The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has become a popular screening instrument with which to measure general psychological health in different settings. Previous studies into the factorial structure of the GHQ-12 have mainly supported multifactor solutions, and only a few recent works have shown that the GHQ-12 was best represented by a single substantive factor when method effects associated with negatively worded items were considered. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to compare competing measurement models from previous research, including correlated traits-correlated methods and correlated traits-correlated uniquenesses approaches, to obtain further evidence about the factorial structure of the GHQ-12. This goal was achieved with data from 3,050 participants who completed the GHQ-12 included in the Catalonian Survey of Working Conditions (Catalonian Labor Relations and Quality of Work Department, 2012). The results showed additional evidence that the GHQ-12 has a unidimensional structure after controlling for method effects associated with negatively worded items. Furthermore, we found evidence for our hypothesis about the spurious nature of the 3-factor solution in Graetz's (1991) model after comparing its fit with that found for alternative models resulting from different combinations of the negatively worded items. An implication of our results is that future research about the factor structure of the GHQ-12 should take method effects associated with negative wording into account in order to avoid reaching inaccurate conclusions about its dimensionality. PMID:24708077
Molina, J Gabriel; Rodrigo, Maria F; Losilla, Josep-Maria; Vives, Jaume
In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.
Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.
Despite the common use of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with adolescents, there is limited data supporting its validity with this population. The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 among high school students, to validate the GHQ-12 against the gold standard of a diagnostic interview, and to suggest a threshold score for detecting depressive and anxiety disorders. Six hundred and fifty-four high school students from years 10 to 12 (ages 15-18) completed the GHQ-12 (Likert scored) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Test Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 9.9 (S.D.=5.4). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 performed better than chance at identifying depressive and anxiety disorders (area under the curve (AUC)=0.781). A GHQ-12 threshold score of 9/10 for males and 10/11 for females was found to be optimal. Given the significant proportion of mental illness among high school students, there may be a need to introduce screening for mental illnesses as part of the school curriculum. This can assist with the early identification and enable low stigma preventive intervention within the school environment. PMID:21067813
Baksheev, Gennady Nickolaevich; Robinson, Jo; Cosgrave, Elizabeth Mary; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison Ruth
BACKGROUND: Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was studied by a survey of subjects who had experienced the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake (6.8 on the Richter scale) in Japan. METHODS: Psychological distress was measured at two years after the earthquake by using GHQ-12 in 2,107 subjects (99.0% response rate) who suffered the earthquake. GHQ-12 was scored by binary,
Shin-ichi Toyabe; Toshiki Shioiri; Kuriko Kobayashi; Hideki Kuwabara; Masataka Koizumi; Taro Endo; Miki Ito; Hiroko Honma; Noboru Fukushima; Toshiyuki Someya; Kouhei Akazawa
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS) in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. METHODS: Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General
Mareï Salama-Younes; Ali Montazeri; Amany Ismaïl; Charles Roncin
This study provides new knowledge about the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; D. Goldberg, 1972) through the application of confirmatory factor analysis to longitudinal data, thereby enabling investigation of the factor structure, its invariance across time, and the rank-order stability of the factors. Two
Makikangas, Anne; Feldt, Taru; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Pulkkinen, Lea
This study examined the utility of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess the psychological distress of family caregivers. To accomplish this goal, a sample of 172 caregivers, 25 men and 147 women, aged 56.6 (SD = 13.7) completed self-report questionnaires and provided data on demographic factors. Univariate and bivariate models adjust adequately, although the two-factor model (anxiety/depression and social dysfunction) presented a better fit. Relative caregivers scored higher in psychological distress (anxiety and depression levels) on the GHQ-12 than did the normal population. In conclusion, the GHQ-12 is a sensitive instrument to detect the presence of anxiety and depression in relative caregivers, and the external validity of the instrument is generally adequate. The GHQ-12 seems particularly appropriate for research and clinical and health intervention in caregivers. Implications and limitations of these results are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24754441
Cuéllar-Flores, Isabel; Sánchez-López, M Pilar; Limiñana-Gras, Rosa María; Colodro-Conde, Lucía
The purpose of this study was to examine the internal reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance of a Brazilian-Portuguese version of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) across clinical and nonclinical groups. The clinical sample consisted of 228 chronic hemodialysis patients (41.7% female), with a mean age of 48.23 (SD =
Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Vasconcelos-Raposo, Jose
Previous research has suggested multiple factor structures for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), with contradictory evidence arising across different studies on the validity of these models. In the present research, it was hypothesized that these inconsistent findings were due to the interaction of 3 main methodological factors: ambiguous response categories in the negative items, multiple scoring schemes, and inappropriate estimation methods. Using confirmatory factor analysis with appropriate estimation methods and scores obtained from a large (n = 27,674) representative Spanish sample, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating the fit and predictive validities of 4 GHQ-12 factor models-unidimensional, Hankins' (2008a) response bias model, Andrich and Van Schoubroeck's (1989) 2-factor model, and Graetz's (1991) 3-factor model-across 3 scoring methods: standard, corrected, and Likert. In addition, the impact of method effects on the reliability of the global GHQ-12 scores was also evaluated. The combined results of this study support the view that the GHQ-12 is a unidimensional measure that contains spurious multidimensionality under certain scoring schemes (corrected and Likert) as a result of ambiguous response categories in the negative items. Therefore, it is suggested that the items be scored using the standard method and that only a global score be derived from the instrument. PMID:24708083
Rey, Juan J; Abad, Francisco J; Barrada, Juan R; Garrido, Luis E; Ponsoda, Vicente
This study tested alternative factor models of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), based on previous research findings, with a large sample using confirmatory factor analysis. An alternative models framework was used to test 6 factor analytic models. A 3-factor model was the best explanation of the sample data. The 3 factors were labeled
Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary
The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685
Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos
Anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) may be more common among adolescents than previously thought, and epidemiological research would benefit from an easily-administered measure of AMD. We assessed the ability of the GHQ12 to estimate the prevalence of AMD in a representative sample of Ontario adolescents. Data were based on self-administered
Mann, Robert E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Beitchman, Joseph; Wolfe, David; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley A.; Rehm, Jurgen
In measuring the quality of life of burn victims, it is essential that we find reliable and valid means. The Burn Sexuality Questionnaire (BSQ) is a specific instrument that assesses sexuality in the context of quality of life of burn victims. We set out to translate, validate and culturally adapt the BSQ into Brazilian Portuguese. The Portuguese version was applied to 80 patients. After translation, cultural adaptation was performed with 30 patients. We also tested the final version for reliability in 20 patients, and for face, content and construct validities in 30 patients, according to standard procedures. Total Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. Pearson's correlation was significant between scores for different time points. Construct validity was demonstrated with the correlation of the BSQ with the Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised (BSHS-R) questionnaire. It showed significant correlation between the BSQ social comfort domain and the BSHS-R affect and body image (p=0.025), simple function ability (p=0.008), work (p=0.016) and treatment (p=0.037) domains. This cultural adaptation of the BSQ suggests that it is a reliable tool and has construct validity for the social comfort domain. There is still need for a better-structured tool that could possibly evaluate functional and psychological aspects of sexuality, because one could easily overlook the psychosocial aspects of patients with major, complex burns. PMID:23199826
Piccolo, Monica Sarto; Gragnani, Alfredo; Daher, Ricardo Piccolo; de Tubino Scanavino, Marco; de Brito, Maria José; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
This study sought to translate and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) in a Tibetan population. Translated questionnaires were administered to 57 Tibetan survivors of torture/human rights abuses living in the United States and receiving services in a torture treatment program. Participants
Lhewa, Dechen; Banu, Sophia; Rosenfeld, Barry; Keller, Allen
Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI. PMID:21645355
