effect on
Gemma Van Vuuren-Cassar; Iasonas Lamprianou
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760
Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E
Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings in a detached manner. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) is a self-report instrument that originally assessed decentering and rumination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of EQ-Decentering and to explore its clinical usefulness. The 11-item EQ-Decentering subscale was translated into Spanish and psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 921 adult individuals, 231 with psychiatric disorders and 690 without. The subsample of nonpsychiatric participants was also split according to their previous meditative experience (meditative participants, n=341; and nonmeditative participants, n=349). Additionally, differences among these three subgroups were explored to determine clinical validity of the scale. Finally, EQ-Decentering was administered twice in a group of borderline personality disorder, before and after a 10-week mindfulness intervention. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable model fit, sb?(2)=243.8836 (p<.001), CFI=.939, GFI=.936, SRMR=.040, and RMSEA=.06 (.060-.077), and psychometric properties were found to be satisfactory (reliability: Cronbach's ?=.893; convergent validity: r>.46; and divergent validity: r<-.35). The scale detected changes in decentering after a 10-session intervention in mindfulness (t=-4.692, p<.00001). Differences among groups were significant (F=134.8, p<.000001), where psychiatric participants showed the lowest scores compared to nonpsychiatric meditative and nonmeditative participants. The Spanish version of the EQ-Decentering is a valid and reliable instrument to assess decentering either in clinical and nonclinical samples. In addition, the findings show that EQ-Decentering seems an adequate outcome instrument to detect changes after mindfulness-based interventions. PMID:25311294
Soler, Joaquim; Franquesa, Alba; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Cebolla, Ausias; García-Campayo, Javier; Tejedor, Rosa; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Portella, Maria J
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of Iranian occupational therapists regarding the handling of children with cerebral palsy and the application of their knowledge into practice. A questionnaire with two scales of a self-report and a knowledge-based test was designed. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Of 77 participants, 64.9% participants reported their knowledge of handling at moderate, 14.3% at low and 6.5% at very low level. The result of the test showed that 57.1% participants had knowledge at moderate and 16.9% at low level. Toileting and bathing are the least focused areas by occupational therapists in teaching handling techniques to caregivers. These results suggest that the participants need further training to increase their knowledge in the various areas of handling and positioning techniques especially toileting and bathing. Because participants were from one area of Iran, future research could include a larger population of occupational therapists. PMID:24390931
Rezaei, Masoomeh; Malekpour, Maryam; Rassafiani, Mehdi
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) patients have motor limitations that can affect functionality and abilities for activities of daily living (ADL). Health related quality of life and health status instruments validated to be applied to these patients do not directly approach the concepts of functionality or ADL. The Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) seems to be a good instrument to approach
Nívea MO Morales; Carolina AR Funayama; Viviane O Rangel; Ana Cláudia Frontarolli; Renata RH Araújo; Rogério MC Pinto; Carlos HA Rezende; Carlos HM Silva
Young people living in the state care system are often reported to experience poorer levels of mental health and wellbeing. Government policy encourages a holistic approach to the assessment of all aspects of health and wellbeing of these young people. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a mental health screener for young people…
McCrystal, Patrick; McAloney, Kareena
The Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaire (PIEQ) is a new instrument to assess reinforcer preferences in adolescents and adults. Research was conducted with college and high school students to develop the PIEQ, to examine its reliability with test-retest and internal consistency methods, and to test its validity. This research provides…
Sarafino, Edward P.; Graham, James A.
Background The CCAENA questionnaire was developed to assess care continuity across levels from the patients’ perspective. The aim is to provide additional evidence on the psychometric properties of the scales of this questionnaire. Methods Cross-sectional study by means of a survey of a random sample of 1500 patients attended in primary and secondary care in three health care areas of the Catalan health care system. Data were collected in 2010 using the CCAENA questionnaire. To assess psychometric properties, an exploratory factor analysis was performed (construct validity) and the item-rest correlations and Cronbach's alpha were calculated (internal consistency). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated (multidimensionality) and the ability to discriminate between groups was tested. Results The factor analysis resulted in 21 items grouped into three factors: patient–primary care provider relationship, patient–secondary care provider relationship and continuity across care levels. Cronbach's alpha indicated good internal consistency (0.97, 0.93, 0.80) and the correlation coefficients indicated that dimensions can be interpreted as separated scales. Scales discriminated patients according to health care area, age and educational level. Conclusion The CCAENA questionnaire has proved to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients’ perceptions of continuity. Providers and researchers could apply the questionnaire to identify areas for health care improvement. PMID:24363638
Aller, Marta-Beatriz; Vargas, Ingrid; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Coderch, Jordi; Colomés, Lluís; Llopart, Josep Ramon; Ferran, Manel; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Vázquez, M. Luisa
The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.
Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QL) with the use of the SF-36 Questionnaire in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP). Thirty patients with CNLBP were randomly assigned to one of three groups (Iso group (Isostretching), GPR group (Global Postural Reeducation), and the Iso+GPR group. Patients underwent physical therapy assessment with the use of the Vertebral Spine Assessment, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain (VASP), and the SF-36 life quality questionnaire before the first session (first assessment), after three months of treatment (second assessment) and reassessed two months after the final session in the follow-up (third assessment). The results indicated that both physical therapy techniques reduced pain (p<0.001); when the techniques (Iso+GPR) were combined, the reduction in pain was significantly greater; and, in the follow-up assessment, the GPR method was more efficient. As for the QL, physical therapy techniques were effective after the interventions (p<0.001), and the Iso method was more effective when patients were reassessed in the follow-up. We conclude that the physical therapy techniques used in this study were efficient to treat CNLBP in the patients since they reduced pain and increased QL according to the results of the SF-36 questionnaire. Level of Evidence II, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. PMID:24453669
Adorno, Marta Lúcia Guimarães Resende; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim Pereira
In this article we propose a novel e-learning system, dedicated strictly to knowledge assessment tasks. In its functioning it utilizes web-based technologies, but its design differs radically from currently popular e-learning solutions which rely mostly on thin-client architecture. Our research proved that such architecture, while well suited for…
Gierlowski, Krzysztof; Nowicki, Krzysztof
In this article, we argue that prior learning assessment (PLA) essays manifest a series of issues central to composition research and practice: they foreground the "contact zone" between the unauthorized writer, institutional power, and the articulation of knowledge claims; they reinforce the central role of a multifaceted approach to writing…
Leaker, Cathy; Ostman, Heather
In another article (Wolfe et al., 1998\\/this issue) we showed how Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) can be used to assess student knowledge—how essays can be graded by LSA and how LSA can match students with appropriate instructional texts. We did this by comparing an essay written by a student with one or more target instructional texts in terms of the
Bob Rehder; M. E. Schreiner; Michael B. W. Wolfe; Darrell Laham; Thomas K Landauer; Walter Kintsch
This study investigated primary grade literacy teachers' knowledge of and practices in alternative assessment by examining the relationship between each and by identifying factors which influence each. Data collection consisted of a survey of 73 elementary schools within one Intermediate Unit in Pennsylvania. Both quantitative and qualitative…
Culbertson, Linda Doutt; Yan, Wenfan
This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…
Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.
A study was conducted to compare five different techniques for determining the best means of assessing a reader's background knowledge and for discovering if it is possible to elicit different amounts of information from the same subject by simply varying techniques. Subjects were 32 third through sixth grade students, divided into groups of…
Holmes, Betty C.; Roser, Nancy L.
Background In Iranian Traditional Medicine, mizaj (temperament) plays a key role in preventive, therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations. A reliable self-reported scale for mizaj identification is critically needed to introduce ITM into the official medical and health care system especially in the case of designing national preventive protocols. Objectives The present study aimed to design a preliminary self-administered mizaj questionnaire and assessed its reliability and validity in Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire with 52 items was designed based on mizaj-related indices. Subsequent to content and face validity assessment, using qualitative and quantitative method, 47 items remained. Based on the non-randomly sampling, the test-retest reliability of each question and internal consistency of the questionnaire was examined by the participation of 35 volunteers. The reliable version questionnaire was filled up by 52 volunteers wherein they were divided into warm/cold and wet/dry groups based on their mizaj which was predetermined by a team of expert practitioners. Logistic regression analysis was performed for validity process between the experts’ assessment of mizaj and each of the items in the questionnaire that resulted to the final ten-item questionnaire divided into two subscales. By using ANOVA and post Hoc with Dunnet statistics, the optimum cut-off points were defined and their sensitivity and specificity was assessed. Results The weighted kappa coefficients of the 39 items were between 0.40 and 0.82 showing their acceptable reliability and the Cronbach’s ? coefficient was 0.71 showing the internal consistency. The sensitivity and specificity of the final questionnaire cut-off points were 65% and 93% for the warm group, 52% and 97% cold group, 53% and 67% dry group and finally 53% and 76% wet group. Conclusions Our results suggested that many of the designed questions according to the literature’s mizaj identification indices had satisfactory reliability and the final ten-item questionnaire could discriminate the different groups of mizaj, therefore, this can be used as the first version of a brief self-report mizaj estimating scale. PMID:24829785
Mojahedi, Morteza; Naseri, Mohsen; Majdzadeh, Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Ebadini, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmaeil; Saberi Isfeedvajani, Mohsen
Rationale Methods to systematically measure the impact of knowledge resources on health professionals would enhance evaluation of these resources in the real world. Objective To propose a new impact assessment method. Background We demonstrated the feasibility of combining a 4-level scale with Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (CEMA) for efficiently measuring the impact of a knowledge resource. Method We critically reviewed the world literature regarding the impact of clinical information-retrieval technology on trainees and doctors, and retained 26 papers for qualitative content analysis. Findings Of those, 21 use a nominal scale (yes/no), none systematically measures the impact of searches for information outside of a laboratory setting, and none uses an ordinal scale. The literature supports the proposed levels of impact, and suggests a fifth level. Conclusion A new impact assessment method is proposed, which combines a 5-level revised scale and CEMA. PMID:16779112
Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M.; Stephenson, Randolph; Dunikowski, Lynn G.
Metabolic diseases and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the incidence of which is currently increasing in Korea, can be managed well with dietary education and modification. However, it has yet to be established whether nurses have sufficient knowledge to impart appropriate nutritional counseling to patients with these diseases. Our study involved 506 nurses working at Asan Medical Center, Samsung Medical Center, and Seoul National University Hospital between March and May, 2006. The questionnaire was comprised of 42 diet-related questions pertaining to diabetes, obesity, and CVD. Nurses' correct-response rate for overall nutritional knowledge was worse than reported in Western countries (58.4%), and particularly so with regard to obesity and CVD. Although many nurses were aware of the therapeutic aspects of nutrients in relation to CVD, most of them had limited knowledge about low-cholesterol diets and sources of water-soluble fiber, fatty acids and the specific food items that prevent CVD. Our results suggest that there is an urgent need to update the contents of nutrition education for nurses to reflect the current changes in the Korean diet and the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases and CVD. PMID:20621397
Park, K A; Cho, W I; Song, K J; Lee, Y S; Sung, I S; Choi-Kwon, S M
Background The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively) and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively). 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad. PMID:17900347
Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Petroczi, Andrea; Quested, Eleanor
The objective of this study was a psychometric evaluation of the Romanian translated version of ABC-V (Assessment of Burden in Chronic – Venous Disease) questionnaire in patients with uncomplicated varicose disease of lower limbs. All components of the questionnaire were translated from the English version into the Romanian language and after that backwards, discussed, adopted and pre-tested. Evaluation of the final version of the translated questionnaire demonstrated acceptable results: missed questions in 3% of forms, no ceiling effect and low floor effect, good split-half reliability (rs = 0.61,p < 0.01) and significant correlation between test and re-tests cores (rs = 0.86, p < 0.01). There was no significant influence of age and sex upon average ABC-V scores. Study results support the application of ABC-V questionnaire for assessing the severity of chronic venous disease as well as for quantitative evaluation of patient satisfaction and health status improvement after varicose vein treatment in the Romanian-speaking population. PMID:23790788
Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V
Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ?: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016
We reformed a course for future elementary teachers to infuse pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) into the fabric of a physics course. The modified course is structured around an instructional model called the pedagogical learning bicycle (PLB) that intertwines the construction of content knowledge (CK) with pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) using metacognitive reflection as a bridge between learning content and pedagogy. To assess the impact of the course experiences on their PCK, the future teachers were asked to work in groups to create lesson plans that incorporated their understanding of elementary childrenâs ideas of science and strategies to address these ideas. As a measure of PCK, we scored the lesson plans on the ways in which the students incorporated these ideas in their lesson. We describe the results of our study and discuss its implications for instruction.
Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.
Objective: To assess the validity of two diet quality indexes—food variety score (FVS) and diet diversity score (DDS) in Western Mali.Design: In two separate studies (A and B), FVS and DDS were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and were compared with the same scores and with measures of nutrient adequacy derived from 2-day weighed records (WR).Setting: Two rural,
L E Torheim; I Barikmo; C L Parr; A Hatløy; F Ouattara; A Oshaug
The validity of a 77-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for a multicenter case-control study on diet and cancer in Italy was assessed. Trained interviewers administered the same FFQ to 452 volunteers from three Italian provinces (Pordenone, Genoa, and Forli) completed in two different seasons, at an interval of 3 to 10 months. For 395 (130 males, 265 females; median age
Adriano Decarli; Silvia Franceschi; Monica Ferraroni; Patrizia Gnagnarella; Maria Teresa Parpinel; Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Simonetta Salvini; Fabio Falcini; Attilio Giacosa
To assess whether or not liver transplantation and subsequent immunosuppression with cyclosporine and prednisone affect ulcerative colitis symptomatology, we surveyed by questionnaire all 23 surviving patients with pretransplant colonoscopy-documented ulcerative colitis who were transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis between June 1982 and September 1985. At follow-up [89.8±7.6 weeks (mean±sem], all six patients who had had asymptomatic colonoscopy-documented ulcerative colitis reported
Judith S. Gavaler; Byron Delemos; Steven H. Belle; Alma E. Heyl; Ralph E. Tarter; Thomas E. Starzl; Christopher Gavaler; David H. Van Thiel
The aim of this study was to study the effect of a teaching unit on upgrading university-nursing students' knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling. The study used pre- test, posttest with no control group design. All nursing students (100) who accepted to participate in the study and enrolled in the Maternity and Gynecological-nursing course, during the second semester of the third academic year 1999-2000, at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, were involved in the study. A self-administered questionnaire sheet was used to assess nursing students' knowledge about genetic counseling, while a 3-point Likert-like scale was used to assess their attitudes towards it. The content of six-hours' teaching unit -about genetic counseling was taught to students by the researchers based on their needs. The study revealed a general lack of knowledge among nursing students regarding basic information about genetic counseling, where poor total score of knowledge was obtained by all of them in the pre-test. In addition, the pre-test revealed that negative attitude was found in about half of the nursing students. The teaching unit had an obvious effect on the nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding genetic counseling, as the total score of their knowledge and attitudes had improved after implementation of the teaching unit. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between nursing students' knowledge and attitudes towards genetic counseling before and after implementation of the teaching unit. Therefore, a negative attitude was found with poor total score of knowledge in the pre-test and positive attitude was found with good total score of knowledge in the post-test. So, there is a need to improve knowledge and change attitude of nursing students about genetic counseling. As well as genetic counseling should be included in the university-nursing curriculum and should be reviewed periodically to accommodate the relevant fast change in the science and technology of genetics. Moreover, nursing students must be informed about the different community resources, which offer the genetic counseling services. PMID:17216943
Sobhy, S I; Shoeib, F M; Zaki, N H
of lameness. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing 39 questions in a visual analog scale format. A force platform was used as the gold-standard for detecting mechanical lameness. Peak vertical, cranial-caudal, and their associated impulses were...
Hudson, Jonathan Thomas
Psychometric properties of the Parent Opinion Questionnaire (POQ) and the Child Vignettes (CV) were examined. Participants included 78 abusive and 77 comparison mothers and fathers. Scores on the POQ were very low, and there were no differences between abusive and comparison parents on any of the six rationally-derived scales of the POQ or the full scale. Results of factor analysis
Mary E. Haskett; Susan Smith Scott; Michael Willoughby; Lisa Ahern; Kennard Nears
The present study is a preliminary investigation into the development of a parent self-report instrument, the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ). A large pool of items was rationally derived from a model of parent competency and then administered to 243 parents of children who were making appearances in juvenile court. Exploratory…
Rose, Clark C.; Glaser, Brian A.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.
