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The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring Greek elementary physical educators' knowledge of student assessment. A multiple-choice questionnaire comprised of items about concepts, methods, tools, and types of student assessment in physical education was designed and tested. The initial 35-item…
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Aggelousis, Nicolaos; Vassiliadou, Olga
The purpose of this study was the psychometric testing of a questionnaire to assess nurses' opinions, subjective norms, perceived difficulties, and knowledge related to palliative care. The 63-item MOVE2PC Questionnaire was tested among 219 nurses in groups differing in education and experience. The intra-rater agreement was moderate to good (??>?.5?max ), and internal consistency was good (alpha?=?.77). Construct validity was demonstrated by between-groups differences in knowledge, opinions, and perceived difficulties. Responsiveness was shown by improved scores after an education program. Time of completion was 20 minutes, and 99% skipped at most five items, demonstrating feasibility. Findings support the usefulness of the instrument for assessing nurses' knowledge and views on palliative care. PMID:23813723
Witkamp, Frederika E; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes
Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire used to assess the level of general knowledge about cervical cancer, its primary and secondary prevention, and to identify sources of information about the disease among schoolgirls and female students. Methods The questionnaire development process was divided into four phases: generation of issues; construction of a provisional questionnaire; testing of the provisional questionnaire for acceptability and relevance; field-testing, which aimed at ensuring reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Field-testing included 305 respondents of high school female Caucasian students, who filled out the final version of the questionnaire. Results After phase 1, a list of 65 issues concerning knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention was generated. Of 305, 155 were schoolgirls (mean age±SD, 17.8±0.5) and 150 were female students (mean age±SD, 21.7±1.8). The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was 0.71 (range for specific questionnaire sections, 0.60 to 0.81). Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.89 to 0.94. Conclusion The Cervical-Cancer-Knowledge-Prevention-64 has been successfully developed to measure the level of knowledge about cervical cancer. The results confirm the validity, reliability and applicability of the created questionnaire.
Jaglarz, Katarzyna; Kamzol, Wojciech; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
Background and Aim: Under-treatment of pain is a global phenomenon and the basic knowledge of pain amongst health care providers continues to be deficient. The aim of this study was to determine the basic prevalent knowledge of pain among Indian anaesthesiologists and the impact of a pain educational programme on their existing knowledge. Methods: A nine lectures pain continuing medical education (CME) program was conducted for 114 young anaesthesiologists. All delegates were given 21-item questionnaire in a pre and post-test design. The 69 paired responses were compared for individual questions using McNemar test and the overall improvement in knowledge was analysed using paired t-test. Results: The pre-test score for correct answers was 61.9%. The post-test score was 69.8% and this improvement was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant improvement in perception was detected that ‘opioids usage was less likely to cause addiction’ (correct responses increased from 4.2 to 77.4%, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The questionnaire study found that the current basic knowledge about pain amongst young anaesthesiologists is deficient. The physician's major concerns were opioid addiction and respiratory depression with opioid usage. The results of pre and post-test questionnaire survey have shown that pain education can help in improving knowledge of pain management.
Differences in the volume of information, spread among different groups of the population, on the problems of the transmission and prophylaxis of AIDS have been revealed by the method of anonymous questioning through the distribution of questionnaires. Persons belonging to the risk group, i. e. patients with venereal diseases, have shown a particularly low level of knowledge. The insufficient use of various forms and methods of health education has been established. PMID:1830441
Bogdanova, T F; Batashev, V V; Prometno?, V I; Kruglikov, V D
This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre (DF)-related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Participants (n=360) were either undergraduate students who have taken a nutrition course for 14 weeks (n=174) or those in another group who have not taken such a nutrition course (n=186). Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. Overall internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.90) were high. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the scores of the two groups of students indicated that the questionnaire had satisfactory construct validity. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and 52.5% of them were not aware that DF had to be consumed on a daily basis. Only 36.4 to 44.2% of the students were able to correctly identify the food sources of DF.
Background The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. Method A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia). In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. Results 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%). 133 (24.6%) Scots and 83 (15.4%) Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2%) Scots and 190 (35.2%) Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p < 0.001), level of concern (p < 0.001) and protective behaviour (p < 0.001) scores than the Scottish. Australian nationality was the strongest independent predictor of a higher knowledge score (p < 0.001), followed by a previous skin cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003), personal knowledge of someone with melanoma (p = 0.011), female gender (p = 0.005) and higher education status (p < 0.001) (R2 = 0.163). Conclusion The questionnaire detected higher levels of knowledge and skin cancer protective behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content validity of the questionnaire and its value as a future research tool in the Scottish population.
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaireassessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
Objective: This paper describes the development of a reliable and valid questionnaire to provide a comprehensive measure of the nutritional knowledge of UK adults. The instrument will help to identify areas of weakness in people’s understanding of healthy eating and will also provide useful data for examining the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour which, up until now, has
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.
Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele
Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs.
Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus
Objective: To review the knowledge of radiographers and examine the possible sociodemographic and situational contributors to this knowledge. Methods: A questionnaire survey was devised and distributed to a cohort of 120 radiographers. Each questionnaire contained two sections. In the first section, background data, including sex, age, highest academic level, grade point average (GPA), length of time from graduation, work experience as a radiographer and the status of previous refresher course(s), were collected. The second section contained 17 multiple-choice questions concerning radiographic imaging parameters and safety issues. Results: The response rate was 63.8%. In univariate analytic model, higher academic degree (p?0.001), higher GPA (r(2)?=?0.11; p?=?0.001), academic workplace (p?=?0.04) and taking previous refresher course(s) (p?=?0.01) were significantly associated with higher knowledge score. In multivariate analytic model, however, higher academic degree (B?=?1.62; p?=?0.01), higher GPA (B?=?0.50; p?=?0.01) and taking previous refresher course(s) (B?=?-1.26; p?=?0.03) were independently associated with higher level of knowledge. Age, sex, length of time from graduation and work experience were not associated with the respondents' knowledge score. Conclusion: Academic background is a robust indicator of a radiographer's professional knowledge. Refresher courses and regular knowledgeassessments are highly recommended. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study in the literature that examines professional knowledge of radiographers in terms of technical and safety issues in plain radiography. Academic degree, GPA and refresher courses are independent predictors of this knowledge. Regular radiographer professional knowledge checks may be recommended. PMID:24827380
Farajollahi, A R; Fouladi, D F; Ghojazadeh, M; Movafaghi, A
Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledgequestionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. Results There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19–21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex).
A patient health questionnaire was developed for use in family practice to help identify lifestyle risk factors, assess health care needs, and better understand patients. This article discusses the questionnaire's development and practical application. Images Figure 3
Knowledge flow is essential in an operational environment where we must learn faster, understand better, and adapt more rapidly. The baseline flow requires an integrated knowledge environment where information moves freely between people, between systems,...
Questionnaire based assessment scales for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been utilized for assessment of the\\u000a patient’s symptomatology, assessment of symptom severity and frequency, assessment of health-related quality of life and for\\u000a assessment of response to treatment. A multitude of unidimensional and multidimensional questionnaires exist for making symptom\\u000a assessment and monitoring quality of life in GERD. Many of the scales
Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments
Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher
There are few studies on patient knowledge in multiple sclerosis (MS), and only two published questionnaires. The objective of this article was to develop and validate the MS KnowledgeQuestionnaire (MSKQ), a self-assessed instrument for newly diagnosed MS patients. Thirty multiple-choice statements, conceived to test MS knowledge, were produced by a multidisciplinary panel and pre-tested on three MS patients, resulting in an intermediate 26-item version. This was tested on 54 MS patients for internal consistency, content and construct validity (validation sample I). The final (25-item) MSKQ was a primary outcome measure in the SIMS-Trial on an information aid to newly diagnosed MS patients. Postal responses of SIMS-Trial participants to the MSKQ a month after intervention (validation sample II) were analysed. Median MSKQ scores in validation samples I and II were, respectively, 18 (range 9-23) and 17 (range 3-24). Acceptability, internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson-20 formula 0.76) and content validity were good. Educational attainment and receiving the information aid were the main independent predictors of MS knowledge. Other predictors were female sex (positive association) and disease duration (negative association). In conclusion, the MSKQ has good clinimetric properties and is sensitive to an educational intervention. We propose the MSKQ as a brief instrument for clinical practice and research. PMID:19995834
Giordano, A; Uccelli, M Messmer; Pucci, E; Martinelli, V; Borreani, C; Lugaresi, A; Trojano, M; Granella, F; Confalonieri, P; Radice, D; Solari, A
Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaireassessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice.
Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciaran M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter
Background Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students’ KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students. Methods In this study, 2500 students from 3 universities (including one medical university) in Northeastern China participate in the questionnaire survey on students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi square test were used to analyze questionnaire-related discrete and categorical variables respectively, in order to assess the impact of the medical curriculum on students’ KAP towards antibiotics. Results 2088 (83.5%) respondents (MS-1236 and NS-852) were considered valid for analysis. The level of knowledge of MS on the proper use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of NS (p?0.0001). However, based on their responses on actual practice, MS were found to rely on antibiotics more than NS (p?0.0001). Moreover, the knowledge and attitude of MS towards antibiotic use improved with the increase in grade with discriminate use of antibiotics concurrently escalating during the same period. Conclusions This study indicates that Chinese medical curriculum significantly improves students’ knowledge on antibiotics and raises their attention on antibiotic resistance that may result from indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The study also shows an excessive use of antibiotics especially among the more senior medical students, signifying a deficiency of antibiotics usage instruction in their curriculum. This might explain why there are frequent abuses of antibiotics in both hospital and community settings from a certain angle.
The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury.
Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos
Measurement of organizational knowledge assets is necessary to determine the effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives. A Knowledge Management Capability Assessment instrument has been developed and operationalized to measure knowledge assets identified as Knowledge Capability Areas. A longitudinal field study is initiated in a large microchip manufacturing company to determine the reliability and validity of the KMCA and to assess the
Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors that may affect fertility but do not always act accordingly. Primary prevention or, respectively, health promotion is thus necessary to prevent further increases in the number of infertile couples.
A caregiver questionnaire that assesses mealtime problems in children aged 2 to 6 years old was developed. Community caregivers (n = 712) completed the Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire (MBQ) and measures of child behavior and family mealtime behaviors and environment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and validated the MBQ's 4 subscales (food refusal\\/avoidance; food manipulation; mealtime aggression\\/distress; and choking\\/, gagging\\/vomiting).
Kristoffer S. Berlin; W. Hobart Davies; Alan H. Silverman; Douglas W. Woods; Elizabeth A. Fischer; Colin D. Rudolph
Reflective thinking is often stated as a learning outcome of baccalaureate nursing education, and as a characteristic of a competent professional; however, no consistent method exists to assess the extent to which students engage in reflective thinking. To address this need, Kember and Leung developed and tested a self-report questionnaire based…
Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire with a "don't know" response added was administered to 202 undergraduates (half using the new format), 44 undergraduates (with instruction on memory and aging), and 49 older and 41 younger adults. The new format resulted in more correct answers. Instruction resulted in fewer "don't know" responses. Younger…
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
There are no established questionnaires that evaluate habitual sleep practices in the context of beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This study describes an effort to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems; sleep hygiene; social and environmental determinants of sleep; beliefs and attitudes about sleep as it relates to health, safety, and functioning; and knowledge about sleep. A total of 124 participants completed the final questionnaire. Overall, the questionnaire and subscales demonstrated moderate internal consistency, and concurrent and divergent validity were demonstrated by comparing various subscales to existing measures. Future studies may utilize the descriptive data to determine the role of behavioral, social, and environmental determinants of healthy sleep. PMID:23514261
Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Patel, Nirav P
The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment tool to judge coaching performance that was appropriate for completion by athletes. The questionnaire underwent a variety of developmental stages. In its final form, it contained 36 items. The tool was shown to be a valid, reliable, and standardized questionnaire. It demonstrated discriminability and provoked honest, accurate responding in subjects. The test was capable of providing immediate feedback to coaches seeking information about athletes' perceptions of their coaching performance. Responses on the developed scale were weighted to reflect the desirability of the coaching characteristics of a good coach. The questionnaire provides a total score which can be interpreted by the coach as a measure of how much of an "ideal" coach exists in him/her. PMID:4053263
We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Greek language of the parent's version of 2 health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Greek CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 3 forward and 3 backward translations. A total of 143 subjects were enrolled: 82 patients with JIA (28% systemic onset, 24% polyarticular onset, 10% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 38% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 61 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Greek version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA. PMID:11510336
Pratsidou-Gertsi, P; Vougiouka, O; Tsitsami, E; Ruperto, N; Siamopoulou-Mavridou, A; Dracou, C; Daskas, I; Trachana, M; Alaleou, V; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, F
We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Hungarian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Hungarian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 3 forward and 3 backward translations. A total of 127 subjects were enrolled: 67 patients with JIA (13.5% systemic onset, 42% polyarticular onset, 13.5% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 31% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 60 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Hungarian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA. PMID:11510337
We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Bulgarian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Bulgarian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 1 forward and 1 backward translations. 137 subjects were enrolled: 77 patients with JIA (36% systemic onset, 30% polyarticular onset, 4% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 30% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 60 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Bulgarian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA. PMID:11510327
Introduction HIV/AIDS, the most important health problem in Africa, is the leading cause of death on the continent. Ignorance on HIV/AIDS status will hamper treatment and prevention. To investigate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in a rural area, we performed a questionnaire study on HIV/AIDS knowledge in men living in Banga Bakundu, a rural village in Cameroon. Methods Forty-eight men, aged 17-66 years, were interviewed. They were divided in 2 groups: ?29 years, being those young enough to be able to have knowledge about HIV/AIDS at the time of their first sexual contact, and those > 29 years who weren't. A semi-structured clinical interview was performed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, sexual activity, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its prevention. Results There is an overall good HIV/AIDS knowledge and what should be done about it. Men with a higher level of education and more HIV/AIDS knowledge seem to take less preventive measures. The differentiation per age group showed that age influenced the data on knowledge and behaviour. Conclusion Our data are consistent with other studies. Remarkable is the difference in HIV/AIDS knowledge between the 2 age groups, and the relation between HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual habits and prevention. Sufficient HIV/AIDS knowledge did not lead to significant changes in sexual behaviour. The questionnaire showed to provide sufficient information and was easy to use. Further research should be performed.
Aims: To assess the extent of indoor air problems in office environments in Finland.Methods: Complaints and symptoms related to the indoor environment experienced by office workers were collected from 122 workplaces in 1996–99 by using the modified Indoor Air Questionnaire established by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Altogether 11 154 employees took part in the survey.Results: The most common
A questionnaire was used to measure plant use knowledge for 18 plants from 40 randomly selected Winikina Warao respondents\\u000a of two villages in the Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela. Five use values are presented: reported use (RU) value for each plant\\u000a and plant part; plant part value (PPV); specific use (SU) value; intraspecific use value (IUV); and overall use value (OUV).
A short scale was developed and validated that assesses consumers' knowledge about nutrition. Sixty-four nutrition knowledge items were derived from consumer interviews and expert recommendations about healthy eating. Items were administered as a postal survey to a sample of consumers randomly drawn from the directory (response rate=37%, N=1043). Twenty items were retained to build the final nutrition knowledge scale. Internal reliability, criterion and construct validity were acceptable. Associations of the scale with self-reported food consumption frequencies indicated limited correlation of nutrition knowledge with food choice. Widespread nutrition knowledge gaps in consumers were revealed. PMID:21310201
Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen
We assessed the validity of the Boston Teacher Questionnaire in a sample of 3451 9-year-old children. Those identified by the questionnaire as having a learning difficulty syndrome were compared to those without any characteristic of that syndrome. The validity reference measures were individually administered neuropsychological assessments at age 7 years and a group-administered reading achievement test at age 9 years. Girls and boys with the reading syndrome had much lower reading scores at age 9 years than did their peers. Boys, but not girls, with the arithmetic syndrome were much more likely than their peers to have arithmetic scores more than one grade below the expected level at age 7 years. Girls and boys with the tasks syndrome, characterized by impersistence, dependence, and inflexibility, were more likely than those without any features of the syndrome to be classified as having little or no goal orientation by a neuropsychologist who assessed the children in an office setting. Similarly, the neuropsychologist was much more likely than expected to have classified children with the attention syndrome as having a short attention span, and to have classified boys, but not girls, with the hyperactivity syndrome as having an unusual/extreme level and nature of overactivity. Children with any syndrome were more likely than others to have low scores on components of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, items of the Bender-Gestalt Test that assessed integration and distortion, and measures of reading comprehension. We conclude that the Boston Teacher Questionnaire validly identifies children with learning problems. PMID:8445172
During the last 10 years, we have witnessed an impressive increase in the number of studies examining knowledge about osteoporosis. The aim of the present paper is to examine the status of research on knowledge about osteoporosis by reviewing and analyzing the current literature as it pertains to assessment of knowledge about osteoporosis, factors associated with knowledge, and relationship between
Four studies are reported on the derivation and assessment of a hypermasculinity scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire measure of hypermasculine values was derived from an initial 122 items, rated on a seven-point scale by 600 men from eight categories, based on occupation or sport interest. Factor analysis and item reduction produced 26- and 16- item scales (Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire, HVQ and Short Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire) with high internal consistencies. There were substantial differences between categories, consistent with predictions based on their gender-stereotypic connotations. Study 2 involved the scales being administered to another similarly composed sample: again high internal consistency and unidimensionality (in a confirmatory factor analysis) were found, and a similar association with category membership. Test-retest reliability was high. In Study 3, the concurrent and discriminative validity of the HVQ was studied, by comparing it with an existing measure of hypermasculinity, male role norms, attitudes to women's rights, gender-related traits, and trait aggression. Associations were found with other gender scales, and there was a moderate association with trait physical aggression. The range of associations reflected the items on the scale, which involve toughness, the need to avoid femininity, and control of women's sexuality, themes familiar from ethnographic accounts of masculinity. Study 4 showed that the HVQ was associated with hostile but not benevolent sexism, and replicated its association with trait aggression. PMID:19793409
Background In the UK, chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) is largely managed in primary care. We developed a tool to assess practitioner confidence and knowledge in managing CKD compared to other chronic diseases. This questionnaire was part of a cluster randomised quality improvement interventions in chronic kidney disease (QICKD; ISRCTN56023731). Methods The questionnaire was developed by family physicians, primary care nurses, academics and renal specialists. We conducted three focus groups (n?=?7, 6, and 8) to refine the questionnaire using groups of general practitioners, practice nurses and trainees in general practice. We used paper based versions to develop the questionnaire and online surveys to test it. Practitioners in a group of volunteer, trial practices received the questionnaire twice. We measured its reliability using Cohen’s Kappa (K). Results The practitioners in the focus groups reached a consensus as to the key elements to include in the instrument. We achieved a 73.1% (n?=?57/78) initial response rate for our questionnaire; of these 57, 54 completed the questionnaire a second time. Family physicians made up the largest single group of respondents (47.4%, n?=?27). Initial response showed more female (64.9%, n?=?37) than male (35.1%, n?=?20) respondents. The reliability results from retesting showed that there was moderate agreement (k?>?0.4) on all questions; with many showing substantial agreement (k?>?0.6). There was substantial agreement in the questions about loop diuretics (k?=?0.608, CI 0.432-0.784, p?0.001), confidence in managing hypertension (k?=?0.628, 95%CI 0.452-0.804, p?0.001), diastolic blood pressure treatment thresholds in CKD (k?=?0.608, 95%CI 0.436-0.780, p?0.001) and the rate of decline of eGFR that would prompt referral (k?=?0.764, 95%CI 0.603-0.925, p?0.001). Conclusion The QICKD-CCQ is a reliable instrument for measuring confidence and knowledge among primary care practitioners on CKD management in the context of UK primary care.
Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)
Cette étude vise à valider le Questionnaire d’évaluation du comportement de l’enfant (QÉCE), une version canadienne française du Toddler Behavior AssessmentQuestionnaire (TBAQ; Goldsmith, 1996) qui est utilisé afin d’évaluer cinq dimensions du tempérament des enfants âgés de 15 à 36 mois : niveau d’activité, tendance à exprimer du plaisir, crainte sociale, prédisposition à la colère et intérêt\\/attention. Un échantillon
Jean-Pascal Lemelin; George M. Tarabulsy; Marc A. Provost; Manon Fournier; Julie Robitaille; Isabelle Hémond; Réjean Tessier
This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…
Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.
We describe the design of a knowledge-building environment and examine the role of knowledge-building portfolios in characterizing and scaffolding collaborative inquiry. Our goal is to examine collaborative knowledge building in the context of exploring the alignment of learning, collaboration, and assessment in computer forums. The key design…
Lee, Eddy Y. C.; Chan, Carol K. K.; van Aalst, Jan
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…
Background: Dental trauma is one of the main oral health problems in childhood, and can cause pain and distress. It is important to provide emergency care to combat the aftermaths of trauma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 33 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 mothers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards their child's dental visit, dental trauma, and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Results: Mother's previous experience of dental trauma when associated with the preservation of avulsed tooth of the child, those mothers who had the experience of dental trauma reported that they would discard the tooth which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to the mothers with no experience of trauma. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion, it was found that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the mothers regarding the emergency management of dental trauma. This warrants the need of an effective communication between dental professionals and mothers for better handling of dental emergencies. PMID:25001438
The ability to identify schematic knowledge is an important goal for both assessment and instruction. In the current paper, schematic knowledge of statistical probability theory is explored from the declarative-procedural framework using multiple methods of assessment. A sample of 90 undergraduate introductory statistics students was required to…
The assessment of learners' metacognitive knowledge level is crucial when developing computer-assisted language learning systems. Currently, many systems assess learners' metacognitive knowledge level with pre-instructional questionnaires or metacognitive interviews. However, learners with limited language proficiency may be at a disadvantage in…
Objectives. Develop and validate a French version of the Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (CHAQ), a disability measure for children suffering from Juvenile Idiopathic Juvenile Arthritis (JIA) adapted from the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ). Children and methods. Following the structured development of a cross-cultural French version of the CHAQ, the questionnaire has been validated in a cross sectional multicentric study in
Jacques Pouchot; Jean-Paul Larbre; Irène Lemelle; Danièle Sommelet; Eric Grouteau; Louis David; Agnès Duquesne; Chantal Job Deslandre; Isabelle Kone Paut; Pascal Pillet; Laurence Goumy; Catherine Barbier; Marie-Hélène Guyot; Françoise Mazingue; Sylvie Gandon Laloum; Michel Fischbach; Pierre Quartier; Claude Guyot; Sylvie Jean; Edouard Legall; Emmanuel Plouvier; Michel Bost; Lionel de Lumley; Christian Brégeon; Francis Guillemin; Joël Coste; Anne-Marie Prieur
The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of the 20 functions assessed by patients to produce the Health Assessment\\u000a Questionnaire’s Disability Index (HAQ-DI). A systematic sample of 242 rheumatoid arthritis patients was drawn. Altogether\\u000a 179 subjects returned acceptably filled questionnaire including perceived rheumatoid arthritis status in the 20 functions\\u000a comprising the HAQ-DI. A separate complementary questionnaire was sent to
Risto Tuominen; Timo Möttönen; Carita Suominen; Tero Vahlberg; Sini Tuominen
Background Much of the relationship between health status and knowledge about health and disease can be attributed to the combined effects of disparate health-related behavior, environmental conditions, and socioeconomic structures as well as contact with and delivery of health care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe and compare knowledge of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs in Brazil and Canada about CAD-related factors. Methods Two samples of 300 Brazilian and 300 Canadian patients enrolled in CR were compared cross-sectionally. Brazilian patients were recruited from 2 CR centers in Southern Brazil, whereas Canadian patients were recruited from 1 CR center in Ontario. Knowledge was assessed using the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire (CADE-Q), psychometrically validated in Portuguese and English. The data were processed through descriptive statistics, post-hoc and the Student's t-tests. Results The mean total knowledge score for the whole sample was 41.42 ± 9.3. Canadian respondents had significantly greater mean total knowledge scores than Brazilian respondents. The most highly knowledgeably domain in both samples was physical exercise. In 13 of 19 questions, Canadian respondents reported significantly greater knowledge scores than Brazilian respondents. Conclusions Canadian outpatients reported significantly greater knowledge than their Brazilian counterparts. The results also suggest that having a structured educational curriculum in CR programs may contribute to increased patient knowledge, which may ultimately facilitate behavioral changes.
Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Oh, Paul; Thomas, Scott; Benetti, Magnus
This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…
Objective. To develop and validate a questionnaire, in Spanish, for assessing patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care received in community pharmacies. Design. Selection and translation of questionnaire's items; definition of response scale and demographic questions. Evaluation of face and content validity, feasibility, factor structure, reliability and construct validity. Setting. Forty-one community pharmacies of the province of Santa Fe. Argentina. Participants. Questionnaire
This review of research on Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire discusses results related to mean occupational profiles, Holland types, and performance prediction. Suggestions for interpretation and computer use are made. (SK)
This paper provides information on the reliability and validity of an employee questionnaire developed in a study of patient safety in outpatient surgery. The Systems Engineering Intervention in Outpatient Surgery (SEIPS), a collaborative community perspe...
P. Carayon C. J. Alvarado A. S. Hundt S. Springman A. Borgsdorf
Patient satisfaction is now recognised as an important quality of care outcome which is particularly relevant in oncology. Adapted from the EORTC In-Patsat32, the Out-Patsat35 is a 35-item satisfaction with care questionnaire measuring cancer outpatients' perception of hospital doctors and nurses, as well as aspects of care organisation and services. This study assessed the psychometric properties of this scale. Patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT) in 7 cancer centres in France were invited to complete at home the Out-Patsat35 as well as EORTC QLQ-C30 for psychometric testing. Of 416 eligible patients recruited, 96% returned the questionnaire. Most patients (71% in CT; 69% in RT) completed this scale within 15 minutes and the mean rate of item omission was only 4.4%. Confirmatory analyses revealed good convergent validity and excellent internal consistency, although some subscales within the Out-Patsat35 were relatively highly correlated. Items and subscales of the Out-Patsat35 and of the QLQ-C30 were not significantly correlated, underlying that the two questionnaires are assessing quite distinct concepts. The subscales of the Out-Patsat35 were not related to age, gender and education, suggesting a cultural evolution in French cancer patients towards a greater homogeneity in their opinion toward care. This study supports the acceptability to patients, and the psychometric properties of the EORTC Out-Patsat35 questionnaire. PMID:16567319
Poinsot, Rollon; Altmeyer, A; Conroy, T; Savignoni, A; Asselain, B; Léonard, I; Marx, E; Cosquer, M; Sévellec, M; Gledhill, J; Rodary, C; Mercier, M; Dickès, P; Fabbro, M; Antoine, P; Guerif, S; Schraub, S; Dolbeault, S; Brédart, A
Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs.
Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636
The practice of supervision is crucial to the development of novice and future school psychologists. Given the changes in contemporary practice, it is valuable to determine the supports and continuing education opportunities that could benefit supervisors. One hundred forty-two school psychology supervisors completed a 34-item questionnaire that…
A Biographical Questionnaire (BQ) has been used in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of the Witwatersrand since the mid-80s, to identify potential to succeed at university among applicants who have not met the requirements for automatic admission. As the key instrument in a special admissions process, the BQ's history and assumptions are…
Enslin, P. A.; Button, A.; Chakane, M.; de Groot, M.; Dison, L.
BACKGROUND: Critical needs for treatment trials in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include assessing response to treatment, evaluating symptom severity, and translation of symptom questionnaires into multiple languages. We evaluated the previously validated Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) for internal consistency, reliability, responsiveness to change during treatment and the concordance between RDQ and specialty physician assessment of symptom severity, after translation into
Michael Shaw; John Dent; Timothy Beebe; Ola Junghard; Ingela Wiklund; Tore Lind; Folke Johnsson
Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessedknowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills
Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R
Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis.
Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.
Understanding how students go about problem solving in chemistry lends many possible advantages for interventions in teaching strategies for the college classroom. The work presented here is the development of an in-classroom, real-time, formative instrument to assess student expertise in chemistry with the purpose of developing classroom interventions. The development of appropriate interventions requires the understanding of how students go about starting to solve tasks presented to them, what their mental effort (load on working memory) is, and whether or not their performance was accurate. To measure this, the Rapid KnowledgeAssessment (RKA) instrument uses clickers (handheld electronic instruments for submitting answers) as a means of data collection. The classroom data was used to develop an algorithm to deliver student assessment scores, which when correlated to external measure of standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) examinations and class score show a significant relationship between the accuracy of knowledgeassessment (p=0.000). Use of eye-tracking technology and student interviews supports the measurements found in the classroom.
This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnairesassessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…
The contribution of the Stanford Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) to patient management was investigated in patients attending two rheumatology clinics. Additional interventions occurred in 55 (36%) of 147 patients completing the HAQ after the questionnaires had been inspected. It was particularly useful for the review patients compared to the new attenders. The HAQ is a more rational approach to outpatient
Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended for use with terminally ill cancer patients. The 1st stage of measure development involved interviews with 13 palliative care experts and 30 terminally ill patients. Qualitative analysis of the patient interviews culminated in the development of a set of potential questionnaire items. In the 2nd study phase, we evaluated these preliminary items with a sample of 314 participants, using item response theory and classical test theory to identify optimal items and response format. These analyses generated an 8-item measure that we tested in a final study phase, using a 3rd sample (n = 228) to assess reliability and concurrent validity. These analyses demonstrated strong support for the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire providing greater explanatory power than existing measures of hopelessness and found little evidence that this assessment was confounded by illness-related variables (e.g., prognosis). In summary, these 3 studies suggest that this brief measure of hopelessness is particularly useful for palliative care settings. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of the measure to other populations and contexts.
``Calibration'' is an aspect of metacognition that describes how well students assess their own knowledge. One tool that can help to assess student calibration is the knowledge survey (KS). On a KS, students rate their confidence in their ability to answer questions related to course content. A comparison of a student's confidence level with their actual performance on course exams gives an indication of the student's metacognitive calibration. We report on a study that explores students' responses to a KS in introductory physics and chemistry courses serving both STEM and non-STEM populations. In many courses, Delta (the difference between KS-score and final exam score, a measure of calibration) was anti-correlated with final exam performance. No relationship was found between Delta and students' scientific reasoning abilities. We also report preliminary findings on how calibration differs for questions of a quantitative nature vs. those of a more conceptual nature.
Pressure ulcers are a largely avoidable, but serious health problem in the UK. Nurses should be knowledgeable of the signs and symptoms of pressure ulcers, and preventive strategies to reduce their incidence. This article explores the literature on nurses' understanding and use of risk assessment tools to identify patients at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers and how, if at all, this contributes to fewer pressure ulcers in the healthcare setting. PMID:23705257
Because patients' limited level of health literacy can have a negative impact on patient health outcomes, it is important to address this topic in the nursing curricula. The author discusses a comparative study that assessed baccalaureate nursing students' knowledge of health literacy before and after implementation of an asynchronous online educational module. With a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores, the findings provide information that can inform curriculum planning in baccalaureate nursing programs. PMID:22914282
Provides eight guidelines for the effective design of questionnaires to be used in the assessment of training needs. Highlights include cost effectiveness; the use of surveys; front-end analysis; and examples for each guideline. (LRW)
As part of a larger research study, two graduate students used focus groups to collect data to assist in the development of a tool (Patient AssessmentQuestionnaire-PAQ) to identify the sociodemographic characteristics associated with the presence of body...
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
Background Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. Methods A short questionnaire was designed, made up of demographic and attitude questions, as well as very basic knowledge questions. The researchers handed out the questionnaire to all parents and professionals in the antenatal and postnatal areas, as well as the paediatric and neonatal units during a 6-week period. The site was the Royal Oldham hospital, a district general hospital with 3250 deliveries per year and multi-ethnic in its population mix. Results A total of 253 completed questionnaires were collected. The ethnic origin of responders was 50.6% White British, 18.2% Bangladeshi, 8.7% Indian, 4% White/Asian, the remaining 18.5% of other origins. 71.5% of responders said they had heard of BCG vaccine. When asked if they knew the new policy for its use, 33.2% answered yes. 24.5% gave the most accurate response when asked who now receives BCG. Conclusion We have found that amongst parents and professionals alike there is a lack of knowledge of the new policy. This has lead to confusion and as knowledge amongst the professionals who identify neonates for vaccination is low, uptake may be sub-optimal. We suggest that units investigate the issue and ensure that the new policy is understood and implemented correctly.
Purpose The purpose of the study was to assess the performance of a short diabetes knowledge instrument (SDKI) in a large multi-ethnic sample of older adults with diabetes and to identify possible modifications to improve its ability to document diabetes knowledge. Research Design and Methods A sample of 593 African American, American Indian, and white female and male adults 60 years and older, with diabetes diagnosed at least two years prior, was recruited from eight North Carolina counties. All completed an interview that included a 16-item questionnaire to assess diabetes knowledge. A subsample of 46 completed the questionnaire a second time at a subsequent interview. Item-response analysis was used to refine the instrument to well-performing items. The instrument consisting of the remaining items was subjected to analyses to assess validity and test-retest reliability. Results Three items were removed after item-response analysis. Scores for the resulting instrument were lower among minority and older participants, as well as those with lower educational attainment and income. Scores for test-retest were highly correlated. Conclusions The SDKI (13 item questionnaire) appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate knowledge about diabetes. Assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of older adults suggests that this instrument can be used to measure diabetes knowledge in diverse populations. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether or not this instrument can detect changes in knowledge resulting from diabetes education or other interventions.
Quandt, Sara A.; Ip, Edward H.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Saldana, Santiago; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Nguyen, Ha; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People’s attitudes toward them are however, largely\\u000a overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered\\u000a to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10–15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale\\u000a items that were loaded
The Prescription Opioid Misuse Index (POMI) was developed and used in a larger study designed to assess correlates of OxyContin abuse in pain patients prescribed OxyContin, patients treated for OxyContin addiction, and individuals incarcerated for OxyContin-related charges. The POMI was administered to 40 subjects with addiction problems and 34 pain patients who had received OxyContin for pain. Receiver operating characteristic
Janet S. Knisely; Martha J. Wunsch; Karen L. Cropsey; Eleanor D. Campbell
Objective: To assess the cultural competence of dietetics majors. Design: Self-administered questionnaire. Setting: Classrooms at 7 universities. Participants: Two hundred eighty-three students--98 juniors (34.6%) and 185 seniors (65.4%)--recruited during class time. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge was measured using a multiple-choice test,…
McArthur, Laura H.; Greathouse, Karen R.; Smith, Erskine R.; Holbert, Donald
Swallowing problems can complicate the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, no validated questionnaire for the assessment of dysphagia in MS is currently available. We previously developed a 10-item DYsphagia in Multiple Sclerosis questionnaire (DYMUS). In the present study, this questionnaire was submitted to a validation process. Thirteen Italian MS centres took part in this research in which DYMUS was administered to 1734 consecutive MS patients during routine checkups outside relapse. The questionnaire showed very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.914). It was then subdivided into two subscales, both of which also showed very good internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha was 0.885 for the 'dysphagia for solids' subscale and 0.864 for the 'dysphagia for liquids' subscale. The DYMUS questionnaire was found to be an easy and reliable tool for detecting dysphagia and also for the preliminary selection of patients requiring more specific instrumental analyses, and those suitable for aspiration prevention programmes. PMID:20018144
Bergamaschi, Roberto; Rezzani, C; Minguzzi, S; Amato, M P; Patti, F; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Bonavita, S; Grasso, M G; Ghezzi, Angelo; Rottoli, M; Gasperini, C; Restivo, D; Maimone, D; Rossi, Paolo; Stromillo, M L; Montomoli, C; Solaro, C
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40–.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; R?ysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
OBJECTIVES To assess maternal quality of life (QoL) during the postpartum period and to compare the performance of two QoL questionnaires across a sample of 101 women in southern Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures maternal quality of life during the postpartum period in Brazil. INTRODUCTION There is limited information about postpartum maternal quality of life in Brazil. The are no Portuguese versions of instruments specifically designed to measure quality of life during the postpartum period. METHODS Research participants completed the Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) questionnaires. The correlations between the MQLI and the discrete areas of WHOQOL-BREF were examined using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. RESULTS We report a significant correlation between the global MQLI and the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scores (p < 0.01). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean scores in the Psychological and Environment domains according to different socio-economic strata: F (3, 97) = 3.81, p = 0.012 and F (3, 97) = 4.03, p = 0.01, respectively. DISCUSSION The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire may be more sensitive than the MQLI in detecting the impact of socioeconomic status on the QoL of postpartum women. CONCLUSION The sample of postpartum women evaluated in this study presented favorable QoL scores according to both the MQLI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Our results also indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF and the MQLI questionnaires have a significant correlation in terms of their assessments of postpartum mothers.
Objective: \\u000aThe Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) is the most common self-reported measure of physical disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, the HAQ-II was developed in the US as a short, valid, and reliable alternative using Rasch analysis. Our objective was to compare the scaling properties of the HAQ DI and HAQ-II in Dutch patients with RA. -
Klooster ten Peter M; Erik Taal; Laar van de Mart A. F. J
Objective: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaireassessing calcium intake in women.Design: Estimates of calcium intake from the food frequency questionnaire were compared with those from 14 day records from 206 Caucasian women aged 25–75 y in Siena, Italy.Subjects: Subjects were randomly recruited from the residents list of the city of Siena, Italy. Of the 250 initially recruited, 39 did
M Montomoli; S Gonnelli; M Giacchi; R Mattei; C Cuda; S Rossi; C Gennari
The article presents the theoretical contextand the elements that underlie the developmentof the community well-being questionnaire. Italso discusses the reliability and validity ofthe questionnaire's scales by presentingresults from two studies carried out in urbanareas in the U.K., Ireland and Greece. Thescales assess satisfaction with the builtenvironment, environmental quality and services and facilities. They also measure personal safety, informal interaction,community spirit,
Sophia Christakopoulou; Jon Dawson; Aikaterini Gari
This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum. PMID:21854234
Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores
The Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) is a new method for assessing cognitive representations of illness. The IPQ is a theoretically derived measure comprising five scales that provides information about the five components that have been found to underlie the cognitive representation of illness. The five scales assess identity - the symptoms the patient associates with the illness, cause - personal
John Weinman; Keith J. Petrie; Rona Moss-morris; Rob Horne
Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…
Background Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. Methods The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. Results In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. Conclusion This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement.
Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery.
The assessment of patient satisfaction has become an important concern in the evaluation of health services. Measures of satisfaction must be valid and reliable if they are to be used widely. This paper reports the development of a new questionnaire to assess patients' satisfaction with consultations together with initial tests of the questionnaire's reliability and validity. Principal components analysis of the patients' assessments of care revealed three factors of satisfaction: the professional aspects of the consultation, the depth of the patient's relationship with the doctor, and the perceived length of the consultation. The consultation satisfaction questionnaire is reliable under the conditions of this study and may have a role in research, medical education and audit.
BackgroundSF-12™ Health Survey, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire-C30 are the two main questionnaires proposed and validated for assessing the quality of life in chronic pancreatitis.
R. Pezzilli; A. M. Morselli-Labate; L. Fantini; D. Campana; R. Corinaldesi
Objective The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population. Methods The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used model in questionnaire translation, namely Brisling’s back-translation model. A written authorization allowing translation into Arabic was obtained from the original author. The Arabic version of the questionnaire was distributed to 480 participants to evaluate construct validity. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0 for Windows was used for the statistical analysis. Results The response rate of this study was 96%; most of the respondents (52.5%) were female. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s ?, which showed that this questionnaire provides a high reliability coefficient (reaching 0.9299) and a high degree of consistency and thus can be relied upon in future patient satisfaction research.
The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of the 20 functions assessed by patients to produce the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire's Disability Index (HAQ-DI). A systematic sample of 242 rheumatoid arthritis patients was drawn. Altogether 179 subjects returned acceptably filled questionnaire including perceived rheumatoid arthritis status in the 20 functions comprising the HAQ-DI. A separate complementary questionnaire was sent to 80 randomly chosen subjects. They were asked to estimate how important each of the same 20 items were in their everyday life using the VAS method. Completely answered complementary questionnaires were returned by 66 (88%) of the subsample. The relative importance of the functions assessed varied considerably. Men assessed the highest importance to the ability to walk outdoors on flat ground and women to dressing themselves, getting in and out of bed and washing and drying their body. For both genders the least important function was the ability to take a tub bath. The importance of all other functions except taking a tub bath was positively highly significantly correlated with the importance of each of the other functions. Factor analyses with one factor model showed high loadings on most functions, with the exception of 'Take a tub bath'. The two-factor model formed one factor with loadings concentrating slightly more on 'lower extremity' and another on 'upper extremity'. Assessment of RA patients' functional status would benefit from further development of measures by giving relative weights from patients' perspective to those functional abilities which are used for index computations. PMID:19826820
The aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 250 pupils (15.3 +/- 0.7 years), who completed the Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire enriched with 22 Greek foods and recipes to include ethnic and racial diversity. A 3-day weighed food recall was used as the criterion to test the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis of correlation revealed significant correlations between the two methods for almost all variables. The Pearson's coefficients ranged from 0.83 for energy intake to 0.34 for folate intake. Non-significant correlations were found for selenium and vitamin D intakes. The findings of the study provide evidence for the validity of the scale and its utility in assessing nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. PMID:18307095
This paper reviews the constructs of vocabulary knowledge, some of the estab- lished measures of the depth of L2 vocabulary knowledge, and proposes three measures to assess the depth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowl- edge and one measure of the breadth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowledge. The depth of meaning dimension refers to the knowledge of
Background A growing body of literature supports the need to identify and address barriers to knowledge use as a strategy to improve care delivery. To this end, we developed a questionnaire to assess barriers to enterally feeding critically ill adult patients, and sought to gain evidence to support the construct validity of this instrument by testing the hypothesis that barriers identified by the questionnaire are inversely associated with nutrition performance. Methods We conducted a multilevel multivariable regression analysis of data from an observational study in 55 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from 5 geographic regions. Data on nutrition practices were abstracted from 1153 patient charts, and 1439 critical care nurses completed the ‘Barriers to Enterally Feeding critically Ill Patients’ questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adequacy of calories from enteral nutrition (proportion of prescribed calories received enterally) and our primary predictor of interest was a barrier score derived from ratings of importance of items in the questionnaire. Results The mean adequacy of calories from enteral nutrition was 48 (Standard Deviation (SD)17)%. Evaluation for confounding identified patient type, proportion of nurse respondents working in the ICU greater than 5 years, and geographic region as important covariates. In a regression model adjusting for these covariates plus evaluable nutrition days and APACHE II score, we observed that a 10 point increase in overall barrier score is associated with a 3.5 (Standard Error (SE)1.3)% decrease in enteral nutrition adequacy (p-values <0.01). Conclusion Our results provide evidence to support our a priori hypothesis that barriers negatively impact the provision of nutrition in ICUs, suggesting that our recently developed questionnaire may be a promising tool to identify these important factors, and guide the selection of interventions to optimize nutrition practice. Further research is required to illuminate if and how the type of barrier, profession of the provider, and geographic location of the hospital may influence this association.
Comparisons of students' representations of financial accounting concepts with the knowledge structures of experts were depicted using Pathfinder networks. This structural approach identified the level of students' understanding of concepts and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. (SK)
This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo
Since 2003, the Essential Skills Series training program developed by the Canadian Evaluation Society has been offered to more than 15 groups in the province of Quebec. The evaluations of these workshops were based on the participants' reactions collected by a Participant Feedback Questionnaire. This article describes the process used to assess…
Questionnaire - based assessment of different au- tonomic dysfunctions was performed in 500 patients with Parkinsonís disease (PD): 273 males and 227 females, aged from 42 to 81 years and with disease duration from 2 months to 17 years. Patients with co-existing diseases affecting the autonomic nervous system (ANS) were not included in the study. The distribution of cases accord-
Purpose: To describe the development and preliminary evaluation of the Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire (MSTQ). Method: During development of the MSTQ, contexts and domains of sitting behavior were utilized as recall cues to improve the accuracy of sitting assessment. The terms "workday" and "nonworkday" were used to…
Whitfield, Geoffrey P.; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K.; Kohl, Harold W., III.
The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…
Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent
This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation.
Lisa A. Goodman; Carole Corcoran; Kiban Turner; Nicole Yuan; Bonnie L. Green
The Self-AssessmentQuestionnaire (SAQ) was developed to evaluate the study and learning behavior of urban Black and Hispanic students in ways not measured by existing study skills instruments. The instrument attempts to deal effectively with "non-intellectual" factors identified previously as having an impact on study and learning behavior. In a…
Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a parent questionnaire in the assessment of emergent and early literacy skills of preschool children with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers to determine the relationship between parent report and more formal measures of early literacy, as well as to…
Background. Many eligible people with arthritis do not receive disability benefits. Application forms are lengthy and complex, and doctors and nurses are often unsure which patients would qualify. Aim. To investigate how severe disability on the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) relates to successful application for disability benefits by people with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method. RA patients attending
D. S. Memel; J. R. Kirwan; C. Langley; S. Hewlett; M. Hehir
Objective. The Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) has been commonly used in rheumatology to quantify functional disability in patient groups, but current general population values of this index are not available. This study was undertaken to establish normative values for the HAQ DI in a general population and to analyze its correlates. Methods. The HAQ DI (range of
Eswar Krishnan; Tuulikki Sokka; Helen Hubert; Pekka Hannonen
In this study, a close-ended questionnaire examining all aspects of photosynthesis simultaneously has been developed and administered to 290 Greek pupils aged 13. It contains complementary or logically related items that permitted us to assess the understanding of each aspect by carrying out cross-analysis. The main findings are: that pupils are not able to conceive photosynthesis as a chemical reaction
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) are widely studied components of Gray's sensitivity to reinforcement model. There is growing interest in integrating the BAS and BIS into models of risk for psychopathology, however, few measures assess BAS and BIS functioning in children. We adapted a questionnaire…
The lack of standardization in shiftwork research has been recognized. In response, a battery of selfreport questionnaires has been developed, which might usefully be employed in assessing the impact of different types of shift systems on large groups of individuals. The scales included reflect the most pertinent issues within shiftwork research, and were chosen on the basis of being both
Jane Barton; Evelien Spelten; Peter Totterdell; Lawrence Smith; Simon Folkard; Giovanni Costa
The authors developed the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children with the aim of assessing the constructs of the interpersonal circumplex model, that is, Dominance and Love and their possible combinations, via third- to fifth-grade children's self- and peer reports. In the three studies presented herein, the authors examined several…
Di Blas, Lisa; Grassi, Michele; Luccio, Riccardo; Momente, Silvia
This investigation consisted on a prospective cross-sectional study that aimed to describe the nursing team knowledge on behavioral assessment of pain. The study was conducted in a private hospital in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in November 2011, with nursing professionals from a general adult intensive care unit. They answered a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic data and questions related to knowledge about a behavioral assessment of pain. Descriptive data analysis was carried out and the average positive score was compared among categories using the Mann-Whitney test. Out of the 113 participants, over 70% have demonstrated knowledge of the main aspects of this assessment and there was no statistical significant difference among the professional categories. It was concluded that the knowledge of the professionals was satisfactory, but it can be improved. PMID:24344585
Souza, Regina Cláudia Silva; Garcia, Dayse Maioli; Sanches, Mariana Bucci; Gallo, Andréa Maria Alice; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Siqueira, Ivana Lúcia Correa Pimentel
This collection of reproducible instruments is designed to help trainers evaluate the performance of their students and to evaluate their success of the training itself. Part 1 discusses assessments and their use. Part 2 contains a topic and assessment matrix and includes 50 assessments that measure various job-related attitudes, knowledge, and…
Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the
MAURICIO HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA; ISABELLE ROMIEU; SOCORRO PARRA; JUAN HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA; HERLINDA MADRIGAL; WALTER WILLETT
The aim of the present study is to elaborate an instrument (CSM-P), valid for victims and aggressors, to assess satisfaction of individuals participating in a penal mediation program (VOM). The instrument was administered to a sample of 213 subjects, randomly chosen from the pool of participants in a VOM program of Catalonian Justice Department. Data analysis of the questionnaire shows an internal consistency of .88 (Cronbach's alpha). The dimensionality of the questionnaire is structured in a single factor that accounts for 61.45% of the variance. The instrument has proven its utility for assessing the satisfaction of the participants in a penal mediation program. Validation of the instrument in similar populations should be performed and it should be adapted to other contexts where assessing user satisfaction in a mediation program is necessary. PMID:18674446
Manzano Blanquez, Juan; Soria Verde, Miguel Angel; Armadans Tremolosa, Inmaculada
Objective We aimed to develop a questionnaireassessing fears and beliefs of patients with knee OA. Design We sent a detailed document reporting on a qualitative analysis of interviews of patients with knee OA to experts, and a Delphi procedure was adopted for item generation. Then, 80 physicians recruited 566 patients with knee OA to test the provisional questionnaire. Items were reduced according to their metric properties and exploratory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Construct validity was tested by divergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Test–retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland and Altman technique. Results 137 items were extracted from analysis of the interview data. Three Delphi rounds were needed to obtain consensus on a 25-item provisional questionnaire. The item-reduction process resulted in an 11-item questionnaire. Selected items represented fears and beliefs about daily living activities (3 items), fears and beliefs about physicians (4 items), fears and beliefs about the disease (2 items), and fears and beliefs about sports and leisure activities (2 items). The Cronbach ? coefficient of global score was 0.85. We observed expected divergent validity. Confirmation factor analyses confirmed higher intra-factor than inter-factor correlations. Test–retest reliability was good, with an ICC of 0.81, and Bland and Altman analysis did not reveal a systematic trend. Conclusions We propose an 11-item questionnaireassessing patients' fears and beliefs concerning knee OA with good content and construct validity.
Background This study reports the reliability and validity of a questionnaire designed to measure the time from detection of a breast cancer to arrival at a cancer hospital, as well as the factors that are associated with delay. Methods The proposed questionnaire measures dates for estimation of the patient, provider and total intervals from detection to treatment, as well as factors that could be related to delays: means of problem identification (self-discovery or screening), the patients’ initial interpretations of symptoms, patients’ perceptions of delay, reasons for delay in initial seeking of medical care, barriers perceived to have caused provider delay, prior utilisation of health services, use of alternative medicine, cancer-screening knowledge and practices, and aspects of the social network of support for medical attention. The questionnaire was assembled with consideration for previous research results from a review of the literature and qualitative interviews of patients with breast cancer symptoms. It was tested for face validity, content validity, reliability, internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, sensitivity and specificity in a series of 4 tests with 602 patients. Results The instrument showed good face and content validity. It allowed discrimination of patients with different types and degrees of delay, had quite good reliability for the time intervals (with no significant mean differences between the two measurements), and fairly good internal consistency of the item dimensions (with Cronbach’s alpha values for each dimension between 0.42 and 0.85). Finally, sensitivity and specificity were 74.68% and 48.81%, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of the development and validation of a questionnaire for estimation of breast cancer delay and its correlated factors. It is a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument.
Knowledge of mathematical equivalence, the principle that 2 sides of an equation represent the same value, is a foundational concept in algebra, and this knowledge develops throughout elementary and middle school. Using a construct-modeling approach, we developed an assessment of equivalence knowledge. Second through sixth graders (N = 175)…
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Matthews, Percival G.; Taylor, Roger S.; McEldoon, Katherine L.
We designed a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] for Northern Italian school-children and tested its validity for the assessment of individual nutrient intake. Eighty-eight healthy children (49 females, 39 males — age range 9–12) were investigated. The FFQ we designed consists of 116 food items selected for their common use among our target population (food items found to provide up to
R Bellù; MT Ortisi; E Riva; G Banderali; I Cucco; M Giovannini
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceived learning needs and their level of importance in patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction at hospitalization and follow-up clinic visit and to assess the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire.DESIGN: Longitudinal, exploratory.SETTING: West Coast university-affiliated medical center and clinics that serve primarily a veteran population.PATIENTS: Twenty-eight adults who were admitted with a diagnosis of angina
Mildred L. Czar; Mlittnsg Ed; Marguerite M. Engler
OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.
Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.
The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled…
A study designed to assessknowledge of biostatistics and epidemiology relevant to medical literature and administered to internists and medical house staff at a teaching hospital is assessed. The results of the study suggest that knowledge of basic biostatistics and of study design is important for reading medical literature. (Author/MLW)
Location knowledge is typically assessed using outline maps. A new set of questions reflect spatial thinking research and helps to assess student location knowledge. A small group (145) of first-year college students helped to refine the items. Question styles include: open-response, multiple-choice, listing, labeling, and sketching. Topics…
The aim of this research was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ). Study 1 focused on the compilation and pilot testing of potential questionnaire items. Consistent with self-determination theory, items were devised to tap into six forms of motivation: amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The purpose of the second study (N = 556) was to empirically examine the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Items were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses to determine the fit of the a priori model. In addition, the validity of the questionnaire was assessed through links with the theoretically related concepts of intrinsic need satisfaction, well-being, and goal orientation. Together with test-retest reliability (Study 3), these results showed preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Finally, using an independent sample (N = 254), the fourth study confirmed the factor structure and supports the use of the CMQ in future coaching research. PMID:22605361
McLean, Kristy N; Mallett, Clifford J; Newcombe, Peter
Objective Personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be modestly heritable. Accurate heritability estimates are, however, dependent on reliable measurement methods, as measurement error deflates heritability. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of DSM-IV avoidant and dependent personality disorder, by including two measures of the PDs at two time points. Method Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of young adult Norwegian twins, of whom 8045 had completed a self-report questionnaireassessing PD traits. 2794 of these twins subsequently underwent a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Questionnaire items predicting interview results were selected by multiple regression, and measurement models of the PDs were fitted in Mx. Results The heritabilities of the PD factors were 0.64 for avoidant PD and 0.66 for dependent PD. No evidence of common environment, that is, environmental factors that are shared between twins and make them similar, was found. Genetic and environmental contributions to avoidant and dependent PD seemed to be the same across sexes. Conclusion The combination of both a questionnaire- and an interview assessment of avoidant and dependent PD results in substantially higher heritabilities than previously found using single-occasion interviews only.