The main aim of this study was to translate the Oslo Sport Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire into Swedish. The validity and applicability of the questionnaire for studying overuse injuries among Swedish handball, volleyball, tennis, and orienteering top athletes were also examined. The back-translation method was used for translation. An expert committee further developed it for use in a study of injuries in handball, orienteering, tennis, and volleyball. A 10-week pretest was then conducted on 43 athletes, average age 21 (18-31) from these sports, during which time the athletes completed the modified OSTRC questionnaire on a weekly basis. In the 10th week, four additional questions were added in order to examine the questionnaire's content validity. No major disagreement was found in the translation. The athletes perceived the web-based questionnaire to be smooth and easy to complete, accurately capturing overuse injuries. However, suggestions were made to add questions relating to the hip for orienteerers and to the hand/fingers for handball players. The average prevalence of overuse injuries for all athletes, in any anatomical area was 22% (95% confidence interval 20-25). Construct validity appeared to be high, and we therefore suggest that the questionnaire may be used when studying overuse injuries in different sports. PMID:24313387
Ekman, E; Frohm, A; Ek, P; Hagberg, J; Wirén, C; Heijne, A
Summarizes two studies conducted for the development and validation of a Spanish version of the Expectations about Counseling (EAC) questionnaire. Administered English and Spanish versions to bilingual university students and bilingual nonstudents. Results suggest that the Spanish version of the EAC is a reliable and valid translation for students
Buhrke, Robin A.; Jorge, Michael
The questionnaire used for the U.S. Listening to Mothers II survey was translated and culturally adapted to measure Japanese womens experience during the period of pregnancy planning through early postpartum. Methods included expert panels and two phases of cognitive interviews with 20 postpartum Japanese adult women. The number of problems with the translated questionnaire effectively decreased in the iterative process. Most problems were found in the questioninterpretation stage of cognitive processing, such as wording/tone. Culture-specific concepts and unclear items were adapted to prevent erroneous interpretations in future studies. The future use of this questionnaire to generate data sets will be useful for professionals interested in developing evidence-based practices. The knowledge from this study can be helpful in improving health-care services and education for women with diverse languages and cultural backgrounds. PMID:22211056
Kishi, Rieko; McElmurry, Beverly; Vonderheid, Susan; Altfeld, Susan; McFarlin, Barbara; Tashiro, Junko
An Arabic version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire was developed and validated through a translation process with cross-cultural considerations. The translated questionnaire was evaluated for reliability and validity. A Principal Components Analysis was conducted following assessment of the suitability of data for factor analysis. Components with high eigenvalues were extracted, followed by Varimax rotation. Three components with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 (50% of variance) were indicated. The analysis showed Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .82 for the Effort scale, .88 for the Reward scale, and .74 for the Overcommitment scale. The test-retest reliability was high with intra-correlation coefficients of > or = .86. The Arabic version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire showed adequate reliability and validity and is a suitable instrument to assess work stress in Arabic-speaking people. PMID:24340817
Almadi, Tawfiq; Cathers, Ian; Chow, Chin Moi
The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) could reflect dental aesthetic degrees evaluated by traditional dental aesthetic indices. However, no Chinese version of PIDAQ has been used. The aim of this study was to translate the original English version of PIDAQ into Chinese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese version for application in Chinese young adults. The questionnaire was translated into Chinese, back translated, pre-tested, and cross-culturally adapted. Subsequently, the Chinese version of PIDAQ along with two other scales, the aesthetic component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and the Perception of Occlusion Scale, were administered to 436 young adults from the city of Guangzhou, China. Two hundred and twenty-five of them perceived 'have demand' for orthodontics and 221 perceived 'no demand'. Cronbach's alpha of the translated PIDAQ was 0.94, corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.39 to 0.81. The 23 items of PIDAQ were divided into three domains. There was a logical relation between the items in the same domain and a highly significant association between scores of PIDAQ and the two other scales. The 'have demand' group scored significantly higher than the 'no demand' group using PIDAQ (P < 0.01). The translated Chinese version of PIDAQ demonstrated good reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Its sufficient discriminative and evaluative psychometric properties provide the theoretical evidence for further use in study on orthodontic-specific aspects of quality of life among Chinese young adults. PMID:22117023
Lin, Haiyan; Quan, Chuntian; Guo, Congcong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bao, Baicheng
Background: The 12-Item General Health (GHQ-12) questionnaire is one of the most commonly used instruments in screening studies on mental health. Objectives: The current study aimed to examine the factor structure of the GHQ-12 questionnaire among the students in Iran. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study in which 428 university students were recruited and completed the GHQ-12. Reliability of the GHQ-12 was evaluated using the Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method by applying the Spearman-Brown coefficient. Factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess how well the EFA extracted model fitted the observed data. Results: The mean age of the participants was 22.83 years (SD = 3.09). Most of them were female (56.1%) and 81% were unemployed. The Cronbachs alpha coefficient for the Iranian version of GHQ-12 was 0.85. Using the split-half method, the alpha for the social dysfunction was found to be 0.77; it was 0.76 for the psychological distress. The principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure for the questionnaire including social dysfunction and psychological distress that explained 48% of the observed variances. The confirmatory factor analysis was showed fit for the data. Conclusions: The current study findings confirm that the Iranian version of GHQ-12 has a good factor structure and is a reliable and valid instrument to measure psychological distress and social dysfunction.
Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Raiisi, Fatemeh; Rahnama, Parvin; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Zamani, Omid; Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali
In 1984 the Dental Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ), an instrument for assessing various aspects of a person's attitude toward oral health care, was presented by STOCKWELL & BANTING. The DAQ consists of six content scales, Cynicism, Health Concern, Motivation, Oral Function, Social Aesthetic and Susceptibility, and two validity scales, Halo and Infrequency. A Dutch translation was presented in 1986 by HOOGSTRATEN & BROERS. In order to replicate the factor analysis on the original DAQ as reported by STOCKWELL & BANTING, the present study was undertaken. The results show a change in factor structure from a three factor solution to a two factor solution. A confirmatory factor analysis shows that the original three factor structure of the DAQ is not present in the data collected with the translated version. To account for this change, some possible reasons are discussed. PMID:8871029
Timmerman, E M; Hoogstraten, J; Nauta, M; Meijer, K
Background Valid measures of physical activity are critical research tools. The objective of this study was to develop a Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and to provide preliminary evidence of its validity in a population of Dominican patients with lower extremity arthritis. Methods A Dominican bilingual health care professional translated the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) from English to Spanish. Several Dominican adults reviewed the translation to ensure it was linguistically and culturally appropriate. The questionnaire was back-translated to English by a North American researcher who is fluent in Spanish. Discrepancies between the original and back-translated versions were resolved by the translator and back-translator. The Spanish translation was administered to 108 Dominican subjects with advanced hip or knee arthritis prior to (N = 44) or one to four years following (N = 64) total joint replacement. We assessed construct validity by examining the association of YPAS scores and measures of functional status and pain (WOMAC), quality of life (EQ-5D) and the number of painful lower extremity joints. Results A higher YPAS Part II Activity Dimensions Summary Index score had weak to modest correlations with worse function and quality of life as measured with the WOMAC function scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.03), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.29, p = 0.004) and EQ-5D (r = 0.34, p = 0.0007). Total minutes of vigorous activity and walking had weak to modest correlation with these measures (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.15, p = 0.15), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.04) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.24, p = 0.02)). Correlations between the YPAS Part I energy expenditure score and these measures were lower (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.07, p = 0.49), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.03, p = 0.74) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.18, p = 0.07)). Conclusions We have developed a new Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey and provided evidence of convergent validity in a sample of Dominican patients prior to or 14 years following total joint replacement. PMID:24708590
This article reports the development, translation, validation and application of a modified Arabic version of a modified form of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire. When parallel Arabic and English versions of this questionnaire were field tested with a sample of 763 college students in 82 classes, the WIHIC exhibited sound
MacLeod, Cheri; Fraser, Barry J.