Type A behavior is an aggregate of behaviors associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Two self-administered questionnaires used to determine the presence of Type A behavior, the Jenkins Activity Survey and Framingham Type A Behavior Pattern Scale, were administered to 150 undergraduate students at a midwestern university, along…
Perlman, Baron; And Others
The Sport Participation Model Questionnaire (SPMQ) was given to two hundred and sixty-four subjects to determine if significant differences existed in the composite scores of parents, coaches, youth sport participants, high school participants and college students; if the groups differed in their responses to pooled items; and if subject groups…
Aicinena, Steve; Eldridge, James
Background Health status provides valuable information, complementary to spirometry and improvement of health status has become an important treatment goal in COPD management. We compared the usefulness and validity of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), two simple questionnaires, in comparison with the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Methods We administered the CAT, CCQ and SGRQ in patients with COPD stage I-IV during three visits. Spirometry, 6 MWT, MRC scale, BODE index, and patients perspectives on questionnaires were recorded in all visits. Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) was used to calculate the Minimal Clinical Important Difference (MCID) of all questionnaires. Results We enrolled 90 COPD patients. Cronbach's alpha for both CAT and CCQ was high (0.86 and 0.89, respectively). Patients with severe COPD reported worse health status compared to milder subgroups. CAT and CCQ correlated significantly (rho =0.64, p?0.01) and both with the SGRQ (rho?=?0.65; CAT and rho?=?0.77; CCQ, p?0.01). Both questionnaires exhibited a weak correlation with lung function (rho?=??0.35;CAT and rho?=??0.41; CCQ, p?0.01). Their reproducibility was high; CAT: ICC?=?0.94 (CI 0.92-0.96), total CCQ ICC?=?0.95 (0.92-0.96) and SGRQ?=?0.97 (CI 0.95-0.98). The MCID calculated using the SEM method showed results similar to previous studies of 3.76 for the CAT, 0.41 for the CCQ and 4.84 for SGRQ. Patients suggested both CAT and CCQ as easier tools than SGRQ in terms of complexity and time considerations. More than half of patients preferred CCQ instead of CAT. Conclusions The CAT and CCQ have similar psychometric properties with a slight advantage for CCQ based mainly on patients’ preference and are both valid and reliable questionnaires to assess health status in COPD patients. PMID:22607459
Background Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Control and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, excess of body weight, smoking and lack of exercise can contribute to a reduction of CVD mortality. Methods A standardized questionnaire was administered to all medical officers willing to participate in the study, who were working in the Cardiology Units all over Sri Lanka to assess the source of continuous medical education, attitudes on secondary prevention, barriers to secondary prevention and knowledge assessment of secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Chi square was used to compare groups and p?0.05 was considered significant. Results 132 participants with equal numbers of males and female doctors participated. While 56 doctors have had no training in cardiology, 75 doctors have had some training in a cardiology unit. The barriers for secondary prevention were, poor knowledge/understanding of patients 3.82 (1.06), too many drugs 3.74 (0.98), presence of co-morbid conditions 3.68(0.97), cost of medications 3.69 (0.97) and poor adherence to prevention strategies by patients 3.44 (1.15). Routine clinic visits 85 (65%) and public awareness day seminars 30 (22.2%) were the most effective methods of secondary prevention. Guidelines were the most popular method of continuous medical education. Those who have had some training in cardiology did not differ in their knowledge from those who have never had training in cardiology. Knowledge about prevention with regard to diet was inadequate and exercise and lipids were adequate but not good. Rates of knowledge on smoking cessation were much higher than for other CVD risk factors. Conclusion There needs to be more adherences to clinical guidelines and attention paid to CVD prevention, in particular, the importance of dietary modifications, adequate exercise, and lipid control. PMID:24903262
Previous studies have shown that physicians tend to underestimate the risks to patients of radiation exposure. This study in 2 Palestinian hospitals aimed to assess physicians' knowledge about the risks associated with the use of radiological examinations. A questionnaire answered by 163 physicians revealed many gaps in knowledge. Only one-third of physicians had received a radiation protection course during their undergraduate study or in the workplace. Few physicians were able to answer correctly many scientific, knowledge-based questions. For example, only 6.1% of the respondents were able to identify the ALARA principle and 98.2% did not know that there is no safe dose limit according to international recommendations. Physicians' practices in terms of frequency of use of routine X-rays and discussing the risks with patients were also poor. These results clearly indicate the need to increase Palestinian physicians' knowledge and awareness about the potential hazards associated with the use of radiological examinations. PMID:23057378
Hamarsheh, A; Ahmead, M
Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical schools in Israel should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving HIV-related attitudes and adherence to medical professionalism. PMID:24650351
Objective: To develop and evaluate the Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire for Friends (DSSQ-Friends), a measure of friends' supportive behaviors for adolescents with diabetes. Gender and age differences in friends' support for diabetes were examined, as well as the relationship between friend support and adoles- cents' treatment adherence. Methods: Seventy-four adolescents (11-18 years) completed the DSSQ-Friends in addition to other mea-
Karen J. Bearman; Annette M. La Greca
Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, we enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities, and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. Our proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: three types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical, developmental, and experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in two independent samples. A higher-order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented VLS activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measure of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157
Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher
An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers.
Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Lessard, Veronica C.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Shaver, Patrick L.; Dayton, Robert S.; Pyke, David A.; Jolley, Leonard; Goebel, J. Jeffery
An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers. ?? The Ecological Society of America.
Herrick, J.E.; Lessard, V.C.; Spaeth, K.E.; Shaver, P.L.; Dayton, R.S.; Pyke, D.A.; Jolley, L.; Goebel, J.J.
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach's ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs. PMID:23244037
Mulero-Portela, Ana L; Santaella, Carmen L Colón; Gómez, Cynthia Cruz
The aim of this study is to develop and psychometrically test a questionnaire (Incontinence Outcome Questionnaire, IOQ) for assessing quality of life (QOL) after surgery for stress urinary incontinence that can be used as a single measurement after the intervention. A total of 171 patients who underwent the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT/TVT-O) operation for stress urinary incontinence completed the King s Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the IOQ. The internal consistency, internal and external validity and responsiveness of the IOQ were tested. The IOQ-QOL subscale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83) and significant correlations with the KHQ and the SF-12 scales (r=0.30-0.56). Partial correlations with objective parameters showed a significant relation for the IOQ-QOL subscale with objective continence/incontinence. The results of our study suggest that the IOQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing QOL after incontinence surgery and can be used if baseline or pre-operative data are unavailable. PMID:17308862
Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Dorfer, Martha; Tamussino, Karl; Frudinger, Andrea; Kern, Petra; Winter, Raimund; Greimel, Elfriede
Background Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. Methods The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n?=?10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Results Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean?±?SEM?=?6.7?±?1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2?±?0.5) (p?=?0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6?±?2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0?±?0.7) although this did not reach significance (p?=?0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p???0.03). Conclusions A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side effects should not require large study numbers to be effective. With just 10 subjects per group (iron or placebo), this simple questionnaire measures gastrointestinal side-effects associated with oral iron (ferrous sulphate) supplementation, and would be appropriate for use in intervention studies or clinical trials. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02146053 (21/05/2014). PMID:24899360
Climate Literacy: Integrating Modeling & Technology Experiences (CLIMATE) in NC Classrooms, an interdisciplinary, global climate change program for NC high school science teachers is administered by UNC Chapel Hill's Institute for the Environment (IE) with funding from NASA's Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program. Currently in its third year, this year-long program serves 24 teaching fellows annually and combines hands-on climate science investigations with experiential learning in fragile ecosystem environments to achieve the following program goals: increased teacher knowledge of climate change science and predicted impacts; increased teacher knowledge of modeling and technology resources, with an emphasis on those provided by NASA; and increased teacher confidence in using technology to address climate change education. A mixed-methods evaluation approach that includes external evaluation is providing quantitative and qualitative data about the extent to which program goals are being achieved. With regard to increases in teacher knowledge, teachers often self-report an increase in knowledge as a result of a program activity; this session will describe our strategies for assessing actual gains in teacher knowledge which include pre- and post-collaborative concept mapping and pre- and post-open response questionnaires. For each evaluation approach utilized, the process of analyzing these qualitative data will be discussed and results shared. For example, a collaborative concept mapping activity for assessment of learning as a result of the summer institute was utilized to assess gains in content knowledge. Working in small groups, teachers were asked to identify key vocabulary terms and show their relationship to one another via a concept map to answer these questions: What is global climate change? What is/are the: evidence? mechanisms? causes? consequences? Concept maps were constructed at the beginning (pre) and again at the end (post) of the Summer Institute. Concept map analysis revealed that post-maps included more key terms/concepts on average than pre-concept maps and that 6-9 NEW terms were present on post-maps; these NEW terms were directly related to science content addressed during the summer institute. In an effort to assess knowledge gained as a result of participating in an experiential weekend retreat, a pre- and post-open response questionnaire focused on the spruce-fir forest, an ecosystem prominently featured during programming, was administered. Post-learning assessments revealed learning gains for 100% of participants, all of whom were able to provide responses that referenced specific content covered during the retreat. To demonstrate increased teacher confidence in using technology to support climate science instruction, teachers are asked to develop and pilot a lesson that integrates at least one NASA resource. In collaboration with an external evaluator, a rubric was developed to evaluate submitted lessons in an effort to assess progress at achieving this program goal. The process of developing this rubric as well as the results from this analysis will be shared along with the challenges and insights that have been revealed from analyzing submitted lessons.
Haine, D. B.; Kendall, L.; Yelton, S.
Objective: Training teachers and education professionals on diabetes is crucial for full-time monitoring of diabetic children in schools. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on diabetes in a group of school teachers in Turkey. Methods: Between November 2010 and November 2011, 1054 teachers from three regions of Ankara were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on diabetes. The mean age of the group (27% males, 73% females) was 38.8±8 years. 61.7% of the participants were class teachers, 23.3% were school counselors, and the rest were physical education teachers and administrators. Results: A fair percentage (47.6%) of the participants had a moderate knowledge level on diabetes and 32.4% expressed a lower level of knowledge. A large proportion (94%) gave an accurate definition of diabetes. Of the total group of 1054 teachers, 625 were aware that blood glucose level might decrease in diabetic children during follow-up. Also, 75% believed that diabetic children were eligible for physical education classes. 52.8% of these teachers had no diabetic child in their classes and teachers with a diabetic patient in their family had better knowledge of diabetes compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that school teachers have limited knowledge on diabetes. We believe that their knowledge levels can be improved by widespread training programs. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23032146
Aycan, Zehra; Onder, Asan; Cetinkaya, Semra; Bilgili, Hatice; Y?ld?r?m, Nurdan; Bas, Veysel Nijat; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Y?lmaz Aglad?oglu, Sebahat
Background The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. Methods The study population included residents aged 15–49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Results The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P?0.05). Almost 37% of students scored low. Nearly one-third of the study population was practicing risky sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p?>?0.05). Conclusions The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.
This is a 20-item, three part questionnaire designed to measure knowledge of decision-making and evaluation on the part of participants in a training program on planning and evaluation. Part of TM 001 078. (DLG)
Radcliffe, Vickey W.; Colgan, Francis E.
Individual differences in circadian phase preference (“chronotype”) are linked to sleep schedule variability, psychosocial functioning, and specific properties of the circadian clock. While much is known about the development, distribution, and variability of chronotype in adolescents and adults, assessment in prepubertal children has been hindered by a lack of appropriate, reliable, and valid measures. This study presents a detailed description of the assessment of children’s chronotype by the Children’s ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ). The CCTQ is a parent-report, 27-item mixed-format questionnaire resulting in multiple measures of chronotype in 4- to 11-yr-old children: the midsleep point on free days (MSF), a morningness/eveningness scale (M/E) score, and a five-point chronotype (CT) score. The study provides validity data using actigraphy as well as test-retest reliability data for all three chronotype measures and sleep/wake parameters. Overall, the findings indicate moderate to strong agreement between the three measures, adequate associations between chronotype measures and sleep/wake parameters assessed by actigraphy, and excellent temporal stability (reliability). (Author correspondence: email@example.com) PMID:19637055
Werner, Helene; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Geiger, Anja; Jenni, Oskar G.
Expressed emotion (EE) has proved to be an established factor in short-term relapse in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status of relatives of patients with schizophrenia in terms of criticism (CC) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI). The translated and adapted 20-item FQ was administered to 176 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Caregivers' burden (Family Burden Scale) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28) were also evaluated. The findings indicated that the Greek version displays a two-factor structure with two subscales of EE-CC and EOI-with 10 items each, similarly to the original version. The convergent validity of the subscales was highly supported by correlations with caregivers' burden and psychological distress. The Cronbach's ? coefficient measuring internal consistency for the two scales were 0.90 for CC and 0.82 for EOI. The test-retest correlation coefficients measuring reproducibility were 0.99 and 0.98 for CC and EOI, respectively. The Greek version of the FQ appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to be used in both research and clinical assessment of family EE. PMID:24636193
Koutra, Katerina; Economou, Marina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N
Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and uncertainties. We followed the same approach for each term of risks i.e. hazard, vulnerability, element at risk, exposition. This risk approach can be achieved by a comprehensive use of several artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, which are done through, for example: (1) GIS techniques; (2) FR or T-PDF for qualitatively predicting risks for possible review results; and (3) A Multi-Criteria Evaluation for analyzing weak points. The main advantages of FR or T-PDF involve the ability to express not-fully-formalized knowledge, easy knowledge representation and acquisition, and self updatability. The results show that such an approach points out quite wide zone of uncertainty. REFERENCES Zadeh L.A. 1965 : Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8:338-353.
Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel
The Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) is an International Examination that was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of students in participating countries, including the United States. PISA is a two-hour paper-and-pencil…
Ngwudike, Benjamin C.
In addition to collecting achievement data, international large-scale assessment programmes gather auxiliary information from students and schools regarding the context of teaching and learning. In an effort to clarify some of the opacity surrounding international large-scale assessment programmes and the potential problems associated with less…
Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David
Client readiness for change is garnering increased interest both conceptually and methodologically. This article describes the reliability, validity, and utility of a measure of readiness for couple relationship change, Schneider's (2003) Stages of Relationship Change Questionnaire (SRCQ). Based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change, the instrument measures change along nine domains of marital functioning. Results indicate that this one-factor instrument may reliably measure readiness for change and discriminate between various stages of change. Most in this sample (n = 406) were in early stages of change, with men more often in the stage of precontemplation and women more often in contemplation. The SRCQ can be completed and scored in under 10 min. Clinical use and research implications are discussed. PMID:22804467
The Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire (SHAQ) is a feasible multisystem specific tool that has been extensively used as an additional assessment for systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study is to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian version of the SHAQ. Construct validity was assessed based on the correlations between SHAQ and both the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2™) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The correlation between the SHAQ and disease severity was assessed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The reproducibility of the SHAQ was evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Among the 151 consecutive outpatients evaluated, 59 % had limited SSc subtype. The overall disease severity visual analog scale (VAS) of the SHAQ was statistically significantly correlated to HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and the SF-36v2™ physical component summary score (r?=?0.595, r?=?0.612, and r?=?-0.582, respectively; p?0.001). Further analysis of all SF-36v2™ components revealed statistically significant correlations between overall disease severity VAS and bodily pain (r?=?-0.621, p?0.001), vitality (r?=?-0.544, p?0.001), physical function (r?=?-0.510, p?0.001), and role limitation-physical dimensions (r?=?-0.505, p?0.001). Moreover, digestive, pulmonary, and overall disease severity VASs were statistically significantly correlated to the number of organs involved (r?=?0.178, p?=?0.029; r?=?0.214, p?=?0.008; r?=?0.282, p?0.001). We also demonstrated high reproducibility for SHAQ (ICC?=?0.757, 95 % confidence interval?=?0.636-0.842). The Brazilian version of the SHAQ demonstrated both construct and discriminant validities as well as good reproducibility. PMID:23975361
Rocha, Luiza F; Marangoni, Roberta G; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D; Levy-Neto, Mauricio; Yoshinari, Natalino H; Bonfa, Eloisa; Steen, Virginia; Kowalski, Sergio C
Background: Risky injection practices among injection drug users (IDUs) contribute to the spread of blood-borne infections such as HIV, and hepatitis B and C.Method: The Blood borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaire (BBV-TRAQ) was developed in Australia to parse out risk behaviors to specific infections. Blood testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C was performed on all participants and
Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Lucy E. Napper
Background The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. Methods A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. Results The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ?=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. Conclusions With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection. PMID:24565605
Moller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Balter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Balter, Katarina
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among obstetric-gynecologic patients and to assess the validity and utility of the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in this population. Study Design: A total of 3000 patients were assessed by 63 clinicians at seven obstetrics-gynecology outpatient care sites. The main outcome measures were PRIME-MD PHQ diagnoses, psychosocial stressors,
Robert L. Spitzer; Janet B. W. Williams; Kurt Kroenke; Raymond Hornyak; Julia McMurray
Using a framework of assessment literacy that included teachers' view of learning, knowledge of assessment tools, and knowledge of assessment interpretation and action taking, this study explored the assessment literacy of five experienced middle school teachers. Multiple sources of data were: teachers' predictions about students' ideas, students' written and verbal responses to assessment tasks, teacher background questionnaire, and a videotaped teacher focus group. We investigated middle school teachers' predictions, interpretations, and recommended actions for formative assessment in genetics. Results documented a variety of ways that teachers would elicit students' ideas in genetics, focusing on discussion strategies. Findings showed how well teachers predicted student conceptions compared to actual student conceptions. We also found that teachers mostly described general topics they would use to address students' alternative conceptions. Less often, they explained specific content they would use to challenge ideas or pedagogical strategies for conceptual change. Teachers also discussed barriers to addressing ideas. Teacher professional development should provide more support in helping teachers close the formative assessment cycle by addressing conceptions that are elicited with assessments.
Gottheiner, Daniel M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.
Using data from parents of 761 infants from 6 independent samples, short (91 items, 14 scales) and very short (37 items, 3 broad scales) forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a well-established caregiver report measure of temperament for infants aged 3 to 12 months, were developed. The forms were subsequently evaluated with data from 1,619 participants from 11 samples. Over 90% of Cronbach's alphas and part-whole correlations calculated for the short and very short form scales were greater than.70. Interparent agreement was nearly identical to that obtained with standard IBQ-R scales, averaging.41 and ranging from.06 to.76. Longitudinal stability over multiple time spans, and estimated retest reliability of the short form scales, were highly similar to those of standard forms, with estimated retest reliability averaging.72 and ranging from.54 to.93. Convergent and predictive validity of select short form scales were comparable to, but slightly lower, than those observed for standard IBQ-R scales. Recommendations for the use of the standard, short, and very short scales are discussed. PMID:24206185
Putnam, Samuel P; Helbig, Amy L; Gartstein, Maria A; Rothbart, Mary K; Leerkes, Esther
Administrators at post-secondary institutions have found that national or regional accreditation is necessary to remain competitive in the higher education market with evidence of assessment considered a positive measure for accreditation. This quantitative study examined the correlation between the ranked levels of knowledge management within…
Ringhand, Darlene Gail
The operations and management activities of enterprises are mainly task-based and knowledge intensive. Accordingly, an important issue in deploying knowledge management systems is the provision of task-relevant information (codified knowledge) to meet the information needs of knowledge workers during the execution of a task. Codified knowledge extracted from previously executed tasks can provide valuable knowledge about conducting the task-at-hand (current
Duen-ren Liu; I-chin Wu
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess probation officers knowledge levels of offenders with intellectual disabilities by utilizing a synthesis of subject matter analysis technique and a comprehensive review of literature. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was devoted to establishing the knowledge…
Dixon, Valerie E.
A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…
Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.