Gjerde, L. C.; Czajkowski, N.; R?ysamb, E.; ?rstavik, R. E.; Knudsen, G. P.; ?stby, K.; Torgersen, S.; Myers, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.
This study aimed to investigate dentists' general experience, knowledge about diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear in young adults. A questionnaire was sent to 1262 Norwegian public dental health-employed dentists. The response rate was 60%. Results indicated that most dentists recorded erosive wear, half of them used a specific scoring system, and half registered lesions at the tooth surface level. Lesions were reported most often on palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth (79% of dentists), on occlusal surfaces of lower 1st molars (74%), and on upper 1st molars (32%). Half the dentists used clinical photographs for documentation and 60% made study models. While 40% reported more erosive lesions in males, 36% reported no gender differences. High intake of carbonated beverages and acidic juices were reported as the most common cause by 97% and 72% of the dentists, respectively. Only 21% of dentists recorded the patient's dietary history, and 73% never measured saliva secretion. The majority (78%) of the dentists treated patients with erosive wear themselves. In general, the survey suggests that the dentists are relatively up to date regarding the clinical recording, diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear. However, dietary and salivary analyses were not given priority, and early, preventive treatment was lacking.
Mulic, Aida; Vidnes-Kopperud, Simen; Skaare, Anne B.; Tveit, Anne Bj?rg; Young, Alix
Objectives To determine current evidence-based medicine skills and practice among trainees. Design Questionnaire study. Setting Electronic survey was sent to all obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midlands South Deanery, and responses collected were anonymous. Participants All obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland South Deanery. Main outcome measures Self-reported attitude, skills and knowledge in various components of evidence-based medicine. Results 69 trainees were included in the study of which 35 responded. Among all respondents, almost 72% of trainees use non-evidence-based methods to find answers for their clinical questions, whereas only 18% use appropriate evidence-based medicine practice for such queries. Just 35% of trainees have minimum skills of literature searching. Most of the trainees struggle to understand various components of evidence-based medicine. Nearly 80% of trainees do not have formal education or training with regard to evidence-based medicine. Conclusions This study highlights the inadequacy of evidence-based medicine skills among trainees and urges that evidence-based medicine be incorporated in formal training along with specialty study modules.
Purpose: To report the psychometrics of the Glaucoma Treatment Compliance Assessment Tool (GTCAT), a new questionnaire designed to assess adherence with glaucoma therapy. Methods: We developed the questionnaire according to the constructs of the Health Belief Model. We evaluated the questionnaire using data from a cross-sectional study with focus groups (n = 20) and a prospective observational case series (n=58). Principal components analysis provided assessment of construct validity. We repeated the questionnaire after 3 months for test-retest reliability. We evaluated predictive validity using an electronic dosing monitor as an objective measure of adherence. Results: Focus group participants provided 931 statements related to adherence, of which 88.7% (826/931) could be categorized into the constructs of the Health Belief Model. Perceived barriers accounted for 31% (288/931) of statements, cues-to-action 14% (131/931), susceptibility 12% (116/931), benefits 12% (115/931), severity 10% (91/931), and self-efficacy 9% (85/931). The principal components analysis explained 77% of the variance with five components representing Health Belief Model constructs. Reliability analyses showed acceptable Cronbach’s alphas (>.70) for four of the seven components (severity, susceptibility, barriers [eye drop administration], and barriers [discomfort]). Predictive validity was high, with several Health Belief Model questions significantly associated (P <.05) with adherence and a correlation coefficient (R2) of .40. Test-retest reliability was 90%. Conclusion: The GTCAT shows excellent repeatability, content, construct, and predictive validity for glaucoma adherence. A multisite trial is needed to determine whether the results can be generalized and whether the questionnaire accurately measures the effect of interventions to increase adherence.
Mansberger, Steven L.; Sheppler, Christina R.; McClure, Tina M.; VanAlstine, Cory L.; Swanson, Ingrid L.; Stoumbos, Zoey; Lambert, William E.
Summary Background Blood is a precious resource that needs to be prescribed, handled, stored and transfused as per guidelines to ensure recipient safety. The present study aims to assess the basic knowledge of clinicians pertaining to safe transfusion practice, impart relevant training, and assess the impact of such training programs. Methods A total of 25 fresh bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery graduates were enrolled for the study. The participants were given a pre-assessmentquestionnaire related to the entire transfusion chain followed by interactive training of the participants and post-training re-assessment. Results The mean score in the pre-training assessment was 51% while in the post-training assessment the mean score was 85.4%; the difference was statistically significant. There were significant differences in knowledge pertaining to storage temperature, shelf life of red cells and platelets, alternate group choice for fresh frozen plasma, and documentation of transfusion reaction. The participants had inadequate knowledge pertaining to cross-match procedure and management of transfusion reactions. Conclusion The study assessed the knowledge and awareness of clinicians regarding blood transfusion practice. Mandatory training and inclusion of transfusion medicine as a subject at undergraduate level can help in improving transfusion practice and ensuring recipient safety.
Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. PMID:23240737
Purpose: According with the principles of impartial evaluation of the students' knowledge, with the national trends in ensuring the efficient and effective end-of-course evaluation, the authors developed an original computer-assisted examination system. Materials and Methods: The information discussed at courses and laboratory class, for the Physical Chemistry Course and for the Microbiology and Toxicology Course were transposing into multiple- choice
This paper reports the results of a needs assessment survey that was conducted to find out pre-service teachers' background knowledge, experiences and perceptions about their preparation for technology integration at a university in the Middle East USA. A questionnaire with both closed and open-ended items was administered to a group of student…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess leadership learning in a principalship development programme. Design/methodology/approach: This case study adopted Popper's three worlds as an analytical framework to assess leadership learning in a principalship development programme. The unit of assessment of learning is knowledge--more…
This study addresses the convergent validity of a new teacher questionnaire to assess the social participation of students with special needs in regular primary schools. The Social Participation Questionnaire (SPQ) consists of four subscales representing four key themes of social participation: friendships/relationships, contacts/interactions,…
Koster, Marloes; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els J.
The level of expressed emotion (EE) as assessed in the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) has proved to be one of the best predictors of relapse in schizophrenia. The present study describes the development and validation of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status (criticism, emotional overinvolvement) of relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The FQ classifications
Georg Wiedemann; Oliver Rayki; Elias Feinstein; Kurt Hahlweg
To develop a simple, valid, reliable questionnaire to assess the severity of symptoms and their impact on the quality of life in women with urogenital prolapse. Women recruited from gynaecology outpatient clinics were asked to complete a prolapse quality of life questionnaire (P-QOL) before their hospital visit. At the time of the visit, they were examined supine using the International
G. Alessandro Digesu; Vik Khullar; Linda Cardozo; Dudley Robinson; Stefano Salvatore
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.
Living kidney donors (LKDs) may feel more anxious about kidney failure now that they have only one kidney and the security of a second kidney is gone. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to develop and empirically validate a self-report scale for assessing fear of kidney failure in former LKDs. Participants were 364 former LKDs within the past 10 years at five US transplant centers and 219 healthy nondonor controls recruited through Mechanical Turk who completed several questionnaires. Analyses revealed a unidimensional factor structure, excellent internal consistency (? = 0.88), and good convergent validity for the Fear of Kidney Failure questionnaire. Only 13% of former donors reported moderate to high fear of kidney failure. Nonwhite race (OR = 2.9, P = 0.01), genetic relationship with the recipient (OR = 2.46, P = 0.04), and low satisfaction with the donation experience (OR = 0.49, P = 0.002) were significant predictors of higher fear of kidney failure. We conclude that while mild anxiety about kidney failure is common, high anxiety about future renal failure among former LKDs is uncommon. The Fear of Kidney Failure questionnaire is reliable, valid, and easy to use in the clinical setting. PMID:24606048
Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Whiting, James; Vella, John P; Garrison, Krista; Moore, Deonna; Kayler, Liise; Baliga, Prabhakar; Chavin, Kenneth D; Karp, Seth; Mandelbrot, Didier A
Objectives/Hypothesis Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common condition that is associated with otologic and rhinologic symptoms. The complete assessment of ETD is limited without a valid symptom score. We developed and conducted initial validation of the seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire (ETDQ-7), a disease-specific instrument to assess symptoms with respect to ETD. Study Design Validation study. Methods The ETDQ-7 was developed using standard survey methodology. The ETDQ-7 was completed by a group of 50 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with ETD and 25 non-ETD patients who served as a control group. Tympanometry was used as a criterion standard to distinguish the two groups. A subset of respondents repeated the ETDQ-7 at a time point 4 weeks later. Results Content validity for the ETDQ-7 was established by focus group and review of the literature. Reliability testing indicated acceptable internal consistency for the entire instrument (Cronbach ? = .71). The test–retest reliability indicated good correlation between the two questionnaires completed by the same patient 4 weeks apart (r = 0.78). The ETDQ-7 was able to discriminate between patients with ETD and those without (P < .001), indicating excellent discriminant validity. Conclusions The ETDQ-7 is a valid and reliable symptom score for use in adult patients with ETD that may facilitate clinical practice by highlighting the impact of ETD. Further testing is needed to determine its usefulness in assessing treatment response.
McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Christos, Paul J.
There is need for a brief but comprehensive objective assessment tool to help clinicians evaluate relapse symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their impact on daily functioning, as well as response to treatment. The 2-part Assessing Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis (ARMS) questionnaire was developed to achieve these aims. Part 1 consists of 7 questions that evaluate relapse symptoms, impact on activities of daily living (ADL), overall functioning, and response to treatment for previous relapses. Part 2 consists of 7 questions that evaluate treatment response in terms of symptom relief, functioning, and tolerability. The ARMS questionnaire has been evaluated in 103 patients with MS. The most commonly reported relapse symptoms were numbness/tingling (67%), fatigue (58%), and leg/foot weakness (55%). Over half of patients reported that ADL or overall functioning were affected very much (47%) or severely (11%) by relapses. Prescribed treatments for relapses included intravenous and/or oral corticosteroids (87%) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (13%). Nearly half of patients reported that their symptoms were very much (33%) or completely resolved (16%) following treatment. The most commonly reported adverse events were sleep disturbance (45%), mood changes (33%), weight gain (29%), and increased appetite (26%). Systematic assessment of relapses and response to relapse treatment may help clinicians to optimize outcomes for MS patients.
A questionnaire was completed by 861 passengers on regularly-scheduled flights of four commuter airlines. Four types of aircraft were involved. Questions assessed major demographic variables, attitudes toward flying, frequency of flying, experience of airsickness, and passenger perceptions of detailed aspects of the physical environment. Passengers also rated their overall comfort level and their willingness to fly again. Passengers perceive motion, noise, and seat factors as the primary determinants of their comfort. Rated comfort is strongly related to willingness to fly again. Incidence of airsickness was low. Sex differences in reactions to aspects of the environment were found.
Purpose To investigate whether the Stanford Health AssessmentQuestionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) can serve as a generic instrument\\u000a for measuring disability across different rheumatic diseases and to propose a scoring method based on item response theory\\u000a (IRT) modeling to support this goal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The HAQ-DI was administered to a cross-sectional sample of patients with confirmed rheumatoid arthritis (n = 619), osteoarthritis (n = 125), or gout
Maaike M. van Groen; Peter M. ten Klooster; Erik Taal; Mart A. F. J. van de Laar; Cees A. W. Glas
Background: Little experience exists on valid and reliable tools for assessment of the determinants of underweight and overweight in children and adolescents living in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to develop a valid and wideranging questionnaire for assessment of these parameters in a nationwide sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This national study was conducted in 31 provinces in Iran. The first phase consisted of focus group discussion with 275 children and adolescents and their parents. After a qualitative content analysis, the initial items were extracted. In the next step, the face validity was assessed by expert panelists using the quantitative method of the Impact Score. To assess the content validity, the content validity rate (CVR) and the content validity index (CVI) were determined. The internal consistency was examined by Cronbach alpha, and its test-retest reliability was determined. The socio-demographic variables, perinatal factors, lifestyle factors, family history, knowledge and attitude were assessed. Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire for quality of life was filled in anonymously. Results: A team of expert researchers conducted the data analysis of 576 interviews by using qualitative content analysis method. The analysis process began by determining the semantic units about the concepts studied. The initial questionnaire was developed in four domains by including Likert scale questions. In the face validity step, all questions of the primary questionnaire obtained a score of more than 1.5. In the phase of CVR assessment, 6 questions obtained a score of less than 0.62, and were omitted. The rest of questions were assessed for CVI, and got a score of more than 0.75. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire was 0.97, and the Pearson correlation coefficient of the test-retest phase was 0.94. Conclusion: The developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of the determinants of weight disorders in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the MENA.
This study assessed the sports nutrition knowledge of current and prospective physical educators/coaches (HPEs) to determine the need for improved education in this area and to compare the nutrition knowledge of HPEs with that of foods and nutrition students (FNSs) and general college students (GENs). A researcher-developed 4-point Likert-type…
Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…
Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael
Provides a detailed analysis of techniques used for second language vocabulary assessment and the implied assumptions about the underlying construct of vocabulary knowledge. The article notes that existing measures of vocabulary size are uninformative as to the depth of knowledge that learners have about particular words. (56 references)…
The first step in assessing physical education student teachers' content-related knowledge base is to establish current levels of subdisciplinary knowledge in students and prospective teachers alike. Researchers developed seven multiple-choice tests, based on the National Physical Education Standards Education text, "Concepts of Physical…
Knowledge management (KM) is becoming recognized as a valuable tool for establishing and maintaining competitive advantage. Decision superiority, the ultimate goal of KM, is only possible through the effective and efficient use of knowledge. But, to effectively and efficiently create and use KM, it is important to carefully select KM projects. This research assesses the usefulness of a KM project
Kevin G. Budai; CAPT USAF; Alan R. Heminger; Summer Bartczak
Most content knowledge (CK) courses in physical education teacher education focus mostly on knowledge of rules, etiquette, techniques, tactics, and performance of the activity. Much less emphasis is placed on error detection and instructional tasks. This article therefore presents teaching and assessment strategies that facilitate the acquisition…
The use of knowledge space theory (KST), to assess students' understanding and integration of the different representations in an introductory chemistry course are described. KST is a useful tool for revealing various aspects of students' cognitive structure in chemistry.
The objective was to assess outcomes of nasal septoplasty without turbinectomy using validated subjective instruments and to correlate results with patient satisfaction. The prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. The method included the use of NOSE and RhinoQoL questionnaires to assess patients before and 6 months after Cottle septoplasty without turbinectomy. Patient satisfaction was measured on a visual analog scale. Data were compared by the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Minimal Clinically Important Differences (MCIDs) were calculated. Correlations between post-operative scores and patient satisfaction were assessed using the Spearman test. Univariate analysis was performed to assess predictors of improvement. One hundred patients were enrolled. Their mean age was 43.4 years and 28% had allergic rhinitis. There was a highly significant improvement in each score at 6 months (p < 0.00001). The MCID for the NOSE was comprised between 5 and 7.5, whereas the mean change was 35.2 points. They ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 for RhinoQoL scores, whereas mean changes were comprised between 12.6 and 20.9. Allergic rhinitis was a predictive factor of less improvement (NOSE p = 0.04-RhinoQoL p = 0.0001). Mean patient satisfaction was 8.2 ± 1.8. Post-operative NOSE and RhinoQoL frequency scores were moderately correlated (r = 0.380; r = 0.356, respectively) whereas bothersomeness and impact scores were highly correlated with patient satisfaction (r = 0.459; r = 0.443, p < 0.00001, respectively). This study shows that the NOSE and RhinoQoL questionnaires can be used in English- and French-speaking populations to perform pre- and post-therapeutic assessment. These validated instruments show that septoplasty without turbinectomy allows management of nasal obstruction and its burden. PMID:22231798
The objective of the study was to develop instruments for describing and assessing some aspects of design of the primary work areas of nurses and physicians in intensive care units (ICUs). Separate questionnaires for ICU physicians and nurses were developed. Items related to individual- and unit-level design features of the primary work areas of nurses and physicians were organized using constructs found in the literature. Items related to staff satisfaction and staff use of time in relation to primary work area design were also included. All items and constructs were reviewed by experts for content validity and were modified as needed before use. The final questionnaires were administered to a convenience sample of 4 ICUs in 2 large urban hospitals. A total of 55 nurses and 29 physicians completed the survey. The Cronbach ? was used to measure internal consistency, and factor analysis was used to provide construct-related validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed through examining bivariate correlations between relevant scales/items. Analysis of variance was used to identify whether the between-group member responses were significant among the 4 units. The Cronbach ? values for all except 3 preliminary scales indicated acceptable reliability. Factor analysis indicated that some preliminary scales could be partitioned into subscales for finer descriptions of the primary work areas. Correlational analysis provided strong evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of all the scales and subscales. The significance level of F-statistics showed that the units were significantly different from each other, providing evidence of more between-unit variance than within-unit variance. Therefore, the questionnaires developed in the study offer a promising departure point for rigorous description and evaluation of the primary work areas in relation to staff satisfaction and use of time in ICUs at a time when the importance of such studies is growing. PMID:24896561
Background: Presently, there is insufficient information to compare the value of daily diaries vs retrospective questionnaires for assessing symptoms in relationship to asthma control in clinical trials. Daily symptom diaries are often burdensome to gather, incomplete, susceptible to fabrication, and of questionable reliability. There is also concern that retrospective symptom questionnaires may be subject to poor recall and may be insensitive. Methods: To compare these two methods of assessing symptoms reporting, we analyzed data collected during the Best Add-on Therapy Giving Effective Responses (BADGER) trial. During the trial, asthma control in 182 children aged 6 to 17 years was assessed in two ways: (1) by asthma control days (ACDs) determined by manually recorded daily diary symptom and rescue medication use scores and (2) by monthly retrospective report of symptoms embedded within the age-appropriate version of the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Correlations between ACDs and ACT scores were analyzed, and the sensitivity of each method for measuring asthma control and determining the differential response among the three BADGER treatments was evaluated. Results: Although validated using a 4-week recall period, ACT correlated better with daily diary information from the last 2 weeks of the 4-week recall (r = 0.46) than from the first 2 weeks (r = 0.34). In addition, clinically significant differential treatment responses were detected using ACDs but not ACT scores . Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that daily diaries used to determine ACDs can be a more sensitive tool than ACT for assessing differential treatment responses with respect to asthma control.
Sorkness, Christine A.; Mauger, David T.; Jackson, Daniel J.; Lemanske, Robert F.
Information and communication technology is applied by law enforcement agencies in intelligence and investigation work. Assessment\\u000a of risk caused by criminal gangs is an example of risk and technology in policing. This paper applies the knowledge management\\u000a technology stage model to criminal risk assessment.
In a society characterized by change, people are faced with many opportunities to acquire practical knowledge outside the traditional environment of academic institutions using the same basic evaluation criteria and guarantee the validity and reliability of assessment. A prior learning assessment (PLA) program has the following economic benefits:…
The scope of this study was to make the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessmentquestionnaire in a group of students in higher education in Portugal. The process of translation and validation consisted of translation, back translation, expert committee review, pre-testing and testing of the psychometric properties. The final version adapted with 30 questions was applied to a sample of 707 university students. The results showed that the instrument demonstrated good overall internal consistency for an instrument used to measure a latent variable. When the items were grouped into domains, it was found that they all contributed equally to the stability of the instrument. The reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation was high. Construct validity tested by the classification capacity of the instrument in four, three and two categories was 67.6%, 67.6% and 100%, with a Kappa index of 0.55, 0.55 and 1.00, respectively. The concurrent validity was also evaluated by correlating it with "My Lifestyle," namely another instrument measuring the same construct. The conclusion was that the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment, is a reliable and valid instrument for lifestyle assessment in young adults. PMID:24897489
Silva, Armando Manuel Marques; Brito, Irma da Silva; Amado, João Manuel da Costa
Introduction. A five-item Self-Assessment of Treatment (SAT) was developed to assess improvement and satisfaction with treatment associated with the application of a novel high concentration 8% capsaicin topical patch in clinical trials in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). This study evaluated the item performance and psychometric properties of the SAT. Methods. The SAT, Brief Pain Inventory, SF-36v2, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Patient and Clinician Global Impression of Change (PGIC; CGIC) scores were measured in two 12-week Phase 3 clinical trials. Factor analysis assessed the underlying factor structure, followed by examination of the reliability and validity of the multi-item domain. Results. Pooled data from 698 patients completing SAT after 12 weeks of treatment were analyzed. A one-factor model combining three of the five items emerged as the optimal solution. Internal consistency reliability of this treatment efficacy factor was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate to high correlations with change in other study endpoints. SAT mean scores consistently discriminated between patient change groups defined by PGIC and CGIC. Conclusions. The measurement properties of the three-item version of SAT are valid and reliable for assessment of treatment with a high concentration capsaicin patch among patients with PHN.
Background: On the basis of clinical experience, it seems that sleep disturbances are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP); however, there is a lack of research and objective data to support this observation. Aim of Work: Our aim was to assess sleep of children with cerebral palsy, using validated sleep questionnaire. Subjects and Methods: one hundred children with diagnosis of CP were investigated via sleep questionnaires, with their ages from 2-12 years. The 100 children with CP were divided into two groups, pre-school group (52 children had a mean age 2.35 ± 1.04 years) and school ages group (48 children had a mean age 10.21 ± 3.75 years). Results: We found high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups. We found that pre-school children have more prevalence of early insomnia (46.2%, P value 0.028) and sleep bruxism (50%, P value 0.000), while school group suffer more sleep disordered breathing (SDB) (50%, P value 0.001), more nightmares (50%, P value 0.001), more sleep talking (12.5% P value 0.049), and more excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (62.5%, P value 0.001). Conclusion: Results of our study indicate that CP children have high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups.
Elsayed, Riad M.; Hasanein, Bothina M.; Sayyah, Hala E.; El-Auoty, Mostafa M.; Tharwat, Noha; Belal, Tamer M.
The dynamic act of knowledge transfer, or the connection of a student's prior knowledge to features of a new problem, could be considered one of the primary goals of education. Yet studies highlight more instances of failure than success. This dissertation focuses on how knowledge transfer takes place during individual problem solving, in classroom settings and during group work. Through the lens of dynamic transfer, or how students connect prior knowledge to problem features, this qualitative study focuses on a methodology to assess transfer in the context of biomechanics. The first phase of this work investigates how a pedagogical technique based on situated cognition theory affects students' ability to transfer knowledge gained in a biomechanics class to later experiences both in and out of the classroom. A post-class focus group examined events the students remembered from the class, what they learned from them, and how they connected them to later relevant experiences inside and outside the classroom. These results were triangulated with conceptual gains evaluated through concept inventories and pre- and post- content tests. Based on these results, the next two phases of the project take a more in-depth look at dynamic knowledge transfer during independent problem-solving and group project interactions, respectively. By categorizing prior knowledge (Source Tools), problem features (Target Tools) and the connections between them, results from the second phase of this study showed that within individual problem solving, source tools were almost exclusively derived from "propagated sources," i.e. those based on an authoritative source. This differs from findings in the third phase of the project, in which a mixture of "propagated" sources and "fabricated" sources, i.e. those based on student experiences, were identified within the group project work. This methodology is effective at assessingknowledge transfer in the context of biomechanics through evidence of the ability to identify differing patterns of how different students apply prior knowledge and make new connections between prior knowledge and current problem features in different learning situations. Implications for the use of this methodology include providing insight into not only students' prior knowledge, but also how they connect this prior knowledge to problem features (i.e. dynamic knowledge transfer). It also allows the identification of instances in which external input from other students or the instructor prompted knowledge transfer to take place. The use of this dynamic knowledge transfer lens allows the addressing of gaps in student understanding, and permits further investigations of techniques that increase instances of successful knowledge transfer.
Background There is currently no validated questionnaire available to assess total sedentary time in older adults. Most studies only used TV viewing time as an indicator of sedentary time. The first aim of our study was to investigate the self-reported time spent by older persons on a set of sedentary activities, and to compare this with objective sedentary time measured by accelerometry. The second aim was to determine what set of self-reported sedentary activities should be used to validly rank people’s total sedentary time. Finally we tested the reliability of our newly developed questionnaire using the best performing set of sedentary activities. Methods The study sample included 83 men and women aged 65–92 y, a random sample of Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam participants, who completed a questionnaire including ten sedentary activities and wore an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 8 days. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the association between self-reported time and objective sedentary time. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Mean total self-reported sedentary time was 10.4 (SD 3.5) h/d and was not significantly different from mean total objective sedentary time (10.2 (1.2) h/d, p?=?0.63). Total self-reported sedentary time on an average day (sum of ten activities) correlated moderately (Spearman’s r?=?0.35, p?0.01) with total objective sedentary time. The correlation improved when using the sum of six activities (r?=?0.46, p?0.01), and was much higher than when using TV watching only (r?=?0.22, p?=?0.05). The test-retest reliability of the sum of six sedentary activities was 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.81). Conclusions A questionnaire including six sedentary activities was moderately associated with accelerometry-derived sedentary time and can be used to reliably rank sedentary time in older persons.
Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 showed good reproducibility, with a correlation coefficient of 0.73. The ACQ-7 identified a greater number of patients with uncontrolled asthma than did the GINA criteria; according to the GINA criteria, 47 patients (90.4%) presented with partially controlled asthma.
Cardoso, Mariana Nadal; Chong, Herberto Jose; Rabelo, Leda Maria; Riedi, Carlos Antonio; Rosario, Nelson Augusto
Repeated interpersonal patterns are central to case conceptualization and treatment planning in interpersonal and attachment-based approaches to therapy. In this study, raters (133 college students, 165 inpatients) provided data on the SASB-based Intrex questionnaire about self-treatment, relationship with a significant other, and remembered interactions with parents in childhood. Within-subject profiles were inspected for precise behavioral matches conforming to three “copy process” patterns: Identification (behaving like an important other), Recapitulation (behaving as if the other person is still present and in charge), and Introjection (treating the self the way another did). Copy process evidence was observed in most individual ratings. Consistent with expectation, non-clinical raters tended to copy a securely-attached pattern of affiliation, low hostility, and moderate degrees of enmeshment and differentiation. Only patients copied maladaptive behavior at greater than base rate expectation. Implications are discussed and recommendations provided for use of Intrex in individual assessment of copy process.