Background Health assessment measurements for patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have to be meaningful, valid and relevant. A commonly used questionnaire for patients with RA is the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ), which has been available in Swedish since 1988. The HAQ has been revised and improved several times and the latest version is the Multi Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The aim of this study was to translate the MDHAQ to Swedish conditions and to test the validity and reliability of this version for persons with RA. Methods Translation and adaption of the MDHAQ were performed according to guidelines by Guillemin et al. The translated version was tested for face validity and test-retest in a group of 30 patients with RA. Content validity, criterion validity and internal consistency were tested in a larger study group of 83 patients with RA. Reliability was tested with test-retest and Cronbach´s alpha for internal consistency. Two aspects of validity were explored: content and criterion validity. Content validity was tested with a content validity index. Criterion validity was tested with concurrent validity by exploring the correlation between the MDHAQ-S and the AIMS2-SF. Floor and ceiling effects were explored. Results Test-retest with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) gave a coefficient of 0.85 for physical function and 0.79 for psychological properties. Reliability test with Cronbach´s alpha gave an alpha of 0.65 for the psychological dimension and an alpha of 0.88 for the physical dimension of the MDHAQ-S. The average sum of the content validity index for each item was of the MDHAQ-S was 0.94. The MDHAQ-S had mainly a moderate correlation with the AIMS2-SF, except for the social dimension of the AIMS2-SF, which had a very low correlation with the MDHAQ-S. Conclusions The MDHAQ-S was considered to be reliable and valid, but further research is needed concerning sensitivity to change. PMID:23734791
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are disease specific questionnaires that are being increasingly used in clinical practice and research. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), is a widely used PROM in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. A validated WOMAC was used by us, and significant challenges were faced in administering it as several questions did not have a cultural connect. Functionally equivalent items in the Indian context had then to be used to complete the score. With greater emphasis today on the use of patient-reported outcome measures, and with data from multi-centric studies being pooled, cross-cultural adaptation becomes very important if the pooled data are to be really relevant. In India, with several languages being spoken, and a significant proportion of the population being illiterate, the physician and/ or the impartial witness must provide considerable explanation without attempting to influence the response. The key to the effective and correct use of PROMs thus lies not just in translation, but also in a stepwise validation of the questionnaire, and modification in the context of the country where it is used. Scores like WOMAC are often primary efficacy endpoints in clinical trials; are gaining greater importance to support label claims; have ethical implications, and directly impact regulatory decision making and thus, eventually, evidence-based practice. PMID:23439195
Gogtay, N J; Thatte, U M; Dasgupta, B; Deshpande, S
Background The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CiOQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure both positive and negative changes following the experience of severely stressful events. Previous research has focused on the Western context. The aim of this study is to translate the short form of the measure (CiOQ-S) into simplified Chinese and examine its validity and reliability in a sample of Chinese earthquake survivors. Method The English language version of the 10-item CiOQ was translated into simplified Chinese and completed along with other measures in a sample of earthquake survivors (n?=?120). Statistical analyses were performed to explore the structure of the simplified Chinese version of CiOQ-S (CiOQ-SCS), its reliability and validity. Results Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to test the structure of the CiOQ-SCS. The reliability and convergent validity were also assessed. The CiOQ-SCS demonstrated a similar factor structure to the English version, high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, coping and social support. Conclusion The data are comparable to those reported for the original version of the instrument indicating that the CiOQ-SCS is a reliable and valid measure assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. However, the sampling method cannot permit us to know how representative our samples were of the earthquake survivor population. PMID:22530984
Background Tens of millions of patients worldwide suffer from avoidable disabling injuries and death every year. Measuring the safety climate in health care is an important step in improving patient safety. The most commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The aim of the present study was to establish the validity and reliability of the translated version of the SAQ. Methods The SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context. The survey was then carried out with 374 respondents in the operating room (OR) setting. Data was received from three hospitals, a total of 237 responses. Cronbachs alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results The Cronbachs alpha values for each of the factors of the SAQ ranged between 0.59 and 0.83. The CFA and its goodness-of-fit indices (SRMR 0.055, RMSEA 0.043, CFI 0.98) showed good model fit. Intercorrelations between the factors safety climate, teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, and working conditions showed moderate to high correlation with each other. The factor stress recognition had no significant correlation with teamwork climate, perception of management, or job satisfaction. Conclusions Therefore, the Swedish translation and psychometric testing of the SAQ (OR version) has good construct validity. However, the reliability analysis suggested that some of the items need further refinement to establish sound internal consistency. As suggested by previous research, the SAQ is potentially a useful tool for evaluating safety climate. However, further psychometric testing is required with larger samples to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument for use in Sweden. PMID:23506044
Background: The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem. Aim: To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. Method: In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearmans correlation were used for analyses. Results: Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT. Conclusion: Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required. PMID:23459140
Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi
Objective: Assessment of disordered eating has uncertain validity across culturally diverse populations. This study evaluated Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) performance in an ethnic Fijian study population. Method: The EDE-Q was translated, adapted, and administered to school-going Fijian adolescent females (N = 523). A subsample (n = 81) completed it again within ?1 week. We assessed feasibility, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability; evaluated construct validity through factor analysis and correlation with similar constructs; and examined the marginal utility of an additional question on traditional purgative use. Results: Internal consistency reliability was adequate for the global scale and subscales (Cronbach's alpha = 0.660.91); retest reliability was adequate for both the languages (range of ICCs, 0.500.79, and of kappas, 0.460.81, excluding purging items). Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with measures of similar constructs. Factor analysis confirms multiple dimensions of eating disorder symptoms but suggests possible culture-specific variation in this population. The majority of respondents endorsing traditional purgative use (58%) did not endorse conventional EDE-Q items assessing purging. Discussion: The EDE-Q is a valid measure of eating disorder pathology for ethnic Fijian adolescent females and measures a unitary underlying construct. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2010 PMID:19308995
Becker, Anne E; Thomas, Jennifer J; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Richards, Lauren; Navara, Kesaia; Roberts, Andrea L; Gilman, Stephen E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H
The objective of this study was a psychometric evaluation of the Romanian translated version of ABC-V (Assessment of Burden in Chronic Venous Disease) questionnaire in patients with uncomplicated varicose disease of lower limbs. All components of the questionnaire were translated from the English version into the Romanian language and after that backwards, discussed, adopted and pre-tested. Evaluation of the final version of the translated questionnaire demonstrated acceptable results: missed questions in 3% of forms, no ceiling effect and low floor effect, good split-half reliability (rs = 0.61,p < 0.01) and significant correlation between test and re-tests cores (rs = 0.86, p < 0.01). There was no significant influence of age and sex upon average ABC-V scores. Study results support the application of ABC-V questionnaire for assessing the severity of chronic venous disease as well as for quantitative evaluation of patient satisfaction and health status improvement after varicose vein treatment in the Romanian-speaking population. PMID:23790788
Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V
Background The growing body of data on prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage means there is a need to standardize measurement on an international level. An international team has published a questionnaire (I-CAM-Q), but no validation has yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to provide a German measurement instrument for CAM usage (I-CAM-G) which closely resembles the original English version, and to assess its performance in two potential samples for measuring CAM usage. Methods The English I-CAM-Q questionnaire was translated into German, and adapted slightly. The resulting I-CAM-G questionnaire was then pre-tested on 16 healthy volunteers, and 12 cognitive interviews were carried out. The questionnaire was employed in a sample of breast cancer patients (N?=?92, paper and pencil), and a sample from the general population (N?=?210, internet survey). Descriptive analyses of items and missing data, as well as results from the cognitive interviews, are presented in this paper. Results The translated questionnaire had to be adapted to be consistent with the German health care system. All items were comprehensible, whereby some items were unambiguous (e.g. CAM use yes/no, helpfulness), while others gave rise to ambiguous answers (e.g. reasons for CAM use), or high rates of missing data (e.g. number of times the CAM modality had been used during the last 3 months). 78% of the breast cancer patients and up to 85% of a sample of the general population had used some form of CAM. Conclusions Following methodologically sound and comprehensive translation, adaptation and assessment processes using recognized translation procedures, cognitive interviews, and studying the performance of the questionnaire in two samples, we arrived at a German questionnaire for measuring CAM use which is comparable with the international (English) version. The questionnaire appropriately measures CAM use, with some items being more appropriate than others. We recommend the development of a short version. PMID:23256756
The Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) is a well-validated British scale for the assessment of health-related quality\\u000a of life (HQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The PDQ-39 has been translated into Greek and it was applied to 119 Greek PD patients.\\u000a These patients were classified in stages according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale and their motor disability was assessed\\u000a by
Zoe Katsarou; Sevasti Bostantjopoulou; Viv Peto; Anastasia Alevriadou; Gregory Kiosseoglou
Introduction This paper describes the translation and psychometric evaluation of the Dutch Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life (INQoL) questionnaire. Methods Backward and forward translation of the questionnaire was executed, and psychometric properties were assessed on the basis of reliability and validity. Results 206 patients were included in the study. Reliability analyses resulted in Cronbach alpha values above 0.70 for all sub-domains. Known group validity showed a significant correlation between INQoL scores and severity as well as age for the majority of sub-domains. Item-total correlation for overall QoL was satisfactory. Concurrent validity with SF-36 and EQ-5D was good (range, Spearman correlation coefficients: -0.43 to -0.76). Conclusion This study resulted in a questionnaire which is appropiate for use in the Dutch-speaking population to measure quality of life of patients with a wide variety of muscle disorders. This confirms and extends data obtained in the United Kingdom, US, Italy, and Serbia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25042897
Seesing, Femke M; van Vught, Lisanne Ewm; Rose, Michael R; Drost, Gea; van Engelen, Baziel Gm; van der Wilt, Gert-Jan
Psychological factors may be a hindrance for returning to sport after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) measures athletes' emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal in relation to return to sport. The aim of this study was to translate the ACL-RSI scale from English to Swedish and to examine some of the measurement properties of the Swedish version. The ACL-RSI was translated and culturally adapted. A professional expert group and five patients evaluated face validity. One hundred and eighty-two patients completed the translated ACL-RSI, a project-specific questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Knee-Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC-C), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Quality of Life (ACL-QoL) questionnaires. Fifty-three patients answered the ACL-RSI twice to examine reproducibility. The ACL-RSI showed good face validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948), low floor and ceiling effects and high construct validity when evaluated against the TSK, K-SES, MHLC-C, KOOS, and ACL-QoL scales. The reproducibility was also high (intra-class correlation = 0.893). Therefore, the ACL-RSI can be used to evaluate psychological factors relevant to returning to sport after ACL reconstruction surgery. PMID:22257241
Kvist, J; Österberg, A; Gauffin, H; Tagesson, S; Webster, K; Ardern, C
The present study investigated the psychometric properties of a Greek translation of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction Primary (G-QTIP). A sample of 273 primary school students from 17 Grade 5 and 6 classes in Cyprus public schools, as well as their teachers, participated in the study. Students completed a self-report questionnaire
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Charalambous, Kyriakos; Davazoglou, Aggeliki
Dysphagia, as a common finding in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, was estimated to be present in 8095% of this population during different stages of the disease. The Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) was created as a self-rated dysphagia screening tool in PD. According to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation, Persian version of this questionnaire (SDQ-P) was developed. 59 Persian patients (39 men and 20 women) participated in the study. They responded to the SDQ-P and underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Aspiration during VFSS was compared with questionnaire results for each individual. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.86 and based on SDQ-P 15 patients (25.4%) were dysphagic, while 10 patients (16.9%) showed aspiration during VFSS. SDQ-P sensitivity and specificity in predicting aspiration were 96.7 and 91.2%; therefore, the SDQ-P could be a prognostic tool for aspiration. The positive predictive value (PPV), the negative predictive value (NPV), and the pre- and posttest probabilities of aspiration were 0.67, 1, 16.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrated the reliability and also the feasibility of SDQ-P for screening of aspiration in Iranian patients with PD. Further evaluation of SDQ-P in larger subject population would be suggested. PMID:25405058
Rajaei, Ali; Azargoon, S. Abolfazl; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Barzegar Bafrooei, Ebrahim; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Chitsaz, Ahmad
The quality of hospital discharge planning assessments determines whether patients receive the health and social services they need or are sent home with unmet needs and without services. There is a valid and reliable Dutch instrument that measures problems and unmet needs patients encounter after discharge. This article describes the translation
Holland, Diane E.; Mistiaen, Patriek; Knafl, George J.; Bowles, Kathryn H.