Buruli ulcer, a disease with long-term consequences, is emerging in west Africa. Thus, a functional limi- tation scoring system is needed to assess its nature and severity. A list of daily activities was developed for this disease. Following treatment of Buruli ulcer, persons in Benin (n 47) and Ghana (n 41) were investigated. Nineteen items were identified with good internal
YMKJE STIENSTRA; PIETER U. DIJKSTRA; AUGUSTIN GUEDENON; R. CHRISTIAN JOHNSON; EDWIN O. AMPADU; THOMAS MENSAH; ERASMUS Y. KLUTSE; SAMUAL ETUAFUL; SUNIL DEEPAK
Background: Measurement of disability in rheumatoid arthritis is often used to support treatment decisions and outcome assessments, but is used without reference to the impact of disability on individual patients.Objective: To develop and validate a scale to measure individual values for functions, which is used to weight the level of an individual patient’s functional loss and thus calculate the personal
S Hewlett; A P Smith; J R Kirwan
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children…
Gates, Philip E.; Otsuka, Norman Y.; Sanders, James O.; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
The purpose of this study was to test and assess the reliability and validity of a modified stress scale in a sample of pharmacy graduate students. The modified stress scale was used as part of a larger, nationwide, study whose aim was to investigate the association of stress, perceived academic success and health-related quality of life among…
Konduri, Niranjan; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Worley-Louis, Marcia
... this questionnaire accurately and completely. Patient Name ___________________________________________________ Age _________ Weight _______ Height _________ Date _____________ Allergies _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Current Medications (Prescription and Non-Prescription -- ...
Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist. Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range= 17- 21; 97 % Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability over 2 weeks (n= 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = 0.41, p = 0.0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823 +/- 387 mg/d) and DRs (822 +/- 330 mg/d; p = 0.988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as "inadequate" (<1000 mg/d) and "adequate" (> or = 1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC= 0.30, p = 0.042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs. PMID:15118194
Ward, Kenneth D; Hunt, Kami Mays; Berg, Melanie Burstyne; Slawson, Deborah A; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; McClanahan, Barbara S; Clemens, Linda H
The main objective of this study was to assess the symptoms and functional difficulties caused by rheumatoid arthritis through application of the willingness to pay (WTP) method. Structured questionnaire study was conducted among 242 RA patients. The subjects were asked to evaluate their functional capacity using visual analog scales (VAS) for all the 20 questions in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Each VAS was followed by a question asking how much the respondent would be willing to pay on a monthly basis for a 50% improvement with the function in question. These were combined with later collected data on clinical status and use of RA-related health services. The average WTP varied greatly in the examined 20 different functions. The total WTP average on a 50% improved functional capacity amounted to
Tuominen, Risto; Azbel, Michael; Hemmilä, Joonas; Möttönen, Timo
Objectives We report the preliminary development of a unique Web-based instrument for assessing and teaching knowledge and developing clinical thinking called the “Sequential Questions and Answers” (SQA) test. Included in this feasibility report are physicians’ answers to the Sequential Questions and Answers pre- and posttests and their brief questionnaire replies. Methods The authors refined the SQA test case scenario for content, ease of modifications of case scenarios, test uploading and answer retrieval. Eleven geographically distant physicians evaluated the SQA test, taking the pretest and posttest within two weeks. These physicians completed a brief questionnaire about the SQA test. Results Eleven physicians completed the SQA pre- and posttest; all answers were downloaded for analysis. They reported the ease of website login and navigating within the test module together with many helpful suggestions. Their average posttest score gain was 53% (p=0.012). Conclusions We report the successful launch of a unique Web-based instrument referred to as the Sequential Questions and Answers test. This distinctive test combines teaching organization of the clinical narrative into an assessment tool that promotes acquiring medical knowledge and clinical thinking. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of geographically distant physicians to access the SQA instrument. The physicians’ helpful suggestions will be added to future SQA test versions. Medical schools might explore the integration of this multi-language-capable SQA assessment and teaching instrument into their undergraduate medical curriculum. PMID:25341203
Tokunaga, Hironobu; Ando, Hirotaka; Obika, Mikako; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Bautista, Miho; Kataoka, Hitomi; Terasawa, Hidekazu
This study presents a validation of a scale that assesses parents' childrearing behavior toward young children. The scale was validated on 565 parents of 2- to 7-year-old children. The current results replicated the factor solution of the original scale designed for parents of school-aged children. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties: moderate to high internal consistency, the expected relations with
Jean-Christophe Meunier; Isabelle Roskam
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into determinants of knowledge growth among first-year psychology students in a curriculum that uses the Progress Test (an assessment method for long-term retention of knowledge and knowledge growth) as its main assessment tool. To that end, the relation between the level of initial learning, prior…
Schaap, Lydia; Schmidt, Henk G.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.
The Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ), an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing spider phobia, was developed in an attempt to complement the information provided by the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ). Data obtained from 338 undergraduates revealed that the FSQ was able to discriminate phobics from nonphobics, and indicated decrements in phobic responding from pretest to posttest following cognitive therapy. Test-retest data,
Jeff Szymanski; William O'Donohue
The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals. PMID:16675203
Gallardo-Pujol, David; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Pérez-Ramírez, Meritxell; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio
childhood. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2001, 22:391-408. 18. Dennis CL: The breastfeeding self-efficacy scale: Psychometric assessment of the short form. Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 2003, 32:734-744. 19... -efficacy and perceived insufficient milk among Japanese mothers. Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 2008, 37:546-555. 21. Gregory A, Penrose K, Morrison C, Dennis CL, MacArthur C: Psychometric properties of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale...
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi R; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Schiff, Annie; Hardeman, Wendy; Ong, Ken K; Griffin, Simon J
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most frequent problem that influenced child nutrition is lack of information about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs. PMID:23221140
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women for such exposures and administered it in eight countries on a subsample (n = 987) of the FGLS participants. The FGLS is a study of fetal growth among healthy pregnant women living in relatively affluent areas, at low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and environmental exposures. We confirmed that most women were not exposed to major environmental hazards that could affect pregnancy outcomes according to the protocol's entry criteria. However, the instrument was able to identify some women that reported various environmental concerns in their homes such as peeling paint, high residential density (>1 person per room), presence of rodents or cockroaches (hence the use of pesticides), noise pollution and safety concerns. This screening tool was therefore useful for the purposes of the project and can be used to ascertain environmental exposures in studies in which the primary aim is not focused on environmental exposures. The instrument can be used to identify subpopulations for more in-depth assessment, (e.g. environmental and biological laboratory markers) to pinpoint areas requiring education, intervention or policy change. PMID:24028080
Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Finkton, D; Purwar, M; Noble, J A; Pang, R; Burnham, O; Cheikh Ismail, L; Farhi, F; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Altman, D G; Ohuma, E O; Kennedy, S H; Bhutta, Z A; Villar, J
Background The objective of this study was to ascertain the scoring and assess the psychometric properties of the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ), a 43-item Patient-Reported Outcome instrument developed to assess patients' satisfaction and compliance with glaucoma treatment. Methods The EDSQ was administered during an observational, retrospective study to 184 French patients treated for glaucoma. The hypothesized structure, including six dimensions (patient-clinician relationship; patient experience; patient-treatment interaction; apprehension; patient knowledge; travel), was tested by assessing the internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and construct-related validity (item convergent and discriminant validity). As unsatisfactory results were demonstrated, another structure was defined using a principal component analysis (PCA) combined with content of items. Psychometric properties of this new structure were assessed. Scores were compared between low, moderate and high compliance profile groups defined using data collected with the Travalert electronic device. Results Analyses were performed with the 169 patients who completed at least half of the EDSQ items. The hypothesized structure showed a Cronbach's alpha lower than 0.70 for four dimensions out of six and an overall poor construct-related validity (range of item-scale correlations: 0.00-0.68). The new structure obtained with the PCA included six dimensions: concern about treatment (five items); concern about disease (two items); satisfaction with patient-clinician relationship (five items); positive beliefs (three items); treatment convenience (three items); and self-declared compliance (three items). A score ranging from 0 to 100 was calculated for each dimension, with higher scores indicating more of the attribute referred to in the dimension. Internal consistency reliability was good (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.70 for five dimensions). The structure offered good construct-related validity (range of item-scale correlations: 0.36-0.82). Ceiling effects of 21% and 49%, were observed for the satisfaction with patient-clinician relationship and self-declared compliance scores. Patients in low compliance profile group reported the lowest score for the satisfaction with patient-clinician relationship, positive beliefs, treatment convenience and self-declared compliance dimensions, and the highest score for the concern about treatment dimension. Conclusions The scoring of the EDSQ was developed and the questionnaire proved to have satisfactory psychometric properties. EDSQ scores showed a promising relationship to compliance profiles. The EDSQ could be used in future studies. PMID:20122146
Background Assessment of habitual diet is important in investigations of diet-disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies use the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intakes but few studies validate the instrument against biological markers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a previously validated 70-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to 120-items to assess diet - cancer relations. Methods Relative validity of the FFQ was assessed against twelve 24-hour recalls administered over 12 months in 70 subjects. The FFQ was repeated after one year (FFQ2) to assess reproducibility. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes from 24-hour recalls with the first and second FFQ. In addition, FFQ validity for cholesterol and folate were determined through correlation with biomarkers (serum cholesterol, serum folate and whole blood folate) in 159 control subjects participating in a case-control prostate cancer study. Results Compared to recalls the FFQ tended to overestimate energy and carbohydrate intakes but gave no differences in intake for protein and fat. Quartile agreement for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes between FFQ2 and recalls ranged from 31.8% - 77.3% for the lowest quartile and 20.8% - 81.0% in the highest quartile. Gross misclassification of nutrients was low with the exceptions of protein, vitamin E and retinol and weighted kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for other nutrients. Validity correlations for energy-adjusted nutrients (excluding retinol) were moderate to high (0.38- 0.86). Correlation coefficients between multiple recalls and FFQ1 ranged from 0.27 (fruits) to 0.55 (red meat); the second FFQ gave somewhat higher coefficients (0.30 to 0.61). Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.50 to 0.84. Calibration of the FFQ with biochemical markers showed modest correlations with serum cholesterol (0.24), serum folate (0.25) and whole blood folate (0.33) adjusted for age, energy, body mass index and smoking. Conclusions The expanded FFQ had good relative validity for estimating food group and nutrient intakes (except retinol and vitamin E) and was a reliable measure of habitual intake. Associations with biomarkers were comparable to other studies. PMID:21477338
Effective pain management requires accurate knowledge, attitudes, and assessment skills. The purpose of the present study was to describe Turkish pediatric surgical nurses' knowledge and use of pain assessment and nonpharmacologic and environmental methods in relieving newborn's pain in hospital. The sample consisted of 111 pediatric surgical nurses employed in pediatric surgical unit in 15 university hospitals located in Turkey. A questionnaire was used to measure the nurses' knowledge and use of pain assessment, nonpharmacologic, and environmental methods. Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. Of the nurses that participated in the study, 83.8% were between the ages of 20 and 35 years, 54.1% had a bachelor degree, and 75.7% had a nursing experience ?10 years. 50.5% stated that physiologic and behavioral indicators used in the assessment of pain in infants. The most commonly used nonpharmacologic methods were giving nonnutritive sucking, skin-to-skin contact, and holding. The most commonly used environmental methods were avoiding talking loudly close to the baby, minimal holding, care when opening and closing of the incubator, avoiding making noise when using wardrobe, drawers, trash, or nearby devices, such as radio and television, avoiding sharp fragrances, such as alcohol, perfume, near the baby, and reducing light sources. Although Turkish pediatric surgical nurses used some of the nonpharmacological and environmental methods in infant's pain relief, there remains a need for more education about pain management and for more frequent use of these methods in clinical care. PMID:24315257
Efe, Emine; Dikmen, Sevkiye; Alta?, Nuray; Boneval, Cem
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations.
Baltasar Rodero; Javier García-Campayo; Benigno Casanueva; Yolanda Lopez del Hoyo; Antoni Serrano-Blanco; Juan V Luciano
knowledge? (Sherin, 2002, p. 123). The NCTM (2000) emphasized teachers need different kinds of knowledge, such as knowledge of specific content, curricular goals, the challenges students face in learning these ideas, assessment, and pedagogical knowledge... the study was held, the state standards where the items were chosen, and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics? (NCTM) Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000). In addition to formalizing the definition of mathematics knowledge...
Mohr, Margaret Joan
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the empirical studies on knowledge creation and intellectual capital (IC) to generalize the important factors concerning knowledge creation and IC of banks. The major purpose is to explore the relationship between knowledge creation and IC through the construction of the correlation patterns between these two elements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper
Kuang-Hsun Shih; Chia-Jung Chang; Binshan Lin
Background: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome measure in patients with AT. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled trials to identify trials using VISA-A for patients with AT. This was followed by data mining and analysis of the obtained data. Results: Twenty-six clinical trials containing 1336 individuals were included. Overall mean VISA-A scores ranged from 24 (severe AT) to 100 (healthy). Mean VISA-A scores in patients with AT ranged from 24 to 96.6. Healthy subjects scored a minimum of 96. Only two groups of participants from two different studies had a post-VISA-A score as high as healthy individuals, indicating full recovery of the AT. Conclusions: A VISA-A score lower than 24 is rarely attained in AT. Only few patients with AT reach an equivalent VISA-A score compared to uninjured healthy subjects following treatment. The VISA-A is a reliable tool when assessing AT patients, providing a good assessment of the actual condition from very poor, (score around 24) to excellent (a score of 90), which based on this systematic review and previous studies could be considered full recovery from AT. PMID:22319681
Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning
Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in all subscales, and to ensure variability in all items when transferred to a North Indian cultural context. PMID:23617745
The Ethnic Attitude Scale and Transcultural Questionnaire were administered to 152 bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) students, registered nurses in transition to BSN, and masters's students. All three groups had low knowledge about cultural groups. The only significant difference was BSN students' understanding of such concepts as…
Bond, Mary Lou; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Jones, Mary Elaine
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show that sexuality and romantic relationships are important aspects in the lives of
Eline M. Siebelink; Jong de Menno D. T; Erik Taal; Leo Roelvink
Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies. PMID:25168987
Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U
Migraine is not always well managed in clinical practice, often being under-diagnosed and under-treated. As a result, many sufferers never consult a physician or lapse from care after physician contact. Although most migraine care is provided by general practitioners, others, including specialists, emergency room physicians, pharmacists, and alternative practitioners, may also be involved. A method of standardizing clinical information about migraine is essential for coordinated, logical, and systematic care. The impact of migraine on the patient is an important clinical parameter but one that is seldom inquired about, perhaps because it exhibits such marked variability among and within individuals. Headache-related disability can be an objective and measurable index of this impact. The Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire is a simple and validated instrument with potential for use in clinical practice, research, and public health. It can improve communication between patients and health-care professionals regarding the impact of migraine which, in turn, allows tailoring of the intensity of treatment to the severity of the illness. Changes in the MIDAS score may serve as an end point in assessing treatment efficacy. In populations, MIDAS scores may indicate the burden of migraine in the community and spark public health initiatives to improve management. PMID:11294957
Edmeads, J; Láinez, J M; Brandes, J L; Schoenen, J; Freitag, F
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
This 47-item questionnaire is designed to measure the examinee's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various situations occurring in desegregated schools. Administration instructions and a breakdown of the questionnaire into categories and items is included. No field testing has been done. (See also TM 000 940 for a description of the study and…
Mullen, David J.
Background Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HB) among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for comparison while Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8%) respondents were male with mean age of 32.76?±?9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7%) had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4%) were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74?±?2.7, 3.72?±?1.2 and 2.76?±?1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.296, p?0.01) knowledge-practice (r?=?0.324, p?0.01) and attitude-practice (r?=?0.331, p?0.01) were observed. Area of residence (locality) was the only variables significantly associated with mean KAP of the study respondents. Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas. PMID:22917489
Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and artefacts and support the models assuming that 'category-specific semantic disorders' are the by-product of the differential weighting that visual-perceptual and functional (or action-related) attributes have in the construction of different biological and artefacts categories. PMID:22771855
Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido
Industrial energy management is critical to achieve and monitor industrial energy efficiency. Decision support systems enable energy managers to form effective strategies to increase profitability by eliminating wasteful practices. A well formulated knowledge base is essential for a decision support system to function. Expert knowledge must be acquired and coded into a knowledge base to be accessible to a decision support system. The primary objective is to devise a methodology to extract expert knowledge acquired through field work or archived in manually generated energy analysis reports. Once the knowledge is extracted it can be codified and stored in a knowledge base that is validated to be usable by an energy management assistant decision support system. The acquisition and codification method is demonstrated by its implementation in the REACTOR energy management software system.
Piunno, Paolo J.
Expertise, by definition, refers to the mani-festation of skills and understanding result-ing from the accumulation of a large body of knowledge. This implies that in order to understand how experts perform and why they are more capable than non-experts, we must understand the representation of their knowledge, that is, how their knowl-edge is organized or structured, and how their representations
Michelene T. H. Chi
Science content knowledge is internationally regarded as a fundamentally important learning outcome for graduates of bachelor level science degrees: the Science Threshold Learning Outcomes (TLOs) recently adopted in Australia as a nationally agreed framework include "Science Knowledge" as TLO 2. Science knowledge is commonly assessed…
Jones, Susan M.
The purpose of this current study is to build on the previous body of emergent literacy research by investigating the necessity of assessing book knowledge (e.g., print knowledge, interpretive knowledge, and letter identification) in toddlerhood to set up successful literacy development by providing independent storybook reading opportunities.…
Lee, Boh Young
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. METHODS: In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge
Philippa Raymond-Barker; Andrea Petroczi; Eleanor Quested
Assessing traditional knowledge on forest uses to understand forest ecosystem dynamics Matthias Traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) Forest uses Non-timber forest products Anthropogenic disturbances uses across the Swiss Alps and the respective traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) by conducting
Diagrams showing the components of structural knowledge and the theoretical basis for structural knowledge introduce four tables presenting information on: (1) implicit strategies for conveying cognitive structure, including content/structures signalling (Meyer), frames/slots (Armbruster and Anderson), and Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth and…
Jonassen, David H.; And Others
on nouns. To address possible methodological issues with picture selection and looking-time studies, a manual search task was used to tap receptive knowledge of these forms. Forty-eight 30- to 36-month-old children were tested on their receptive knowledge...