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.
ObjectiveTo develop and validate a questionnaire to determine satisfaction with the hospital emergency department.DesignCross-sectional study to validate a telephone questionnaire designed in Spanish by a panel of experts.SettingThe emergency department of Hospital Gregorio Marañón, a tertiary level hospital of the Spanish national health system.ParticipantsA sample of 651 emergency department patients completed the questionnaire.Main Outcome MeasuresThe psychometric properties of the questionnaire
Susana Granado de la Orden; Ana Chacón García; Lorena Flavia Rodríguez Gijón; Cristina Rodríguez Rieiro; Concepción Sanchidrian de Blas; Paz Rodríguez Pérez
Background/objective The Self Assessment of Treatment (SAT) questionnaire was developed to reflect key patient reported outcomes of Neuropathic Pain (NP) treatments. This study aimed to understand how patients perceived the relevance and ease of understanding of the questions in the SAT and to recommend modifications based on patient and clinician interviews. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians and NP patients to provide information regarding treatment attributes and the impact of pain. Patients were debriefed on the SAT, a 5-item scale evaluating pain, activity level, quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with treatment (recommend treatment and undergo treatment again). The SAT has a recall period reflecting back to the start of treatment. The qualitative analysis software ATLAS.ti 5.0 was used to analyze patient transcripts. Changes to the SAT were integrated into the questionnaire for a second round of debriefing interviews. Results Three NP clinicians and 44 patients (20 painful diabetic neuropathy, 16 HIV-associated neuropathy and 8 post herpetic neuralgia) with a mean age of 60.3 (12.3) years and an even gender distribution were interviewed. Patient treatment experience included anticonvulsants (73%), antidepressants (34%), opioids (25%), and topical medications (41%). Pain descriptors and treatment attributes were similar across the three NP groups. Pain relief was judged the most important treatment attribute, followed by ability to undertake activities. Sleep improvement was another important attribute. Activity limitations and QOL were perceived as too broad and non-specific, and were split into 3 concepts each (activity limitations was split into self care, daily and physical activities and QOL was split into sleep, emotions, and social function). A 7-day recall period was introduced. The item stem and response options were made consistent, and a baseline and follow-up questionnaires were developed (except for the satisfaction items) to enable monitoring onset of treatment benefit and change over time. Conclusions The content validity of the revised SAT was improved by the qualitative research, and NP treatment benefits are reflected in a more consistent fashion by the changes. Baseline and follow-up versions make it possible to perform assessments of change over time.
Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…
Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.
Background In order to help assess resident performance during training, the Residency Affair Committee of the Pediatric Residency Program of the University of Padua (Italy) administered a Resident AssessmentQuestionnaire (ReAQ), which both residents and faculty were asked to complete. The aim of this article is to present the ReAQ and its validation. Methods The ReAQ consists of 20 items that assess the six core competencies identified by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). A many-facet Rasch measurement analysis was used for validating the ReAQ. Results Between July 2011 and June 2012, 211 evaluations were collected from residents and faculty. Two items were removed because their functioning changed with the gender of respondents. The step calibrations were ordered. The self evaluations (residents rating themselves) positively correlated with the hetero evaluations (faculty rating residents; Spearman’s ??=?0.75, p?0.001). Unfortunately, the observed agreement among faculty was smaller than expected (Exp?=?47.1%; Obs?=?41%), which indicates that no enough training to faculty for using the tool was provided. Conclusions In its final form, the ReAQ provides a valid unidimensional measure of core competences in pediatric residents. It produces reliable measures, distinguishes among groups of residents according to different levels of performance, and provides a resident evaluation that holds an analogous meaning for residents and faculty.
The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables. PMID:24068225
Background: Evaluation of fund of knowledge about SLD among kindergarten and primary school teachers is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of SLD and to plan for specific teacher education to enable early identification of SLD among children. Aim: To assess the knowledge of learning disability among primary school teachers in India and to investigate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out 34 primary school teachers from 2 different schools in Puducherry town agreed to participate in this study with informed consent. We used a multiple choice questionnaire format with a total of 50 questions, 5 choices for each question and a total score of 50. The study was held at the schools where these teachers were employed using pen and paper testing method and data were entered into the computer for statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Total scores on the questionnaire of all teachers were calculated. Content validity, reliability coefficient, discrimination factor, and facility factor were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: 29% of the questions were correctly answered by all 34 teachers. The mean total score for this sample was 14.50 ± 9 and total item score for the 50 items was 9.90 ± 4. Cronbach's (?) reliability was 0.89. Overall discrimination index was + 0.2 and facility factor analysis score was 0.26. Conclusions: Validation of this new screening questionnaire was successful in Indian setting. It has to be used in other settings to extrapolate our findings.
Although several different measures have been developed to assess job satisfaction, large-scale examinations of the psychometric properties of most satisfaction scales are generally lacking. In the current study we used meta-analysis to examine the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational AssessmentQuestionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale…
The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching quality assessmentquestionnaire and assess its reliability by using it with a sample of first-year medical students. Principal components analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation resulted in the development of a 12-item, two-component tool, adequate for use in lectures and small-group sessions.…
Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Pinto, Anabela Mota; da Conceicao, Hugo Camilo F.; da Silva, Jose Antonio Pereira
Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…
Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students. The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire. Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB. This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized. PMID:24857175
Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the
Linda LeResche; Donna Strobino; Peggy Parks; Pamela Fischer; Vincent Smeriglio
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.
An assessment of abilities to function independently in daily life is an important clinical endpoint for all Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and caregivers. A mathematical model was developed to describe the natural history of change of the Functional AssessmentQuestionnaire (FAQ) from data obtained in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment, and mild AD in the AD neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) study. FAQ is a bounded outcome (ranging from 0 to 30), with 0 scored as "no impairment" and 30 as "severely impaired". Since many normal elderly patients had 0 scores and some AD patients had scores of 30 in the ADNI database, a censored approach for handling the boundary data was compared with a standard approach, which ignores the bounded nature of the data. Baseline severity, ApoE4 genotype, age, sex, and imaging biomarkers were tested as covariates. The censored approach greatly improved the predictability of the disease progression in FAQ scores. The basic method for handling boundary data used in this analysis is also applicable to handle boundary observations for numerous other endpoints. PMID:22990808
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.
Background Physical activity (PA) is important in older adults for the maintenance of functional ability. Assessing PA may be difficult. Few PA questionnaires have been compared to activity monitors. We examined reproducibility and validity of the self-administered Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ) against a triaxial accelerometer (ACTR) (Sensewear® Pro) in older adults. Methods Participants wore the ACTR continuously for two weeks. After 2 (T [time] = 1) and 4 (T = 2) weeks, participants completed the LAPAQ. Since the LAPAQ asks about 2 weeks’ worth of physical activity, the ACTR and LAPAQ coincided at T1. T2 was used to assess the reproducibility of the LAPAQ results only. We calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficients (PCC) to examine reproducibility and validity. For visualization, we used scatterplots and Bland–Altman plots. With a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve we assessed how well the LAPAQ identifies older adults whose activity level is below official recommendations. Results A total of 89 persons were included. Of the participants, 48% were men; median age was 73, and median body mass index was 25. The 2-week mean total duration of activity was 2788 (ACTR, T = 1), 2439 (LAPAQ T = 1), and 1994 (LAPAQ T = 2) minutes. As a reference, 2 full weeks contained 20,160 minutes. Reproducibility of the LAPAQ was moderate (PCC 0.68, 95% CI 0.55–0.80). The median difference between LAPAQ at T = 1 and the ACTR (LAPAQ minus ACTR) was –510 minutes and the PCC was 0.25 (95% CI 0.07–0.44). The area under the ROC curve was 0.73 (95% CI 0.59–0.86). Conclusion LAPAQ underestimates PA and seems unsuitable for exact measurement in older adults. However, it may be used to determine if a person’s PA level is below the recommended level.
A description is given of a prototype training assessment tool developed as part of a computer-based cockpit design and analysis workstation that estimates the training resources and time imposed by the anticipated mission and cockpit design. Embedding instructional system and training analysis domain knowledge in a production system environment, the tool allows crew station designers to readily determine the training
The development, validation, and use of a multiple-choice test to assess physicians' knowledge of current approaches to diabetes management is outlined, and the test's current use among family practice and internal medicine physicians, residents, and medical students is described. (MSE)
This article attempts to unpack the complexity of teachers' professional knowledge construction in Assessment for Learning (hereafter, AfL). It presents a qualitative study of a school-based AfL Project which took place in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Thirty lessons video-recorded in the AfL Project and nine teacher interviews conducted after…
In this article, we argue that prior learning assessment (PLA) essays manifest a series of issues central to composition research and practice: they foreground the "contact zone" between the unauthorized writer, institutional power, and the articulation of knowledge claims; they reinforce the central role of a multifaceted approach to writing…
In this article we propose a novel e-learning system, dedicated strictly to knowledgeassessment tasks. In its functioning it utilizes web-based technologies, but its design differs radically from currently popular e-learning solutions which rely mostly on thin-client architecture. Our research proved that such architecture, while well suited for…
Students' achievements in knowledge and skills and their change in attitudes would depend on many factors such as the teaching and learning instructions and assessment methods employed by the lecturers, learning environments and students' own efforts and initiatives. In engineering education, laboratory experiments or practical works are integrated in the curriculum to prepare students for engineering experience and practice when
Kamilah Radin Salim; Salwani Mohd Daud; Marlia Puteh
Objective To develop a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for older children and adolescents and to demonstrate reproducibility over a 1-year period.Design The youth\\/adolescent questionnaire (YAQ) was based on the validated Nurses’ Health Study food frequency questionnaire and was developed to reflect the eating habits of this age group.Subjects The multiethnic sample consisted of 179 youths (ages 9 to 18 years)
HELAINE R. H ROCKETT; ANNE M WOLF; GRAHAM A COLDITZ
Objective: To assess the rate and typology of sexual dysfunction in male subjects receiving trifluoperazine, risperidone, or olanzapine using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), the Psychotropic Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ), and the sexual function section of the modified Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU). Method: The sample included 100 men with psychotic disorders (F2 category of the ICD-10) and receiving trifluoperazine (n = 20), risperidone (n = 30), or olanzapine (n = 50) for at least 3 months’ duration. Subjects with a history of sexual dysfunction prior to antipsychotic intake or chronic medical illness were excluded. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data were collected over a 1½-year period from March 2009 to August 2010. Results: The rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale among the 100 subjects. The rate of sexual dysfunction was 25% on the ASEX, 37% on the PRSexDQ, and 40% on the UKU. Sexual dysfunction in the trifluoperazine, risperidone, and olanzapine groups was 20%, 43%, and 16%, respectively, on the ASEX; 35%, 50%, and 30%, respectively, on the PRSexDQ; and 40%, 50%, and 34%, respectively, on the UKU. The most common sexual dysfunction as assessed on all scales was decreased libido, except for the risperidone group on the ASEX. Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction is quite prevalent in subjects receiving antipsychotic medications. In our study, rate of sexual dysfunction was highest for risperidone, followed by trifluoperazine and olanzapine. However, the rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale. Hence, there is a need for a comprehensive instrument to assess sexual dysfunction in patients receiving antipsychotics.
With the increasing numbers of older adults, factors impacting the effectiveness of provision of health care must be addressed. The literature suggests attitudes, particularly those of nurses, impact health service provision. This article reports the outcome of a multicountry validation study of the Reactions to Ageing Questionnaire (RAQ). The RAQ measures attitudes toward personal aging and has been used in Australia for 5 years. This study was designed to determine whether the psychometric characteristics and norms of the RAQ identified for Australian nurses also apply to nursing samples in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings indicate the internal structure of the RAQ extends outside Australia, with similar factors appearing across the three countries. Ranges and standard deviations indicate the instrument is able to discriminate between respondents within each country. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were consistent across countries and fell in the moderately high range. The findings indicate the RAQ has many potential applications in attitude assessment and in providing direction for training designed to address attitudinal factors that may impact the effectiveness of nursing practice for older adults. PMID:15471063
Zinc deficiency has been reported in individuals with eating disorders, the risks of which increase during the adolescent and early adult years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific for zinc-rich foods was tested for its usefulness in identifying problematic eating behaviour tendencies in college-age women. Ninety-two female students enrolled in a university introductory psychology course volunteered to complete demographic information, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a zinc-specific FFQ (ZnFFQ). Relationships among estimated zinc intakes, food/lifestyle habits, and eating attitude variables were examined. Twenty-five women had estimated intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc. Individuals in the highest zinc intake group (over twice the RDA) had a tendency to score higher on the EAT-26 and the bulimia subscale. Vegetarians also scored high on the EAT-26. Although our data are limited, the ZnFFQ should be studied further to determine whether it could play a useful role in identifying individuals at risk for bulimia. The ZnFFQ is a simple, non-confrontational assessment tool and may be a helpful starting point for identifying women with unhealthy eating habits. PMID:19958578
Purpose: To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire of bilingual language status with predictable relationships between self-reported and behavioral measures. Method: In Study 1, the internal validity of the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q) was established on the basis of self-reported data from 52 multilingual adult…
Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate their intake. To address this gap a database of N-nitroso values was developed in conjunction with an existing food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The purpose of this paper is to report on the relative validity of the FFQ instrument modified to estimate N-nitroso compounds. Intake estimates of 23 N-nitroso compounds from FFQ were compared with those from seven days of food records (7DFR) in a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2005 through June 2006. A sample of 98 healthy adult subjects (50.42 ± 12.84 years) completed a FFQ and then recorded foods and beverages consumed (7DFR). Crude and energy-adjusted N-nitroso compounds intakes were significantly higher in the FFQ than the 7DFR(P < 0.001). Spearman correlations for crude and energy-adjusted N-nitroso intakes ranged from 0.004 to 0.48. By tertiles of N-ntiroso compounds, there was moderate agreement (Kappa >0.30) for five compounds. Higher estimates of N-nitroso compounds by FFQ was explained by a greater proportion of subjects who reported eating foods high in N-nitroso compounds on FFQ than reported on 7DFR. The modified FFQ with N-nitroso values is a useful tool for assessing N-nitroso intakes relative to a group, and captures all food items with N-nitroso compounds including those foods with high concentrations and eaten sporadically.
Background Demand for complete denture treatment is expected to rise over several decades. However, to date, no questionnaire on complete dentures, as evaluated by edentulous patients, has been shown to be reliable and valid. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of Patient’s Denture Assessment (PDA), which provides a multidimensional evaluation of dentures among edentulous patients. Methods Patients, who had new complete dentures fabricated at the University Hospital of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University through 2009 to 2010, were enrolled. The reliability of the PDA was determined by examining internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency for all of the question items and the six subscales was measured using Cronbach’s ? and average inter-item correlation coefficients among 93 participants. For 33 of these participants, test-retest reliability was determined at a 2 month-interval using the interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% confidence interval for the summary scores and the six subscale scores. The PDA was validated in 93 participants by examining the difference in the summary score and the six subscale scores of the PDA before and after replacement with new dentures by the paired t-test. Ability to detect change was also tested in 93 patients using effect size. Results The Cronbach’s ? for the PDA ranged from 0.56 to 0.93. The average inter-item correlation coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.83. ICCs for the PDA ranged from 0.37 to 0.83. The paired t-test showed a significant difference between the summary score and the six subscale scores before and after replacement with new dentures (p?0.05) and the effect size was 0.97. Conclusions The PDA demonstrated good reliability by assessing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, the PDA demonstrated good validity by assessing discriminant validity. Thus, the PDA could help dentists obtain a detailed understanding of the patients’ perceptions in using their dentures.
Prevention and health promotion are gaining importance in modern medical curricula. Aim of this study was to evaluate the self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students towards health promotion and prevention. In 2012, at the Medical University of Vienna, 27% of the 633 fourth-year medical students (50.3% male and 49.7% female; mean age: 24 years) completed a questionnaire. Results show a high assessment of prevention in most respondents. Knowledge gaps were detected on occupational health and mother-child pass examinations. However, almost all students reported sufficient knowledge on screening and risk assessment of developing cardiovascular diseases. Almost all respondents estimated to be able to identify risky behaviours. Overall, estimation towards prevention of tomorrow's physicians is very positive. However, only 40% believed to have been adequately trained on preventive medicine so far. Relevant preventive aspects were added to the medical curriculum in 2012-2013 with the new block 'Public Health'. PMID:24468828
Borsoi, Livia; Rieder, Anita; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dorner, Thomas Ernst
We reformed a course for future elementary teachers to infuse pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) into the fabric of a physics course. The modified course is structured around an instructional model called the pedagogical learning bicycle (PLB) that intertwines the construction of content knowledge (CK) with pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) using metacognitive reflection as a bridge between learning content and pedagogy. To assess the impact of the course experiences on their PCK, the future teachers were asked to work in groups to create lesson plans that incorporated their understanding of elementary childrenâs ideas of science and strategies to address these ideas. As a measure of PCK, we scored the lesson plans on the ways in which the students incorporated these ideas in their lesson. We describe the results of our study and discuss its implications for instruction.
Recent research has advanced our understanding of the modifications needed for Holland's hexagonal model of occupational interests when applied to Hong Kong Chinese. This study continues this line of research in testing the validity of Wong's Career Interest AssessmentQuestionnaire (WCIAQ) and the revised hexagonal model developed in Hong Kong to…
Objective: To explore the associations between individual subdimensions of the health assessmentquestionnaire (HAQ) and clinical variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: 304 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (73% female, mean (SD) age, 58 (13) years; disease duration 6 (9) years, 69% rheumatoid factor positive) completed the HAQ for functional capacity (0–3) and a 100 mm visual analogue scale for pain.
A Ha?kkinen; H Kautiainen; P Hannonen; J Ylinen; M Arkela-Kautiainen; T Sokka
The Mathematics AssessmentQuestionnaire was designed to sample thoughts and feelings of students in grades 7 through 9 in relation to solving mathematical word problems. Test development studies began in 1986-87 with a review of research and literature and the writing of sample statements that were evaluated by 16 experienced teachers and…
A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)
The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.
Background The CCAENA questionnaire was developed to assess care continuity across levels from the patients’ perspective. The aim is to provide additional evidence on the psychometric properties of the scales of this questionnaire. Methods Cross-sectional study by means of a survey of a random sample of 1500 patients attended in primary and secondary care in three health care areas of the Catalan health care system. Data were collected in 2010 using the CCAENA questionnaire. To assess psychometric properties, an exploratory factor analysis was performed (construct validity) and the item-rest correlations and Cronbach's alpha were calculated (internal consistency). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated (multidimensionality) and the ability to discriminate between groups was tested. Results The factor analysis resulted in 21 items grouped into three factors: patient–primary care provider relationship, patient–secondary care provider relationship and continuity across care levels. Cronbach's alpha indicated good internal consistency (0.97, 0.93, 0.80) and the correlation coefficients indicated that dimensions can be interpreted as separated scales. Scales discriminated patients according to health care area, age and educational level. Conclusion The CCAENA questionnaire has proved to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients’ perceptions of continuity. Providers and researchers could apply the questionnaire to identify areas for health care improvement.
Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ? 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
Background: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) was developed in an attempt to define the basic factors of personality or temperament. We aimed to assess the factor structure and the psychometric properties of its Greek version and to explore its relation to psychopathological symptoms and hostility features. Methods: ZKPQ was translated into Greek using back-translation and was administered to 1,462 participants (475 healthy participants, 619 medical patients, 177 psychiatric patients and 191 opiate addicts). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. Symptoms Distress Check-List (SCL-90R) and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ) were administered to test criterion validity. Results: Five factors were identified, largely corresponding to the original version’s respective factors. Retest reliabilities were acceptable (rli’s: 0.79-0.89) and internal consistency was adequate for Neuroticism-Anxiety (0.87), Impulsive Sensation Seeking (0.80), Aggression-Hostility (0.77) and Activity (0.72), and lower for Sociability (0.64). Most components were able to discriminate psychiatric patients and opiate addicts from healthy participants. Opiate addicts exhibited higher rates on Impulsive Sensation Seeking compared to healthy participants. Neuroticism-Anxiety (p<0.001) and Impulsive Sensation Seeking (p<0.001) were significantly associated with psychological distress and Aggression-Hostility was the most powerful correlate of Total Hostility (p<0.001), and Neuroticism-Anxiety was the stronger correlate of introverted hostility (p<0.001), further supporting the instrument’s concurrent validity. Conclusions: Present findings support the applicability of the Greek version of ZKPQ within the Greek population. Future studies could improve its psychometric properties by finding new items, especially for the Sociability scale.
Introduction In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator-guided self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were students attending regular school in 14 high schools located in 14 different districts in eastern Ethiopia. The proportion of in-school adolescents with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was computed and compared by sex. The factors that were associated with the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results Only about one in four, 677 (24.5%), in-school adolescents have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. The knowledge was better among in-school adolescents from families with a relatively middle or high wealth index (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.39 [1.03–1.87] and 1.75 [1.24–2.48], respectively), who got HIV/AIDS information mainly from friends or mass media (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.17–2.27] and 1.55 [1.14–2.11], respectively) and who received education on HIV/AIDS and sexual matters at school (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.59 [1.22–2.08]). The females were less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to males (adjusted OR and [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49–0.75]). Conclusions In general, only about a quarter of in-school adolescents had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Although the female adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection and its effects, they were by far less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. HIV/AIDS information, education and communication activities need to be intensified in high schools.
To assess the impact of disease and treatment on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we set out to determine a clinically meaningful change (CMC) on the Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS) and the Trial Outcome Index (TOI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire. We used data from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 5592 (E5592), a
David Cella; David T. Eton; Diane L. Fairclough; Philip Bonomi; Anne E. Heyes; Cheryl Silberman; Michael K. Wolf; David H. Johnson
Objective:To assess whether the removal of aids\\/devices and\\/or help from another person in the Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (C-HAQ) leads to a significant change in the disability index (DI) score and responsiveness in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).Methods:Changes in the C-HAQ DI score in a cross-sectional sample of 2663 children with JIA and in 530 active patients with JIA in a
C Saad-Magalhães; A Pistorio; A Ravelli; G Filocamo; S Viola; R Brik; D Mihaylova; R ten Cate; B Andersson-Gare; V Ferriani; K Minden; P Hashkes; M Rygg; M-J Sauvain; H Venning; A Martini; N Ruperto
With the current emphasis on credentialing in nursing, many nurses have committed to taking the CEN examination. The following questions have been developed to assist in emergency nursing knowledgeassessment and in preparation for the CEN examination. Questions, rationale for the correct answers, and references are provided here for your self-evaluation. ENA has developed educational materials that can be used as further resources for CEN preparation: Emergency Nursing Core Curriculum and CEN Review Manual. PMID:17258052
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QL) with the use of the SF-36 Questionnaire in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP). Thirty patients with CNLBP were randomly assigned to one of three groups (Iso group (Isostretching), GPR group (Global Postural Reeducation), and the Iso+GPR group. Patients underwent physical therapy assessment with the use of the Vertebral Spine Assessment, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain (VASP), and the SF-36 life quality questionnaire before the first session (first assessment), after three months of treatment (second assessment) and reassessed two months after the final session in the follow-up (third assessment). The results indicated that both physical therapy techniques reduced pain (p<0.001); when the techniques (Iso+GPR) were combined, the reduction in pain was significantly greater; and, in the follow-up assessment, the GPR method was more efficient. As for the QL, physical therapy techniques were effective after the interventions (p<0.001), and the Iso method was more effective when patients were reassessed in the follow-up. We conclude that the physical therapy techniques used in this study were efficient to treat CNLBP in the patients since they reduced pain and increased QL according to the results of the SF-36 questionnaire. Level of Evidence II, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. PMID:24453669
Adorno, Marta Lúcia Guimarães Resende; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim Pereira
Background In Iranian Traditional Medicine, mizaj (temperament) plays a key role in preventive, therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations. A reliable self-reported scale for mizaj identification is critically needed to introduce ITM into the official medical and health care system especially in the case of designing national preventive protocols. Objectives The present study aimed to design a preliminary self-administered mizaj questionnaire and assessed its reliability and validity in Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire with 52 items was designed based on mizaj-related indices. Subsequent to content and face validity assessment, using qualitative and quantitative method, 47 items remained. Based on the non-randomly sampling, the test-retest reliability of each question and internal consistency of the questionnaire was examined by the participation of 35 volunteers. The reliable version questionnaire was filled up by 52 volunteers wherein they were divided into warm/cold and wet/dry groups based on their mizaj which was predetermined by a team of expert practitioners. Logistic regression analysis was performed for validity process between the experts’ assessment of mizaj and each of the items in the questionnaire that resulted to the final ten-item questionnaire divided into two subscales. By using ANOVA and post Hoc with Dunnet statistics, the optimum cut-off points were defined and their sensitivity and specificity was assessed. Results The weighted kappa coefficients of the 39 items were between 0.40 and 0.82 showing their acceptable reliability and the Cronbach’s ? coefficient was 0.71 showing the internal consistency. The sensitivity and specificity of the final questionnaire cut-off points were 65% and 93% for the warm group, 52% and 97% cold group, 53% and 67% dry group and finally 53% and 76% wet group. Conclusions Our results suggested that many of the designed questions according to the literature’s mizaj identification indices had satisfactory reliability and the final ten-item questionnaire could discriminate the different groups of mizaj, therefore, this can be used as the first version of a brief self-report mizaj estimating scale.