The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is a tool developed and validated to specifically assess subject's quality of life related to orthodontic anomalies. The aims of the present study were to translate and culturally adapt the PIDAQ's native English version into French, and to test the psychometric characteristics of the version thereby obtained. Toward these ends, the PIDAQ's original English version was translated into French and back-translated into English following the prescribed guidelines. Each of the versions obtained from the translation process was further subjected to a committee review. The final French version which is named QIPEO underwent an analysis of psychometric properties on a sample of 42 subjects (33 females and 9 males, aged 24.60 ± 8.66 years). Internal consistency was good with Cronbach ff coefficients ranging from 0.67 for "aesthetic concerns" to 0.87 for "social impact". The reproducibility of the responses given by 14 subjects after 15 days interval was correct with intraclass coefficients ranging from 0.72 for "social impact" to 0.90 for "aesthetic concerns". Furthermore, the different subscales of the French version of the PIDAQ showed excellent correlation with the perception of aesthetics and fairly good correlation with self-perception of orthodontic treatment need. Definite need for orthodontic treatment, as assessed normatively by the IOTN, was significantly associated with lower scores of "self-confidence" and higher scores of "social impact", "psychological impact" and "aesthetic concerns". Overall, the French version of the PIDAQ was shown to be reliable and has some validity for use in this population. Further studies including a larger sample size is recommended to reassess the validation and the responsiveness of this French version. PMID:24280547
Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Attebi, Pascaline; Diouf, Joseph Samba; Diop Ba, Khady; Badiane, Alpha; Diagne, Falou
An elementary version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and a scale for determining students'' Enjoyment of their Science Lessons (ENJ) were translated into Standard Malay. This process, together with its initial validation carried out in 136 classrooms with 3,104 students, is described in this paper. Statistical analyses revealed that data from this Malay version of the QTI with these Malay-speaking elementary school students in Brunei are indeed valid and reliable. Associations between students'' perceptions of their teachers'' interpersonal behaviours and their end-of-year results on an external science examination were investigated. Students'' perceptions of cooperative behaviours were positively correlated, while submissive behaviours were negatively correlated with their cognitive achievement. Cross-national comparisons were made between students'' perceptions of teachers'' classroom interaction and similar studies in Singapore, Australia, and Korea.
Scott, Rowena H.; Fisher, Darrell L.
The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. An assessment of the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) requires specific instruments. The Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA-II) is a widely used instrument to assess HRQoL in morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a Portuguese version of the MA-II.The study included forward and backward translations of the original MA-II. The reliability of the Portuguese MA-II was estimated using the internal consistency and test-retest methods. For validation purposes, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the Portuguese MA-II and the Portuguese versions of two other questionnaires, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite).One hundred and fifty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese MA-II. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80, and a very good agreement in terms of test-retest reliability was recorded, with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88. The total sums of MA-II scores and each item of MA-II were significantly correlated with all domains of SF-36 and IWQOL-Lite. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the MA-II total score and BMI. Moreover, age, gender and surgical status were independent predictors of MA-II total score.A reliable and valid Portuguese version of the MA-II was produced, thus enabling the routine use of MA-II in the morbidly obese Portuguese population. PMID:24817428
Maciel, João; Infante, Paulo; Ribeiro, Susana; Ferreira, André; Silva, Artur C; Caravana, Jorge; Carvalho, Manuel G
Sexual activity is an important aspect of life in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), rated as one of the top priorities for recovery of function. This study was conducted to establish an understanding of the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED), a major component of male sexual activity, and its correlates in patients with SCI in our community. In a cross-sectional study, 37 male veterans with SCI admitted for regular follow-up at our center were recruited. Demographic and SCI-related descriptive information was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. Sexual Health Inventory for Men was used to assess the presence and severity of ED. Euro Quality of Life questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were also administered. The mean age of the participants was 45.7 ± 6.5 years with injury duration of 24.7 ± 6.2 years. Mean GHQ-12 score of 3.65 ± 3.38 and mean Sexual Health Inventory for Men score of 11.57 ± 5.28 were measured. All participants had ED, and 27% were suffering from severe ED. Sleep deprivation, worse GHQ-12 score, and hypertension were significantly associated with higher risk of much severe ED (p < .05). In conclusion, ED is a common problem in veterans with SCI and is inversely associated with their general health status. PMID:25432464
Khak, Mohammad; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh; Afshari-Mirak, Sohrab; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Saadat, Soheil; Taheri, Taher; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
The purpose of this study was to translate pain sensitivity questionnaires (PSQ) into the Korean language, perform a cross-cultural adaption of the PSQ, and validate the Korean version of PSQ in patients with degenerative spinal disease. The PSQ was translated forward and backward, cross-culturally adapted by 2 independent translators, and approved by an expert committee. The final Korean version of the PSQ was tested on 72 patients with degenerative spinal disease. Test-retest reliability was evaluated for 60 patients (83%) who completed the second assessment in an interval of 4 weeks. The mean PSQ-minor, PSQ-moderate, and PSQ-total (standard deviation [SD]) were 5.40 (2.02), 6.46 (1.98), and 5.93 (1.93), respectively. The PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version showed very good internal consistencies determined by the Cronbach's ? of 0.926, 0.869, and 0.877, respectively. For convergent validity, the PSQ scores of the Korean version showed significant correlations with pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) (r = 0.377, P = 0.002; r = 0.365, P = 0.003; r = 0.362, P = 0.003 for PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version, respectively). For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.782 for PSQ-total, 0.752 for PSQ-minor, and 0.793 for PSQ-moderate. In conclusion, the validated Korean version of PSQ is a transculturally equivalent, reliable, and valid tool to assess individual pain sensitivity. PMID:24131768
Kim, Ho-Joong; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Yeo, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Hyeon-Guk; Yi, Je-Min; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S
Background Consideration of the quality of life in relation to individual health status is crucial for planning and maintaining a system of patient-centered care. Until recently, there have been no suitable instruments to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL,) of children and adolescents with severe, non-ambulant cerebral palsy (GMFCS functional levels IV and V). The Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities Questionnaire (CPCHILD©) was developed in English specifically for this population, and has been validated in Canada. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the CPCHILD© Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, thus permitting researchers in Brazil to access this important tool for measuring HRQoL in this population, as well as the possibility of making comparisons with other studies that use the same questionnaire in other languages. Method The cross-cultural adaptation included two forward translations by independent translators, their synthesis, two back-translations by independent translators, an assessment of the versions by an expert committee and the development of a pre-final version, which was tested on 30 caregivers of children (5 -18) with severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS IV & V). Results Despite the relative equivalence between the two translations, some items required adaptations for the synthesized version. Certain modifications were necessary in the pre-final version to achieve idiomatic equivalence. The modifications were required to account for the socioeconomic and cultural levels of the target population. Conclusion The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the CPCHILD© questionnaire provides a Brazilian Portuguese equivalent to measure the HRQoL of children with severe developmental disabilities, with the potential to measure the benefits of various procedures that are indicated for these patients. This adaptation exhibited a satisfactory level of semantic equivalence between the Portuguese target and the original English source versions. The validity of the Brazilian version of the instrument must be established in the future by assessing its psychometric properties on Brazilian epidemiological samples. PMID:24485229
Background Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version was submitted to a committee of professionals composed by oncologists and epidemiologists. The psychometric properties were tested in patients with cancer. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs alpha and the test-retest reliability using interclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity. It was also tested using Spearmans correlation between QLQ-C30 scales and EQ-5D. Results The study was conducted in 125 patients. The Moroccan version was internally reliable, Cronbachs ? was 0.87 for the total scale and ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 for the subscales. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.64 for social functioning to 0.89 for physical activities subscales. The instrument demonstrated a good construct and concomitant validity. Conclusions We have developed a semantically equivalent translation with cultural adaptation of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The assessment of its measurement properties showed that it is quite reliable and a valid measure of the effect of cancer on the quality of life in Moroccan patients. PMID:24721384
Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report
Background/Aims The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. Methods After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Results Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.7001.000) except in Korean (0.3000.500) and Indonesian (0.1000.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Conclusions Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common. PMID:25537673
Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E
Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF) of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbachs alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001). The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and changes in BMI (p = 0.026). A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%). The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92) was obtained, and Cronbachs alpha remained high (0.860.92) if single items were deleted. Conclusion. The Norwegian version of WEL-SF appears to be a valid questionnaire on eating self-efficacy, with acceptable psychometrical properties in a population of morbidly obese patients. PMID:25276501
Andersen, John R.; Nielsen, Hans J.; Natvig, Gerd K.
BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's ? coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652
Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane
This paper examines the implications of violating assumptions concerning the continuity and distributional properties of data in establishing measurement models in social science research. The General Health Questionnaire-12 uses an ordinal response scale. Responses to the GHQ-12 from 201 Hong Kong immigrants on arrival in Australia showed that the data were not normally distributed. A series of confirmatory factor analyses using either a Pearson product-moment or a polychoric correlation input matrix and employing either maximum likelihood, weighted least squares or diagonally weighted least squares estimation methods were conducted on the data. The parameter estimates and goodness-of-fit statistics provided support for using polychoric correlations and diagonally weighted least squares estimation when analyzing ordinal, nonnormal data. PMID:16279297
Wang, Wei C; Cunningham, Everarda G
If the factors affecting the mental health status of adolescents and their association with sleep status could be clarified, this information would be helpful for formulating lifestyle and healthcare guidance for the promotion of healthy growth and the prevention of mental problems in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify (1) the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and (2) the associations between the factors extracted from this questionnaire and lifestyle, in particular sleep status, by using a representative sample population of Japanese adolescents. One hundred three thousand sixty hundred fifty self-administered questionnaires were collected from students enrolled in junior high and high schools in Japan. Of these questionnaires, 99,668 were analyzed. Sleep duration, subjective sleep assessment, bedtime, and insomnia symptoms of these students over the past month were studied to investigate sleep status. The factor analyses yielded two factors: depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion. Sleep duration of less than 7h was found to be associated with both depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion, whereas sleep duration of 8h or more was associated only with loss of positive emotion. Subjective sleep assessment and insomnia symptoms were associated with both depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion. It was demonstrated that two underlying factors of mental health status were associated with differences in sleep status. In order to improve the mental health status of adolescents, it is important to provide guidance about sleep and lifestyle habits according to the mental health status of the individual. PMID:21145596
Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Minowa, Masumi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Kenji; Tanihata, Takeo; Ohida, Takashi
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
The questionnaires used for the Arizona Border Study were prepared in English and Spanish formats. The Spanish format of the questionnaires was translated, back-translated, and tested on a group of local Spanish speakers with a goal of providing a translation in colloquial Spanis...
Objectives To examine the prevalence and impact of bullying behaviours between staff in the National Health Service (NHS) workplace, and to explore the barriers to reporting bullying. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Setting 7 NHS trusts in the North East of England. Participants 2950 NHS staff, of whom 43 took part in a telephone interview. Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured by the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R) and the impact of bullying was measured using indicators of psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), intentions to leave work, job satisfaction and self-reported sickness absence. Barriers to reporting bullying and sources of bullying were also examined. Results Overall, 20% of staff reported having been bullied by other staff to some degree and 43% reported having witnessed bullying in the last 6?months. Male staff and staff with disabilities reported higher levels of bullying. There were no overall differences due to ethnicity, but some differences were detected on several negative behaviours. Bullying and witnessing bullying were associated with lower levels of psychological health and job satisfaction, and higher levels of intention to leave work. Managers were the most common source of bullying. Main barriers to reporting bullying were the perception that nothing would change, not wanting to be seen as a trouble-maker, the seniority of the bully and uncertainty over how policies would be implemented and bullying cases managed. Data from qualitative interviews supported these findings and identified workload pressures and organisational culture as factors contributing to workplace bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a persistent problem in healthcare organisations which has significant negative outcomes for individuals and organisations.
Carter, Madeline; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Gray, Christopher; Illing, Jan
Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of the absolute stability factor was 0.82 and 0.88. Overall, the Polish versions of the BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity Questionnaires are characterized by high values of internal consistency factor and absolute stability factor. Following the process of adaptation, the authors obtained a tool that is instrumental in clinical evaluations and complies with methodological criteria. PMID:19669802
Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy
- Questionnaire & Responses Goal: to find out: what translators of Japanese were doing with computers what Optimism faded - could quality translation be achieved? (FAHQT) US Government appoints Automatic Language their views were of current and future impacts of ICT on translation Questionnaire: WWW-based questionnaire
This module introduces students to the basics behind translation of a messenger RNA sequence into protein. In addition to text and movies, there are interactive shockwave animations that allow students to move ribosomes and tRNAs to perform translation.
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and
Haagen, C. Hess
Researchers can use the TUS-CPS translations with populations of interest to obtain information on current use of cigarettes, history of use, and cessation attempts. The translated questionnaires also include a shorter section on other tobacco use (cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, and snuff).
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
The English language questionnaire that accompanies the translations is slightly different from the English version fielded by the Census Bureau in 2003. These differences allow the translations to function independently from the original 2003 TUS-CPS. They also reflect additions to the questionnaires that appeared helpful based on the results of testing the translations.
A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.
Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.
A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.
Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA); Crawford, Daniel W. (Livermore, CA)
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,
Kleinke, Chris L.
Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Daniel R. Zalles
I must begin by admitting, as is scarcely necessary, that. I am at least several months away from being able to feed a new piece of French text into a computer and have an English translation come out at the other end. In trying out my basic idea, with verbally expressed rules on filing cards, I found it was possible
A. F. R. Brown
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
Public Translation Public Translator Â 5 years Objective To train students in translation, French, German, Italian and Portuguese translators. In the case of other languages, students have to sit for the final exams of Language, Translation and Interpretation as "alumno libre" (students have to prepare
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
This study was undertaken to translate and adapt the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into the Turkish language and\\u000a investigate its validity and reliability for Turkish female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. After translation into Turkish, we\\u000a administered the FIQ and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to 51 women with fibromyalgia. As well as socio-demographic\\u000a characteristics, the severity of relevant clinical symptoms, e.g., pain
S. Sarmer; S. Ergin; G. Yavuzer
If the fact that most of us now carry high-powered computers in our pockets isnâ??t wild enough for you, try downloading Googleâ??s ubiquitous Translate app. All of a sudden, youâ??ll be able to say â??whereâ??s the bathroom?â? and â??thatâ??s not the fare we agreed onâ? in over 50 languages. This app is iOS (6.0+) and Android (2.3+) compatible.