Blossom, Megan Stratton
Background Continuity of care is an essential aspect of quality in general practice. This study is the first systematic follow-up of Finnish primary care patients’ assessments with regard to personal continuity of care. Aim To ascertain whether patient-reported longitudinal personal continuity of care is related to patient characteristics and their consultation experiences, and how this had changed over the study period. Design and setting A 15-year follow-up questionnaire survey that took place at Tampere University Hospital catchment area, Finland. Method The survey was conducted among patients attending health centres in the Tampere University Hospital catchment area from 1998 until 2013. From a sample of 363 464 patients, a total of 157 549 responded. The responses of patients who had visited a doctor during the survey weeks (n = 97 468) were analysed. Continuity of care was assessed by asking the question: ‘When visiting the health centre, do you usually see the same doctor?’; patients could answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Results Approximately half of the responders had met the same doctor when visiting the healthcare centre. Personal continuity of care decreased by 15 percentage points (from 66% to 51%) during the study years. The sense of continuity was linked to several patients’ experiences of the consultation. The most prominent factor contributing to the sense of continuity of care was having a doctor who was specifically appointed (odds ratio 7.28, 95% confidence interval = 6.65 to 7.96). Conclusion Continuity of care was proven to enhance the experienced quality of primary care. Patients felt that continuity of care was best realised when they could consult a doctor who had been specifically appointed to them. Despite efforts of the authorities, over the past 15 years patient-reported continuity of care has declined in Finland. PMID:25267052
Raivio, Risto; Holmberg-Marttila, Doris; Mattila, Kari J
Objectives Treatment of oral mucositis (OM) is challenging. In order to develop and test useful treatment approaches, the development of reliable, reproducible and simpler methods than are currently available for assessment of OM is important. A Patient-Reported Oral Mucositis Symptom (PROMS) scale was assessed in patients with head and neck cancer to determine if the patient-reported OM experience, as determined by using the PROMS scale, correlate with OM assessed by clinician-based scoring tools. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with head and neck cancer and undergoing radiotherapy consented to participate. They were examined before cancer treatment and twice weekly during 6–7 weeks of therapy and once 4–6 weeks after therapy. Signs of OM were evaluated using the 3 clinician-based scoring tools; NCI-CTCAE v.3, the OMAS criteria and the Total VAS-OMAS. The participants' OM experiences were recorded using PROMS-questionnaires consisting of 10 questions on a visual analogue scale. Spearman rank correlation test were applied between the PROMS scale values and the clinician-determined scores. Repeated measures mixed linear models were applied to appraise the strengths of correlation at the different time points throughout the observation period. Results Thirty-three participants completed all stages of the study. The participant experience of OM using the PROMS scale demonstrates good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.65–0.78, p<0.001) with the clinician-determined scores on the group level over all time points and poor to good correlations (Spearman's Rho -0.12–0.70, p<0.001) on the group level at different time points during and after therapy. When mouth opening was problematic, i.e. during the 6th and 7th week after commencing cancer treatment, the Spearman's Rho varied between 0.19 and 0.70 (p<0.001). Conclusion Patient experience of OM, as reported by the PROMS scale may be a feasible substitute for clinical assessment in situations where patients cannot endure oral examinations. PMID:24614512
Gussgard, Anne Margrete; Hope, Andrew J.; Jokstad, Asbjorn; Tenenbaum, Howard; Wood, Robert
Introduction Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious infection that affects liver and caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). HB is a serious global public health problem and the health professionals are most at risk. It is contagious and easy to be transmitted from one infected individual to another by blood to blood contact, mother to child, unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of eating utensils and other barber shop and beauty salon equipment. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practices about transmissions and prevention of hepatitis B among medical and health science students on clinical attachment in Haramaya University. Methods and Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 322 health science and medical students who are starting clinical attachment (year II, III, IV, V and IV) from February 1–15, 2013. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information. Out of 322 distributed questionnaires, 322 were returned with a response rate of 100.0%. Majority of the students (91%) were in the age group 20–24 and 232 (72%) of the respondents were male. Majorities (95.3%) of students were not fully vaccinated against Hepatitis B and 48.4% of the students were not aware about the availability of post exposure prophylaxis for HB. Mean scores for knowledge and practice were 11.52±2.37 and 2.76±1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-practice (r?=?0.173, p?=?0.002) was observed. Study department was significantly associated with mean knowledge and practice of study respondents. Conclusion This study indicates that lack of awareness about Hepatitis B, its route of transmission and modes of prevention among the medical students entering into the profession. Similarly, 95.3% the students were not fully vaccinated against Hepatitis B, which makes them vulnerable to the disease. PMID:24278151
Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Kibret, Kelemu Tilahun
BACKGROUND: The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. METHODS: In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle
James G Logan; James I Cook; Nina M Stanczyk; Sue J Welham
Background: Epidemiologic studies of choline and betaine intakes have been sparse because a food-composition database was not available until recently. The physiologic relevance of a variation in dietarycholineandbetaineinthegeneralpopulationandthevalidity of intake assessed by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) have not been evaluated. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the physiologic relevanceandvalidityofcholineandbetaineintakesmeasuredbyan FFQ. Design: We examined the relations between choline and betaine intakes
Eunyoung Cho; Steven H Zeisel; Paul Jacques; Jacob Selhub; Lauren Dougherty; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett
The objective of the present study was to develop a scale designed to assess the consequences of working memory deficits in everyday life. The Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ) is a self-administered scale, addressing three dimensions of working memory: short-term storage, attention, and executive control. The normative sample included 313 healthy participants. The patient group included 69 brain injured patients, who
Claire Vallat-Azouvi; Pascale Pradat-Diehl; Philippe Azouvi
Addresses the relationship between the scholarship of teaching and learning (STL) and faculty assessment. Derives two conclusions: (1) significant opportunities exist for sociologists to contribute to STL within faculty assessment ; and (2) conceptual and empirical STL can be conducted within a sociological framework to improve assessment methods…
Lucal, Betsy; Albers, Cheryl; Ballantine, Jeanne; Burmeister-May, Jodi; Chin, Jeffrey; Dettmer, Sharon; Larson, Sharon
The AD-8 dementia screening questionnaire is a novel tool that allows clinicians to assess changes in cognitive function. This study examined psychometric properties of the test in French-speaking and English-speaking patients, and its impact on diagnostic practice in the geriatric assessment clinics of a university health centre. Data were extracted from the clinical database for all new patients screened for
Lisa Koski; Haiqun Xie; Susanna Konsztowicz; Roslyn Tetteh
We evaluated the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Childhood Brain Tumor Survivor Questionnaire (pedsFACT-BrS, Version 2). This was specifically directed to patients aged 13 years and older (adolescents). The pedsFACT-BrS was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Korean, following standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy methodology. The psychometric properties of the pedsFACT-BrS in adolescents were
Heejung Yoo; Dong-Seok Kim; Hee-Young Shin; Jin-Shei Lai; David Cella; Hyeon-Jin Park; Young-Shin Ra; Woo-Chul Kim; Yong-Soon Shin
Over the past few decades assessment has been heralded for its key role in the improvement of teaching and learning. However, more recently there have been expressions of uncertainty about whether assessment is in fact delivering on its promised potential. Against this backdrop of uncertainty and circumspection this paper offers a critical reflection on higher education assessment discourses with a
Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ) to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size), 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9?±?0.8 years) completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1?±?0.9 years) completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR) in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70). The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%), but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%). The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the validity to that in the current literature suggests that the NZAFFQ may be used among adolescent New Zealanders to identify dietary patterns and rank them according to food group intake. PMID:22950540
Background Hepatitis-B is a life threatening infection resulting in 0.6 million deaths annually. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B is rising in Pakistan and furthermore, there is paucity of information about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Hepatitis-B patients. Better disease related knowledge is important to have positive attitude and that will bring the good practices which will prevent the further spread of infection. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B Patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 Hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis-B were assessed using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 20, 7 and 8 questions for knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B patients. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p?0.05) were used to establish association between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Results Out of 390 patients, 223 (57.2%) were males, with the majority (136, 34.9%) in the age group of 38–47 years. Mean age of the study cohort was 32.6?±?9.5 years. One hundred and four (26.7%) had primary level education, with 110 (28.2%) working in the private sector. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.48?±?2.7, 3.87?±?1.2 and 2.37?±?1.0, respectively. Education, locality and occupation were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Significant positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.466, p?0.01) knowledge-practice (r?=?0.221, p?0.01) and attitude-practice (r?=?0.224, p?0.01) were also observed from the study results. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that Hepatitis-B patients lack a basic understanding of infection control and management. This can result in the further spread of Hepatitis-B infection. Extensive health education campaigns should be provided to the patients in the hospital as well as in community settings for rational control and management of the disease. PMID:23641704
This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)
Background. Acne vulgaris is a disorder of sebaceous glands mainly affecting the adolescent population. There are some misconceptions about acne not only in the general population but also among the medical students. Methods. Second year medical undergraduate students attending dermatology postings for the first time were included in the study. A questionnaire (in yes or no answer format) with 20 questions on acne, each carrying one mark, was to be answered by the students. The students were categorized into 4 grades based on the marks obtained: Grade I 90% marks and above, Grade II 75%-90%, Grade III 50%-74%, and Grade IV <50% marks obtained. Results. Of the 144 students of the batch, 95 (69.5%) completed both pretest and posttest questionnaires. The average pretest score was 14.1 and that of the posttest was 16.9. The percentage of improvement in mean score from pretest to posttest was 16.5. Fischer's exact test was applied to analyze the improvement in scores between pretest and posttests which is significant at P = 0.015 (P < 0.05). In the paired t-test the improvement in mean scores between pretest and posttest was significant at P < 0.001. PMID:24600519
Shivaswamy, Kanakapura Nanjundaswamy; Shyamprasad, Arakali Lakshminarayana; Sumathy, Tharayil Kunneth; Ranganathan, Chandrashekaran; Kumar, Shanmugan Praveen
Background: The authenticity and true status of tobacco use, especially in the form of smoking among the patient clientele is always a matter of concern for their physicians. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the authenticity of self-reported habit of tobacco smoking among a population sample of male respondents in rural India. Methods: Respondents were asked to complete oral questionnaires that assessed their status of tobacco smoking (if any) as well as duration of tobacco smoking, type of tobacco smoking, and frequency of tobacco smoking. Subsequently, exhaled breath carbon monoxide analysis was performed to detect their amounts of exhaled carbon monoxide. Results: In 175 respondents, the Smoke Check color indicators were significantly different (P < 0.0001) in the respondents who were diagnosed smokers per oral questionnaires (n = 92) versus diagnosed nonsmokers per oral questionnaires (n = 83). The probability statistics of authenticity of oral questionnaires for assessing smoking status showed that self-reporting was only 75% sensitive and 76% specific with 80% positive predictive value and 70% negative predictive value. Conclusion: True status of tobacco smoking with exhaled breath carbon monoxide analysis can be an easy clinical maneuver with community health screening and health promotion implications among patient populations in rural India. PMID:25374853
Aggarwal, Pradeep; Varshney, Saurabh; Kandpal, Sunil D.; Gupta, Divya
Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.
Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)
English and Spanish versions of the FCQ-T [Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151–173] were adapted to create the food chocolate-craving questionnaire trait (FCCQ-T). Female college students from England (N=293), and Spain (N=373) completed the FCCQ-T. Good and similar
Sonia Rodríguez; Cortney S. Warren; Silvia Moreno; Antonio Cepeda-Benito; David H. Gleaves; María del Carmen Fernández; Jaime Vila
Background: A patient-based outcome measure with good measurement properties is urgently needed for use in clinical trials of foot surgery.\\u000a Methods: We evaluated an existing foot pain and disability questionnaire (the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Questionnaire)\\u000a for its suitability as an outcome measure in the context of hallux valgus corrective surgery. Interviews with patients led\\u000a to initial changes, resulting
Jill Dawson; Jane Coffey; Helen Doll; Grahame Lavis; Paul Cooke; Mark Herron; Crispin Jenkinson
. It is a software tool aimed to be used for teaching Computer architecture and organization. It offers the knowledge of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science 545 Technology Square #619a Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A. Abstract of Belgrade, there are a few undergraduate courses in the area of computer architecture and organization
The present study reports data from a large-scale foreign language proficiency assessment to explore trends across a large urban school district. These data were used in conjunction with data from teacher and student questionnaires to make recommendations for foreign language programs across the district. This evaluation process resulted in…
Davin, Kristin J.; Rempert, Tania A.; Hammerand, Amy A.
Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine
Teaching and assessment of student learning are not unrelated activities. Rather, assessment is an integral part of the learning process. Teaching is how instructors help students to discover knowledge and new ideas and ways of organizing and perceiving what they have learned. Assessment of learning incorporates the broad array of techniques that…
Samuels, Linda B.; Coffinberger, Richard L.
Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
Performance assessment is an important task in all levels of education, both as input for identifying remedial needs of individual students and for improving general quality of education. Although explicit assessment measures can be obtained through objective standardized testing, it is much more difficult to capture fuzzier, or tacit, performance…
This study aimed to (a) assess Lebanese secondary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, and (b) explore the relationship between participants' knowledge and attitudes, biographical and academic variables, and commitment to environmental friendly behavior. Participants were 660 grade 10 and grade 11 students. They were administered a questionnaire to assess their environmental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, affect, and intentions, and commitment
MAHA HAIDAR MAKKI; FOUAD ABD-EL-KHALICK; SAOUMA BOUJAOUDE
This study used the Rasch model to assess the unidimensionality and item-person fit of an Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (ASCQ) that is based on the Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) perspective. Knowledge of the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept is particularly useful because academic achievement is…
Joyce, Tan Bei Yu; Yates, Shirley M.
For all their celebration of experiential learning, current approaches to the assessment of prior experiential learning (APEL) are consistent with and, in some respects, trapped within Enlight-enment theories of knowledge. Alternative epistemologies offered by post-modernist, feminist, and anti-racist theory suggest a different conceptual underpinning for APEL. Reinscribed within an epistemology of situated knowledge, APEL can grant visibility to outsider knowledge
Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)
Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the "Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults" ("ARIK-A"), the only nationally normed (n?=?468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data…
Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C. A.; Coleman, MariBeth
Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…
Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.
The authors explored the use of the Practice Evaluation Knowledge Scale (PEKS) to assess student perception of acquisition and retention of practice evaluation knowledge from an undergraduate research methods class. The authors sampled 2 semesters of undergraduate social work students enrolled in an introductory research methods course.…
Baker, Lisa R.; Pollio, David E.; Hudson, Ashley
Two experiments involving 125 college and graduate students examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology and biology and assessed cross-domain performance in physics. Patterns of knowledge, interest, and performance fit well with the premises of the Model of Domain Learning. (SLD)
Alexander, Patricia A.; And Others
Based in Shulman's idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has emerged as a useful frame for describing and understanding the goals for technology use in preservice teacher education. This paper addresses the need for a survey instrument designed to assess TPACK for preservice teachers. The paper…
Schmidt, Denise A.; Baran, Evrim; Thompson, Ann D.; Mishra, Punya; Koehler, Matthew J.; Shin, Tae S.
This study examined the perceptions of a national sample of school psychologists in the United States regarding their knowledge, preferred roles and training needs in the assessment of nine prominent childhood internalizing disorders. Knowledge about all disorders was rated by respondents as being at least fairly important. In particular,…
Miller, David N.; Jome, Larae M.