Background:The modified Rankin scale (mRS) is commonly employed as a measure of functional outcome after stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the mRS using an expanded guidance scheme and a corresponding questionnaire on an unprecedentedly large scale. Methods:Neurologists interviewed patients with cerebral infarction on the basis of the questionnaire. These interviews were recorded on
The construction of a new, valid and reliable questionnaire to measure patient satisfaction is a complex and time-consuming task. It must follow a rigorous, step-by-step approach, and should as a minimum include elements of content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and reliability. The objective of this review is to present a protocol for the construction of a psychometric questionnaire, supplemented by practical aspects for researchers and clinicians. PMID:23926959
The level of expressed emotion (EE) as assessed in the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) has proved to be one of the best predictors of relapse in schizophrenia. The present study describes the development and validation of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status (criticism, emotional overinvolvement) of relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The FQ classifications in the initial sample of relatives (N=76) correlated significantly with the ratings in the CFI subcategories 'criticism' (78% correct classifications) and 'emotional overinvolvement' (71% correct classifications), as well as with the overall CFI EE ratings (74% correct classifications). A validation study in an independent second sample (N=79) yielded similar results. The overall correct classification rate of 74% remained unchanged. The FQ had better agreement with the CFI on emotional overinvolvement than did other short EE questionnaires. PMID:11959363
Wiedemann, Georg; Rayki, Oliver; Feinstein, Elias; Hahlweg, Kurt
Background Sun sensitivity of the skin is a risk factor for the development of cutaneous melanoma and other skin cancers. Epidemiological studies on causal factors for the development of melanoma must control for sun sensitivity as a confounder. A standardized instrument for measuring sun sensitivity has not been established yet. It is assumed that many studies show a high potential of residual confounding for sun sensitivity. In the present study, a new questionnaire for the assessment of self-reported sun sensitivity is administered and examined. Methods Prior to an occupational skin cancer screening program, the 745 participating employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire for self-assessment of sun sensitivity. The questionnaire was developed by experts of the working group "Round Table Sunbeds" (RTS) to limit the health hazards of sunbed use in Germany. A sun sensitivity score (RTS-score) was calculated using 10 indicators. The internal consistency of the questionnaire and the agreement with other methods (convergent validity) were examined. Results The RTS-score was calculated for 655 study participants who were 18 to 65 years of age. The correlation of the items among each other was between 0.12 and 0.62. The items and the RTS-score correlated between 0.46 and 0.77. The internal consistency showed a reliability coefficient with 0.82 (Cronbach's alpha). The comparison with the Fitzpatrick classification, the prevailing standard, was possible in 617 cases with a rank correlation of rs = 0.65. The categorization of the RTS-score in four risk groups showed correct classification to the four skin types of Fitzpatrick in 75% of the cases. Other methods for the assessment of sun sensitivity displayed varying agreements with the RTS-score. Conclusion The RTS questionnaire showed a sufficient internal consistency. There is a good convergent validity between the RTS-score and the Fritzpatrick classification avoiding shortcomings of the prevailing standard. The questionnaire represents a simple, reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of sun sensitivity. The questionnaire can be useful for epidemiological studies as well as for skin cancer prevention. Further development and standardization of sun sensitivity assessments is necessary to strengthen the evidence of epidemiological studies on causal factors of melanoma and other skin cancers.
Tacke, Jurgen; Dietrich, Jens; Steinebrunner, Beatrix; Reifferscheid, Antonius
Background Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Control and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, excess of body weight, smoking and lack of exercise can contribute to a reduction of CVD mortality. Methods A standardized questionnaire was administered to all medical officers willing to participate in the study, who were working in the Cardiology Units all over Sri Lanka to assess the source of continuous medical education, attitudes on secondary prevention, barriers to secondary prevention and knowledgeassessment of secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Chi square was used to compare groups and p?0.05 was considered significant. Results 132 participants with equal numbers of males and female doctors participated. While 56 doctors have had no training in cardiology, 75 doctors have had some training in a cardiology unit. The barriers for secondary prevention were, poor knowledge/understanding of patients 3.82 (1.06), too many drugs 3.74 (0.98), presence of co-morbid conditions 3.68(0.97), cost of medications 3.69 (0.97) and poor adherence to prevention strategies by patients 3.44 (1.15). Routine clinic visits 85 (65%) and public awareness day seminars 30 (22.2%) were the most effective methods of secondary prevention. Guidelines were the most popular method of continuous medical education. Those who have had some training in cardiology did not differ in their knowledge from those who have never had training in cardiology. Knowledge about prevention with regard to diet was inadequate and exercise and lipids were adequate but not good. Rates of knowledge on smoking cessation were much higher than for other CVD risk factors. Conclusion There needs to be more adherences to clinical guidelines and attention paid to CVD prevention, in particular, the importance of dietary modifications, adequate exercise, and lipid control.
Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical schools in Israel should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving HIV-related attitudes and adherence to medical professionalism.
An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers.
Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Lessard, Veronica C.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Shaver, Patrick L.; Dayton, Robert S.; Pyke, David A.; Jolley, Leonard; Goebel, J. Jeffery
An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers. ?? The Ecological Society of America.
Herrick, J. E.; Lessard, V. C.; Spaeth, K. E.; Shaver, P. L.; Dayton, R. S.; Pyke, D. A.; Jolley, L.; Goebel, J. J.
Pain control in the acute care setting is repeatedly described in the literature as problematic. The purpose of this clinical research project was to evaluate an educational intervention designed to improve the management of pain in an acute care setting. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design was used. Three hundred and forty-one medical-surgical and critical care nurses completed the Brockopp-Warden Pain Knowledge/Bias Questionnaire (2004) (203 pre, 138 post). Data were collected before the intervention and 3 months following the educational experience. Sixty patients (30 pre, 30 post) recorded numerical assessments of their pain every 2 hours in a pain diary. Patient charts were reviewed to compare patients' pain assessments with nurses' documentation. A 50% decrease in the mean difference between patients' assessment of pain and nurses' documentation (p < .04) was found post-intervention. Although no significant differences were found on total knowledge or bias scores, 20% of nurses who participated responded incorrectly to six of 21 knowledge items both pre- and post-intervention. In keeping with earlier research on bias regarding pain management, patients with non-physiological conditions were not attended to as well as patients who had clearly defined physical problems. Results of this project have precipitated major changes regarding the management of pain in this institution. A pain steering committee has been formed and additional unit-based projects have been conducted. The challenge of finding the most effective method for changing biases toward specific patient populations and increasing knowledge regarding pain management remains. PMID:23419934
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.
The objective of this study was a psychometric evaluation of the Romanian translated version of ABC-V (Assessment of Burden in Chronic – Venous Disease) questionnaire in patients with uncomplicated varicose disease of lower limbs. All components of the questionnaire were translated from the English version into the Romanian language and after that backwards, discussed, adopted and pre-tested. Evaluation of the final version of the translated questionnaire demonstrated acceptable results: missed questions in 3% of forms, no ceiling effect and low floor effect, good split-half reliability (rs = 0.61,p < 0.01) and significant correlation between test and re-tests cores (rs = 0.86, p < 0.01). There was no significant influence of age and sex upon average ABC-V scores. Study results support the application of ABC-V questionnaire for assessing the severity of chronic venous disease as well as for quantitative evaluation of patient satisfaction and health status improvement after varicose vein treatment in the Romanian-speaking population. PMID:23790788
Autonomic failure is a key feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Moreover, early autonomic failure is an independent predictive factor for rapid disease progression and shorter survival. The assessment of autonomic failure is therefore important for both, the diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Here, we evaluate autonomic dysfunction in MSA patients by the Scopa-Aut questionnaire. Potential associations between the Scopa-Aut questionnaire and established markers of disease progression - that is the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS) - were further assessed. The results confirm early and prominent autonomic failure in MSA patients. Relative scores were highest for the sexual and urinary subdomains. Surprisingly, relative scores in the cardiovascular subdomain were lowest suggesting that the Scopa-Aut questionnaire is suboptimal for the screening and evaluation of cardiovascular symptoms in MSA. A multivariate regression showed an association between total Scopa-Aut and UMSARS I scores. No significant changes in Scopa-Aut scores were observed during follow-up except for the urinary subdomain, while UMSARS I, II and IV scores significantly increased over time. In conclusion, Scopa-Aut can be used as a simple auto-questionnaire for the screening of autonomic symptoms in multiple system atrophy. It seems not useful as endpoint for disease-modification or neuroprotection trials. PMID:22236582
...Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool (VCAT) AGENCY: National...Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool (VCAT). DHS previously...forms of information technology, e.g., permitting...automated assessment tool for voluntary use by...assessments, response planning, and risk...
Introduction Emergency care of older adults requires specialized knowledge of their unique physiology, atypical presentations, and care transitions. Older adults often require distinctive assessment, treatment and disposition. Emergency medicine (EM) residents should develop expertise and efficiency in geriatric care. Older adults represent over 25% of most emergency department (ED) volumes. Yet many EM residencies lack curricula or assessment tools for competent geriatric care. Fully educating residents in emergency geriatric care can demand large amounts of limited conference time. The Geriatric Emergency Medicine Competencies (GEMC) are high-impact geriatric topics developed to help residencies efficiently and effectively meet this training demand. This study examines if a 2-hour didactic intervention can significantly improve resident knowledge in 7 key domains as identified by the GEMC across multiple programs. Methods A validated 29-question didactic test was administered at six EM residencies before and after a GEMC-focused lecture delivered in summer and fall of 2009. We analyzed scores as individual questions and in defined topic domains using a paired student t test. Results A total of 301 exams were administered; 86 to PGY1, 88 to PGY2, 86 to PGY3, and 41 to PGY4 residents. The testing of didactic knowledge before and after the GEMC educational intervention had high internal reliability (87.9%). The intervention significantly improved scores in all 7 GEMC domains (improvement 13.5% to 34.6%; p<0.001). For all questions, the improvement was 23% (37.8% pre, 60.8% post; P<0.001) Graded increase in geriatric knowledge occurred by PGY year with the greatest improvement post intervention seen at the PGY 3 level (PGY1 19.1% versus PGY3 27.1%). Conclusion A brief GEMC intervention had a significant impact on EM resident knowledge of critical geriatric topics. Lectures based on the GEMC can be a high-yield tool to enhance resident knowledge of geriatric emergency care. Formal GEMC curriculum should be considered in training EM residents for the demands of an aging population.
Climate Literacy: Integrating Modeling & Technology Experiences (CLIMATE) in NC Classrooms, an interdisciplinary, global climate change program for NC high school science teachers is administered by UNC Chapel Hill's Institute for the Environment (IE) with funding from NASA's Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program. Currently in its third year, this year-long program serves 24 teaching fellows annually and combines hands-on climate science investigations with experiential learning in fragile ecosystem environments to achieve the following program goals: increased teacher knowledge of climate change science and predicted impacts; increased teacher knowledge of modeling and technology resources, with an emphasis on those provided by NASA; and increased teacher confidence in using technology to address climate change education. A mixed-methods evaluation approach that includes external evaluation is providing quantitative and qualitative data about the extent to which program goals are being achieved. With regard to increases in teacher knowledge, teachers often self-report an increase in knowledge as a result of a program activity; this session will describe our strategies for assessing actual gains in teacher knowledge which include pre- and post-collaborative concept mapping and pre- and post-open response questionnaires. For each evaluation approach utilized, the process of analyzing these qualitative data will be discussed and results shared. For example, a collaborative concept mapping activity for assessment of learning as a result of the summer institute was utilized to assess gains in content knowledge. Working in small groups, teachers were asked to identify key vocabulary terms and show their relationship to one another via a concept map to answer these questions: What is global climate change? What is/are the: evidence? mechanisms? causes? consequences? Concept maps were constructed at the beginning (pre) and again at the end (post) of the Summer Institute. Concept map analysis revealed that post-maps included more key terms/concepts on average than pre-concept maps and that 6-9 NEW terms were present on post-maps; these NEW terms were directly related to science content addressed during the summer institute. In an effort to assessknowledge gained as a result of participating in an experiential weekend retreat, a pre- and post-open response questionnaire focused on the spruce-fir forest, an ecosystem prominently featured during programming, was administered. Post-learning assessments revealed learning gains for 100% of participants, all of whom were able to provide responses that referenced specific content covered during the retreat. To demonstrate increased teacher confidence in using technology to support climate science instruction, teachers are asked to develop and pilot a lesson that integrates at least one NASA resource. In collaboration with an external evaluator, a rubric was developed to evaluate submitted lessons in an effort to assess progress at achieving this program goal. The process of developing this rubric as well as the results from this analysis will be shared along with the challenges and insights that have been revealed from analyzing submitted lessons.
Client readiness for change is garnering increased interest both conceptually and methodologically. This article describes the reliability, validity, and utility of a measure of readiness for couple relationship change, Schneider's (2003) Stages of Relationship Change Questionnaire (SRCQ). Based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change, the…
The Sport Participation Model Questionnaire (SPMQ) was given to two hundred and sixty-four subjects to determine if significant differences existed in the composite scores of parents, coaches, youth sport participants, high school participants and college students; if the groups differed in their responses to pooled items; and if subject groups…
Objective We hypothesized that young adults would commonly have vitamin D deficiency and that a questionnaire could help identify subjects with the condition. Design Between January and May 2004, we administered a questionnaire to a convenience sample of young adults. We measured each participant’s serum 25(OH)D using a chemiluminescent assay and defined deficiency as a serum 25(OH)D <16 ng/ml. Setting and Subjects We recruited young adults living in Madison, Wisconsin without pre-existing conditions affecting vitamin D and/or calcium metabolism. Results One hundred eighty-four adults (mean age 24 years, 53% women, 90% Caucasian) participated in the study. Nearly three in four adults (71%) had 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/ml and 26% were vitamin D deficient. In multivariate analysis, persons reporting a suntan (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09–0.63, p=0.004), tanning booth use (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.43, p=0.002) and daily ingestion of two or more servings of milk (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.09–0.48, p<0.001) were less likely to be deficient. These three questions provided a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 78%, respectively, for the presence of deficiency. Conclusions The questionnaire is moderately useful to identify young adults likely to be vitamin D deficient. Additional revisions of the questionnaire may improve its ability to predict vitamin D deficiency.
Bolek-Berquist, Jilaine; Elliott, Mary E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Gemar, Dessa; Engelke, Jean; Lawrence, Susan J.; Hansen, Karen E.
Describes a new questionnaire technique that avoids sampling bias and therefore permits memories for events of different time periods to be compared with each other. The technique was used in a study with 29 high school students, 16 college students, and 154 26-71 yr old adults (including Veterans Administration volunteers and patients). Results indicate that forgetting can occur gradually over
The medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has been controversial, especially in the United States. Marijuana for medicinal use is approved in 14 U.S. states and has recently been considered for legalization in several additional states. Given its demonstrated efficacy in symptom management, marijuana has a potential role in palliative care. This study utilized a 16-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and views of hospice professionals regarding the use of marijuana in terminally ill patients. The study results revealed that, like the general public, hospice health care providers are generally in favor of legalization of marijuana and, if legalized, would support its use in symptom management for their terminally ill patients. PMID:22077541
Uritsky, Tanya J; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Pradel, Françoise
Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and uncertainties. We followed the same approach for each term of risks i.e. hazard, vulnerability, element at risk, exposition. This risk approach can be achieved by a comprehensive use of several artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, which are done through, for example: (1) GIS techniques; (2) FR or T-PDF for qualitatively predicting risks for possible review results; and (3) A Multi-Criteria Evaluation for analyzing weak points. The main advantages of FR or T-PDF involve the ability to express not-fully-formalized knowledge, easy knowledge representation and acquisition, and self updatability. The results show that such an approach points out quite wide zone of uncertainty. REFERENCES Zadeh L.A. 1965 : Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8:338-353.
The healthcare system is moving from one primary physician who assumes responsibility for each patient to a more team-based approach. Thus, assessing team communication is critical. This study characterizes and assesses the quality of hospitalist handover communications at shift change using the literature recommended content and language form elements. Quality handovers should contain the following content: patient identifiers, active issues, and care plans. Quality handovers also should include utterances in the following language forms: explanations, rationales, and directives. Interviews, observation, recording, and conversation analysis of hospitalist handover communications were used. Hospitalist handover utterances were assigned both content and language form codes. The proportion of quality element verbalization across all patient handovers was calculated. In addition, the impact of patient factors (new admission, new problem, acuity level) and handover receiver knowledge on the inclusion of quality elements was examined. The 106 individual patient handovers across 16 handover sessions were recorded. 39% contained all six quality elements. While the majority of handovers contained five out of six quality elements, only 48% included directives. There was also no difference in the inclusion of quality elements based on patient factors or handover receiver knowledge. Hospitalist handovers are lacking in directives. Efforts to improve handovers through enhanced electronic medical record systems and training may need to expand to hospitalists and other attending level physicians.
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system. PMID:18820966
Aim To evaluate the knowledge, motivation, and attitudes of Hungarian family physicians toward pandemic influenza vaccination in the 2009/10 influenza season. Method A questionnaire with 20 questions was developed and sent to 232 family physicians in 3 largest Hungarian cities: Budapest, Debrecen, and Miskolc. The study was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010. Results A hundred and ninety eight (85%) physicians answered the questionnaire adequately. Respondents believed that the influenza outbreak represented less of a threat to their practices than to Hungary or the world as a whole. They mostly agreed that vaccination was important and were frequently dissatisfied with the support from health authorities. The proportion of vaccinated patients ranged between 2% and 53%, without differences according to geographical region, age, sex, and duration of physicians’ employment in family practice. Physicians who were satisfied with the payment for procedures and underwent vaccination themselves were more active in vaccination. Conclusion Health authorities should provide clear and evidence-based professional support to family physicians and should encourage them to get vaccinated against pandemic influenza, while insurance funds have to establish appropriate reimbursement system.
Background The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. Methods The study population included residents aged 15–49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnairesassessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Results The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P?0.05). Almost 37% of students scored low. Nearly one-third of the study population was practicing risky sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p?>?0.05). Conclusions The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of Chinese Multidimensional Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (MDHAQ-C) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Methods 162 RA patients were recruited in the evaluation process. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by internal consistency and item analysis. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations of MDHAQ-C with Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (HAQ), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital anxiety and depression scales (HAD). Discriminant validity was tested in groups of patients with varied disease activities and functional classes. To evaluate the clinical values, correlations were calculated between MDHAQ-C and indices of clinical relevance and disease activity. Agreement with the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was estimated. Results The Cronbach's alpha was 0.944 in the Function scale (FN) and 0.768 in the scale of psychological status (PS). The item analysis indicated all the items of FN and PS are correlated at an acceptable level. MDHAQ-C correlated with the questionnaires significantly in most scales and scores of scales differed significantly in groups of different disease activity and functional status. MDHAQ-C has moderate to high correlation with most clinical indices and high correlation with a spearman coefficient of 0.701 for DAS 28 and 0.843 for CDAI. The overall agreement of categories was satisfying. Conclusion MDHAQ-C is a reliable, valid instrument for functional measurement and a feasible, informative quantitative index for busy clinical settings in Chinese RA patients.
Background Valid and reliable instruments measuring musculoskeletal symptoms prevalence and their impacts in the adolescent population are scarce. The Extended Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ-E) is a reliable instrument that measures the prevalence, severity and impact of musculoskeletal symptoms. The purpose of this study was: (1) to develop a musculoskeletal symptom screening tool for younger populations derived from the NMQ-E and NMQ French versions and (2) to assess the validity and reliability of the adapted version of the instrument. Methods Based on the results of a translated (French) and adapted NMQ-E administered to 61 adolescents, a final 27-item dichotomous questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire measured the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and the impact of these symptoms on school attendance as well as on sports and leisure activity participation. Among the adolescents who agreed to participate, thirty-nine (mean age: 13.7?±?1.8) formed the reliability cohort and thirty-four (mean age: 14.2?±?2.3) formed the criterion validity cohort. Reliability was measured by test-retest with a mean time interval of 28 hours. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the answers to the questionnaires to the participants’ clinical records. Statistical tests used were proportions of observed agreement (Po) and the Cohen kappa statistic (k). Results The mean Po for the test-retest was 0.92 for the 6-month symptom prevalence items, 0.99 for the impact of symptoms on school items and 0.96 for the impact on sports and leisure activities items. Kappa values for the reliability assessment ranged between 0.57 and 1.00 for the 27 dichotomous variables. The criterion validity kappa obtained for the agreement between participants’ clinical records and questionnaires was k =?0.76. Conclusions Kappa values for the reliability and the criterion validity are of moderate to perfect agreement beyond chance, indicating that there are only minor variations between tests, and good agreement between questionnaire items and clinical records. These results indicate that the adapted version of the NMQ-E is an appropriate self-administered musculoskeletal symptom screening tool for the adolescent population. Items related to the impacts of symptoms would benefit from additional validation using school and sport attendance records.
Background Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. Methods The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n?=?10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Results Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean?±?SEM?=?6.7?±?1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2?±?0.5) (p?=?0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6?±?2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0?±?0.7) although this did not reach significance (p?=?0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p???0.03). Conclusions A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side effects should not require large study numbers to be effective. With just 10 subjects per group (iron or placebo), this simple questionnaire measures gastrointestinal side-effects associated with oral iron (ferrous sulphate) supplementation, and would be appropriate for use in intervention studies or clinical trials. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02146053 (21/05/2014).
Objectives To examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a new context?specific questionnaire for the assessment of work and organisational factors. The Work Organisation AssessmentQuestionnaire (WOAQ) was developed as part of a risk assessment and risk reduction methodology for hazards inherent in the design and management of work in the manufacturing sector. Method Two studies were conducted. Data were collected from 524 white? and blue?collar employees from a range of manufacturing companies. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out on 28 items that described the most commonly reported failures of work design and management in companies in the manufacturing sector. Concurrent validity data were also collected. A reliability study was conducted with a further 156 employees. Results Principal component analysis, with varimax rotation, revealed a strong 28?item, five factor structure. The factors were named: quality of relationships with management, reward and recognition, workload, quality of relationships with colleagues, and quality of physical environment. Analyses also revealed a more general summative factor. Results indicated that the questionnaire has good internal consistency and test?retest reliability and validity. Being associated with poor employee health and changes in health related behaviour, the WOAQ factors are possible hazards. It is argued that the strength of those associations offers some estimation of risk. Feedback from the organisations involved indicated that the WOAQ was easy to use and meaningful for them as part of their risk assessment procedures. Conclusions The studies reported here describe a model of the hazards to employee health and health related behaviour inherent in the design and management of work in the manufacturing sector. It offers an instrument for their assessment. The scales derived which form the WOAQ were shown to be reliable, valid, and meaningful to the user population.
Griffiths, A; Cox, T; Karanika, M; Khan, S; Tomas, J-M
The Job Knowledge Survey (JKS) is a new instrument that measures job knowledge across two sets of dimensions. Results provide support for its validity. The JKS, therefore, appears to have strong potential as an effective measure of job knowledge. (Author)
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach's ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs. PMID:23244037
Mulero-Portela, Ana L; Santaella, Carmen L Colón; Gómez, Cynthia Cruz
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach’s ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs.
Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz Gomez, Cynthia
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could\\u000a be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ.\\u000a Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation
Patient-rated questionnaires are increasingly used to assess health-related quality of life. We studied one aspect of the validity of such measures that has rarely been investigated: do patients interpret questionnaires in the same way as do the researchers reporting the results? If not, there may be a problem. We employed the EORTC QLQ-C30 quality-of-life questionnaire to study 95 cancer patients
Mogens Groenvold; Marianne Carol Klee; Mirjam A. G. Sprangers; Neil K. Aaronson
Background Achieving asthma control is a major challenge in children, otherwise symptoms perception remain poor especially at this age. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Asthma Control Test (ACTTM), Asthma Therapy AssessmentQuestionnaire (ATAQTM) and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Methods We studied 80 asthmatic children. Airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed by exercise-induced bronchospasm (Balke Protocol). Asthma control was evaluated using two questionnaires in all subjects: ACT (composed by Childhood-ACT and ACT) and ATAQ. In addition the use of short acting beta 2 agonist agents (SABAs) was assessed for each patient. Non-parametric variables were compared by Chi Square Test. Binomial logistic regression was performed to estimate the two questionnaires Odds Ratio (OR) in finding AHR. Results We have found that ATAQ has a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.72 and 0.45 respectively; instead, ACT has a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.5 and 0.39 respectively in evaluating AHR. Patients with uncontrolled asthma according to ATAQ revealed a significant higher percentage of AHR compared with ACT (72% vs 50%, p < 0.01). Confirming this finding, patients declaring uncontrolled asthma to ATAQ have a significantly higher percentage (34%) of frequent SABAs use than the group with uncontrolled asthma to ACT (21%) (p <0.01). Binomial logistic regression shows how a test revealing uncontrolled asthma is associated with the increasing odds of having AHR according to ATAQ (OR = 3.8, p = 0.05), not to ACT (OR = 0.2, p = 0.1). Conclusions Our results show that ATAQ reflects AHR and asthma control better than ACT. Children with uncontrolled asthma according to ATAQ have higher odds of having AHR and use of rescue medications (SABAs) compared to patients declaring uncontrolled asthma according to ACT. However both questionnaires are not sufficient alone to fully evaluate asthma control in children and it is always necessary to perform functional tests and investigate patients lifestyle, drug use and other important data that a simple questionnaire is not able to point out
One of the characteristics of effective science teachers is a deep understanding of science concepts. The ability to identify, explain and apply concepts is critical in designing, delivering and assessing instruction. Because some teachers have not completed extensive courses in some areas of science, especially in middle and elementary grades, many professional development programs attempt to strengthen teachers' content knowledge. Assessing this content knowledge is challenging. Concept inventories are reliable and efficient, but do not reveal depth of knowledge. Interviews and observations are time-consuming. The Problem Based Learning Project for Teachers implemented a strategy that includes pre-post instruments in eight content strands that permits blind coding of responses and comparison across teachers and groups of teachers. The instruments include two types of open-ended questions that assess both general knowledge and the ability to apply Big Ideas related to specific science topics. The coding scheme is useful in revealing patterns in prior knowledge and learning, and identifying ideas that are challenging or not addressed by learning activities. The strengths and limitations of the scoring scheme are identified through comparison of the findings to case studies of four participating teachers from middle and elementary schools. The cases include examples of coded pre- and post-test responses to illustrate some of the themes seen in teacher learning. The findings raise questions for future investigation that can be conducted using analyses of the coded responses.
McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce M.; Eberhardt, Jan
BACKGROUND: Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented
Annika Nordén-Hägg; J Bryan Sexton; Sofia Kälvemark-Sporrong; Lena Ring; Åsa Kettis-Lindblad
Expressed emotion (EE) has proved to be an established factor in short-term relapse in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status of relatives of patients with schizophrenia in terms of criticism (CC) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI). The translated and adapted 20-item FQ was administered to 176 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Caregivers' burden (Family Burden Scale) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28) were also evaluated. The findings indicated that the Greek version displays a two-factor structure with two subscales of EE-CC and EOI-with 10 items each, similarly to the original version. The convergent validity of the subscales was highly supported by correlations with caregivers' burden and psychological distress. The Cronbach's ? coefficient measuring internal consistency for the two scales were 0.90 for CC and 0.82 for EOI. The test-retest correlation coefficients measuring reproducibility were 0.99 and 0.98 for CC and EOI, respectively. The Greek version of the FQ appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to be used in both research and clinical assessment of family EE. PMID:24636193
This article reports the development and application of two instruments for assessing science teachers’ pedagogical knowledge in the context of teaching higher-order thinking: a Likert-type research instrument, and an instrument that analyzes classroom observations. The rationale for developing these instruments and their main categories is described. One hundred and fifty Israeli science teachers replied to the Likert-type questionnaire. Results show that biology teachers gained a significantly higher score than either physics or chemistry teachers, that junior high school teachers scored significantly higher than high school teachers, and that a significant negative correlation was found between final scores and teaching experience. Participants in the classroom observation study were 14 teachers who attended a one-year professional development course for teaching higher-order thinking. The instrument was sensitive in detecting progress in teachers’ pedagogical knowledge in several categories, such as: Frequency of tasks that required higher-order thinking; The variety of thinking strategies that teachers addressed during their lessons; Engagement of students in metacognitive thinking; and Using the “language of thinking” in class. The implications of the findings for research and practice are described.