The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by
Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977951
Lamiell, James T
OBJECTIVE: to present the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire Costs of caring for children with cancer, offering a valid and reliable tool to assess the economic repercussions of childhood cancer for Brazilian families. METHOD: it is a methodological research with a cross-sectional design. The methodological framework to validate the questionnaire was a combined process that included seven steps: translation to Portuguese; first translated consensus version; evaluation by Expert Committee; consensus on the Expert Committee version; back-translation; consensus of back-translated versions; semantic validation. The study was conducted in two phases: phase one was the translation and back-translations process, with five expert committee members. Phase two was the semantic validation, with 24 participants, who answered an instrument about their impressions of the questionnaire and suggested modifications. RESULTS: in phase one, items were included, excluded, and replaced to make the content equivalent and valid for use with Brazilian context. In phase two, the majority of the participants were mothers, who made suggestions about the relevance and clarity of the items in the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: the authors discussed these recommendations and made adaptations, turning the questionnaire into a valid and reliable tool for application. PMID:25296142
Pan, Raquel; Marques, Amanda Rossi; dos Santos, Bruna Domingos; Jacob, Eufemia; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira
Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112
Nicholson, Nancy Schweda
The cultural turn in Translation Studies allows us to understand translation as being related to other aspects of communication. It defines translation as a process of mediation which moves through ideology and identity.Translation has traditionally been looked upon as a secondary reproductive activity. This is associated with misogynist stereotypes of women, and it can therefore be argued that translation is
STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics,MEDIA,ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Publishing to keep up with developments overseas. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking
Reviews the evolution of translation from an exchange of information within and across cultural boundaries to its current status as a scholarly endeavor. Translations may have far-reaching effects in the target and source culture. Translators should be cognizant of the foreign language and culture in order to successfully realize their role as
The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's ? coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688
Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun
In Iran, road traffic injuries are the first cause of burden of disease and motorcyclists are the most vulnerable road users. Elliot and colleagues developed the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ), on the basis of Reasons Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) in 2007. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Persian version of MRBQ. The 43-item MRBQ was adapted to Persian according to translation-back translation method. The questionnaire was significantly revised after assessment of content validity. In the revised version, 10 items of original MRBQ were deleted and 15 new items were added. The revised MRBQ was used in a survey of 518 motorcyclists. To assess the construct validity of MRBQ, we used Buss-Perry Aggression questionnaire concurrently on all of the subjects. After three weeks, we carried out the retest study on 119 out of 518 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 32.5 years (SD=8.8). All of the participants were male with mean of 9.3 years of motorcycle riding experience (SD=7.3). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed six subscales: Speed Violations, Traffic Errors, Safety Violations, Traffic Violations, Stunts and Control Errors, which accounted for 36.44% of total variance together. For each of these subscales, Cronbachs Alpha was between 0.79 to 0.91. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for six subscales and total questionnaire were from 0.73 to 0.91. There were significant correlations between MRBQ subscales and subscales of Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that the 48-item Persian version of MRBQ is a suitable measure for studying motorcyclists behavior. PMID:22105387
Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Rahimi, Habibollah; Eftekhar, Mehrdad
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
This study attempts to bring some clarification into the concept of translation, especially into the theoretical problems presented by the difficulties of translation. The following aspects of the question are treated: (1) translation in the past and present, including the controversy over translation as an art or a science, the relevance of
House, Juliane M.
Hawaiian Newspaper Translation Project: Fisheries Historical accounts translated from Hawaiian by early western travelers and from the small number of translations that have been completed on Hawaiian remain in the body of Hawaiian literature (newspapers) that has yet to be translated
Holland, Kim N.
Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.
Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel
Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups
Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud
Quality of life has become an important end point in clinical trials and academic studies. The questionnaires developed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group are widely used to measure quality of life in cancer patients. The expanding geographical coverage of current studies and trials implies a continuous rise in requests for new language versions of the questionnaires. Together with normal linguistic problems in translation, cultural differences come into play, especially in translations into non-European languages. Two types of such problems can be differentiated: first, specific issues related to culturally dependent activities or phenomena; second, topical issues related to taboos. These translation challenges have to be carefully addressed to ensure the equivalence and validity of the final questionnaires. PMID:21671700
Kuli?, Dagmara; Arnott, María; Greimel, Elfriede R; Bottomley, Andrew; Koller, Michael
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Preschool Parent's Questionnaire (PPQ) was administered, in English and Spanish, to 120 parents (95 Black, 25 Mexican) of preschool children enrolled in child care programs, to ascertain the parents' attitudes regarding four basic issues: (1) parent's relationship to the child care program, (2) parent's attitudes toward teachers, (3) parent's
Smith, Rutha L.
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.
BACKGROUND Measuring the quality of life measure of patients with dermatologic diseases is an important concern. The instruments to evaluate it are commonly originally written in English and need to be translated and validated to be used in different cultures. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to translate and validate the Skindex-29 questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese to be used in our country as a quality of life assessment instrument in dermatologic patients. METHODS The first step was the translation from English to Brazilian Portuguese and the back-translation by two native speakers. The translated version was then used for the second step, when three questionnaires were applied to 75 patients (43 of whom were classified as lightly affected and 32 as heavily affected by their dermatologic conditions): an identification questionnaire, the translated version of Skindex-29, and the Brazilian Portuguese version of Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI). Additionally, the generic questionnaire Short Form 36 (SF-36) was applied to 41 of these patients. The last step to evaluate reproducibility was repeating the Skindex-29 questionnaire by the same researcher one week later in 44 patients. RESULTS Reliability was observed in global Skindex-29 scale (?=0.934), and its domains emotions (?=0.926), symptoms (?=0,702), and psycosocial functioning (?=0.860). The reproducibility showed high intraclass correlations. High intra class correlations was observed, thus validating reliability. CONCLUSIONS The Skindex-29 quality of life questionnaire was properly translated and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. PMID:25054747
de Paula, Henrique Ribeiro; Haddad, Alessandra; Weiss, Mariana Alves; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy vacancies. Review special hiring authorizations to be hired and to advance more quickly. Participate, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel
New Hampshire, University of
This article attempts to investigate, in depth, the concept of ideology in translation. That is to say, the extent to which ideology can influence the translator's style and choice of words that will, consequently, shape the receivers worldviews. In recent years the issue of ideological leanings and the implications of ideology on translation have received particular attention. Owing to the
Literary translations are sites of aesthetic, cultural, and ideological exchange between cultures. Translators have been and continue to be responsible for the exchange and manipulation of huge areas of thought. In this paper I examine the ideological manipulation of a Japanese literary text through translation and the motivation for such manipulation. Two-hundred years ago Friedrich Schleiermacher argued in his oft-cited
While the ideal of the translator as the successfully transcultured self at the core of intercultural communication still informs a lot of articles and books on translation, historical-descriptive approaches to translation studies as well as contemporary fiction have in the past two decades provided a very different picture of the realities of
MSc in Translation Studies with TESOL School of Arts and Humanities A fantastic gateway to a career in translation and TESOL http://stir.ac.uk/im #12;Employment and research opportunities Whether you want to work is key. A career in translation could see you specialise in a whole range of diverse fields in public
This Java applet enables learners to explore the translation transformation (sliding) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the ends of a translation vector to see the effect on a translated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.
A critical review of recent efforts to automate the writing of translators of programming languages is presented. The formal study of syntax and its application to translator writing are discussed in Section II. Various approaches to automating the postsyntactic (semantic) aspects of translator writing are discussed in Section III, and several related topics in Section IV.
Jerome A. Feldman; David Gries
Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in missing or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446
Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M
This study explores the actual practices of preservice teachers of the faculty of education in learning and studying translation as well as the practices of university instructors in teaching and evaluating translation. Tools included two questionnaires and guided interviews with the instructors. Students/teachers of the faculty of Education were
Abdellah, Antar Solhy
There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on www.ifado.de/BladderCancerDoc. PMID:22652680
Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G
Thousands of men and women have begun their recovery from alcoholism through the support of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its well-known "12-Step" program. The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to measure alcoholics' levels of agreement with the first three of AA's 12 Steps and to test the relationship between sobriety and belief in these three steps. Using both factor analysis and Rasch analysis, two versions of a "Steps Questionnaire" were developed. A 96-member subset of the original subject pool was assessed quarterly for 1 year following inpatient treatment to determine the predictive validity of the questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that agreement with AA's first three steps can be measured and that agreement with AA's first step correlates with number of sober days posttreatment. The dichotomization of Steps Questionnaire scores into total agreement versus partial agreement with Step 1, and from this the reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of abstention over a lengthy follow-up period, provides support for AA's contention that total surrender to one's powerlessness over alcohol is part of the process of achieving abstention. PMID:1875709
Gilbert, F S
We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation
Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian
Bennett (Bigben) Blaustein (resource formerly located at rivendel Corporation) has provided a language dictionary and translator page on the Web. It contains pointers to searchable and browsable dictionaries with one way and both way translations. It points to a language for travelers page, with translations for basic words, numbers, shopping, travel, directions, places, and time and dates. In addition, a free translation (any of five languages) service is offered for messages of 200-300 words. Dictionaries, of course, vary in size and reliability, but the advantage of this site is that it is a gateway to dictionary and translation services for over thirty languages. Note that at this time, most of the dictionaries translate from and/or to English, but the language for travelers page will translate from any of 29 languages.