BACKGROUND: Physician nonadherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations contributes to underuse of screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians’ knowledge of CRC screening guidelines for average-risk individuals, perceived barriers to screening and practice behaviours. METHODS: Between October 2004 and March 2005, staff physicians working in three university-affiliated hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, were surveyed. Self-administered questionnaires assessed knowledge of risk classification and current guidelines for average-risk individuals, as well as perceptions of barriers to screening and practice behaviours. RESULTS: All 65 invited physicians participated in the survey, including 46 (70.8%) family medicine physicians and 19 (29.2%) general internists. Most physicians knew that screening should begin at 50 years of age, all knew to screen men and women and 92% said they screened average-risk patients. Fifty-seven (87.7%) physicians correctly identified three common characteristics associated with high risk for developing CRC. Physicians who screened average-risk patients preferred fecal occult blood testing (88.3%) and colonoscopy (88.3%) to flexible sigmoidoscopy (10.0%) and double-contrast barium enema (30.0%). Most physicians knew the correct screening periodicity for fecal occult blood testing (87.6%), but only 40% or fewer could identify correct screening periodicities for the other modalities. Barriers and facilitators focused on health care delivery system improvements, better evidence on which to base recommendations and development of practical screening modalities. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians lacked knowledge of the recommended screening modalities and periodicities to appropriately screen average-risk individuals. Because CRC screening can reduce mortality, efforts to improve physician delivery should focus on physician knowledge and changes to the health care delivery system. PMID:17111053
Sewitch, Maida J; Burtin, Pascal; Dawes, Martin; Yaffe, Mark; Snell, Linda; Roper, Mark; Zanelli, Patrizia; Pavilanis, Alan
Background Subcutaneous self-injection of medication has benefits for the patient and healthcare system, but there are barriers such as dexterity problems and injection anxiety that can prevent self-injection being used effectively. An accurate method of evaluating patients' experiences with self-injection would enable assessment of their success in giving self-injections and the likelihood of them adhering to a self-injection regimen. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure overall patient experience with subcutaneous self-injection (the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire [SIAQ]), and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods The construct validity and reliability of the SIAQ were tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who volunteered to inject certolizumab pegol using a standard syringe during an open-label multinational extension trial of the long-term safety and efficacy of this drug. The SIAQ PRE module was self-completed before the first self-injection, and the POST module was self-completed following each of three fortnightly self-injections. Results Ninety-seven patients completed the SIAQ. All items correlated well with their respective domains in confirmatory factor analysis. As predicted, compared with other participants, patients with very low scores (less than 3 out of 10) in PRE causal domains (Feelings about injections and Self-confidence) were significantly less satisfied with their first self-injection, as were patients with a very low score in any POST causal domain (Self-confidence, Feelings about injections, Injection-site reactions and Ease of use), demonstrating known-groups validity. Causal domain scores generally correlated most strongly with the Satisfaction with self-injection domain, supporting convergent validity. The SIAQ demonstrated internal consistency and reproducibility; Cronbach's ? and the test-retest coefficient were > 0.70 for all domains. Sensitivity and responsiveness were also shown, where measurable. Each language version showed structural validity. Conclusion The SIAQ was demonstrated to be a valid, reliable tool in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21232106
The purpose of this research was to amend the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks, & Russell, 1986) in line with contemporary imagery modality and perspective conceptualizations, and to test the validity of the amended questionnaire (i.e., the VMIQ-2). Study 1 had 351 athletes complete the 3-factor (internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery) 24-item VMIQ-2. Following single-factor confirmatory factor analyses and item deletion, a 12-item version was subject to correlated traits / correlated uniqueness (CTCU) analysis. An acceptable fit was revealed. Study 2 used a different sample of 355 athletes. The CTCU analysis confirmed the factorial validity of the 12-item VMIQ-2. In Study 3, the concurrent and construct validity of the VMIQ-2 was supported. Taken together, the results of the 3 studies provide preliminary support for the revised VMIQ-2 as a psychometrically valid questionnaire. PMID:18490791
Roberts, Ross; Callow, Nichola; Hardy, Lew; Markland, David; Bringer, Joy
Background Specific knowledge and skills are needed to work effectively with an interpreter, but most doctors have received limited training. Self-assessed competency may not accurately identify training needs. Purposes The purpose of this study is to explore the association between self-assessed competency at working with an interpreter and the ability to identify elements of good practice, using a written vignette. Methods A mailed questionnaire was sent to 619 doctors and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland. Results 58.6% of respondents considered themselves to be highly competent at working with a professional interpreter, but 22% failed to mention even one element of good practice in response to the vignette, and only 39% could name more than one. There was no association between self-rated competency and number of elements mentioned. Conclusions Training efforts should challenge the assumption that working with an interpreter is intuitive. Evaluation of clinicians' ability to work with an interpreter should not be limited to self-ratings. In the context of large-scale surveys, written vignettes may provide a simple method for identifying knowledge of good practice and topics requiring further training. PMID:22715421
Hudelson, Patricia; Perneger, Thomas; Kolly, Veronique; Junod Perron, Noelle
A physical activity questionnaire from which total daily energy expenditure (TEE) could be estimated was developed for adult Hong Kong Chinese subjects, and its reliability and validity examined. The questionnaire was based on questionnaires used in Caucasians, and adapted for local lifestyle after focus group meetings involving subjects of all age groups. The questionnaire was administered to 94 subjects, consisting of healthy adults, the elderly, and two patient groups (those with renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and those with cancer). Seventy-one subjects were reinterviewed within 14 days to test reliability. Validity was examined in 31 normal subjects by measuring the basal metabolic rate (BMR) by indirect calorimetry and multiplying by the physical activity level (PAL) obtained from published studies using the doubly labelled water method and also from FAO/WHO/UNU to obtain the TEE. The intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability rages from 0.7 to 0.8 for all subject groups. The mean estimated TEE from the questionnaire was not significantly different from the mean value derived from measured BMR x PAL. The mean bias ranged from an underestimation of 27 kcal to overestimation of 215 kcal. However, the limits of variability were wide. Age was inversely related to the energy expended for occupational activities, but was positively associated with energy expended in leisure activities. Women spent less energy on occupational and exercise activities, and more on caretaking activities. Those with disease were also less likely to participate in caretaking activities. We conclude that this questionnaire may be a useful tool for future studies where energy expenditure needs to be estimated in various settings in the Hong Kong Chinese population. PMID:11400476
Liu, B; Woo, J; Tang, N; Ng, K; Ip, R; Yu, A
The aim of this publication is the comparison of the data characterizing asthma prevalence obtained from standardized questionnaire (SQ) and video-questionnaire (VQ) used in epidemiological study ISAAC--Pozna?. Number of positive answers to questions concerning wheezing ever, current wheezing, night symptoms were lower in VQ. The percentage of children reporting exercise induced asthma didn't differ in both methods. Severe asthma attacks were reported more frequently in VQ. VQ may eliminate the differences in perception and interpretation of asthma symptoms, but presentation of severe symptoms leads to underestimation of asthma problem. PMID:10354684
Breborowicz, A; Swiat?y, A; Alkiewicz, J; Moczko, J
This article discusses the purposes and practices of assessment in art education. In so doing, it comes out strongly in favour of practices that promote and cultivate the dispositions that lead to self-regulated learning and creativity. (Contains 4 figures.)
The aim of this study was to assess educational needs of health care personnel in vaccine storage and handling. The Immunization Knowledge Assessment Tool (IKAT) was used to evaluate knowledge related to delivery and storage of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine among health care personnel in Idaho. Using descriptive analysis, only 61% of respondents achieved a passing score of 80%. Knowledge deficits were revealed among health care personnel, physicians, and other providers in immunization administration and handling of the MMR vaccine. Scores were highest among registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants. PMID:24075733
Strohfus, Pamela K; Collins, Teresa; Phillips, Vanessa; Remington, Richard
Growing attention has focused on the relationship between religiosity and health outcomes. However, research has been constrained by the limited availability of measures suitable for use with medical patients. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF) in two well-defined samples of medical patients, representing a range of illness severity: 1) 175
Allen C. Sherman; Thomas G. Plante; Stephanie Simonton; Dawn C. Adams; S. Kaay Burris; Casey Harbison
This paper describes the development of a new parent questionnaire (“Five to Fifteen”, or the FTF) for elicitation of symptoms and problems typical of ADHD and its comorbidities. The FTF comprises 181 statements related to behavioural or developmental problems that can be endorsed as either “does not apply” (0), applies sometimes or to some extent” (1), “definitely applies” (2), plus
Björn Kadesjö; Lars-Olof Janols; Marit Korkman; Katarina Mickelsson; Gerd Strand; Anegen Trillingsgaard; Christopher Gillberg
The current study examined whether the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; L. A. Greco, W. Lambert, & R. A. Baer, 2008), a self-report measure of psychological inflexibility for children and adolescents, might be useful for measuring psychological inflexibility for adults. The psychometric properties of the AFQ-Y were examined…
Fergus, Thomas A.; Valentiner, David P.; Gillen, Michael J.; Hiraoka, Regina; Twohig, Michael P.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; McGrath, Patrick B.
Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. Results: The following steps were taken to develop the questionnaire: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from “never or less than once a month” to “12 or more times per day”. Conclusions: The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire. PMID:24554989
Keshteli, AH; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Rajaie, Somayeh; Askari, Gholamreza; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman
The Visual Simplified Respiratory Questionnaire (VSRQ) was designed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It contains eight items: dyspnea, anxiety, depressed mood, sleep, energy, daily activities, social activities and sexual life. Psychometric properties were assessed during a clinical trial that evaluated the impact of tiotropium on HRQoL of COPD patients. These included the determination of structure, internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity with the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), test – retest reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change over two weeks. Minimal important difference (MID) was calculated; cumulative response curves (CRC) were based on the dyspnea item. Psychometric analyses showed that VSRQ structure was unidimensional. The questionnaire demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84), good concurrent validity with SGRQ (Spearman = ?0.70) and clinical validity, good test-retest reproducibility (ICC = 0.77), and satisfactory responsiveness (standardized response mean = 0.57; Guyatt’s statistic = 0.63). MID was 3.4; CRC median value of the ‘minimally improved’ patients was 3.5. In conclusion, VSRQ brevity and satisfactory psychometric properties make it a good candidate for large studies to assess HRQoL in COPD patients. Further validation is needed to extend its use in clinical practice. PMID:19436682
Perez, T; Arnould, B; Grosbois, J-M; Bosch, V; Guillemin, I; Bravo, M-L; Brun, M; Tonnel, A-B
This interactive electronic report provides an overview of an innovative new instrument developed by researchers at the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to authentically measure teachers' formative assessment practices in mathematics. The Teacher Analysis of Student Knowledge, or TASK, instrument assesses mathematics…
Supovitz, Jonathan; Ebby, Caroline B.; Sirinides, Philip
The standardized test for the assessment of cognitive skills has become the principal output variable used by economists and instructional evaluators for studying schooling. Its widespread use in instructional evaluation has raised concerns by researchers in the areas of both group and individual knowledge assessment. Because of its dominance as a measure of output of schooling, it is essential that
James E. Bruno
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
Current difficulties in the assessment of practice of qualified nurses undertaking courses in critical care nursing are outlined and discussed. The evaluation and development of previously identified core competencies for intensive care nurses is discussed.The use of the National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework as a framework for the assessment of practice of nurses undertaking courses in intensive care
Christopher McLean; Eloise Monger; Isabella Lally
People use external knowledge representations (EKRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with EKRs is central to becoming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, EKRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Five key roles of EKRs in educational assessment are…
Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.
Evidence-based health care decisions are best informed by comparisons of all relevant interventions used to treat conditions in specific patient populations. Observational studies are being performed to help fill evidence gaps. Widespread adoption of evidence from observational studies, however, has been limited because of various factors, including the lack of consensus regarding accepted principles for their evaluation and interpretation. Two task forces were formed to develop questionnaires to assist decision makers in evaluating observational studies, with one Task Force addressing retrospective research and the other Task Force addressing prospective research. The intent was to promote a structured approach to reduce the potential for subjective interpretation of evidence and drive consistency in decision making. Separately developed questionnaires were combined into a single questionnaire consisting of 33 items. These were divided into two domains: relevance and credibility. Relevance addresses the extent to which findings, if accurate, apply to the setting of interest to the decision maker. Credibility addresses the extent to which the study findings accurately answer the study question. The questionnaire provides a guide for assessing the degree of confidence that should be placed from observational studies and promotes awareness of the subtleties involved in evaluating those. PMID:24636373
Berger, Marc L; Martin, Bradley C; Husereau, Don; Worley, Karen; Allen, J Daniel; Yang, Winnie; Quon, Nicole C; Mullins, C Daniel; Kahler, Kristijan H; Crown, William
Evidence-based healthcare decisions are best informed by comparisons of all relevant interventions used to treat conditions in specific patient populations. Observational studies are being performed to help fill evidence gaps. However, widespread adoption of evidence from observational studies has been limited due to a variety of factors, including the lack of consensus regarding accepted principles for their evaluation and interpretation. Two Task Forces were formed to develop questionnaires to assist decision makers in evaluating observational studies, with one Task Force addressing retrospective research and the other prospective research. The intent was to promote a structured approach to reduce the potential for subjective interpretation of evidence and drive consistency in decision-making. Separately developed questionnaires were combined into a single questionnaire consisting of 33 items. These were divided into two domains: relevance and credibility. Relevance addresses the extent to which findings, if accurate, apply to the setting of interest to the decision maker. Credibility addresses the extent to which the study findings accurately answer the study question. The questionnaire provides a guide for assessing the degree of confidence that should be placed from observational studies and promotes awareness of the subtleties involved in evaluating those. PMID:24636373
Berger, Marc L; Martin, Bradley C; Husereau, Don; Worley, Karen; Allen, Dan; Yang, Winnie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Kahler, Kristijan; Quon, Nicole C.; Devine, Scott; Graham, John; Cannon, Eric; Crown, William
Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.
Rosario Partidario, Maria, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Sheate, William R., E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning Ltd, London, 1E, The Chandlery, 50 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7QY (United Kingdom)
Knowledge, attitudes and decision-making in Czech women with atypical results of prenatal screening tests for the most common chromosomal and morphological congenital defects in the fetus: Selected questionnaire results.
AIMS: The primary aim was to investigate variables affecting compliance in pregnant women recommended for genetic consultation for abnormal screening test results, family predisposition or medical history. Our main focus was on a women's knowledge of particular screening tests, their initial feelings and changes in these feeling with time, as well as variables relevant to further decision making. METHODS: We used an anonymous questionnaire based on previous qualitative research. The questions were formulated by a medical geneticist, and the questionnaires were distributed prior to prenatal screening tests performed by doctors or trained nurses. The research cohort consisted of 271 women aged 16-42 years. Six hypotheses were tested using the statistical programme STATISTICA; significance levels were set to P<0.05. RESULTS: The questionnaire results showed insufficient knowledge. The women were confused about invasive, screening and ultrasound tests. Genetic test recommendation was largely associated with stress in these patients. Between recommendation and consultation, the women mostly looked for support from their partners. There was a surprisingly low percentage of women who looked for help from their medical specialists and a surprisingly high percentage of those who did not seek any help at all. CONCLUSION: Women's distress can be reduced if the information about recommended genetic consultation is conveyed correctly and this can also help them make the right informed decision about their future course of action. PMID:23774847
English and Spanish versions of the FCQ-T [Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173] were adapted to create the food chocolate-craving questionnaire trait (FCCQ-T). Female college students from England (N=293), and Spain (N=373) completed the FCCQ-T. Good and similar measurement fits for the English and Spanish versions were found. In concordance with the higher consumption of chocolate in Britain, British women reported greater chocolate cravings than Spanish women. Overall, the FCCQ-T appears a well-suited instrument to investigate chocolate cravings in English- and Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:17324486
Rodríguez, Sonia; Warren, Cortney S; Moreno, Silvia; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Gleaves, David H; Fernández, María del Carmen; Vila, Jaime
Investigated the development and utility of the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire—Anxiety Scale (NASSQ-A)\\u000a for youth. Participants in the initial anxiety-disordered (AD) sample were 68 children with a principal diagnosis of generalized\\u000a anxiety disorder (GAD) or social phobia (SP), and participants in the non anxiety-disordered (NAD) sample were 37 children\\u000a with no anxiety or mood disorder. Findings were then cross-validated on
Erica D. Sood; Philip C. Kendall
The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy. PMID:25337150
Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-xiao; Zhu, Yu
Following the trend in science and engineering education generated by the visible impact created by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), the investigator developed a Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory (PSCI). PSCI fills the need of standardized concept tests for undergraduate education in photonics and electrical engineering. The structure of the PSCI test followed a concept map reflecting the input from a panel of experts from different universities and from a survey of textbooks currently used in engineering schools in the United States. Based on the statistical analysis of the scores and response patterns, the test was calibrated as an instrument to measure participants' cognitive ability independent of items' difficulty. The models employed were the Rasch Model and the Rasch Partial Credit Model. The estimation procedure employed was Conditional Maximum Likelihood. The analysis was carried on using algorithms written in the open-source language R. The current PSCI BETA test contains eighteen calibrated items covering six concepts of the physics of semiconductors. PSCI BETA may be used for three purposes: individual student diagnostic if applied at the beginning of a physics of semiconductors course; predictor for students' academic performance in the field of semiconductors if applied at the end of instruction; assessment instrument for instructional strategies if applied both for pre- and post-instruction. The PSCI BETA instrument can be applied in any English speaking college setting. The main results of the PSCI research are: ranking persons' ability related to the physics of semiconductors on an objective linear scale, building a diagnose matrix that may be utilized by instructors for choosing an optimal teaching approach and by students for remediation, and demonstrating a calibration method for small sample size.
This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8). In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example). The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84) for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists. PMID:23538428
Marengo, Glaucia; Paola, Ana Paula Borges de; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Correr, Gisele Maria; Losso, Estela Maris
Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9?months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine?months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9?months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893
Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom
Background In fall of 2004, the authors began an investigation to characterize the correlations between the storage of Household Hazardous Materials and the associated health risks, particularly to children. The study area selected was Genesee County, Michigan, near Flint, with data to be collected by a phone survey of residents and through the acquisition of county hospital records containing procedure codes indicating treatment for poison emergencies, and review of poison control center data. Methods A focus group was used to identify key topics and relationships within these data for improving the phone survey questionnaire and its analysis. Results The focus group was successful in identifying the key issues with respect to all the data collection objectives, resulting in a significantly shorter and more topically focused survey questionnaire. Execution time of the phone survey decreased from 30 to 12 minutes, and useful relationships between the data were revealed, e.g., the linkage between reading food labels and reading labels on containers containing potentially harmful substances. Conclusion Focus groups and their preparatory planning can help reveal data interrelationships before larger surveys are undertaken. Even where time and budget constraints prevent the ability to conduct a series of focus groups, one successful focus group session can improve survey performance and reduce costs. PMID:16092959
Kaufman, Martin M; Smolinske, Susan; Keswick, David
Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15–49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region. PMID:24643170
Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva
Background To frame interventions, it is useful to understand context- and time-specific correlates of children’s physical activity. To do this, we need accurate assessment of these correlates. There are currently no measures that assess correlates at all levels of the social ecological model, contain items that are specifically worded for the lunchtime and/or after-school time periods, and assess correlates that have been conceptualised and defined by children. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the lunchtime and after-school Youth Physical Activity Survey for Specific Settings (Y-PASS) questionnaires. Methods The Y-PASS questionnaire was administered to 264 South Australian children (146 boys, 118 girls; mean age?=?11.7?±?0.93 years). Factorial structure and internal consistency of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy lunchtime and after-school subscales were examined through an exploratory factor analysis. The test-retest reliability of the Y-PASS subscales was assessed over a one-week period on a subsample of children (lunchtime Y-PASS: n?=?12 boys, 12 girls, mean age of 11.6?±?0.8 years; after-school Y-PASS: n?=?9 boys, 13 girls; mean age?=?11.4?±?0.9 years). Results For the lunchtime Y-PASS, three factors were identified under each of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy subscales. For the after-school Y-PASS, six factors were identified in the intrapersonal subscale, four factors in the sociocultural subscale and seven factors in the physical environmental/policy subscale. Following item reduction, all subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha?=?0.78 – 0.85), except for the lunchtime sociocultural subscale (Cronbach alpha?=?0.55). The factors and items demonstrated fair to very high test-retest reliability (ICC?=?0.26 – 0.93). Conclusion The preliminary reliability and factorial structure evidence suggests the Y-PASS correlate questionnaires are robust tools for measuring correlates of context-specific physical activity in children. The multi-dimensional factor structure provides justification for exploring physical activity correlates from a social ecological perspective and demonstrates the importance of developing items that are context specific. Further development and refinement of the Y-PASS questionnaires is recommended, including a confirmatory factor analysis and exploring the inclusion of additional items. PMID:24885601
Longitudinal microvascularity in Achilles tendinopathy (power Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time–intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study
Aim To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms,\\u000a using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles (VISA-A)].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time–intensity\\u000a curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing
Paula J. Richards; Iain W. McCall; Christopher Day; John Belcher; Nicola Maffulli
This study examined personal attitudes of 152 Bachelors of Science in Nursing (BSN), registered nurse (RN) to BSN, and master's students enrolled in a school of nursing in the southwestern United States toward culturally diverse patients and their perceived knowledge of specific cultural practices and culture-specific skills. Three instruments were used to collect data: the Ethnic Attitude Scale-Part I, the Transcultural Questionnaire, and a demographic survey. Findings reveal that students in all three programs had a relatively low knowledge base about specific cultural groups. The only statistically significant difference found in attitudes, perceived knowledge of cultural patterns, or perceived cultural skills by program was the slightly higher perceived ability of generic BSN students to distinguish between concepts such as ethnocentrism and discrimination, intra- and intercultural diversity, and ethnicity and culture. Similar to other studies of measurement of provider attitudes and perceived cultural knowledge, the results of this study reinforce the struggle experienced by educators and the challenges faced by health care administrators grappling with teaching and delivering culturally competent care. The findings imply that nurse educators need to examine alternate models and teaching strategies to move students along the continuum of cultural learning. PMID:11712116
Bond, M L; Kardong-Edgren, S; Jones, M E
This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…
Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods. PMID:21845151
Leifman, Hakan; Rehnman, Charlotta; Sjoblom, Erika; Holgersson, Stefan
Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756
Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M
While risk assessment continues to drive most environmental management decision-making, its methods and assumptions have been\\u000a criticized for, among other things, perpetuating environmental injustice. The justice challenges to risk assessment claim\\u000a that the process ignores the unique and multiple hazards facing low-income and people of color communities and simultaneously\\u000a excludes the local, non-expert knowledge which could help capture these unique
Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledge questionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wheatley, Virginia; Schaffner, Donald; Bruhn, Christine; Blalock, Lydia; Maurer, Jaclyn
The role of science in policy and decision-making has been an issue of intensive debate over the past decade. The concept of knowledge brokerage has been developing in this context contemplating issues of communication, interaction, sharing of knowledge, contribution to common understandings, as well as to effective and efficient action. For environmental and sustainability policy and decision-making the discussion has addressed more the essence of the issue rather than the techniques that can be used to enable knowledge brokerage. This paper aims to contribute to covering this apparent gap in current discussion by selecting and examining empirical cases from Portugal and the United Kingdom that can help to explore how certain environmental and sustainability assessment approaches can contribute, if well applied, to strengthen the science-policy link. The cases show that strategic assessment approaches and techniques have the potential to promote knowledge brokerage, but a conscious effort will be required to design in genuine opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange and transfer as part of assessment processes.