This article presents an analysis of the factor structure of the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ), an attitudinal body-image instrument. Random stratified samples, drawn from a national survey, included 1,064 females and 988 males. In order to evaluate the replicability of the BSRQ factor structure, separate split-sample factor analyses (principal components with varimax rotation) were conducted for each sex. Largely consistent with the conceptual basis of the BSRQ, the resultant factors derived from each analysis were: Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Fitness Evaluation, Fitness Orientation, Health Evaluation, Health Orientation, and Illness Orientation. Subsequent concordance analyses revealed marked stability of the factor structure both within and between sexes. Females demonstrated somewhat greater differentiation of body-image attitudes than did males. The utility of the BSRQ is discussed relative to extant body-image measures. PMID:2231236
The Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) is an International Examination that was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of students in participating countries, including the United States. PISA is a two-hour paper-and-pencil…
This paper reports on a two-stage study aimed at developing, validating and applying an instrument that can be used to assess secondary students' perceptions of assessment. In the first stage, following a review of literature, a six-scale instrument of 48 items was trialed with a sample of 470 students from grades eight, nine and ten in 20 science classrooms in
Inadequate physician knowledge, particularly in areas of pain assessment and use of analgesics, has been identified as a major factor contributing to poor pain management in cancer patients. In most medical schools, teaching in Palliative Care at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels is limited or nonexistent.Baseline knowledge and changes in knowledge in areas relevant to Palliative Care were assessed
Doreen Oneschuk; Robin Fainsinger; John Hanson; Eduardo Bruera
Establishing the mathematical content knowledge of pre-service teachers is a requirement in New Zealand. However, this knowledge is not clearly defined and is a challenge for initial teacher education providers to assess. We develop the concept of foundation content knowledge and suggest how it can be assessed using two forms of diagnostic…
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most frequent problem that influenced child nutrition is lack of information about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs. PMID:23221140
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The Scleroderma Health AssessmentQuestionnaire (SHAQ) is a feasible multisystem specific tool that has been extensively used as an additional assessment for systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study is to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian version of the SHAQ. Construct validity was assessed based on the correlations between SHAQ and both the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2™) and the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The correlation between the SHAQ and disease severity was assessed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The reproducibility of the SHAQ was evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Among the 151 consecutive outpatients evaluated, 59 % had limited SSc subtype. The overall disease severity visual analog scale (VAS) of the SHAQ was statistically significantly correlated to HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and the SF-36v2™ physical component summary score (r?=?0.595, r?=?0.612, and r?=?-0.582, respectively; p?0.001). Further analysis of all SF-36v2™ components revealed statistically significant correlations between overall disease severity VAS and bodily pain (r?=?-0.621, p?0.001), vitality (r?=?-0.544, p?0.001), physical function (r?=?-0.510, p?0.001), and role limitation-physical dimensions (r?=?-0.505, p?0.001). Moreover, digestive, pulmonary, and overall disease severity VASs were statistically significantly correlated to the number of organs involved (r?=?0.178, p?=?0.029; r?=?0.214, p?=?0.008; r?=?0.282, p?0.001). We also demonstrated high reproducibility for SHAQ (ICC?=?0.757, 95 % confidence interval?=?0.636-0.842). The Brazilian version of the SHAQ demonstrated both construct and discriminant validities as well as good reproducibility. PMID:23975361
Background The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. Methods A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. Results The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ?=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. Conclusions With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection.
The dynamic act of knowledge transfer, or the connection of a student's prior knowledge to features of a new problem, could be considered one of the primary goals of education. Yet studies highlight more instances of failure than success. This dissertation focuses on how knowledge transfer takes place during individual problem solving, in…
Mealtimes in families with young children are increasingly of interest to nutrition and public health researchers, yet assessment tools are limited. Meals in our Household is a new parent-report questionnaire that measures six domains: 1) structure of family meals, 2) problematic child mealtime behaviors, 3) use of food as reward, 4) parental concern about child diet, 5) spousal stress related to child's mealtime behavior, and 6) influence of child's food preferences on what other family members eat. Reliability and initial face, construct, and discriminant validity of the questionnaire were evaluated between January 2007 and December 2009 in two cross-sectional studies comprising a total of 305 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children (including 53 children with autism spectrum disorders). Internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) for the six domains averaged 0.77 across both studies. Test-retest reliability, assessed among a subsample of 44 parents who repeated the questionnaire after between 10 and 30 days, was excellent (Spearman correlations for the domain scores between two administrations ranged from 0.80 to 0.95). Initial construct validity of the instrument was supported by observation of hypothesized interrelationships between domain scores which were of the same direction and similar magnitude in both studies. Consistent with discriminant validity, children with autism spectrum disorders had significantly higher domain scores for problematic child mealtime behaviors, use of food as reward, parental concern about child diet, and spousal stress, compared to typically developing children. Meals in our Household may be a useful tool for researchers studying family mealtime environments and children's mealtime behaviors.
Anderson, Sarah E.; Must, Aviva; Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among obstetric-gynecologic patients and to assess the validity and utility of the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in this population. Study Design: A total of 3000 patients were assessed by 63 clinicians at seven obstetrics-gynecology outpatient care sites. The main outcome measures were PRIME-MD PHQ diagnoses, psychosocial stressors,
Robert L. Spitzer; Janet B. W. Williams; Kurt Kroenke; Raymond Hornyak; Julia McMurray
A questionnaire was developed, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) published guidelines, to supplement the EORTC quality of life questionnaire-core 30 (QLQ-C30) to assess the quality of life (QL) of women with ovarian cancer treated in clinical trials. The provisional 28-item module, OV28, assesses abdominal symptoms; peripheral neuropathy; other chemotherapy side-effects; hormonal symptoms; body
A Cull; S Howat; E Greimel; A.-C Waldenstrom; J Arraras; A Kudelka; L Chauvenet; A Gould
We compared the measurement properties of a performance test (Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Scale; JAFAS) with a questionnaire-based instrument (Childhood Health AssessmentQuestionnaire; CHAQ) to measure functional ability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on the level of individual items. In 28 consecutive children visiting an outpatient paediatrics clinic, the JAFAS (range 0–20) and CHAQ (range 0–3) were applied, and measures of disease activity and joint range of motion (ROM) were determined. Twenty-eight children with a median age of 10 years and median disease duration of 3.2 years were included. The median JAFAS score was 0, and the median CHAQ score was 0.125. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.92 for the JAFAS and 0.96 for the CHAQ. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the JAFAS and the CHAQ was 0.55 (P?0.01). With six out of ten items, the JAFAS classified the child as less disabled than with corresponding CHAQ activities. Overall, associations with measures of disease activity and ROM were higher for the CHAQ than for the JAFAS. A performance test (JAFAS) does not appear to have an added benefit over the questionnaire-based assessment (CHAQ) of physical function in a cross-sectional study.
ten Cate, Rebecca; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.
Background In 2003, the World Health Organization reported 50% of patients are adherent with long-term therapies. Frequently, the reason for a patient’s non-adherence is the cost of medications. Even with prescription insurance coverage, patients may not be able to afford their medication. Objective We sought to assess prescriber knowledge of the cost of commonly prescribed medications including atorvastatin, gabapentin, levofloxacin, losartan, pantoprazole, pioglitazone and quetiapine. Secondary objectives evaluated how often prescribers consult a discounted drug list and a patient’s prescription insurance coverage. Methodology One hundred prescribers from the Medical University of South Carolina were surveyed from November 2010 to January 2011. Prescribers consisted of medical residents, attending physicians, fellows, nurse practitioners, and physician’s assistants. Wholesale prices of medications were determined using the Red Book™ and prescription insurance prices from an average of the top three prescription insurance companies’ copayments. Results Medical residents made up 72% of those surveyed, fellows 3%, attendings 12%, physician’s assistants 3%, and nurse practitioners 10%. The different prescriber groups were unable to correctly determine the cost of medications of more than 50% of total possible responses. The majority of prescribers rarely asked about a patient’s prescription insurance coverage or consulted a discounted drug list before writing a prescription. Conclusions Prescribers are more likely to know the cost of medications for those patients who have prescription insurance coverage versus those who do not.
Advances in treatment technologies and development of evidence-base d standards of care demand better methods for routine assessment of outcomes for schiz- ophrenia in systems of care. This article describes the development and psychometrics of a new instrument to assess outcomes of routine care for persons with schizophrenia in service systems. Candidate items for the Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program
Anthony F. Lehman; Ellen P. Fischer; Leticia Postrado; Janine Delahanty; Bryan M. Johnstone; Patricia A. Russo; William H. Crown
The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice teachers' reading content knowledge, to develop a definition of reading, and to develop an informal test of teachers' reading content knowledge. A content analysis of two contemporary reading textbooks used in university reading courses was the source of a six-tier, hierarchical definition of…
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children…
Gates, Philip E.; Otsuka, Norman Y.; Sanders, James O.; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…
Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.
The aim of this article is to identify the measurement challenges involved in obtaining sensitive health outcomes from Mexican women in both settled and unsettled segments of the United States population and to suggest how cognitive assessment techniques might be better employed to construct culturally and linguistically appropriate survey…
Agans, Robert P.; Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Kalsbeek, William
The purpose of this study was to test and assess the reliability and validity of a modified stress scale in a sample of pharmacy graduate students. The modified stress scale was used as part of a larger, nationwide, study whose aim was to investigate the association of stress, perceived academic success and health-related quality of life among…
Konduri, Niranjan; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Worley-Louis, Marcia
...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop...Officers that will be used by the NPPD/IP PCII Program to assess state and local...
The following study evaluated the knowledge, experience and attitudes, that faculty at a private four-year institution have towards students with disabilities. The 208 participants responded to a survey questionnaire. The findings of the study indicated that many of the faculty had little or no contact with this particular student population. Many…
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist. Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range= 17- 21; 97 % Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability over 2 weeks (n= 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = 0.41, p = 0.0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823 +/- 387 mg/d) and DRs (822 +/- 330 mg/d; p = 0.988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as "inadequate" (<1000 mg/d) and "adequate" (> or = 1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC= 0.30, p = 0.042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs. PMID:15118194
Ward, Kenneth D; Hunt, Kami Mays; Berg, Melanie Burstyne; Slawson, Deborah A; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; McClanahan, Barbara S; Clemens, Linda H
Electronic Knowledge Resources (EKRs) are increasingly used by physicians, but their situational relevance has not been systematically examined. Objective Systematically scrutinize the situational relevance of EKR-derived information items in and outside clinical settings. Background Physicians use EKRs to accomplish four cognitive objectives (C1-4), and three organizational objectives (O1-3): (C1) Answer questions/solve problems/support decision-making in a clinical context; (C2) fulfill educational-research objectives; (C3) search for personal interest or curiosity; (C4) overcome limits of human memory; (O1) share information with patients, families, or caregivers; (O2) exchange information with other health professionals; (O3) plan-manage-monitor tasks with other health professionals. Methods Longitudinal mixed methods multiple case study: Cases were 17 residents’ critical searches for information, using a commercial EKR, during a 2-month block of family practice. Usage data were automatically recorded. Each “opened” item of information was linked to an impact assessmentquestionnaire, and 1,981 evaluations of items were documented. Interviews with residents were guided by log files, which tracked use and impact of EKR-derived information items. Thematic analysis identified 156 critical searches linked to 877 information items. For each case, qualitative data were assigned to one of the seven proposed objectives. Results Residents achieved their search objectives in 85.9% of cases (situational relevance). Additional sources of information were sought in 52.6% of cases. Results support the seven proposed objectives, levels of comparative relevance (less, equally, more), and levels of stimulation of learning and knowledge (individual, organizational). Conclusion Our method of systematic assessment may contribute to user-based evaluation of EKRs.
Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M.; Mysore, Naveen; Knaapen, Loes; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Dawes, Martin
Background Although cervical cancer is ??the second most common tumor among Brazilian women, studies that evaluate the quality of life of these women are still scarce. This situation is explained by the lack of specific and validated tools for this purpose in Portuguese (Brazil). The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the FACT-CX (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix) questionnaire in a population of Brazilian women with cervical cancer. Methods The psychometric properties of the FACT-CX questionnaire were tested in a sample of 100 women diagnosed with cervical cancer who were previously treated in the Barretos Cancer Hospital. We analyzed the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC), confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity (correlation with the SF-36 questionnaire), and discriminant validity by disease stage and two questions related to self-perception of health was also performed. Results The scales had Cronbach´s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.80. However, three scales did not have a statistically significant coefficient greater than 0.70. The ICC ranged from 0.68 to 0.82 and all considered satisfactory. Factor analysis did not generate consistent components. The FACT-G and FACT-CX total scores had good internal consistency and reproducibility, and also correlated well with the General Health and Vitality scales of the SF-36. However, only two FACT-CX scales had a significant correlation with SF-36. Discriminant analysis showed that FACT-CX failed to discriminate groups according to clinical stage but was able to divide the women according to the self-perception of health. Conclusion FATC-CX total score had good internal consistency, reproducibility and discriminant validity. In addition, it correlated well with General Health and Vitality scales of SF-36. However, three scales had questionable internal consistency and only two had significant correlation with SF-36.
Fregnani, Cristiane Menezes Sirna; Fregnani, Jose Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; de Almeida, Ana Maria
Background: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome measure in patients with AT. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled trials to identify trials using VISA-A for patients with AT. This was followed by data mining and analysis of the obtained data. Results: Twenty-six clinical trials containing 1336 individuals were included. Overall mean VISA-A scores ranged from 24 (severe AT) to 100 (healthy). Mean VISA-A scores in patients with AT ranged from 24 to 96.6. Healthy subjects scored a minimum of 96. Only two groups of participants from two different studies had a post-VISA-A score as high as healthy individuals, indicating full recovery of the AT. Conclusions: A VISA-A score lower than 24 is rarely attained in AT. Only few patients with AT reach an equivalent VISA-A score compared to uninjured healthy subjects following treatment. The VISA-A is a reliable tool when assessing AT patients, providing a good assessment of the actual condition from very poor, (score around 24) to excellent (a score of 90), which based on this systematic review and previous studies could be considered full recovery from AT.
The aim of the study was to assess past and present neurosensory disturbances using a questionnaire and a psychophysical approach in patients treated with immediate loaded implants in the edentulous anterior mandible. A group of 65 patients (age range 30–84 years, mean 58 years, 30 women) was enrolled. All were treated by means of three immediately loaded implants (Branemark Novum System®). A self-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. The response rate was 89%. Of the 58 responders, 33% (n=19) reported neurosensory disturbances after implant surgery. Nine of these patients (mean age 56 years, seven women) participated in an objective evaluation and were subjected to a psychological and several psychophysical tests. At the moment of the evaluation none of the nine patients still had clinical complaints. Psychological testing revealed no statistical differences between the patients, who had previously experienced subjective complaints, and the control group. Two-point discrimination and thermal sensation tests revealed no sensory lesions. The light touch sensation test at the lower lip indicated a more frequent reduction of tactility for the test group (p?0.03). Neurosensory disturbances can occur in the anterior region of the mandible after implant surgery.
Abarca, M.; van Steenberghe, D.; Malevez, C.; De Ridder, J.
It is well known that meaningful knowledge of statistics involves more than simple factual or procedural knowledge of statistics. For an intelligent use of statistics, conceptual understanding of the underlying theory is essential. As conceptual understanding is usually defined as the ability to perceive links and connections between important…
Background Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HB) among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for comparison while Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8%) respondents were male with mean age of 32.76?±?9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7%) had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4%) were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74?±?2.7, 3.72?±?1.2 and 2.76?±?1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.296, p?0.01) knowledge-practice (r?=?0.324, p?0.01) and attitude-practice (r?=?0.331, p?0.01) were observed. Area of residence (locality) was the only variables significantly associated with mean KAP of the study respondents. Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas.
Objective To develop and psychometrically evaluate an audio digitised tool for assessment of comprehension of informed consent among low-literacy Gambian research participants. Setting We conducted this study in the Gambia where a high illiteracy rate and absence of standardised writing formats of local languages pose major challenges for research participants to comprehend consent information. We developed a 34-item questionnaire to assess participants’ comprehension of key elements of informed consent. The questionnaire was face validated and content validated by experienced researchers. To bypass the challenge of a lack of standardised writing formats, we audiorecorded the questionnaire in three major Gambian languages: Mandinka, Wolof and Fula. The questionnaire was further developed into an audio computer-assisted interview format. Participants The digitised questionnaire was administered to 250 participants enrolled in two clinical trials in the urban and rural areas of the Gambia. One week after first administration, the questionnaire was readministered to half of the participants who were randomly selected. Participants were eligible if enrolled in the parent trials and could speak any of the three major Gambian languages. Outcome measure The primary outcome measure was reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Results Item reduction by factor analysis showed that 21 of the question items have strong factor loadings. These were retained along with five other items which were fundamental components of informed consent. The 26-item questionnaire has high internal consistency with a Cronbach's ? of 0.73–0.79 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% CI 0.923 to 0.954). Hypotheses testing also showed that the questionnaire has a positive correlation with a similar questionnaire and discriminates between participants with and without education. Conclusions We have developed a reliable and valid measure of comprehension of informed consent information for the Gambian context, which might be easily adapted to similar settings. This is a major step towards engendering comprehension of informed consent information among low-literacy participants.
Afolabi, Muhammed O; Bojang, Kalifa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ota, Martin O C; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Larson, Heidi J; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel
This study investigated the relationship of teachers' reading knowledge with students' reading achievement using a direct teacher knowledgeassessment rather than indirect proxies (e.g., certification). To address the inequitable distribution of teachers' knowledge resulting from differences in teachers' backgrounds and the disparities in how…
The purpose of this current study is to build on the previous body of emergent literacy research by investigating the necessity of assessing book knowledge (e.g., print knowledge, interpretive knowledge, and letter identification) in toddlerhood to set up successful literacy development by providing independent storybook reading opportunities.…
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. METHODS: In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge
Philippa Raymond-Barker; Andrea Petroczi; Eleanor Quested
The assessment of so-called depth of word knowledge has been the focus of research for some years now. In this article the construct of deep word knowledge is further specified as the decontextualized knowledge of word meanings and word associations. Most studies so far have involved adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article,…
Background The correct assessment and classification of exposure is essential in epidemiology. The validity of exposure data obtained by the use of questionnaires is, however, seldom evaluated. When conducting a study on the possible health effects from mercury exposure in dental practice, we compared answers on exposure from a job-specific questionnaire with answers to the same questions given at an interview 6 to 18 months later. Methods We examined the concordance between workers by comparing answers to the questionnaire given by persons working in the same clinics during the same time spans and the agreement within workers by comparing answers to the same questions from a questionnaire and from an interview. Other aims were to see if there was a difference in the answers to the questionnaire across job titles and to study the impact of missing information on the response rate in a detailed questionnaire. Results There was a marked difference between the pairs of employees working in the same clinic regarding the start and termination years for the different preparation methods, and this was partly independent of their occupation. Kappa values for using different preparation methods in the questionnaire and at the interview varied between 0.41(moderate) to 0.88(very good). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that a mailed questionnaire will cause misclassification of exposure. The observed occurrence of false positive exposure classifications from the questionnaire compared to the interview was higher than for false negative. This is important and may result in serious bias if the prevalence of exposure is low. Due to missing information, detailed questionnaires may also be inefficient if the goal is to construct exposure measures from combinations of several answers in the questionnaire.
The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and
B. Brans; B. Lambert; E. De Beule; F. De Winter; S. Van Belle; H. Van Vlierberghe; B. de Hemptinne; R. Dierckx
The purpose of this study was to define the measurement properties and clinical validity of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire module to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in gastric cancer. The EORTC gastric cancer module, QLQ-STO 22, was administered with the QLQ-C30, core questionnaire, to 219 patients undergoing treatment with curative or palliative
J. M. Blazeby; T. Conroy; A. Bottomley; C. Vickery; J. Arraras; O. Sezer; J. Moore; M. Koller; N. S. Turhal; R. Stuart; E. van Cutsem; S. D’haese; C. Coens
Background Perception of quality of life may differ depending on the perspective. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric\\u000a properties of the Spanish version of the 'TOlerability and quality Of Life' (TOOL) questionnaire, a specific self-rated instrument\\u000a to evaluate the impact of side effects of antipsychotic drugs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The questionnaire\\u000a consists of eight
Angel L Montejo; Javier Correas Lauffer; Jesús Cuervo; Pablo Rebollo; Luis Cordero; Teresa Diez; Jorge Maurino
Background\\/Aims: Validity and reproducibility were evaluated of a new questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes in 11- to 12-year-old children. Methods: The precoded teacher-assisted self-administered questionnaire included two sections: a 24-hour recall part and a food frequency part. Validity was tested in 4 countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal; n = 43–60 per country) using a 1-day weighed food record
Jóhanna Haraldsdóttir; Inga Thórsdóttir; Maria Daniel Vaz de Almeida; Lea Maes; Carmen Pérez Rodrigo; Ibrahim Elmadfa; Lene Frost Andersen
Background: Measurement of disability in rheumatoid arthritis is often used to support treatment decisions and outcome assessments, but is used without reference to the impact of disability on individual patients. Objective: To develop and validate a scale to measure individual values for functions, which is used to weight the level of an individual patient's functional loss and thus calculate the personal impact of disability. Methods: In four linked studies, first the phraseology for values was explored to develop a stem question for the value scale couched in terms patients understand (face validity). Then short and long versions of the value scale were compared (content validity) and tests of internal consistency and short term reliability undertaken (criterion validity). Finally, the value scale was examined for long term reliability and agreement with expected variables (criterion and construct validity), after which personal impact scores were calculated and their construct validity examined. Results: Patients understand the concept of values, and a positively phrased stem question was developed for the value scale, for which a short version was reasonably equivalent to a long version. The value scale was reliable over one week (96% changed by <1 point) with positive interitem correlation. Reasonable six and 12 month reliability was shown (52% changed by <0.5 points), and the value scale was independent of disability and clinical, psychological, personality, and social support variables. Personal impact scores were then calculated by using the value scores to weight disability scores. Impact scores varied widely between patients of similar disability. Personal impact for disability showed convergent validity with dissatisfaction with disability, perceived increase in disability, increased disease activity, worse psychological status, low social support, and time trade off for disability. It discriminated between patients with low and high dissatisfaction with disability, life satisfaction, depression, pain, and helplessness. Conclusion: This individualised personal impact scale should lend meaning to disability scores, improving the interpretation of clinical and research data.
Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…
The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…
ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011
A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed
Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco
To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…
Web?based peer assessment is an innovative method that can be used to assess students' learning portfolios in order to improve their learning. However, students cannot easily compare their own evaluation schemes or think reflectively to improve their learning through web?based peer assessment if they do not understand how others perceive the assessment criteria. This study attempts to utilize knowledge acquisition
Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in all subscales, and to ensure variability in all items when transferred to a North Indian cultural context.
Summary Linear regression was applied to data from 275 persons with osteoporosis-related fracture to estimate EQ-5D-US and SF-6D health state values from the Osteoporosis AssessmentQuestionnaire. The models explained 56% and 58% of the variance in scores, respectively, and root mean square error values (0.096 and 0.085) indicated adequate prediction for use when actual values are unavailable. Introduction This study was conducted to provide models that predict EQ-5D-US and SF-6D societal health state values from the Osteoporosis AssessmentQuestionnaire (OPAQ). Methods OPAQ, EQ-5D, and SF-6D data from individuals at two centers with prior osteoporosis-related fracture were used. Fractures were classified by type as hip/hip-like, spine/spine-like, or wrist/wrist-like. Spearman rank correlations between preference-based system (EQ-5D and SF-6D) dimensions and OPAQ subscales were estimated. Linear regression was used to estimate preference-based system health state values based on OPAQ subscales. We assessed models including age, sex, and fracture type and chose the model with the best performance based on the root mean square error (RMSE) estimate. Results Among the 275 participants (198 women), with mean age of 68 years (range 50–94), the distribution of fracture types included 10% hip/5% hip-like, 18% spine/11% spine-like, and 24% wrist/18% wrist-like. The final regression model for EQ-5D-US included three OPAQ attributes (physical function, emotional status, and symptoms), predicted 56% of the variance in EQ-5D-US scores, and had a RMSE of 0.096. The final model for SF-6D, which included all four OPAQ dimensions, predicted 58% of the variance in SF-6D scores and had a RMSE of 0.085. Conclusions Two models were developed to estimate EQ-5D-US and SF-6D health state values from OPAQ and demonstrated adequate prediction for use when actual values are not available.
Background The changes in the organization of mental health care services have made the role of the family even more important in caring for patients with mental disorders. Caring may have serious consequences for family caregivers, with a great impact on the quality of family life. This study reports on the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire-European Union (IEQ-EU) into the Greek language. Methods Caregivers of patients with major mental disorders were interviewed to test a modified version of the IEQ-EU questionnaire. Psychometric measurements included reliability coefficients, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory analysis by linear structural relations. To measure the concurrent validity we used the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Results Most caregivers were female (83%), mainly mothers living with the patient (80%), with quite a high level of burden. The Greek version of the IEQ-EU (G-IEQ-EU) demonstrated a good reliability with high internal consistency (? = 0.88), Guttman split-half correlation of 0.71, high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.82) and good concurrent validity with the NHP. A four-factor structure was confirmed for the G-IEQ-EU, slightly different from the original IEQ. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the four-factor model offered modest fit to our data. Conclusions The G-IEQ-EU is a reasonably valid and reliable tool for use in both clinical and research contexts in order to assess the burden of caregivers of patients with mental disorders.
Psychological symptoms of somatoform disorders will be part of their new definition in DSM-5. We developed the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ) as a self-report questionnaire to assess important psychological characteristics of patients with somatoform disorders. Item selection and identification of factor structure, as well as reliability and validity have been checked in a sample of N=453 psychsomatic outpatients. Results of a principal components analysis with Promax-rotation suggested 4 factors (health worries, illness experience, difficulties in interaction with doctors, impact of illness). Validity analyses confirmed associations between the SSEQ-Scores and the physical disability of patients. Although further assessments of psychometric qualities are needed, the questionnaire appears to be well-suited for future assessment of relevant psychological features of somatoform disorders. PMID:23864304
Background Hepatitis-B is a life threatening infection resulting in 0.6 million deaths annually. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B is rising in Pakistan and furthermore, there is paucity of information about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Hepatitis-B patients. Better disease related knowledge is important to have positive attitude and that will bring the good practices which will prevent the further spread of infection. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B Patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 Hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis-B were assessed using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 20, 7 and 8 questions for knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B patients. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p?0.05) were used to establish association between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Results Out of 390 patients, 223 (57.2%) were males, with the majority (136, 34.9%) in the age group of 38–47 years. Mean age of the study cohort was 32.6?±?9.5 years. One hundred and four (26.7%) had primary level education, with 110 (28.2%) working in the private sector. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.48?±?2.7, 3.87?±?1.2 and 2.37?±?1.0, respectively. Education, locality and occupation were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Significant positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.466, p?0.01) knowledge-practice (r?=?0.221, p?0.01) and attitude-practice (r?=?0.224, p?0.01) were also observed from the study results. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that Hepatitis-B patients lack a basic understanding of infection control and management. This can result in the further spread of Hepatitis-B infection. Extensive health education campaigns should be provided to the patients in the hospital as well as in community settings for rational control and management of the disease.