?unayn ibn Is??qs Arabic translation of Galens commentary on the Hippocratic Epidemics is an invaluable source for our knowledge of Galenic medicine and its transmission history, not least because much of it is extant only in Arabic. Its importance for the Arabic medical tradition is amply attested in the later medical literature. It also tells us much about the methods and self-image of contemporary translators. Throughout the translation, we find remarks by ?unayn discussing the quality of his source text, his own interpretation and also his attempts to reconstruct problematic or damaged passages. Based on an edition of these notes, their analysis and comparison to similar texts and Galens own thought on editing and interpreting difficult medical texts, this article aims to situate ?unayns methods in the context of the Greek-Arabic translation movement. It argues that his approach differs in important respects from that of preceding Greek-Arabic and Greek-Syriac translators and that he was indebted to Galen not just as a physician, but also as a translator and exegete. PMID:24077025
A sample of 331 undergraduate students in Germany completed the German translation of the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S; Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett,1985). The findings support the psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scale, however, was found to be less satisfactory.
Leslie J Francis; Christopher Alan Lewis; Hans-Georg Ziebertz
Acceptance of chronic pain has become an important concept in understanding and predicting that chronic pain sufferers can remain engaged with meaningful aspects of life. Assessment of acceptance has been facilitated by the development of Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). In this study, we aimed to test the reliability and validity of translated Chinese version of CPAQ to use this
Michelle Cheung Ning; Tony Wong Chi Ming; Jacqueline Yap Chooi Mae; Chen Phoon Ping
The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both
Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.
Introduction: The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) is a self-report instrument designed to assess students' motivation and learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and resource management). In the present study, we focused on translate, adapt and validate the MSLQ to Mexican educational context.
Ramirez-Dorantes, Maria del Carmen; Canto y Rodriguez, Jose Enrique; Bueno-Alvarez, Jose Antonio; Echazarreta-Moreno, Alejandro
Introduction to (Statistical) Machine Translation Cristina Espa~na i Bonet MAIÂANLP Spring 2014 #12 standard SMT #12;Introduction Machine Translation Taxonomy Machine Translation systems Human Translation with Machine Support Machine Translation with Human Support Fully Automated Translation #12;Introduction
Describes the elements required for a well-designed questionnaire, including appearance, question writing, organization, and cover letter. A checklist for effective questionnaire design is provided, as well as seven references. (BK)
Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promote rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223
Stumpf, Craig R.; Ruggero, Davide
Chloroplast gene expression is primarily controlled during the translation of plastid mRNAs. Translation is regulated in response\\u000a to a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, and requires a coordinate expression with the nuclear genome. The translational\\u000a apparatus of chloroplasts is related to that of bacteria, but has adopted novel mechanisms in order to execute the specific\\u000a roles that this organelle
Julia Marín-Navarro; Andrea L. Manuell; Joann Wu; Stephen P. Mayfield
This Teaching Resource provides a summary and slides derived from a lecture on protein translation and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the various components that perform the translation process and then proceeds to describe the initiation, scanning, and ribosomal entry processes. The lecture concludes with the signaling mechanisms underlying translation regulation.
Emmanuel M. Landau (Mount Sinai School;Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry REV)
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.
Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel
The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire to produce an equivalent Korean version. A total of 53 patients completed the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months after open carpal tunnel release. All 53 also completed the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively. Reliability was measured by determining the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t-tests, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Pearson correlation analysis was carried out on the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores and the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores to assess construct validity. Responsiveness was evaluated using effect sizes and standardized response means. The reliability of the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was good. The scores in the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand strongly correlated with the scores in the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Standardized response mean and effect size were both large for the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The study shows that the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is a reliable, valid and responsive instrument for measuring outcomes in carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:25005562
Kim, J K; Lim, H M
Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors
Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha
The aims of this study were to translate and adapt the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) questionnaire into Norwegians and to test its reliability and validity.Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey and were linked to the Norwegian Registry of patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). Of 193 potential participants, 127 responded to the SRI questionnaire. Reliability as measured with Cronbach's ? varied between 0.68 and 0.88 for the subscales and was 0.94 for SRI-sum score. Construct validity was obtained with high correlations between subscales in SF-36 and SRI. The SRI questionnaire discriminated well between universally accepted clinical differences among categories of patients receiving LTMV by significant dissimilarities in SRI-sum score and SRI subscales. The Norwegian version of SRI has well-documented psychometric properties regarding reliability and validity. It might be used in clinical practice and in international studies for assessing health-related quality of life in patients receiving LTMV. PMID:24762168
Markussen, Heidi; Lehmann, Sverre; Nilsen, Roy M; Natvig, Gerd K
Translation can constitute a cultural means of resistance against multinational capitalism and the political institutions to which the current global economy is allied. A translated text might tamper with the print and electronic simulacra on which capital relies so as to question them and the practices of consumption that they solicit. This political intervention may be imagined as a local
This paper reports results of the 1992 Evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems in the DARPA MT initiative and results of a Pre-test to the 1993 Evaluation. The DARPA initiative is unique in that the evaluated systems differ radically in languages translated, theoretical approach to system design, and intended end-user application. In the 1992 suite, a Comprehension Test compared the
John S. White; Theresa A. O'connell; Lynn M. Carlson
This paper describes a pilot project of Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) to translate a science education curriculum for junior and senior high school students into Navajo. The project consisted of translating a video, a teacher's guide, and an interactive multimedia product on the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the Four Corners area
The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one
Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza
Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)
Culhane, P. T.
Increasing interest over the last twenty years in quality Greek and Latin translations seems to be primarily a reflection of the "paperback revolution." Figures and trend reports from various publishers illustrate the burgeoning numbers of classical works in translation. This new availability has enabled students of literature, history, political
Norton, Mary E.