Sheate, William R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning, London (United Kingdom); Partidario, Maria Rosario, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)
Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637
PurposeWe investigated the effectiveness and durability of transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis using 2 new prostatitis specific assessments in a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled trial.
J. Curtis Nickel; Ron Sorensen
Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
In light of attempts to build a stronger appreciation for knowledge that is often constructed by the dominant Western culture's standards, this article focuses on the efforts to create agency among classroom teachers who teach in rural Alaskan schools. In discussions around the theories of assessment--the focal point of a summer course examined…
Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Charles, Walkie
We use a construct-based assessment approach to measure learning progression of energy concepts across physical, life, and earth science contexts in middle school grades. We model the knowledge integration construct in six levels in terms of the numbers of ideas and links used in student-generated explanations. For this study, we selected 10 items…
Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
Developed and administered 17-item instrument to assess knowledge of specific mental health problems (depression, agitation, disorientation) and behavioral approaches to them to 191 nurse's aides and 21 clinicians with training in behavioral management and experience with older nursing home residents. Aides averaged 11 correct answers; clinicians…
Spore, Diana L.; And Others
Discussion of structural knowledge assessment for large groups focuses on the features of a "KNOT" computer program which uses a network similarity index (NETSIM) to compare novice and expert concept maps. Treatment in three high school physics classes investigated reliability as well as content, construct, concurrent, and predictive validities.…
Pinkerton, K. David
In this study we propose a theoretical construct (called "rhetorical competence") that represents the ability of readers to detect, understand, and use the "linguistic cues" or "discourse markers" that texts contain. We measure one of the three postulated components of rhetorical competence (knowledge of textual integration markers), assessing…
Sanchez, Emilio; Garcia, J. Ricardo
Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…
The paper describes the concept map based knowledge assessment demonstrating its main functionality on the basis of screenshots and presenting the three-tier client- server architecture of the system in terms of components, their functions and interaction. Underlying conceptions and current development directions related to the implementation of learner's supports are discussed as well.
Marks Vilkelis; Alla Anohina; Romans Lukashenko
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by a job market by systematically analyzing classified advertisements of position openings. It suggests appropriate methodological techniques to conduct such a study and compares these to traditional methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – While this paper discusses several methods used to assess the
Madhav N. Segal; Edmund K. Hershberger; Talaibek Osmonbekov
The primary purpose of this study was to design and validate a measure of teacher knowledge of Universal Design for Assessment (TK-UDA). Guided by a validity framework, a number of inferences, assumptions, and evidences supported this investigation. By addressing a series of research questions, evidence was garnered for the use of the measure to…
Jamgochian, Elisa Megan
Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…
Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
BACKGROUND: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is well known internationally and widely used for scoring the severity of illness in psychiatry. Problems with GAF show a need for its further development (for example validity and reliability problems). The aim of the present study was to identify gaps in current knowledge about properties of GAF that are of interest for further
I. H. Monrad Aas
It is important for academic credibility that the process of prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR) keeps learning and knowledge as its foundational tenets. Doing so ensures PLAR's recognition as a fertile ground for learners' cognitive and personal growth. In many postsecondary venues, PLAR is often misunderstood and confused with…
Retrospective assessment of asbestos exposure--II. At the job level: Complementarity of job-specific questionnaire and job exposure matrices. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22 (Suppl. 2): S96-S105. The assessments of asbestos exposure by two a priori job exposure matrices (JEM) and by a job-specific questionnaire (SQ) are compared at job level. The data used for the comparison were generated by an ongoing case-control study on lung cancer in a region of northern Germany with a relatively high past prevalence of asbestos exposure. Among job periods assessed as unexposed by either JEM, 96% are recognized as such by the SQ. Discrepancies between the SQ and JEM were observed in jobs rated potentially exposed by the JEM. Despite varying estimates, the JEM and SQ were consistent as regards the relative classification of job periods by probability of exposure. The concordance of the methods, estimated by Kappa statistics, was stronger for the two JEM than for either of the JEM and the SQ. The identification of specific occupation/industry combinations in which discrepancies were most frequent and the comparison with expert ratings in some jobs yield insights into the sources of the disagreement between the methods. The misclassification of exposure by the JEM usually results in an overestimation of exposure. This is essentially related to loss of information due to the use of job codes as surrogates for job task descriptions and to the insufficiency of published data on asbestos exposure in different industries. As regards the SQ, two main sources of potential loss of sensitivity were identified: 1) possible omission of indirect sources of exposure by this method, 2) possible incompleteness of the SQ. The present comparison of methods of asbestos exposure assessment does not allow any one approach to be considered superior to another. Indeed, as proposed by Ahrens et al. in Part I of the study, both should be used to ensure optimal epidemiological performance. PMID:8132399
Orlowski, E; Pohlabeln, H; Berrino, F; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U; Grossgarten, K; Iwatsubo, Y; Jöckel, K H; Brochard, P
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy. PMID:19085285
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Steger, Frazier, Oishi, and Kaler (2006) into Turkish and examine the measurement and structural invariance of this scale across Turkish (N = 815) and U.S. (N = 207) samples. Our findings indicated that the hypothesized 2-factor model of the MLQ fit the data well for both Turkish and U.S. samples. Results also provided support for the full metric invariance, partial scalar invariance, and partial invariance of residual variances of the MLQ across the 2 samples (i.e., Turkish and U.S.). Supporting the structural invariance, we found that factor variances and covariances were equivalent across the 2 groups. Internal consistency reliability analyses revealed a Cronbach's alpha value of .88 for the MLQ Presence scale and .90 for the Search scale. Our findings also provided preliminary support for the convergent validity of the Turkish version of the MLQ (MLQ-TR). Contrary to findings in other collectivist cultures, the relationship between Search and Presence was negative in Turkish culture. These results support the psychometric properties of the MLQ-TR and its partial equivalence to the original U.S. version. PMID:23406365
Boyraz, Güler; Lightsey, Owen Richard; Can, Ahmet
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was validated against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and for a few blood biomarkers in 154 pregnant women at the obstetrics and gynecology department of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India. Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ correlated positively with the average 24-HDR during pregnancy. Energy-adjusted nutrients from the FFQ in all trimesters, except proteins, carbohydrate, folate intake, and vitamin B6 in the third trimester, correlated positively with average 24-HDR. Overestimation by the FFQ compared with the 24-HDR ranged from 9% to 41%. Vitamin B12 status in the first and second trimesters positively correlated with energy-adjusted and absolute vitamin B12 intakes from the FFQ. The Bland Altman plots showed a pattern such that a trend was seen toward underreporting of intakes through the FFQ, with increasing mean intakes by the 2 methods, considering 24-HDR as the reference tool. We conclude that the FFQ is a valid tool to measure dietary intakes during pregnancy. PMID:23000797
Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Soares, Mario J; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Kurpad, Anura V
The Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) self-report questionnaire asks children to categories their time in 30?min blocks under activity codes and activity intensity (ActInt). Text and visual descriptors of ActInt are used which include posture and stepping intensity. This study aimed to objectively examine postures and stepping activity associated with PDPAR ActInt. Forty-three (19M/24F) 11-13?year children completed the PDPAR and wore a physical activity monitor (8?d). Within 30?min blocks the % sitting/lying, standing and stepping, steps, cadence and sit-to-stand transitions (STS) were examined by PDPAR ActInt across and within all activity codes. Data (14?083 30?min blocks) showed from light to moderate ActInt lower sedentary time, higher standing and stepping time, steps, sit-to-stand transitions and cadence (all P < 0.001). Between moderate and hard ActInt, time sedentary was lower and time stepping, steps and STS higher (all P < 0.005). No significant differences between hard and very hard. There was a wide variation of activity levels between activity codes within ActInt. ActInt within the PDPAR was not used consistently between activity codes. However, over all codes children demonstrated that they could distinguish between light and moderate and in some objective measures between moderate and hard, but not between hard and very hard ActInt. PMID:25340303
McBrearty, Donough; McCrorie, Paul; Granat, Malcolm; Duncan, Elaine; Stansfield, Ben
Objective To determine the level of knowledge concerning Sudden Unexpected Death in the Young (SUDY) among Canadian medical students and recent graduates (?5?years after graduating). Design A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing a standardised, multiple choice, online questionnaire which assessed basic knowledge of SUDY. Setting Canadian medical schools and residency training programmes. Participants 614 Canadian medical students (in either their penultimate or final year) and recent graduates (?5?years after graduating) completed an anonymous online questionnaire. Primary and secondary outcome measures The level of knowledge regarding molecular aetiology, clinical presentation, pharmacological management and modes of inheritance of six of the commonest conditions causing SUDY, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), long QT syndrome (LQT) and Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome (WPW), were compared between medical students and recent graduates. Questions were broken down into basic knowledge and advanced categories and analysed as a secondary outcome measure. Results Of 614 responses, approximately two-thirds were answered by recent graduates, who generally scored 10% higher on all subject categories than medical students. Overall, questions regarding HCM were best answered (40%), followed by WPW syndrome (32%), CPVT (30%), ARVC (23%), Brugada syndrome (21%) and LQT syndrome (17%). Questions categorised as basic knowledge were answered 30% and 39% correctly in medical student and recent graduate groups, respectively, and those in the advanced category were answered 20% and 25% correctly. Conclusions Survey respondents fared poorly when answering questions regarding SUDY, which may be a reflection of inadequate medical education regarding these disorders. Standardised teaching regarding SUDY needs to occupy a stronger focus in Canadian medical curricula in order to prevent more unnecessary deaths by these syndromes in the future. PMID:23242483
Huisma, Felicity F; Potts, James E; Gibbs, Karen A; Sanatani, Shubhayan
Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666
Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M
Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) are increasingly being diagnosed in preschool children. However, the assessment and differential diagnosis of these disorders presents several challenges to clinicians. For example, most rating scales used to help diagnose such problems…
Pelletier, Julie; Collett, Brent; Gimpel, Gretchen; Crowley, Susan
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…
Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.
Videofluoroscopy (VF) is the ‘gold standard’ assessment for oropharyngeal dysphagia and radiographers are beginning to direct this examination independently, yet little is known about the roles and responsibilities of the core professions of radiology and speech and language therapy and their practice in this examination.
Maxine Power; Hans-Ulrich Laasch; Ram S. Kasthuri; David A. Nicholson; Shaheen Hamdy
Objective. To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Design. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom's Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Assessment. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (p<0.0001). Significant knowledge retention was maintained with basic terms, but declined with complex terms between 6 and 12 months. Conclusion. The anthropology assessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT. PMID:25258445
Whitley, Heather P; Parton, Jason M
Objective. To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Design. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom’s Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Assessment. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (p<0.0001). Significant knowledge retention was maintained with basic terms, but declined with complex terms between 6 and 12 months. Conclusion. The anthropology assessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT. PMID:25258445
Parton, Jason M.
Retrospective assessment of asbestos exposure--I. Case-control analysis in a study of lung cancer: efficiency of job-specific questionnaires and job exposure matrices. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22 (Suppl. 2): S83-S95. In a lung cancer study in Northern Germany the asbestos exposure assessment obtained from detailed supplementary questionnaires (SQ) was compared to the assessment obtained by the application of two job exposure matrices (JEM) to the job history. The study includes 391 incident male cases and the same number of controls from the general population, matched by sex, age, and region. Almost 16% of the subjects are considered as never having been exposed to asbestos and 24% are classified as certainly exposed according to both of the JEM, the corresponding percentages of the SQ-method being 68% and 32%. Sixty percent are considered by the JEM as having an intermediate probability of exposure. In general, the agreement between the different methods is better when the exposure definition is restricted to definite exposures, the corresponding Kappa statistic being 0.67 for the comparison between both JEM and 0.44/0.39 between the JEM and the SQ. The positive agreement between SQ and JEM (reference) increases from 12% and 17% for subjects with low probability of exposure to 61% and 69% for those with definite exposures. A ranking according to cumulative exposure shows some dose-response relationship for each of the three methods with a smoking-adjusted OR in the highest category of 1.85 (95% CI: 1.01-3.38) for the SQ method and 2.47 (95% CI: 1.40-4.37) and 2.94 (95% CI: 1.73-4.99) for the two JEM. The results are discussed with reference to the conceptual differences between the methods and their potential scope in future studies. PMID:8132398
Ahrens, W; Jöckel, K H; Brochard, P; Bolm-Audorff, U; Grossgarten, K; Iwatsubo, Y; Orlowski, E; Pohlabeln, H; Berrino, F
Background Along with general measures of treatment satisfaction, treatment-specific and device-specific treatment satisfaction should be assessed in clinical trials, because these latter measures may be more strongly correlated with clinical outcomes. Methods Study participants were 1076 adults (type 1 = 509, type 2 = 567) in clinical trials of Technosphere Insulin®, who completed the SF-36 health-related quality of life questionnaire and the Inhaled Insulin Treatment Questionnaire (IITQ), a new instrument assessing diabetes worries, perceptions of insulin therapy, treatment satisfaction, treatment preference, and inhaler performance. The IITQ was administered twice prior to treatment initiation in the clinical trials, 1-2 weeks apart, and several times during the trials. Inhaler performance was assessed at follow-up visits, after participants had used the device. Results IITQ subscales had acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.68-0.87, median 0.83) and test-retest correlations (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.67-0.90, median 0.82); floor effects (0.2-2.8%) and ceiling effects (0-9.3%) were minimal. Reliabilities for inhaler performance measures were acceptable (alpha = 0.73-0.90, median 0.85); there were no floor effects (0.0%) and ceiling effects (4.9-39.0%) were moderate. There were several modest associations between IITQ scores and measures of health status. Diabetes worries were lower for participants who had better mental health (type 2) and for those with higher BMI; perceptions of insulin therapy were more favorable for participants who had better physical and mental health; treatment satisfaction was higher for patients who had lower BMI (type 2), lower A1c levels, and better physical health (type 2); treatment preference was higher for patients with lower BMI (type 2) and better mental health (type 1). Conclusions - Preliminary findings suggest that the IITQ is a comprehensive, reliable measure of the experience of patients treated with inhaled insulin. PMID:20334647
The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ?16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (?) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (? = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (? = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ? = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ? = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (<100 counts/minute) were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.30) in women and men, respectively. Sedentary behavior correlations showed no sex difference. The validity of sedentary behavior and total physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:24863551
Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:16318012
Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J
Although much effort is being invested in science communication training, the efforts are rarely accompanied by systematic evaluation of learning outcomes; existing evaluations are mainly anecdotal, or specific to a particular program. Standardized assessments will allow comparisons across programs and identification of best practices. This presentation describes the development and piloting of a tool for measuring scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication. The instrument collects four types of data: (1) background information, (2) communication skills, (3) views about science communication, and (4) knowledge about the context of science communication. In the specific area of communication skills, a rationale is proposed for establishing learning goals in seven areas: content, knowledge organization, clarity and language, style, analogy, narrative, and dialogue. The resulting instrument may be used as a baseline survey or as a tool for pre-post evaluation of the learning outcomes of a wide range of science communication training programs and courses.
Lewenstein, B. V.; Baram-Tsabari, A.
Academic institutions are increasingly being held accountable for the quality of education which is, in turn, leading to an increased emphasis on curriculum assessment. This is especially true of geographic information science & technology (GIS&T), in which a rapidly growing profession demands that educational programs produce highly qualified graduates. In response to these demands, the University Consortium of Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) has developed the Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge, to identify the broad spectrum of knowledge, skills and techniques that make up the GIS&T domain. An intended use of this document is to support the development and assessment of GIS&T curricula. The authors address the potential benefits of using the Body of Knowledge through an evaluation of the learning objectives and curriculum of sample courses at two universities. They find that the Body of Knowledge enables robust specification of objectives and curricula, and provides the platform for reproducible and consistent evaluation of both curriculum and, ultimately, student outcomes. It is also flexible in allowing programmes to evaluate curricula based on their own goals and missions, rather than against a single standard curriculum. The full text article may be viewed online or downloaded in PDF format.