The impact of a redesigned educational technology course on preservice teachers' knowledge and skills with regard to information and communications technology as defined by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS-T) was investigated in this study. Two changes were made to the course: (1) a commercially available…
Background Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis KnowledgeAssessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women. Methods The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study. Results A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD?=?8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach’s alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar’s test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P?=?0.068). Conclusion The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis KnowledgeAssessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) was found to be reliable as well as acceptable. Further research is needed as to complete the validation of those tools and to use them at larger scale whether in knowledgeassessment or in assessing interventions.
Performance assessment is an important task in all levels of education, both as input for identifying remedial needs of individual students and for improving general quality of education. Although explicit assessment measures can be obtained through objective standardized testing, it is much more difficult to capture fuzzier, or tacit, performance…
Self-assessmentquestionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
Objectives: The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses desire for suicide according to the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Psychometric properties of the German version of the INQ are investigated. Methods: The INQ was applied in a sample of 281 undergraduate students to investigate dimensionality, reliability and validity. Results: The 2-factorial structure of the original version was confirmed for the German version of the INQ in this sample. The subscales "Perceived Burdensomeness" (??=?0.88) and "Thwarted Belongingness" (??=?0.83) show very good internal consistencies. Both subscales show medium range correlations with depressiveness. There are significantly higher levels of "Perceived Burdensomeness" and "Thwarted Belongingness" in participants with current suicidal ideation or prior suicidal or self-injuring behaviour. Conclusion: These findings show that the German version of the INQ has good psychometric properties. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in clinical samples, and to test the utility of the INQ in predicting and preventing suicidal behaviour in patients at risk. PMID:23925932
Glaesmer, Heide; Spangenberg, Lena; Scherer, Anne; Forkmann, Thomas
OBJECTIVES: This study measured the association between socioeconomic status and the eight scale scores of the Medical Outcomes Study short form 36 (SF-36) general health survey in the Whitehall II study of British civil servants. It also assessed, for the physical functioning scale, whether this association was independent of disease. METHODS: A questionnaire containing the SF-36 was administered at the third phase of the study to 5766 men and 2589 women aged 39 through 63 years. Socioeconomic status was measured by means of six levels of employment grades. RESULTS: There were significant improvements with age in general mental health, role-emotional, vitality, and social functioning scale scores. In men, all the scales except vitality showed significant age-adjusted gradients across the employment grades (lower grades, worse health). Among women, a similar relationship was found for the physical functioning, pain, and social functioning scales. For physical functioning, the effect of grade was found in those with and without disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic status was associated with poor health functioning, and the effect sizes were comparable to those for some clinical conditions. For physical functioning, this association may act both via and independently of disease.
Hemingway, H; Nicholson, A; Stafford, M; Roberts, R; Marmot, M
Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…
Criterion validity of the Sexual and Physical Abuse Questionnaire was investigated in 134 psychiatric patients using the Structured Trauma Interview. The measures of agreement and the predictive measures of the questionnaire were satisfactory, particularly with sexual abuse. Positive answering increased odds for sexual abuse by a factor of…
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaireassessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and
Context: Chronic diseases like asthma have significant effects on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL measures additional indices as compared to objective measurements like spirometry. Aims: To assess and compare disease-specific quality of life in asthma patients using St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) receiving fluticasone, beclomethasone, and budesonide (BUD). Settings and Design: A prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A 6-month follow-up of 277 patients with mild, moderate, and severe persistent asthma was randomized to receive fluticasone propionate (FP), BUD, or beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in equipotent doses according to their global initiative on asthma (GINA) severity. Statistical analysis used: Data analyzed using SPSS version: 13.0. General linear-repeated measures using the post-hoc bonferroni method assessed significance between treatment groups. Results: Significant decrease (P < 0.05) in each SGRQ domains and total scores as well as improvement in FEV1 (P < 0.05) was observed in all study subjects. A significant early response (P < 0.05) was noted after 15 days treatment in patients receiving FP with respect to SGRQ (activity, impact and total) scores and dyspnea indices, but not FEV1. This improvement with FP was due to its greater effect in patients with moderate and severe persistent asthma. No difference was noted subsequently in all outcome measures studied until 6 months. Conclusions: There was evidence for an early QoL improvement to FP as compared to BUD or BDP in moderate and severe persistent asthma. Subsequently, the three ICS showed similar improvements in lung functions and dyspnea indices throughout the study.
Sabin, Thomas; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Padukudru, Mahesh A.
The aim of this study was to develop two new scales for assessing Turkish public’s knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes toward it. A 26-item knowledge scale and a 15-item attitude scale were first developed and then tested using a random selection of adults aged ?18 n=613) from different parts of Istanbul. After item and factor analyses of the knowledge scale,
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine the practice validity of a new ecological assessment instrument for third through fifth graders in terms of whether it provided school staff with new knowledge about students. Method: Preassessment knowledge of school staff was compared to data obtained from 21 children and their parents…
Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…
Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.
The authors explored the use of the Practice Evaluation Knowledge Scale (PEKS) to assess student perception of acquisition and retention of practice evaluation knowledge from an undergraduate research methods class. The authors sampled 2 semesters of undergraduate social work students enrolled in an introductory research methods course.…
This study explored the impact of using a socioscientific issue (SSI) based curriculum on developing science content knowledge. Using a multi?level assessment design, student content knowledge gains were measured before and after implementation of a three?week unit on global warming (a prominent SSI) that explored both the relevant science content and the controversy surrounding global warming. Measures of student content
Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…
Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena
This article explores teachers' assessmentknowledge and practice through a narrative inquiry of a college EFL teacher, Betty (pseudonym), in the People's Republic of China. Drawing on Crites' (1971) notions of "sacred stories" and "secret stories" in teachers' professional knowledge landscapes (Connelly & Clandinin, 1995), it examines Betty's…
This paper describes a Web-based and distributed system named QSIA that serves as an environment for learning, assessing and knowledge sharing. QSIA--Questions Sharing and Interactive Assignments--offers a unified infrastructure for developing, collecting, managing and sharing of knowledge items. QSIA enhances collaboration in authoring via online…
Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Barak, Miri; Dan-Gur, Yuval; Toch, Eran
Two experiments involving 125 college and graduate students examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology and biology and assessed cross-domain performance in physics. Patterns of knowledge, interest, and performance fit well with the premises of the Model of Domain Learning. (SLD)
This manual describes the Mathematics AssessmentQuestionnaire (MAQ) and its development, provides relevant background from the research literature, describes approaches to the reporting and uses of the MAQ (including its use in instructional planning), and presents sample responses from students and classes. The MAQ provides teachers and students…
The purpose of this research was to assess force protection knowledge in Air Force civil engineer officers. Specifically, the research attempted to answer four specific research questions dealing with officers' understanding of force protection concepts a...
In this paper we discuss the impact of differing knowledge structure measurement techniques on assessing instructor mental models for behaviors associated with Situation Awareness. Our goals were, first, to investigate the degree to which an expert model ...
J. Fowlkes L. Martin-Milham R. L. Oser S. M. Fiore
Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledgequestionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient…
Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.
Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ) to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size), 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9?±?0.8 years) completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1?±?0.9 years) completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR) in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70). The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%), but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%). The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the validity to that in the current literature suggests that the NZAFFQ may be used among adolescent New Zealanders to identify dietary patterns and rank them according to food group intake.
BACKGROUND: Physician nonadherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations contributes to underuse of screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians’ knowledge of CRC screening guidelines for average-risk individuals, perceived barriers to screening and practice behaviours. METHODS: Between October 2004 and March 2005, staff physicians working in three university-affiliated hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, were surveyed. Self-administered questionnairesassessedknowledge of risk classification and current guidelines for average-risk individuals, as well as perceptions of barriers to screening and practice behaviours. RESULTS: All 65 invited physicians participated in the survey, including 46 (70.8%) family medicine physicians and 19 (29.2%) general internists. Most physicians knew that screening should begin at 50 years of age, all knew to screen men and women and 92% said they screened average-risk patients. Fifty-seven (87.7%) physicians correctly identified three common characteristics associated with high risk for developing CRC. Physicians who screened average-risk patients preferred fecal occult blood testing (88.3%) and colonoscopy (88.3%) to flexible sigmoidoscopy (10.0%) and double-contrast barium enema (30.0%). Most physicians knew the correct screening periodicity for fecal occult blood testing (87.6%), but only 40% or fewer could identify correct screening periodicities for the other modalities. Barriers and facilitators focused on health care delivery system improvements, better evidence on which to base recommendations and development of practical screening modalities. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians lacked knowledge of the recommended screening modalities and periodicities to appropriately screen average-risk individuals. Because CRC screening can reduce mortality, efforts to improve physician delivery should focus on physician knowledge and changes to the health care delivery system.
We report the development of an assessment instrument that provides a profile of the attainment and the errors of pre-service primary teachers across the mathematics curriculum. We describe test development, analyses and test validation involving a sample of 426 pre-service teachers in the first year of their training in primary education courses…
The present work describes an experience of educational innovation in a university context. Its aim was to determine the relationship between students' frequency of use of online self-assessment with feedback and their final performance on the course, taking into account both learners' motivation and perceived usefulness of these resources for…
The AD-8 dementia screening questionnaire is a novel tool that allows clinicians to assess changes in cognitive function. This study examined psychometric properties of the test in French-speaking and English-speaking patients, and its impact on diagnostic practice in the geriatric assessment clinics of a university health centre. Data were extracted from the clinical database for all new patients screened for
Lisa Koski; Haiqun Xie; Susanna Konsztowicz; Roslyn Tetteh
Objective Structural validity for the Health AssessmentQuestionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) has recently been provided for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the HAQ-DI in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) and to compare its performance with that in patients with RA.Methods The HAQ-DI structural validity was first assessed in a
Jason C. Cole; Dinesh Khanna; Philip J. Clements; James R. Seibold; Donald P. Tashkin; Harold E. Paulus; Michael R. Irwin; Sarosh J. Motivala; Daniel E. Furst
Objective: To compare different statistical methods for assessing the relative validity of a self-administered, 150-item, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 4-day weighed diet records (WR). Design: Subjects completed the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ and carried out a 4- day WR. Relative agreement between the FFQ and WR for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes was assessed by Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients,
LF Masson; G MCNeill; JO Tomany; JA Simpson; HS Peace; L Wei; DA Grubb; C Bolton-Smith
Goals in inquiry-based science include not only that students understand content knowledge, but also that students be able to utilize this knowledge in complex problem solving situations to work with tasks that involve skills such as interpreting data and formulating scientific explanations. In addition, advancements in the measurement sciences allow for sophisticated and complex ways to score and interpret student responses on assessment tasks. However, while many studies have shown the benefits of scientific inquiry in the classroom and others have described new types of psychometric models available for scoring analysis, few have combined the two to develop a better understanding of how students "know" science. I describe an assessment system used to create items that systematically measure and disentangle three focal aspects of sixth grade students' science knowledge base associated with the BioKIDS: Kids' Inquiry of Diverse Species curriculum. Then, using students' verbal and written responses to the assessment, I analyzed the validity of the assessment tasks and examined the nature of students' science knowledge base when working in science problem solving situations. Overall, the results suggest that the tasks created using the assessment system provided students with opportunities to demonstrate the knowledge and skills about which they were designed, thus indicating that utilizing this assessment system could enable assessment designers to create tasks that allow them to gather information about multiple key aspects of students' science knowledge base. Specifically, tasks can generate information about students' content knowledge, explanation ability and interpreting data ability. In addition, utilizing psychometric models, the results suggest that students have a multidimensional science knowledge base. However, after students have participated in an inquiry-based curricular program, these dimensions are highly related to one another. Despite the relationships between the dimensions of students' science knowledge base, students struggled to integrate their content knowledge with their reasoning abilities in complex situations, indicating that developing a fully functioning science knowledge base takes time. These results hold implications for assessment development and scoring as well as for understanding the ways in which students develop a fully functioning science knowledge base.
We designed a 6-week retrospective questionnaire on sunlight exposure. Estimation of the short-term exposure to sunlight is important for observational human studies concerning the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the human immune system and related resistance to infections. This questionnaire was given to the parents of 1672 1-year-old children in the Netherlands who participated in a birth cohort study. We evaluated the questionnaire and estimated the personal 6-week cumulative exposure to solar UVR. Only 910 questionnaires (54.4%) were filled out completely and consistently. This suggests that reporting data on children's outdoor exposure, even for the recent past, is often difficult. The data from these questionnaires indicated that the crude number of reported outdoor hours was enough to obtain a relative estimate of the individual exposure to ambient UVR, but that weighting for the effect of clothing was essential for the classification of the systemic UVR dosage received. Sunny weeks in the Netherlands in 1998, as were established by independent measurements of the levels of ambient UVR, vacations abroad, and sunburn, were associated with a comparatively high mean estimated exposure. These results support the suitability of the questionnaire for classifying the participants with respect to their short-term exposure to solar UVR. PMID:12032817
Termorshuizen, Fabian; Wijga, Alet; Garssen, Johan; Den Outer, Peter N; Slaper, Harry; Van Loveren, Henk
To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assessknowledge of evidence-based educational theories. PMID:19561166
This study used the Rasch model to assess the unidimensionality and item-person fit of an Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (ASCQ) that is based on the Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) perspective. Knowledge of the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept is particularly useful because academic achievement is…
Background The General Practice AssessmentQuestionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used to assess patient experience in general practice in the UK since 2004. In 2013, new regulations were introduced by the General Medical Council (GMC) requiring UK doctors to undertake periodic revalidation, which includes assessment of patient experience for individual doctors. We describe the development of a new version of GPAQ – GPAQ-R which addresses the GMC’s requirements for revalidation as well as additional NHS requirements for surveys that GPs may need to carry out in their own practices. Methods Questionnaires were given out by doctors or practice staff after routine consultations in line with the guidance given by the General Medical Council for surveys to be used for revalidation. Data analysis and practice reports were provided independently. Results Data were analysed for questionnaires from 7258 patients relating to 164 GPs in 29 general practices. Levels of missing data were generally low (typically 4.5-6%). The number of returned questionnaires required to achieve reliability of 0.7 were around 35 for individual doctor communication items and 29 for a composite score based on doctor communication items. This suggests that the responses to GPAQ-R had similar reliability to the GMC’s own questionnaire and we recommend 30 completed GPAQ-R questionnaires are sufficient for revalidation purposes. However, where an initial screen raises concern, the survey might be repeated with 50 completed questionnaires in order to increase reliability. Conclusions GPAQ-R is a development of a well-established patient experience questionnaire used in general practice in the UK since 2004. This new version can be recommended for use in order to meet the UK General Medical Council’s requirements for surveys to be used in revalidation of doctors. It also meets the needs of GPs to ask about patient experience relating to aspects of practice care that are not specific to individual general practitioners (e.g. receptionists, telephone access) which meet other survey requirements of the National Health Service in England. Use of GPAQ-R has the potential to reduce the number of surveys that GPs need to carry out in their practices to meet the various regulatory requirements which they face.
With reading, as with all academic content and skills, effective instruction is informed by sound assessment. Teachers' knowledge about classroom-embedded reading assessment must continue to be developed so that they can use the information it yields to make informed instructional decisions. At the same time, districts and schools must develop…
BACKGROUND: Health care educators need valid and reliable tools to assess evidence based practice (EBP) knowledge and skills. Such instruments have yet to be developed for use among physical therapists. The Fresno Test (FT) has been validated only among general practitioners and occupational therapists and does not assess integration of research evidence with patient perspectives and clinical expertise. The purpose
A needs assessment determined Oregon community college staff knowledge of (a) accessible information technology (IT) guidelines, (b) IT-related disability laws, (c) legal obligations regarding Web accessibility, and (d) perceived level of current Web accessibility. Training needs were assessed and training suggestions were solicited. IT staff…
Wisdom, Jenifer R.; White, Nathan A.; Goldsmith, Kimberley A.; Bielavitz, Sarann; Davis, Charles E.; Drum, Charles
The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), developed by Wells and Cartwright-Hatton (2004), represents a multidimensional measure of metacognitive factors considered to be important in the metacognitive model of psychological disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and the factor structure of the Greek version of the MCQ-30. Moreover, we investigated the associations of the extracted factors with trait anxiety in a Greek sample. The study sample consisted of 547 non-clinical participants (213 males and 334 females). All participants completed the Greek version of the MCQ-30. A subsample of 157 participants also completed the Trait Anxiety subscale of the State -Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Meta-worry subscale of the Anxious Thought Inventory. Thirty participants were retested with the MCQ-30 over a retest interval ranging from three to five weeks. The results confirmed the dimensionality of the MCQ-30 and five factors were extracted consistent with the original English version: (1) positive beliefs about worry, (2) negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger, (3) cognitive confidence, (4) beliefs about the need to control thoughts and the negative consequences of not controlling them, and (5) cognitive selfconsciousness. The MCQ-30 showed high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The correlation between MCQ-30 total score and AnTI-MW was strong, indicating high level of convergent validity. Moreover, all correlations between MCQ-30 total and subscale scores and STAI-T were significant apart from the correlation between 'cognitive confidence' and trait anxiety. The Greek sample scored higher in the MCQ-30 and its subscales than the English sample in the original study. Women scored significantly higher than men in the overall MCQ-30 and the "uncontrollability and danger" and "need to control thoughts" subscales, whereas no significant differences between genders had been found in the original study. The assumption that the differences in score levels and the gender effect might reflect cultural differences warrants further investigation. The findings of the present study indicate that the Greek version of the MCQ-30 is a comprehensible and psychometrically adequate instrument, as well as a reliable tool in assessing a range of dimensions of worry-related metacognitions in the Greek population. The Greek version of this scale facilitates crosscultural research in metacognition and wider testing of the metacognitive approach to emotional vulnerability, psychological disturbances and mental disorders. PMID:24739501
Typaldou, G M; Konstantakopoulos, G; Roxanis, I; Nidos, A; Vaidakis, N; Papadimitriou, G N; Wells, A
Following the trend in science and engineering education generated by the visible impact created by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), the investigator developed a Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory (PSCI). PSCI fills the need of standardized concept tests for undergraduate education in photonics and electrical engineering. The structure of the PSCI test followed a concept map reflecting the input from a panel of experts from different universities and from a survey of textbooks currently used in engineering schools in the United States. Based on the statistical analysis of the scores and response patterns, the test was calibrated as an instrument to measure participants' cognitive ability independent of items' difficulty. The models employed were the Rasch Model and the Rasch Partial Credit Model. The estimation procedure employed was Conditional Maximum Likelihood. The analysis was carried on using algorithms written in the open-source language R. The current PSCI BETA test contains eighteen calibrated items covering six concepts of the physics of semiconductors. PSCI BETA may be used for three purposes: individual student diagnostic if applied at the beginning of a physics of semiconductors course; predictor for students' academic performance in the field of semiconductors if applied at the end of instruction; assessment instrument for instructional strategies if applied both for pre- and post-instruction. The PSCI BETA instrument can be applied in any English speaking college setting. The main results of the PSCI research are: ranking persons' ability related to the physics of semiconductors on an objective linear scale, building a diagnose matrix that may be utilized by instructors for choosing an optimal teaching approach and by students for remediation, and demonstrating a calibration method for small sample size.
BACKGROUND: Older studies have shown that patients often do not understand the terms used by doctors and many do not even have a rudimentary understanding of anatomy. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of anatomical knowledge of different patient groups and the general public in order to see whether this has improved over time and whether patients
John Weinman; Gibran Yusuf; Robert Berks; Sam Rayner; Keith J Petrie
The current study examined whether the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; L. A. Greco, W. Lambert, & R. A. Baer, 2008), a self-report measure of psychological inflexibility for children and adolescents, might be useful for measuring psychological inflexibility for adults. The psychometric properties of the AFQ-Y were examined using data from a college student sample (N = 387)
Thomas A. Fergus; David P. Valentiner; Michael J. Gillen; Regina Hiraoka; Michael P. Twohig; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Patrick B. McGrath
The current study examined whether the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; L. A. Greco, W. Lambert, & R. A. Baer, 2008), a self-report measure of psychological inflexibility for children and adolescents, might be useful for measuring psychological inflexibility for adults. The psychometric properties of the AFQ-Y were examined…
Fergus, Thomas A.; Valentiner, David P.; Gillen, Michael J.; Hiraoka, Regina; Twohig, Michael P.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; McGrath, Patrick B.
The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and…
Epidemiological studies suggest that tea drinking may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Although tea is an important source of antioxidant phytochemicals, variation in preparation techniques may translate to variation in antioxidant capacity. However, most large-scale epidemiological studies use regular food frequency questionnaires to estimate tea intake, and nationally available nutrient analysis databases do not include levels of
Iman A. Hakim; Vern Hartz; Robin B. Harris; Douglas Balentine; Ute M. Weisgerber; Ellen Graver; Robin Whitacre; David Alberts
BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic illness receive health care in primary care settings, so a challenge is to provide well-structured chronic care in these settings. Our aim was to develop and test a Dutch version of the PACIC questionnaire, a measure for patient reported structured chronic care. METHODS: Observational study in 165 patients with diabetes or COPD from four general
Michel Wensing; Jan van Lieshout; Hans Peter Jung; Jan Hermsen; Thomas Rosemann
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire was developed. This 15-item scale measuring attitudes toward the philosophy of William Glasser had a coefficient alpha reliability of .77…
Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82%) agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
Juneja, Deven; Gopal, Palepu B.; Satapathy, Rashmi R.; Raya, Ravichandra; Madgundi, Venugopal V.
During a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of sertraline in depressed methadone-maintained patients, 82 completed the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) to assess whether temperament dimensions can affect treatment-related changes in mood and drug use. Mood outcome significantly differed according to scores on the reward dependence scale (RD). Low RD participants displayed a significantly better mood response to
Wilfrid Noel Raby; Kenneth M. Carpenter; Efrat Aharonovich; Eric Rubin; Adam Bisaga; Frances Levin; Edward V. Nunes
Objective:We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1–11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as assessed by a parent-completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids.Design:The study population included youth aged 1–11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in
Objectives There currently exists no reliable or validated tool for the assessment of exercise-related injuries in older adults. The purpose was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire to measure exercise-related injury in older adults participating in supervised exercise programmes. Design The study utilised a repeated survey design. Setting The study took place at one community-based older-adult exercise facility. Participants The questionnaire was administered to 110 community-dwelling older adults (45 men, mean age 75±8?years; 65 women, mean age 71±8?years). All participants completed the survey at both time points. Outcome measures Test–retest reliability of the self-administered written questionnaire was determined at two-time points. The questionnaire asked participants about their exercise-related injury incurred at the facility in the 12?months. Items included the mechanism, cause and site of injury. The minimum requirement for reliability (? coefficient) was set at 0.80. Results 16% (n=18) reported having an injury. Test–retest reliability ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, with all but type of injury (0.76) having ? coefficients greater than 0.80. The lower extremities were the most common site of exercise-related injury. Overexertion movements were the most common cause of injury occurring during strength training exercises. Conclusions The present questionnaireassessing the 12-month recall in older adults is a reliable measure of exercise-related injuries and information gained indicates that older adults can safely participate in exercise activities.
The Visual Simplified Respiratory Questionnaire (VSRQ) was designed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It contains eight items: dyspnea, anxiety, depressed mood, sleep, energy, daily activities, social activities and sexual life. Psychometric properties were assessed during a clinical trial that evaluated the impact of tiotropium on HRQoL of COPD patients. These included the determination of structure, internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity with the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), test – retest reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change over two weeks. Minimal important difference (MID) was calculated; cumulative response curves (CRC) were based on the dyspnea item. Psychometric analyses showed that VSRQ structure was unidimensional. The questionnaire demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84), good concurrent validity with SGRQ (Spearman = ?0.70) and clinical validity, good test-retest reproducibility (ICC = 0.77), and satisfactory responsiveness (standardized response mean = 0.57; Guyatt’s statistic = 0.63). MID was 3.4; CRC median value of the ‘minimally improved’ patients was 3.5. In conclusion, VSRQ brevity and satisfactory psychometric properties make it a good candidate for large studies to assess HRQoL in COPD patients. Further validation is needed to extend its use in clinical practice.
Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15–49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region.
Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva
The NHIS CCS is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment. The NHIS CCS covers a variety of topics, including diet and nutrition.
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaireassessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn’s and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to determine the reliability of a diet history interview with a short self completed questionnaire of a basic design used in other studies in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--The study used a cohort of elderly people randomly divided into two groups after stratification for sex. Members of one group completed the questionnaire first and were interviewed later; the procedure was reversed for the other group. SETTING--Participants were drawn from registers of two general practitioners at a Nottingham health centre. PARTICIPANTS--All non-Asian men aged 65-74 years and women aged 59-65 years registered with the practices were identified (n = 152); 20 could not be traced and two were too ill, leaving 130 possible participants. Of these, 80 took part in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS--Ranking of subjects in terms of estimated fat, fibre, and calcium intakes was compared in the history interview and in the self completed questionnaire. Agreement in tertile ranking was 58% for fibre, 53% for fat, and 49% for calcium. Corresponding correlation coefficients for estimated nutrient intakes were 0.49, 0.45, and 0.41 respectively. The differences in nutrient intakes estimated by the two methods were not affected by age, sex, marital status, or smoking patterns. Subjects in the group asked to complete the questionnaire before being interviewed showed greater percentage concordance for tertile ranking, but this reached significance only for fat intake. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods provide estimates of intakes similar to those found in other studies in the United Kingdom, and the agreement between them in terms of tertile ranking is also similar to previous studies. The incidence of gross misclassification was low.
Objectives Patient experience questionnaires have been criticised owing to the lack of supporting psychometric evidence. The objective of this study was to describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Cancer Patient Experiences Questionnaire (CPEQ) in Norway. Design Questionnaire development was based on a literature review of existing questionnaires, patient interviews, expert-group consultations, pretesting of questionnaire items and a national survey. Psychometric evaluation included exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability. Setting Data were collected using a postal survey of cancer patients attending 54 hospitals in all 4 health regions. The subjects were 14?227 adult cancer patients who had attended an outpatient clinic or who had been discharged from an inpatient ward. Patients with all types of cancer were included. Data quality, internal consistency reliability and construct validity were assessed. Results Of the 13?846 patients who received the CPEQ, 7212 (52%) responded. Exploratory factor analysis identified six scales of outpatient experiences relating to nurse contact, doctor contact, information, organisation, patient safety and contact with next of kin, and seven scales of inpatient experiences, with the addition of hospital standard to the aforementioned scales. All but two of the scales met the criterion of 0.70 for Cronbach's ? testing, and test–retest correlations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the interpretation of six and seven scales for outpatients and inpatients, respectively. Statistically significant associations based on explicit hypotheses provided evidence for the construct validity of the scales. One additional scale measuring the hospital level was identified (?=0.85). Conclusions The CPEQ is a self-report instrument that includes the most important aspects of patient experiences with cancer care at hospitals. The instrument was tested following a national survey in Norway; good evidence is provided herein for the internal consistency reliability, test–retest reliability and construct validity.
Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledgequestionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…
This paper reports on an assessment of knowledge of SDL in primary (elementary) South Australian school students, fifty-six of whom were assessed to be high reasoning. The goals of the study were to identify the effectiveness of teaching and assessingknowledge of Self-Directed Learning (SDL) in high reasoning students, investigate whether there…
Background Electronic patient-reported outcomes (PRO) provide quick and usually reliable assessments of patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQL). Objective An electronic version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Quality of Life-human immunodeficiency virus (PROQOL-HIV) questionnaire was developed, and its face validity and reliability were assessed using standard psychometric methods. Methods A sample of 80 French outpatients (66% male, 52/79; mean age 46.7 years, SD 10.9) were recruited. Paper-based and electronic questionnaires were completed in a randomized crossover design (2-7 day interval). Biomedical data were collected. Questionnaire version and order effects were tested on full-scale scores in a 2-way ANOVA with patients as random effects. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, with 95% confidence interval) for each dimension. Usability testing was carried out from patients’ survey reports, specifically, general satisfaction, ease of completion, quality and clarity of user interface, and motivation to participate in follow-up PROQOL-HIV electronic assessments. Results Questionnaire version and administration order effects (N=59 complete cases) were not significant at the 5% level, and no interaction was found between these 2 factors (P=.94). Reliability indexes were acceptable, with Pearson correlations greater than .7 and ICCs ranging from .708 to .939; scores were not statistically different between the two versions. A total of 63 (79%) complete patients’ survey reports were available, and 55% of patients (30/55) reported being satisfied and interested in electronic assessment of their HRQL in clinical follow-up. Individual ratings of PROQOL-HIV user interface (85%-100% of positive responses) confirmed user interface clarity and usability. Conclusions The electronic PROQOL-HIV introduces minor modifications to the original paper-based version, following International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) ePRO Task Force guidelines, and shows good reliability and face validity. Patients can complete the computerized PROQOL-HIV questionnaire and the scores from the paper or electronic versions share comparable accuracy and interpretation.
Objective To develop an assessment that would (1) help doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students review therapeutic decision making and build confidence in their skills, (2) provide pharmacy practice residents with the opportunity to lead small group discussions, and (3) provide the assessment committee with program-level assessment data. Design A case-based interactive assessment was developed and delivered to PharmD students immediately prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). The assessment used an audience response system to allow immediate feedback followed by small group discussions led by pharmacy-practice residents. Students self-assessed their knowledge and confidence levels and developed personalized learning objectives for APPEs. Assessment Eighty-nine percent of students found the assessment useful, and pharmacy practice residents reported that it was helpful in developing precepting skills. The college assessment committee was able to use the data to supplement the ongoing College curricular mapping process. Conclusions An interactive assessment process can help students build confidence for experiential training, provide a learning opportunity for pharmacy residents, and produce program-level data for college assessment purposes. Planned modifications of the assessment include expanding the content areas covered and adding ability-based assessments such as communication skills.
Beatty, Stuart J.; Legg, Julie E.; McAuley, James W.
Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…
An assessment approach from Mathematics Recovery was used to document the number knowledge of 20 first-graders and 20 second-graders in an Indonesian school. Sixteen first-graders were at the advanced-counting-by-ones stage and fourteen second-graders were facile. As well, fifteen first-graders and eleven second-graders were at the level of an…
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
To teach effective business communication, instructors must target students’ current weaknesses in writing. One method for doing so is by assigning writing exercises. When used heuristically, writing exercises encourage students to practice self-assessment, self-evaluation, active learning, and knowledge transfer, all while reinforcing the basics…
A number of researchers have developed social skills training programs for juvenile delinquents, based on the assumption that they lack social skills. In order to assessknowledge of social skills among juvenile delinquents, a sample of 411 adolescent offenders was obtained. The sample consisted of all adjudicated male delinquents aged 12 to 15 admitted to a state training school over
The main requisite for a functional computerized adaptive testing system is the need of a calibrated item bank. This text presents the tasks carried out during the calibration of an item bank for assessingknowledge of Basque language. It has been done in terms of the 3-parameter logistic model provided by the item response theory. Besides, this…
Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Perez, Tomas A.; Vadillo, Jose A.; Gutierrez, Julian
This report is a product of an European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) Workshop "Assessing educational quality: Knowledge production and the role of experts" hosted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT) in Oslo in February, 2008. The workshop gathered representatives from higher education…
Explores sketch maps as an easy-to-use and easy-to-understand tool for assessing library skills, knowledge, and interest among individuals and groups. The underlying principles are found in research done with maps and surveys collected for environmental psychology, urban planning, and human geography. Includes nine figures of map examples and an…
Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD?=?9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD?=?7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD?=?1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD?=?5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD?=?1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation.
Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666
Efficiently reducing natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards. Current methods to assess these costs employ a variety of terminologies and approaches for different types of natural hazards and different impacted sectors. This may impede efforts to ascertain comprehensive and comparable cost figures. In order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management, a review of existing cost assessment approaches was undertaken. This review considers droughts, floods, coastal and Alpine hazards, and examines different cost types, namely direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and the costs of risk mitigation. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art cost assessment approaches and discusses key knowledge gaps. It shows that the application of cost assessments in practice is often incomplete and biased, as direct costs receive a relatively large amount of attention, while intangible and indirect effects are rarely considered. Furthermore, all parts of cost assessment entail considerable uncertainties due to insufficient or highly aggregated data sources, along with a lack of knowledge about the processes leading to damage and thus the appropriate models required. Recommendations are provided on how to reduce or handle these uncertainties by improving data sources and cost assessment methods. Further recommendations address how risk dynamics due to climate and socio-economic change can be better considered, how costs are distributed and risks transferred, and in what ways cost assessment can function as part of decision support.
Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.; Thieken, A. H.; Viavattene, C.
A key role in the development and deployment of Assistive Technology solutions is that of the "assessor-consultant". Assessor-consultants for the UK-based charity Abilitynet work with clients to develop customized computer-based assistive technology systems and draw on a range of shared knowledge from the assessor-consultant community. We provide…
Measurement of quality of life (QoL) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires assessment of factors related to chronic liver disease, as well as issues related to the primary tumour and its treatment. This study describes the development of a questionnaire module in patients from Europe, as well as Taiwan and Hong Kong. The questionnaire was developed according to the European Organisation
Jane M. Blazeby; Elspeth Currie; Benny C. Y. Zee; Wei-Chu Chie; Ronnie T. Poon; O. James Garden
Results of an attitude survey of 39 selected Black community leaders in South Carolina toward South Carolina's Basic Skills Assessment Program (BSAP) and the Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery (CSAB) are presented. Of the 39 returned questionnaires, 10 were from public school educators, 7 were from school board members, and 13 were from officers…
A panel of experts formulated relevant domains of sexual function with a focus on sexual interest and desire. The resulting 10-item scale, the Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), was examined for reliability (internal consistency and test-retest repeatability), construct validity (concurrent, convergent, and discriminant), sensitivity, and specificity in a clinical trial. A principal components analysis identified three factors (desire, responsiveness, and satisfaction) with eigenvalues > 1. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the three domains. Test-retest repeatability correlation coefficients for domain scores were all highly significant. The MSIQ demonstrated adequate construct validity, with all three domains showing a high degree of sensitivity and with two of the three exhibiting specificity to the effects of treatment. PMID:15205062
Rosen, Raymond C; Lobo, Rogerio A; Block, Barbara A; Yang, Hwa-Ming; Zipfel, Lisa M
Background To frame interventions, it is useful to understand context- and time-specific correlates of children’s physical activity. To do this, we need accurate assessment of these correlates. There are currently no measures that assess correlates at all levels of the social ecological model, contain items that are specifically worded for the lunchtime and/or after-school time periods, and assess correlates that have been conceptualised and defined by children. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the lunchtime and after-school Youth Physical Activity Survey for Specific Settings (Y-PASS) questionnaires. Methods The Y-PASS questionnaire was administered to 264 South Australian children (146 boys, 118 girls; mean age?=?11.7?±?0.93 years). Factorial structure and internal consistency of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy lunchtime and after-school subscales were examined through an exploratory factor analysis. The test-retest reliability of the Y-PASS subscales was assessed over a one-week period on a subsample of children (lunchtime Y-PASS: n?=?12 boys, 12 girls, mean age of 11.6?±?0.8 years; after-school Y-PASS: n?=?9 boys, 13 girls; mean age?=?11.4?±?0.9 years). Results For the lunchtime Y-PASS, three factors were identified under each of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy subscales. For the after-school Y-PASS, six factors were identified in the intrapersonal subscale, four factors in the sociocultural subscale and seven factors in the physical environmental/policy subscale. Following item reduction, all subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha?=?0.78 – 0.85), except for the lunchtime sociocultural subscale (Cronbach alpha?=?0.55). The factors and items demonstrated fair to very high test-retest reliability (ICC?=?0.26 – 0.93). Conclusion The preliminary reliability and factorial structure evidence suggests the Y-PASS correlate questionnaires are robust tools for measuring correlates of context-specific physical activity in children. The multi-dimensional factor structure provides justification for exploring physical activity correlates from a social ecological perspective and demonstrates the importance of developing items that are context specific. Further development and refinement of the Y-PASS questionnaires is recommended, including a confirmatory factor analysis and exploring the inclusion of additional items.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of incontinence and impotence in patients following total prostatectomy and assess the impact their symptoms have on their quality of life. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 1994, one surgeon performed retropubic total prostatectomies on 89 patients, of which 87 were available for follow-up. All patients were sent an
This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assessknowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research.
Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients.
There has been a significant increase in the cases of skin cancer throughout the world in the last few decades. Although the mortality rate of skin cancer is relatively low, its impact on other health aspects is high and the treatment of undesired aesthetic damage is costly. According to disability-adjusted life year rates (DALY), 1.5 million days are estimated to be lost from people’s lives every year worldwide due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The purpose of this study was to raise sun health awareness levels among health services vocational school students. A total of 414 students were included in the analysis. A questionnaire form was used to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among the survey sample. The average level of knowledge concerning the effects of the sun was found to be 8.64 ± 2.5 out of 15 points. All socio-demographic factors were analysed, but the only significant variables found were age and the possible presence of skin cancer within the immediate family (p < 0.05).
The objective of this study was to describe patients' and informal carers' perceptions of care received and services offered following a diagnosis of primary lung cancer. We prepared a prospective, national, mail questionnaire survey of 466 patients with a diagnosis of primary lung cancer and a lay carer of their choice. The setting was 24 randomly chosen hospitals throughout the UK, from a range of urban (n = 11) and rural settings (n = 13). The majority (76%/159) of responders were recipients of care from cancer units. Two hundred and nine patients (45%) with primary lung cancer and 70 (15%) lay carers completed questionnaires. The main results that we found were that key areas of unmet need were most apparent during periods away from acute service sectors, with as few as 40% of patients reporting having received as much help as they needed from community services. The greatest onus of care for patients fell to lay carers, but only 29% of patients identified their lay carers as having needs in relation to their illness. Where patients received all their diagnostic tests in one hospital they were significantly more likely to wait less time between first seeing their general practitioner (GP) and being told their diagnosis (P = 0.0001) than patients who had to attend more than one hospital during their diagnostic work-up period. Fifty per cent of patients reported experiencing some degree of breathlessness even at rest, but only 15% reported having received any advice on living with it. Less than a quarter (23%) of hospital consultants identified anxiety as a key problem for patients with lung cancer, but 66% of patients identified it as such. Hospital staff largely overlook the needs of informal carers, who derive support from a small, mainly community oriented group of professionals, but accessing help is problematic and is dependent on local resources and a need to be proactive. Our conclusions are that developments in service provision for patients with lung cancer and their informal carers need to focus on six key areas: development of strategies to encourage patients to present earlier to their GP; ongoing evaluation of rapid diagnostic clinics; development and evaluation of a lung cancer care coordinator role; evaluation of innovations in delivery of nursing care in the community; development of local guidelines to facilitate equitable access to palliative care and social services; and evaluation of supportive strategies targeted at lay carers. PMID:11407193
Multiple-expert hazard\\/risk assessments have considerable precedent, particularly in the Yucca Mountain site characterization\\u000a studies. A certain amount of expert knowledge is needed to interpret the geological data used in a probabilistic data analysis.\\u000a As may be the situation in science, experts disagree on crucial points. Consequently, lack of consensus in some studies is\\u000a a sure outcome. In this paper, we
The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). Nearly 90% of participants reported to have been tested for HIV before. Knowledge about HIV transmission ranged from 67% to 95% of correct answers, with few differences between the capital and regions. However, a knowledge gap regarding HIV transmission and prevention was seen. In particular, we found significantly lower knowledge regarding transmission from mother-to-child during pregnancy and higher rate of belief in a supernatural role in HIV transmission. In addition, despite many years of HIV prevention activities, a substantial proportion of employees had well-known HIV risk factors including multiple concurrent partnership rates (21%), intergenerational sex (19%), and lower testing rates for men (82% compared to women with 91%).
Kiderlen, Til R.; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan
The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY). Standardized ICF linking rules were applied. Items were linked to the most specific ICF-CY codes (e.g. d4501 - Walking long distances), and rolling-up procedures were applied to report information to more generic and informative upper-level codes (e.g. d450 - Walking). ACTIVLIM items were linked to 13 second-level ICF codes of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic life chapters. The majority of ACTIVLIM items are liked to d510 - Washing oneself, d445 - Hand and arm use, and d410 - Changing basic body position. None of the ACTIVLIM items links to the codes added by the new ICF-CY classification. Disability is a multidimensional phenomenon, and measurements of disability should reflect this multidimensionality. The good psychometric properties of ACTIVLIM are demonstrated, and the aim of this mapping exercise is to provide information on its content. A relevant part of ACTIVLIM items is linked to a few ICF codes, referred to as basic body movements and washing, and other activities are less represented. We think that the ACTIVLIM covers a circumscribed set of activities and, therefore, we suggest using it together with other functional evaluation tools, to complement the range of information on activity limitations that are not covered by its items. PMID:19352199
Background\\/Aims: Functional assessment is essential in dementia as it provides an invaluable tool for diagnosis and treatment. To date, most scales of activities of daily living (ADL) have focused either on basic or instrumental activities, providing an incomplete profile of the patients’ level of dependence on their caregivers. Some scales concentrate too intensely on the way in which physical impairment
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht; Julieta Camino; María Roca; Teresa Torralva; Facundo Manes
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…
Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.
There are few available instruments that assess students' perceptions of university teaching and learning environments and can be used to provide diagnostic feedback, at the degree or program level, on the quality of the environment. This article describes the development, testing and application, for quality assurance purposes, of a suitable…
This study describes the development and validation of a Greek-language instrument that can be used to assess grade 10 students' perceptions of their chemistry classroom environment as a means of showing differences between chemistry learning environments in Greece (Attica) and Cyprus. The development of the instrument was based on available…
Giallousi, Maria; Gialamas, Vassilios; Spyrellis, Nicolas; Pavlatou, Evangelia A.
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)
NASA is charged with the responsibility to report on the state of the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part 1 of this report, issued earlier this year, summarized the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program during the last two years. New findings since the last report to Congress was issued in 1988 are presented. Several scientific assessments of the current understanding of the chemical composition and physical structure of the stratosphere are included, in particular how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. These reviews include: a summary of the most recent international assessment of stratospheric ozone; a study of future chlorine and bromine loading of the atmosphere; a review of the photochemical and chemical kinetics data that are used as input parameters for the atmospheric models; a new assessment of the impact of Space Shuttle launches on the stratosphere; a summary of the environmental issues and needed research to evaluate the impact of the newly re-proposed fleet of stratospheric supersonic civil aircraft; and a list of the contributors to this report and the science assessments which have formed our present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere and ozone depletion.
Watson, R. T.; Kurylo, M. J.; Prather, M. J.; Ormond, F. M.
One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN), an integrated network of both human and computer elements. The BRAIN will function as an advisor to flight surgeons by assessing the risk of in-flight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. This paper describes the joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and an Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of the following: (1) knowledge acquisition; (2) integration of IDRA components; (3) use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process; (4) development of a user-friendly interface; and (5) integration of the IDRA prototype and Exercise Countermeasures Intelligent System (ExerCISys). Because the C Language, CLIPS (the C Language Integrated Production System), and the X-Window System were portable and easily integrated, they were chosen as the tools for the initial IDRA prototype. The feasibility was tested by developing an IDRA prototype that predicts the individual risk of influenza. The application of knowledge-based systems to risk assessment is of great market value to the medical technology industry.
The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior AssessmentQuestionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ?16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (?) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (? = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (? = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ? = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ? = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (<100 counts/minute) were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.30) in women and men, respectively. Sedentary behavior correlations showed no sex difference. The validity of sedentary behavior and total physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior.
Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior AssessmentQuestionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ?16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (?) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (? = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (? = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ? = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ? = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ? = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (<100 counts/minute) were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.30) in women and men, respectively. Sedentary behavior correlations showed no sex difference. The validity of sedentary behavior and total physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:24863551
Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Objectives To describe the conceptual development of a measure for assessing pharmacist knowledge of herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A standardized approach to constructing a multiple-choice competency examination following 8 pre-specified criteria (eg, specifying the target spectrum of herbal and dietary supplements) was used to create an item bank. The quality of each item was evaluated by 5 herbal and dietary supplement content experts based on specific criteria in 3 rounds of review. Results From 122 initial items, 56 items were retained for the item bank representing 4 content areas: efficacy/effectiveness, safety, drug-supplement interactions, and regulation. The experts tended to agree that the constructed items represented a wide range of difficulty. Conclusion The initial development of a conceptually based item bank/measure of pharmacist herbal and dietary supplement knowledge lays the groundwork for a large-scale validation study. The measure should be useful as a standalone tool and as a component of a knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for the assessment of pharmacist traits related to herbal and dietary supplements.
Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Mahady, Gail B.; Popovich, Nicholas G.
Background Finding measures to enhance the dissemination and implementation of their recommendations has become part of most health technology assessment (HTA) bodies' preoccupations. The Quebec government HTA organization in Canada observed that some of its projects relied on innovative practices in knowledge production and dissemination. A research was commissioned in order to identify what characterized these practices and to establish whether they could be systematized. Methods An exploratory case study was conducted during summer and fall 2010 in the HTA agency in order to determine what made the specificity of its context, and to conceptualize an approach to knowledge production and dissemination that was adapted to the mandate and nature of this form of HTA organization. Six projects were selected. For each, the HTA report and complementary documents were analyzed, and semi-structured interviews were carried out. A narrative literature review of the most recent literature reviews of the principal knowledge into practice frameworks (2005-2010) and of articles describing such frameworks (2000-2010) was undertaken. Results and discussion Our observations highlighted an inherent difficulty as regards applying the dominant knowledge translation models to HTA and clinical guidance practices. For the latter, the whole process starts with an evaluation question asked in a problematic situation for which an actionable answer is expected. The objective is to produce the evidence necessary to respond to the decision-maker's request. The practices we have analyzed revealed an approach to knowledge production and dissemination, which was multidimensional, organic, multidirectional, dynamic, and dependent on interactions with stakeholders. Thus, HTA could be considered as a knowledge mobilization process per se. Conclusions HTA's purpose is to solve a problem by mobilizing the types of evidence required and the concerned actors, in order to support political, organizational or clinical decision-making. HTA relies on the mediation between contextual, colloquial and scientific evidence, as well as on interactions with stakeholders for recommendation making. Defining HTA as a knowledge mobilization process might contribute to consider the different orders of knowledge, the social, political and ethical dimensions, and the interactions with stakeholders, among the essential components required to respond to the preoccupations, needs and contexts of all actors concerned with the evaluation question's issues.
Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling, and an important prognostic factor. Thus, screening instruments for detecting psychosis in PD are needed. For this purpose, we applied the Parkinson's Psychosis Questionnaire (PPQ), a short structured questionnaire, which requires no specific training, along with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, expanded version (BPRS-E), for rating general psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. We evaluated, in a cross-sectional study, a Portuguese sample of 36 early-stage PD patients (mean age of 73 years; mean duration of illness of 3.2 years). The PPQ total score correlated with the BPRS-E total score (0.359; P = 0.032) and with the BPRS-E-positive symptoms score (0.469; P = 0.004). The prevalence of psychosis (41.7%) was higher than expected. Sampling bias and detection of minor psychotic phenomena may have contributed to this result. These findings suggest that the PPQ should be further evaluated as a feasible assessment for psychotic symptoms in PD.
Cargaleiro, I.; Serra, M.; Alves da Silva, J.; Neto, B.; Goncalves-Pereira, M.; Bugalho, P.
Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 ?g/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the viability of Structural Assessment of Knowledge (SAK) as a tool for identifying alternative conceptions and for predicting domain performance in Physics. The process begins by eliciting and then representing students' knowledge. One of these types of knowledge is conceptual knowledge, which is important for performing procedural tasks. This thesis employs a cognitively based theoretical framework to uncover students' knowledge, and then represents that knowledge for analytical purposes using SAK. SAK uses the Pathfinder algorithm to empirically derive the semantic networks of the students' and experts' cognitive structures, by asking them both to rate the relatedness of pairs of physics terms. Comparing students' and experts' knowledge structures provided some support for the structural assessment theory. In particular, supporting evidence that Pathfinder networks help in predicting student's problem solving capabilities was attained.
Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment.
Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.
The course content for middle school physical science in Virginia is defined by the Standards of Learning. These eleven categories include topics in scientific experimentation, the nature of matter, chemistry and physics. Content knowledge is essential if teachers are to provide effective teaching, which includes analogies, illustrations, examples, and most importantly, hands-on experimentation. One means of assessing teacher content knowledge is by determining their academic major and minor. Teachers lacking a major or minor in the classes they teach are defined as "out-of-field" by Ingersoll (1996). When he examined data for middle school physical science teachers, 74% were "out-of-field." This survey study had two major facets. First, Virginia teachers were asked to assess their content knowledge in all eleven categories. They were also asked to provide descriptive and demographic data about themselves (including their academic degrees) and their schools. Secondly, the teachers were asked for their professional development preferences as well as organizational logistics including location, time, other participants, and use of technology. The survey was mailed to each school containing an eighth grade within the Commonwealth. The survey response rate was 73%. The data was analyzed descriptively and analytically, using frequency, percentages, T-tests, and ANOVA. Three major findings emerged. (1) The three areas which teachers assessed as lowest content knowledge included PS.11 (Electricity and Magnetism), PS.9 (Light), and PS.8 (Sound). These exactly match the three topics most desired for professional development. (2) Based on Ingersoll's definition, 68% of Virginia's teachers are providing "out-of-field" instruction. In addition, teachers with fewer years of teaching experience or mixed assignments, and/or those teaching in smaller, more rural schools report lower content knowledge. (3) Teachers desire professional development in all eleven categories. They are especially interested in programs which provide hands-on materials. Programs should be organized locally, enabling them to create collaborative teams. This study highlights the importance of professional development support for teachers who often lack an in-depth academic background in the physical sciences. This teacher input should inform program developers. In addition, inquiry into changing student SOL scores after teachers attend such programs could continue this line of inquiry.
The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…
Formative assessment, assessment used to inform subsequent learning, can have a powerful positive impact on student achievement, but little empirical work has been conducted to investigate the role of teachers' knowledge in its practice. This study investigated reciprocal relations between elementary science teachers' formative assessment…
Background and objectives Adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting requires a multidisciplinary approach and pharmacists have a major role to play in it. The present pilot study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists to ADR related aspects in the Sultanate of Oman. Methods A self-administered questionnaire comprising of 21 questions were distributed to a random sample of pharmacists in two Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman. It assessed the knowledge of pharmacists on some of the selected basic aspects of drug safety. Further, the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists toward ADR reporting and their behavior on ADR related aspects were assessed. A scoring scheme was used to estimate the median total score of participants for various parameters. Obtained scores were correlated with the demographics of the respondents. Results A total of 107 community pharmacists participated in the survey giving a response rate of 72.3%. The responses of the pharmacists to the questions on the drug safety of individual drugs were incorrect for some important and practical questions. Consequently, total median score corresponding to these questions was 5 (Inter Quartile Range, IQR 2) out of a possible maximum score of 9, which was below the acceptable score. Total median score based on knowledge, attitude and behavior was 38 (IQR 8) out of a possible maximum of 50 which shows a moderate score. Lack of awareness on how to report an ADR and concern that the report may be wrong were the most common factors discouraging pharmacists from reporting ADRs. Qualification as well as years of experience were the only demographic parameters which had an influence on the score obtained by the pharmacists. Conclusions Even though the pharmacists had an acceptable knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADR reporting and related aspects, a good number of them had below than acceptable knowledge on drug safety related aspects of specific drugs. Educational programs have to be continued to generate awareness on how to report ADR and stimulate pharmacists’ more active participation in the pharmacovigilance program. There is a genuine need to have training programs to improve the knowledge of pharmacists on ADR related aspects which are of benefit on a daily basis which could greatly have an impact on patient safety.
Jose, Jimmy; Jimmy, Beena; Al-Ghailani, Aliya Said Hamed; Al Majali, Maryam Abdullah
A program of research, technology, and monitoring of the phenomena of the upper atmosphere, to provide for an understanding of and to maintain the chemical and physical integrity of the Earth's upper atmosphere was developed. NASA implemented a long-range upper atmospheric science program aimed at developing an organized, solid body of knowledge of upper atmospheric processes while providing, in the near term, assessments of potential effects of human activities on the atmosphere. The effects of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) releases on stratospheric ozone were reported. Issues relating the current understanding of ozone predictions and trends and highlights recent and future anticipated developments that will improve our understanding of the system are summarized.
The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were enrolled in a teaching activity. The teaching activity consisted of a slide show presentation followed by discussion in a regular class. To evaluate the impact of the teaching activity the students were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after the activity. This study aimed: (1) to evaluate knowledge on the use of antibiotics in students of two schools in the north of Portugal and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the school intervention in improving students’ knowledge on correct antibiotic use. We found lack of knowledge among students regarding antibiotic spectra and indications and incorrect attitudes in the pre-test. Significant increases in knowledge were observed after implementation of the teaching activity. Knowledge of the correct use of antibiotics for bacterial diseases rather than viral diseases rose from 43% to 76% in the post-test (p < 0.01). Knowledge of the risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics from their incorrect use rose from 48% to 74% in the post-test (p < 0.05). We believe that it is important to reinforce the teaching activities on microbiology and antibiotic use at the middle school level.
An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…
Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.