Plewe, Brandon, 1968-; Prager, Steven D.
The quality of continuing education in the health professions depends in part upon the success of educators in determining what clinicians need to know to improve practice. Studies are required to build knowledge of assessment, service, and the economies of health care education. All those interested in better systems of education and care must assure the availability of resources adequate to fulfill their primary obligations to improving practice. PMID:20564707
Mazmanian, Paul E
Traditionally, culture has been assessed by qualitative methods. However, quantitative approaches such as culture surveys offer important advantages for both cross-sectional organizational research and knowledge-based cultural change initiatives. The organizational culture inventory© (OCI), an instrument designed for such uses, profiles the culture of organizations and their sub-units in terms of behavioral norms and expectations. Following a review of seminal concepts
Pierre A. Balthazard; Robert A. Cooke
Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients. PMID:24826042
Atavwoda, Abere Tavs; Gabriel, Aina Ayodele
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)
NASA is charged with the responsibility to report on the state of the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part 1 of this report, issued earlier this year, summarized the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program during the last two years. New findings since the last report to Congress was issued in 1988 are presented. Several scientific assessments of the current understanding of the chemical composition and physical structure of the stratosphere are included, in particular how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. These reviews include: a summary of the most recent international assessment of stratospheric ozone; a study of future chlorine and bromine loading of the atmosphere; a review of the photochemical and chemical kinetics data that are used as input parameters for the atmospheric models; a new assessment of the impact of Space Shuttle launches on the stratosphere; a summary of the environmental issues and needed research to evaluate the impact of the newly re-proposed fleet of stratospheric supersonic civil aircraft; and a list of the contributors to this report and the science assessments which have formed our present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere and ozone depletion.
Watson, R. T.; Kurylo, M. J.; Prather, M. J.; Ormond, F. M.
The evaluation of the cost and health implications of agreeing to cover a new health technology is best accomplished using a model that mathematically combines inputs from various sources, together with assumptions about how these fit together and what might happen in reality. This need to make assumptions, the complexity of the resulting framework, the technical knowledge required, as well as funding by interested parties have led many decision makers to distrust the results of models. To assist stakeholders reviewing a model's report, questions pertaining to the credibility of a model were developed. Because credibility is insufficient, questions regarding relevance of the model results were also created. The questions are formulated such that they are readily answered and they are supplemented by helper questions that provide additional detail. Some responses indicate strongly that a model should not be used for decision making: these trigger a "fatal flaw" indicator. It is hoped that the use of this questionnaire, along with the three others in the series, will help disseminate what to look for in comparative effectiveness evidence, improve practices by researchers supplying these data, and ultimately facilitate their use by health care decision makers. PMID:24636375
Jaime Caro, J; Eddy, David M; Kan, Hong; Kaltz, Cheryl; Patel, Bimal; Eldessouki, Randa; Briggs, Andrew H
Background and Objectives The positive outcomes derived from participation in Alcoholics Anonymous-related helping (AAH) found among adults has spurred study of AAH among minors with addiction. AAH includes acts of good citizenship in AA, formal service positions, public outreach, and transmitting personal experience to another fellow sufferer. Addiction research with adolescents is hindered by few validated assessments of 12-step activity among minors. This study provides psychometric findings of the “Service to Others in Sobriety (SOS)” questionnaire as completed by youths. Methods Multi-informant data was collected prospectively from youth self-reports, clinician-rated assessments, biomarkers, and medical chart records for youths (N = 195) after residential treatment. Results Few youths (7%) did not participate in any AAH during treatment. Results indicated the SOS as a unidimensional scale with adequate psychometric properties, including inter-informant reliability (r = .5), internal consistency (alpha = .90), and convergent validity (rs = ?.3 to .3). Programmatic AAH activities distinguished abstinent youths in a random half-sample, and replicated on the other half-sample. The SOS cut-point of 40 indicated high AAH participation. Conclusions and Significance The SOS appears to be a valid measure of AAH, suggesting clinical utility for enhancing treatment and identifying service opportunities salient to sobriety. PMID:23398228
Pagano, Maria E.; Kelly, John F.; Scur, Michael D.; Ionescu, Rebecca A.; Stout, Robert L.; Post, Stephen G.
Background There is a need for a validated short instrument that can be used in routine practice to quantify potential short-term change in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim is to determine the validity and reliability of the VQ11 questionnaire dedicated to the routine assessment of HRQoL. Methods 181 COPD patients (40–85 yrs, I to IV GOLD stages) completed the VQ11, and several tests. One week later, 49 of these patients completed the VQ11 again. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-level hierarchical structure of the VQ11 with 11 items covering three components and HRQoL at a higher level. The VQ11 showed good internal consistency and good reproducibility (r?=?0.88). Concurrent validity showed significant correlations between VQ11 total scores and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire-C (r?=?0.70), Short Form-36 (r?=?-0.66 for the physical component and -0.63 for the mental component). We obtained significant correlations with MRC Dyspnea Grades (r?=?0.59), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score (r?=?0.62), and the BODE index (r?=?0.53). Conclusion The VQ11 has good measurement properties and provides a valid and reliable measure of COPD-specific HRQoL. It is ready for use in routine practice. Clinical registration The study was approved by the University of Montpellier 1 Ethics Committee and the Regional Ethics Committee (authorization number: A00332-53). PMID:24160852
Objective The assessment of eating-disordered behaviors in middle childhood is challenging. Frequently, both child and parents are queried about the child’s eating behavior. However, no direct comparisons between parent and child reports of child eating disturbance have been published. We compared results from the adolescent and parent versions of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-A and QEWP-P, respectively) in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Method The QEWP-A and QEWP-P were administered to 142 overweight (body mass index [BMI] ? 85th percentile) and 121 normal weight (BMI 15th–84th percentile) children, age 9.7 ± 1.9 years, recruited from the community. Results The QEWP-A and QEWP-P showed good agreement for the absence of eating-disordered behavior but were not concordant in terms of the number or type of binge eating, overeating episodes, or compensatory weight control behaviors in the past 6 months. Children categorized by their own reports (QEWP-A) as engaging in no overeating, simple overeating, or binge eating behaviors did not differ significantly in body composition or in eating and general psychopathology. Children categorized according to their parents’ reports (QEWP-P) as engaging in binge eating had significantly greater body adiposity, eating-disordered cognitions, body dissatisfaction, and parent-reported problems (all ps < .001) than children engaging in no overeating or simple overeating according to the QEWP-P. Discussion Child and parent reports of eating behaviors are not concordant regarding the presence of binge eating or compensatory behaviors. Further investigation of the utility of these questionnaires is needed before either can serve as a surrogate for a clinical interview. PMID:15282688
Steinberg, Emily; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Cohen, Marc L.; Elberg, Jane; Freedman, Renee J.; Semega-Janneh, Mariama; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Formative assessment, assessment used to inform subsequent learning, can have a powerful positive impact on student achievement, but little empirical work has been conducted to investigate the role of teachers' knowledge in its practice. This study investigated reciprocal relations between elementary science teachers' formative assessment…
This article describes the development, content, and use of four questionnaires that comprise the Assessment of Campus Climate to Enhance Student Success with the focus on the Faculty Questionnaire. Faculty development activities are described as an example of how the questionnaires can be used to enhance knowledge and change attitudes and…
Vogel, Susan A.; Holt, Janet K.; Sligar, Steven; Leake, Elizabeth
Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment. PMID:24771774
Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
Attaining an understanding of basic principles of inheritance and their implications is crucial for all people as society is confronted with a variety of ethical, sociological and ecological questions generated by the rapid growth of genetic knowledge. College level students are burdened by terminology, have difficulty making associations among related ideas, and often possess misconceptions or fragmented ideas about how traits are inherited. Subject comprehension is evaluated mostly with objective testing techniques that don't show how well students truly understand concepts. This research was done to determine how prior subject knowledge in biology and general cognitive ability affected community college students' understanding of several genetic principles both before and after completing a one-semester college biology course. Understanding of genetic principles was determined with a videotape assessment that evaluated student written explanations of experimental events. The evaluations were then used to place students into three categories: descriptive, transitional, and relational type learners. A subset of students was interviewed to better determine how thoroughly genetic concepts depicted in the videotape program were understood. Prior subject matter knowledge and cognitive level were discovered to be moderately correlated with ability to explain genetic phenomena. Most students in this study were categorized as either descriptive or transitional learners. Descriptive type students gave less detailed explanations, employed less successful problem solving methods, had more misconceptions and used feedback less effectively than did transitional type learners. The study results show that science teachers need to be aware of the heterogeneity existing in their students' background knowledge and cognitive skills. It demonstrated that a large contingency of students, descriptive learners, lack a framework of knowledge upon which to build new concepts or change old ones. Science teachers need to apply meaningful assessment methods as students progress through learning new concepts so that errors in thinking can be diagnosed and remedied with appropriate teaching strategies. It is anticipated that assessment methods that engage students in explaining their understanding of concepts will bring about significant changes in how students learn subjects like genetics and also impact instruction in this crucial area of biological science.
Gerow, Tracy Nelson
Determining students' knowledge structure is important for assessing what a learner knows about a domain of knowledge. Traditional assessment methods are not always appropriate for exploring students' knowledge structure and changes during the learning period. This study investigates how the existing knowledge structure of the learners interacts…
Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment is poor, leading to highly uncertain results. However, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses as well as validations are hardly undertaken. Important recommendations are that cost assessment can be made more comprehensive by including indirect and intangible effects. Furthermore, the importance is highlighted of identifying sources of uncertainties, of reducing them effectively and of documenting remaining ones. One source of uncertainty concerns data sources. A framework for supporting data collection on the European level ensuring minimum data quality standards would facilitate the development and consistency of European and national databases. Furthermore, an improvement of methods is needed with regard to a better understanding and modelling of the damaging processes. In particular, there is a need for a better understanding of the economic response to external shocks and to improve models for indirect cost assessment based on this. Also models to estimate direct economic damage need to be based on more knowledge about the complex processes leading to damages. Moreover, the dynamics of risk due to climate and socio-economic change have to be better considered in the models in order to unveil uncertainties about future developments in the costs of natural hazards. Finally, there is a need for appropriate and transparent tools and guidance to support decision makers in the integration of uncertain cost assessment figures into decision making.
Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
The knowledge, attitudes, and barriers to Jewish genetic diseases (JGDs) and screening and their relative importance in reproductive decision-making were assessed in a population-based sample of Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in Florida. These adults attended educational screening fairs hosted by The Victor Center for the Prevention of Jewish Genetic Diseases at the University of Miami. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used as appropriate to analyze data from a single group pretest/posttest design. Four hundred twelve individuals (mean age?=?24.9; 54.7 % female, 45.3 % male) completed the questionnaires. Participants' level of knowledge increased from pre- to post-intervention (81.4 vs. 91.0 %; p?0.0001). Concern about the possibility of being a carrier of a JGD was significantly higher after an educational session (5-point Likert scale mean difference?=?0.45; p?0.0001), as was their level of concern regarding having an affected child (mean difference?=?0.20; p?0.0001). The number of participants who agreed or strongly agreed that the test results would not have any influence on their reproductive behavior was lower after the session (17.2 vs. 20.8 %; p?0.0001). This study demonstrates that an educational carrier screening program increased knowledge and elucidated awareness of the attitudes and barriers toward JGDs and carrier screening. PMID:24415495
Warsch, Jessica R L; Warsch, Sean; Herman, Elizabeth; Zakarin, Lauren; Schneider, Adele; Hoffman, Jodi; Wasserman, Deborah; Barbouth, Deborah
An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…
Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.
The "knowledge society" has become a central discourse within educational reform. This article posits that the impact of the knowledge society discourse on curriculum and assessment has led to the emergence of what the authors term a new-form/re-form curriculum, and it asks whether what is transacting in contemporary movements in curriculum is…
Looney, Anne; Klenowski, Val
Background: Hospital pharmacists participate in activities that may be considered diagnostic. Two reasoning approaches to diagnosis have been described: non-analytic and analytic. Of the 6 analytic traditions, the probabilistic tradition has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary testing. To the authors’ knowledge, pharmacists’ attitudes toward having a diagnostic role and their diagnostic knowledge and skills have never been studied. Objectives: To describe pharmacists’ attitudes toward the role of diagnosis in pharmacotherapeutic problem-solving and to characterize the extent of pharmacists’ knowledge and skills related to diagnostic literacy. Methods: Pharmacists working within Lower Mainland Pharmacy Services (British Columbia) who spent at least 33% of their time in direct patient care were invited to participate in a prospective observational survey. The survey sought information about demographic characteristics and attitudes toward diagnosis. Diagnostic knowledge and skills were tested by means of 3 case scenarios. The analysis included simple descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to evaluate relationships between responses and experience and training. Results: Of 266 pharmacists invited to participate, 94 responded. The attitudes section of the survey was completed by 90 pharmacists; of these, 80 (89%) agreed with the definition of “diagnosis” proposed in the survey, and 83 (92%) agreed that it is important for pharmacists to have diagnosis-related skills. Respondents preferred an analytic to a non-analytic approach to diagnostic decision-making. The probabilistic tradition was not the preferred method in any of the 3 cases. In evaluating 5 clinical scenarios that might require diagnostic skills, on average 84% of respondents agreed that they should be involved in assessing such problems. Respondents’ knowledge of and ability to apply probabilistic diagnostic tools were highest for test sensitivity (average of 61% of respondents with the correct answers) and lower for test specificity (average of 48% with correct answers) and likelihood ratios (average of 39% with correct answers). Conclusions: Respondents to this survey strongly believed that diagnostic skills were important for solving drug-related problems, but they demonstrated low levels of knowledge and ability to apply concepts of probabilistic diagnostic reasoning. Opportunities to expand pharmacists’ knowledge of diagnostic reasoning exist, and the findings reported here indicate that pharmacists would consider such professional development valuable. PMID:22919102
Chernushkin, Kseniya; Loewen, Peter; de Lemos, Jane; Aulakh, Amneet; Jung, Joanne; Dahri, Karen
Appendix B: Questionnaire B1: Questionnaire #12;Do not write in this space To protect your child many children and adults currently live in the child's household? #12;12a. Please enter the number of children within each given age range that currently reside with the study child. Children 0-3 years old 4
This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and professional practices of pharmacists regarding addiction and patient use of controlled medications. This research project explored the relationship between pharmacy education, perceived and actual knowledge, and professional interactions as it pertains to problems surrounding dependency and addiction. A questionnaire of 25 items was administered at three separate continuing education programs in Florida in
Lynn Lafferty; Tracy S. Hunter; Wallace A. Marsh
The average score of 44 nursing-home nurses on a nutrition knowledge questionnaire was 65%. Scores of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses were significantly different. Nutritional assessment activity correlated with nutritional knowledge. The need for further training regarding nutritional concerns of nursing-home residents was…
Crogan, Neva L.; Shultz, Jill A.; Massey, Linda K.
Purpose – HACCP training is acknowledged as a key requirement for the development of effective HACCP systems. However, there are few measures of the standards of training being offered or of the effectiveness of learning that takes place and no agreed methods to measure HACCP knowledge following training. Sets out to investigate this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A HACCP knowledge questionnaire
Carol A. Wallace; Susan C. Powell; Lynda Holyoak
The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were enrolled in a teaching activity. The teaching activity consisted of a slide show presentation followed by discussion in a regular class. To evaluate the impact of the teaching activity the students were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after the activity. This study aimed: (1) to evaluate knowledge on the use of antibiotics in students of two schools in the north of Portugal and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the school intervention in improving students’ knowledge on correct antibiotic use. We found lack of knowledge among students regarding antibiotic spectra and indications and incorrect attitudes in the pre-test. Significant increases in knowledge were observed after implementation of the teaching activity. Knowledge of the correct use of antibiotics for bacterial diseases rather than viral diseases rose from 43% to 76% in the post-test (p < 0.01). Knowledge of the risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics from their incorrect use rose from 48% to 74% in the post-test (p < 0.05). We believe that it is important to reinforce the teaching activities on microbiology and antibiotic use at the middle school level. PMID:23860183
Azevedo, Maria-Manuel; Pinheiro, Celine; Yaphe, John; Baltazar, Fatima
Introduction: Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) has been shown to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor and a predisposing factor for metabolic syndrome. As general practitioners and cardiologists primarily care for these patients, we sought to assess their knowledge, beliefs and practice patterns with respect to TDS and cardiac health. Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to all 20 cardiologists and a cohort of 128 family practitioners in Victoria, British Columbia. Of the 13 questions, 10 assessed knowledge and beliefs on TDS and 3 assessed current practice patterns. Results: Most respondents believed that TDS is a medical condition (66.7%) and could negatively affect body composition (62%), but a similar majority was unsure whether it was a cardiac risk factor (66.7%). While most believed that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) could improve exercise tolerance (62%), most were unsure if it was beneficial in cardiac patients. Cardiologists were significantly less likely to believe that TRT was beneficial in preventing recurrent myocardial infarction and improving myocardial perfusion (p = 0.0133, 0.00186, respectively). The vast majority (88%) did not screen cardiac patients for TDS. If a patient was identified as having TDS, only10% of those surveyed would refer these patients to a urologist. Conclusion: Despite its prevalence in cardiac patients, TDS is not well-understood by general practitioners and cardiologists; they lack knowledge on its deleterious cardiovascular effects. In their role as men’s health advocates, urologists should educate our colleagues regarding the correlation between TDS and cardiovascular mortality and risk factors. Limitations of this study include small sample size and restricted geographic scope. PMID:24578740
Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Brotherhood, Hilary; Pommerville, Peter J.
The objective of this study is to validate a translated Hebrew version of the FibroFatigue Scale (FFS). The Hebrew version of the FFS was administered to 100 patients fulfilling ACR criteria for classification of FM together with the validated Hebrew version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the validated Hebrew version of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement of pain, anxiety, depression, morning stiffness and global well being. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Spearman correlations. Internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha of reliability. Construct validity of the FFS was evaluated by correlations among the FFS, the FIQ and the subscales of the SF-36. Mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years, and mean age of participants was 53.5 years. Test-retest reliability was between 0.46 and 0.85 for the various FFS items. Internal consistency was 0.89 for the overall FFS. Significant correlations were obtained between the FFS items and the SF-36. These results support the reliability and validity of the data obtained with the Hebrew version of the FSS for detecting and measuring symptom severity in Hebrew speaking patients with FM. PMID:19779725
Ablin, Jacob N; Odes, Lisa; Neumann, Lily; Buskila, Dan
Background Validation of Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is particularly important element, as incorrect information may lead to false associations between dietary factors and diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the FFQ used in NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health) study, by comparing the estimated intakes of fruits and vegetables and of several micro-nutrients with corresponding nutritional biomarkers. Methods Relative validity was assessed in a sample of 922 subjects (452 men and 470 women). Comparisons between FFQ-estimates and their corresponding biomarkers were performed through correlation and cross classification into quintiles by using both crude and energy-adjusted FFQ-estimates. Correlations adjusted for confounders were also computed. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. Results Concerning micro-nutrients, significant correlations were found for vitamin B9, D, E, B12 ?-carotene and iodine in both men and women. Energy-adjustment led to an increase of all correlations cited previously. However, after excluding supplement users, correlations for vitamin D were not significant anymore. Concerning fruits and vegetables, all correlations were significant. Vegetables alone and fruits and vegetables correlated better in men (r around 0.2) than in women (r around 0.1). In men, correlation was also better for vegetables alone and fruits and vegetables than fruits alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate that this FFQ is a reasonable tool to assess intakes of fruits and vegetables and of several micro-nutrients. We conclude that our FFQ is suitable to be used in NESCAV study, although protein and vitamin D estimates should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24195492
Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.
R. Cabello et al.: Spanish Emotion Regulation QuestionnaireEuropean Journalof Psychological of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire Rosario Cabello1, JosÃ© M. Salguero1, Pablo FernÃ¡ndez-Berrocal1, and James J. Gross2 1 University of MÃ¡laga, Spain, 2 Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford
Gross, James J.
The study examined the use of the modified Experiences of Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (ETLQ) in the Finnish context by focusing on its factor structures and comparing them with those for British data. A total of 2,509 Finnish and 2,710 British students completed the questionnaire. The comparison of the factor structures were conducted…
Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Komulainen, Erkki; Entwistle, Noel
The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.
Outcome questionnaires are increasingly used in the current medical practice. Patient reported outcomes serve as an essential and perhaps more relevant means for assessing patients’ response to treatment than clinical measures alone. Many of the procedures performed in plastic surgery are associated with aesthetic outcomes, therefore it is pertinent to thoroughly understand the patient’s perspective of achieved results. Surgeons need to possess the knowledge and skills about outcomes assessments and understand how to apply them to improve quality of care delivered based on evidence. This paper discusses the appropriate use of outcome questionnaires to rigorously evaluate treatment methods based on patient satisfaction and the outcome measurement instruments frequently used in plastic surgery. PMID:23506766
Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.
True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143
Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda
TIME MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP #12;2 Time Management Questionnaire Self Assessment: Answer "Yes" or "No you tend to complete your assignments on time? 3. ____ Have you estimated how long it takes to read schedule time to study for exams? 8. ____ Do you have a job that requires more than 20 hours a week? 9
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Objective: To assess students’ human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants\\/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior, vaccination status, as well as past and preferred sources of information about HPV and sexual
Jessica R. Sandfort; Andrew Pleasant
Identifying toddlers at dietary risk is crucial for determining who requires intervention to improve dietary patterns and reduce health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to develop a simple tool that assesses toddlers' dietary risk and investigate its reliability and validity. The nineteen-item Toddler Dietary Questionnaire (TDQ) is informed by dietary patterns observed in Australian children aged 14 (n 552) and 24 (n 493) months and the Australian dietary guidelines. It assesses the intake of 'core' food groups (e.g. fruit, vegetables and dairy products) and 'non-core' food groups (e.g. high-fat, high-sugar and/or high-salt foods and sweetened beverages) over the previous 7 d, which is then scored against a dietary risk criterion (0-100; higher score = higher risk). Parents of toddlers aged 12-36 months (Socio-Economic Index for Areas decile range 5-9) were asked to complete the TDQ for their child (n 111) on two occasions, 3·2 (SD 1·8) weeks apart, to assess test-retest reliability. They were also asked to complete a validated FFQ from which the risk score was calculated and compared with the TDQ-derived risk score (relative validity). Mean scores were highly correlated and not significantly different for reliability (intra-class correlation = 0·90, TDQ1 30·2 (SD 8·6) v. TDQ2 30·9 (SD 8·9); P= 0·14) and validity (r 0·83, average TDQ ((TDQ1+TDQ2)/2) 30·5 (SD 8·4) v. FFQ 31·4 (SD 8·1); P= 0·05). All the participants were classified into the same (reliability 75 %; validity 79 %) or adjacent (reliability 25 %; validity 21 %) risk category (low (0-24), moderate (25-49), high (50-74) and very high (75-100)). Overall, the TDQ is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying at-risk toddlers in relatively advantaged samples. PMID:24886781
Bell, Lucinda K; Golley, Rebecca K; Magarey, Anthea M
Two studies were conducted to examine the implications of inaccurate self-appraisals in online training. Self-assessment of knowledge moderated the effects of trainees' performance on subsequent performance and attrition. Performance was highest after uniformly positive ratings (i.e., high self-assessment and high performance), followed by…
Sitzmann, Traci; Johnson, Stefanie K.
This paper provides information about Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and TAKS (Accommodated) Phasing in End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments. The purpose of the tests is to: (1) Meet a state mandate; (2) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (3) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state…
Center on Education Policy, 2010
Objectives: Traditionally, summative practical examination in anatomy takes the form of ‘spotters’ consisting of a stream of prosections, radiological images and dissections with pins indicating specific structures. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle™ (a free, open-source web application for producing modular internet-based courses) in addition to the traditional format. This paper reports on an investigation into students’ perceptions of each assessment environment. Methods: Over a 3-year period, practical assessment in anatomy was conducted either in traditional format or online via learning management software called Moodle™. All students exposed to the two examination formats at the College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, were divided into two categories: junior (Year 3) and senior (Year 4). An evaluation of their perception of both examination formats was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of restricted and free response items. Results: More than half of all students expressed a clear preference for the online environment and believed it was more exam-friendly. This preference was higher amongst senior students. Compared to females, male students preferred the online environment. Senior students were less likely to study on cadavers when the examination was conducted online. Specimen quality, ability to manage time, and seating arrangements were major advantages identified by students who preferred the online format. Conclusion: Computer-based practical examinations in anatomy appeared to be generally popular with our students. The students adopted a different approach to study when the exam was conducted online as compared to the traditional ‘steeplechase’ format. PMID:22087381
Inuwa, Ibrahim M; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar
Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of the electrically calculated quantitative pain degree (QPD) and to correlate it with subjective assessments of pain degree including a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Methods We recruited 25 patients with low back pain. Of them, 21 patients suffered from low back pain for more than 3 months. The QPD was calculated using the PainVision (PV, PS-2100; Nipro Co., Osaka, Japan). We applied electrodes to the medial forearm of the subjects and the electrical stimulus was amplified sequentially. Minimum perceived current (MPC) and pain equivalent current (PEC) were defined as minimum electrical stimulation that could be sensed by the subject and electrical stimulation that could trigger actual pain itself. To eliminate individual differences, we defined QPD as the following: QPD=PEC-MPC/MPC. We scored pre-treatment QPD three times at admission and post-treatment QPD once at discharge. The VAS, MPQ, and QPD were evaluated and correlations between the scales were analyzed. Results Result showed significant test-retest reliability (ICC=0.967, p<0.001) and the correlation between QDP and MPQ was significant (at admission SRCC=0.619 and p=0.001; at discharge SRCC=0.628, p=0.001). However, the correlation between QPD and VAS was not significant (at admission SRCC=0.240, p=0.248; at discharge SRCC=0.289, p=0.161). Conclusion Numerical values measured with PV showed consistent results with repeated calculations. Electrically measured QPD showed an excellent correlation with MPQ but not with VAS. These results demonstrate that PV is a significantly reliable device for quantifying the intensity of low back pain. PMID:25379496
Kim, Junho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kong, Sang Won; Kim, Taikon; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-Bog
Background The SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF-10) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) are the most frequently used instruments for measuring self-reported physical function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to develop a crosswalk between scores on the PF-10 and HAQ-DI in RA. Methods Item response theory (IRT) methods were used to co-calibrate both scales using data from 1791 RA patients. The appropriateness of a Rasch-based crosswalk was evaluated by comparing it with crosswalks based on a two-parameter and a multi-dimensional IRT model. The accuracy of the final crosswalk was cross-validated using baseline (n?=?532) and 6-month follow-up (n?=?276) data from an independent cohort of early RA patients. Results The PF-10 and HAQ-DI adequately fit a unidimensional Rasch model. Both scales measured a wide range of functioning, although the HAQ-DI tended to better target lower levels of functioning. The Rasch-based crosswalk performed similarly to crosswalks based on the two-parameter and multidimensional IRT models. Agreement between predicted and observed scale scores in the cross-validation sample was acceptable for group-level comparisons. The longitudinal validity in discriminating between disease response states was similar between observed and predicted scores. Conclusion The crosswalk developed in this study allows for converting scores from one scale to the other and can be used for group-level analyses in patients with RA. PMID:24229416
Individuals with developmental disabilities are 4 to 10 times more likely to become crime victims than individuals without disabilities (D. Sobsey, D. Wells, R. Lucardie, & S. Mansell, 1995). Victimization rates for persons with disabilities is highest for sexual assault (more than 10 times as high) and robbery (more than 12 times as high). There are a number of factors related to individuals' with disabilities susceptibility to interactions with the criminal justice system. In addition to these factors, many significant barriers exist, both real and perceived, that limit investigation and prosecution of these cases. How police officers perceive and understand disability play significant roles in how these cases develop and evolve. The purpose of this study was to assess police officer knowledge and perceptions of persons with disabilities. PMID:18578576
Modell, Scott J; Mak, Suzanna
Purpose Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is a new means of obtaining genetic testing outside of a traditional clinical setting. This study assesses genetic counselors’ experience, knowledge, and beliefs regarding direct-to-consumer genetic testing for tests that would currently be offered in genetics clinics. Methods Members of the National Society of Genetic Counselors completed a web-administered survey in February 2008. Results Response rate was 36%; the final data analysis included 312 respondents. Eighty-three percent of respondents had two or fewer inquiries about direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and 14% had received requests for test interpretation or discussion. Respondents believed that genetic counselors have a professional obligation to be knowledgeable about direct-to-consumer genetic testing (55%) and interpret results (48%). Fifty-one percent of respondents thought genetic testing should be limited to a clinical setting; 56% agreed direct-to-consumer genetic testing is acceptable if genetic counseling is provided. More than 70% of respondents would definitely or possibly consider direct-to-consumer testing for patients who (1) have concerns about genetic discrimination, (2) want anonymous testing, or (3) have geographic constraints. Conclusions Results indicate that genetic counselors have limited patient experiences with direct-to-consumer genetic testing and are cautiously considering if and under what circumstances this approach should be used PMID:21233722
Hock, Kathryn T.; Christensen, Kurt D.; Yashar, Beverly M.; Roberts, J. Scott; Gollust, Sarah E.; Uhlmann, Wendy R.
A cross-section survey of five states in Nigeria was derived through a stratified random sampling technique in 1999–2000 to assess the contribution of traditional knowledge in environmental conservation. Data were collected through a combination of questionnaire survey and discussions with stakeholders, with field assessment of herb gardens. Interviews were held with 1953 respondents composed of women, men and youths drawn
Gbadebo J. Osemeobo
This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains
Ahmad Oweini; Ahmad Houri
The "Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics" assessed the knowledge of primary and lower-secondary teachers at the end of their training. The large-scale assessment represented the common denominator of what constitutes mathematics content knowledge and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge in the 16 participating…
Blömeke, Sigrid; Suhl, Ute; Döhrmann, Martina
This assessment, under the lead of General David Petraeus and Colonel 'H.R.' McMaster, was established in the Fall of 2008; running through to Spring 2009. Its purpose was to provide US/Coalition views on the CENTCOM AOR. As part of this work, Atkinson, L...
D. Shoupe, S. Lesher, S. R. Atkinson
BACKGROUND—Treatment, and therefore outcome, of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will improve in the next few years. However, improvement in outcome can only be judged against the probability of certain outcomes with current conventional treatment.?AIM—To document the five year outcome of RA in the late 1990s.?SETTING—Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR).?DESIGN—Longitudinal observational cohort study.?METHODS—318 patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis recruited by NOAR in 1990-91 completed five years of follow up. Four groups were assessed: the whole cohort, all those referred to hospital, those who satisfied criteria for RA at baseline, and those referred to hospital who satisfied criteria for RA at baseline. Outcome was assessed with a visual analogue scale for pain, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36).?RESULTS—Of the RA hospital attenders, 50% had a visual analogue scale pain score of 5 cm or less and an HAQ score of 1.125 or less. SF-36 scores were reduced in all domains. Results are presented as cumulative percentages.?CONCLUSIONS—These results can be used for comparison and to set targets for improvement.?? PMID:11557653
Wiles, N; Scott, D; Barrett, E; Merry, P; Arie, E; Gaffney, K; Silman, A; Symmons, D
Background Research funders expect evidence of end user engagement and impact plans in research proposals. Drawing upon existing frameworks, we developed audit criteria to help researchers and their institutions assess the knowledge exchange plans of health research proposals. Findings Criteria clustered around five themes: problem definition; involvement of research users; public and patient engagement; dissemination and implementation; and planning, management and evaluation of knowledge exchange. We applied these to a sample of grant applications from one research institution in the United Kingdom to demonstrate feasibility. Conclusion Our criteria may be useful as a tool for researcher self-assessment and for research institutions to assess the quality of knowledge exchange plans and identify areas for systematic improvement. PMID:25017548
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: ?29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: ?36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the absolute difference between FFQ-regressive and FR-crude equaled 0.0 g/day and 95% CI were much better (e.g., for total protein 95% CI: ?32.7, 32.7 g/day, for fat 95% CI: ?49.6, 49.6 g/day). In conclusion, differences in nutritional value of diets resulted from overestimating energy intake by the FFQ in comparison to the three-day unweighted food records. Adjustment of energy and nutrient intake applied for the FFQ using various methods, particularly regression equations, significantly improved the agreement between results obtained by both methods and dietary assessment. To obtain the most accurate results in future studies using this FFQ, energy and nutrient intake should be adjusted by the regression equations presented in this paper. PMID:23877089
Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia
Background Emergency contraception (EC) is a type of modern contraception which is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse when regular contraception is not in use. The importance of EC is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, EC need to be available and used appropriately as a backup in case regular contraception is not used, misused or failed. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University (AAU). This information will contribute substantially to interventions intended to combat maternal mortality. Methods A Cross-sectional quantitative study among 368 AAU undergraduate students was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression. Results Among the total participants (n = 368), only 23.4% were sexually active. Majority (84.2%) had heard of EC; 32.3% had a positive attitude towards it. The main source of information reported by the respondents was Media (69.3%). Among those who were sexually active, about 42% had unprotected sexual intercourse. Among those who had unprotected sexual intercourse, 75% had ever used EC. Sexually active participants had significantly better attitude towards EC than sexually inactive participants (crude OR 0.33(0.15-0.71)); even after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, region, religion, ethnicity, marital status, department and family education and income (adj. OR 0.36(0.15-0.86)). Conclusions The study showed high EC awareness and usage in contrast to other studies in the city, which could be due to the fact that university students are relatively in a better educational level. Therefore, it is highly recommended that interventions intended to combat maternal mortality through contraceptive usage need to be aware of such information specific to the target groups. PMID:22321964
Background Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing. Objectives This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations. Methods The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed. Results Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution). Cronbach's ? for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance. Conclusions The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed. PMID:22893837
Stammel, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Bottche, Maria; Knaevelsrud, Christine
A method is presented for evaluating the presence and size of cross-cultural item biases. The examined items concern parental support and family cohesion in a Likert-type questionnaire for adolescents in The Netherlands. Each evaluated item has two versions, a collectivist and an individualistic one, that measure the same theoretical construct. The standardized difference between the score means of the item
Dianne A. van Hemert; Chris Baerveldt; Marjolijn Vermande
There is a lack of validated autism-specific outcome measures for large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of psycho-educational programmes. To fill this gap the Environment Rating Scale (ERS) was adapted from an interview version to a staff-completed questionnaire version (ERS-Q). The ERS-Q was tested regarding data quality, validity,…
Hubel, Marie; Hagell, Peter; Sivberg, Bengt
This article concerns a parent-report repeat questionnaire to evaluate the quality of multiprofessional early intervention following early identification of deafness. It discusses the rationale for the design of the instrument, its theoretical underpinnings, its psychometric properties, and its usability. Results for the validity and reliability…
Young, Alys; Gascon-Ramos, Maria; Campbell, Malcolm; Bamford, John
Background. We aimed to assess the association between knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and consistent condom use among university students controlling for selected socio-demographic factors.Method. An anonymous questionnaire survey was carried out among 720 undergraduate students (76% women) at the University of Tirana, Albania, in October–November 2002. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, 10 multiple-choice test questions on knowledge about
Genc Burazeri; Enver Roshi; Nertila Tavanxhi
Undertreatment of pain and lack of knowledge about pain management have been evident for approximately two decades. Because nurses are often the cornerstone of pain management, nurses' knowledge in this area is especially important. This paper explores indications of progress in the level of nursing knowledge about basic aspects of pain management. The literature is reviewed and findings from recent
Margo McCaffrey; Betty R. Ferrell
As an indicator of health status of the elderly (60+) in Mississippi, their awareness about nutrition knowledge anc! eating pattern was surveyed. Data indicated that 75% of participants were Black and 80% were female. About nutrition knowledge 80% believed that use of salt and sugar in moderation, and maintaining a healthy weight are important. Their knowledge about fiber as a
This research explored metacognitive knowledge of the University of Botswana