In our work on the style of the translator, we focus on the visually most obvious aspects of the translator's interventions in the translation process: the notes added by the translator. We base our work on the French-Chinese parallel corpus that we developed containing Romain Rolland's complete work Jean-Christophe and its Chinese translation. We can find, count, display and classify
CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) PILOTS: Innovation, Transformation, Translation Program summary The CTSI Pilots: Innovation, Transformation, Translation (PITT) Program is intended/research assistant professor, associate/research associate professor, and professor/research professor are eligible
Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"
Background. The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Methods. Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration). Results. A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87. Conclusion. The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings. PMID:25121099
Shaik, Munvar Miya; Hassan, Norul Badriah; Bhaskar, Shalini; Gan, Siew Hua
Background: Paediatric oral disorders are numerous and it can be assumed that those have negative effect on the life quality in children. From 2002 to 2006 were developed the life quality measures for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 years, Child Perceptions Questionnaires, CPQs. Those are the components of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQOL). Aim: The aim of this study was to translate the CPQ for children 8 to 10 years into the one of the languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to cross-culturaly adapt the instrument, and to evaluate its comprehensibility among Bosnian language speaking children. Methods: Instrument was translated from English into the Bosnian language according to the recommended translation procedure. After the cultural adaptation, questionnaire was tested among 810 years old children (N=18). Results: During the cultural adaptation of the instrument, changes were made on three questions. One question had to be changed due to understanding difficulties. Conclusion: CPQ8-10 was translated and culturaly adapted. Testing among children showed that the Bosnia-Herzegovina version of the CPQ810 is comprehensive and it can be used for measuring oral health-related quality of life in children this age. PMID:23922523
Questionnaires are widely used instruments to monitor gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, few of these questionnaires have been formally evaluated. We sought to evaluate our GI symptoms questionnaire in terms of clarity and reproducibility. Primary care patients referred for open access Helicobacter pylori urea breath testing reported GI symptoms (type+severity) and demographic information by written questionnaire. In an interview, patients gave a personal description of the meaning of the GI symptoms on the questionnaire. Patients' descriptions of GI symptoms were compared with current definitions. Symptom severity scores were compared before and after, interview versus questionnaire. Of the 45 patients included, 19 (42%) described all symptoms correctly, whereas 17 (38%) described one symptom incorrectly. None of the patients made more than three mistakes. Regurgitation was the most common incorrectly described symptom (16 patients [36%]), whereas the other individual symptoms were well explained. Symptom severities before the interview, after the interview and reported by questionnaire (mean value+/-SEM) were 2.1 +/- 0.2, 2.1 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.2 points on a 7-point Likert scale (0-6), respectively. Mean severity reported by interview (95% CI) was 1.4 (1.3-1.5) times higher than reported by questionnaire (P < .05). In conclusion, the GI symptom questionnaire is understandable and has good reproducibility for measuring the presence of GI symptoms, although symptom severity is consistently rated higher when reported by interview. PMID:16927133
Bovenschen, H J; Janssen, M J R; van Oijen, M G H; Laheij, R J F; van Rossum, L G M; Jansen, J B M J
BackgroundSpanish is one of the five most spoken languages in the world. There is currently no published Spanish version of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (OMPQ). The aim of the present study is to describe the process of translating the OMPQ into Spanish and to perform an analysis of reliability, internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity.MethodsDesign: Translation and psychometric testing. Procedure: Two independent translators translated the OMPQ into Spanish. From both translations a consensus version was achieved. A backward translation was made to verify and resolve any semantic or conceptual problems. A total of 104 patients (67 men/37 women) with a mean age of 53.48 (±11.63), suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders, twice completed a Spanish version of the OMPQ. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability, the internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity with reference to the gold standard questionnaire SF-12v2.ResultsAll variables except ¿Coping¿ showed a rate above 0.85 on reliability. The internal structure calculation through exploratory factor analysis indicated that 75.2% of the variance can be explained with six components with an eigenvalue higher than 1 and 52.1% with only three components higher than 10% of variance explained. In the concurrent criterion-related validity, several significant correlations were seen close to 0.6, exceeding that value in the correlation between general health and total value of the OMPQ.ConclusionsThe Spanish version of the screening questionnaire OMPQ can be used to identify Spanish patients with musculoskeletal pain at risk of developing a chronic disability. PMID:25358630
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; González-Sánchez, Manuel
Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging taskand a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well get lost in translation hereand we have not yet mentioned the societal management of other problems, such as wars and civil wars, or 'taming' the global financial markets. After having sketched this conceptual outline in some detail, we would like to focus on three planetary boundaries for illustrative purposes: GHG emissions, nitrogen fertilization, and biodiversity loss, and highlight some similarities as well as dissimilarities in the social translation processes involved. We would limit the range of examples to the EU, USA, and India. In a last step, we would like to illustrate a promising way of translating one specific planetary boundaryanthropogenic climate changeby a case study on how it is translated into urban energy and climate policies with the example of climate neutral Berlin 2050.
Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz
Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of\\u000a gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt\\u000a response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control\\u000a of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.
Woan-Yuh Tarn; Ming-Chih Lai
Background The translation and cultural adaptation of widely accepted, psychometrically tested tools is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management in the primary care arena. The Training Needs Assessment (TNA) is a widely used, valid instrument, designed to measure professional development needs of health care professionals, especially in primary health care. This study aims to describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the TNA questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in primary care settings. Methods A modified version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used. Internationally recommended methodology, mandating forward translation, backward translation, reconciliation and pretesting steps, was followed. Tool validation included assessing item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test retest reliability) was measured by the kappa correlation coefficient. Criterion validity was calculated for selected parts of the questionnaire by correlating respondents' research experience with relevant research item scores. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted how the items group together, using a Varimax (oblique) rotation and subsequent Cronbach's alpha assessment. Results The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TNA questionnaire for nursing staff employed in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.985 (p < 0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be 0.928 (p < 0.0001). Significant positive correlations were found between respondents' current performance levels on each of the research items and amount of research involvement, indicating good criterion validity in the areas tested. Factor analysis revealed seven factors with eigenvalues of > 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) measure of sampling adequacy = 0.680 and Bartlett's test of sphericity, p < 0.001. Conclusion The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original English instrument in terms of validity and reliability and it is suitable to assess professional development needs of nursing staff in Greek primary care settings. PMID:17474989
Markaki, Adelais; Antonakis, Nikos; Hicks, Carolyn M; Lionis, Christos
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of
This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.
Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the
Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO DEVELOP A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR LIFE HISTORY ITEMS, (2) TO DETERMINE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY ESTIMATES, AND (3) TO ESTIMATE RESISTANCE TO EXAMINEE FAKING, FOR REPRESENTATIVE BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRES. TWO 100-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRES WERE CONSTRUCTED THROUGH RANDOM ASSIGNMENT BY CONTENT AREA OF 200
STARRY, ALLAN R.
Studied the use of the student evaluation questionnaire as a means of teacher evaluation through the views of two university lecturers. Findings suggest that the use of student evaluation questionnaires as a means of summative and comparative appraisal has several negative implications for lecturers' understandings of teaching and their
Background: Men, much like women, are faced with age-related menopause-like symptoms as they age. In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to clinical research into elderly men and their health-related quality of life. The Aging Male Scales (AMS) questionnaire is an international tool for assessing the health-related quality of life in elderly men. Hence far this questionnaire has not been subjected to psychometric assessment in Iran. This study aims to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the AMS questionnaire specific to the health of elderly men in Iran. Methods: To validate this instrument, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 521 healthy Iranian men aged 40-65 years old, who attended the blood transfusion center clinic between February 2011 and June 2012. The English version of the AMS questionnaire was translated to Persian and then back-translated. To determine the reliability of the AMS questionnaire, internal consistency was evaluated and test-retest was done. The questionnaire was validated using convergent and structural validity methods. To assess the factor structure of the questionnaire, a correlation matrix of questions and domains was used. Results: Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.7 (0.73-0.88) in all domains. A Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.87 between pretest and posttest indicated a high correlation and an acceptable reliability. The convergent validity of the questionnaire was found acceptable by calculating the correlation between the domains and items-total correlation ranging 0.40-0.85, except for question 14 that had a 0.28 correlation with the whole test. The criterion-related validity of the questionnaire in the psychological domain was confirmed with the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, the Persian version of the AMS questionnaire has high validity and reliability and may be used to assess the health-related quality of life of men between 40 and 65 years old. PMID:25317302
Ardebili, Hasan Eftekhar; Khosravi, Shahla; Larijani, Bagher; Nedjat, Saharnaze; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht
Background As a disease of motor nervous system (motor neuron disease), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has a great impact on several aspects of quality of life (QoL). Generic questionnaires of QoL do not address all the especial features of ALS and therefore translation and validation of disease specific questionnaires such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire 40-item (ALSAQ-40) is necessary for assessment of patients with different languages. The aim of this study was to review the validation of the Persian version of the ALSAQ-40. Methods Meticulously translated ALSAQ-40 was completed by 21 ALS patients. Internal reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlation was also used to evaluate the correlation of each question with total score. Validity was evaluated through comparison with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-r) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91-0.96 for different scales of the ALSAQ-40. All the 40 questions of the questionnaire had correlation greater than 0.5. Correlation coefficient of all the related scales of the Persian version of ALSAQ-40, SF-36 and ALSFRS-r was greater than 0.59 with P value < 0.001. Conclusion Measures of the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlation demonstrated reliability and consistency of the questionnaire, and correlation coefficients confirmed the validity of different items in the questionnaire. This study showed that the Persian version of the ALSAQ-40 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of QoL in ALS patients with Persian language. PMID:24250914
Shamshiri, Hosein; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Ameli, Nastaran
Community Engagement: Lost in Translation #12;Translational Role Â· Life scientist, biotechnology Â· Research information, health informatics and translational science Â· Play several roles to support our Translational Science efforts #12;How I Became Involved Â· Research partner for community grant proposal
Dr. Gordon Willis has done extensive development and evaluation of cancer risk factor surveys supported by ARP, including the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). His research interests while working with ARP have emphasized cross-cultural issues in self-report surveys and research studies, and in particular the development of best practices for questionnaire translation and the development of pretesting techniques to evaluate the cross-cultural comparability of survey questions.
The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.
Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly
203Literature in Translation LITERATURE IN TRANSLATION (LIT) Literature in Translation 201) Staff. Spring Literature in Translation 203 (Classics 203) (3)-- Greek Literature from Homer to the Early Hellenistic Period Readings in translation from Homer, Hesiod, the tra- gedians
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common, treatable movement disorder that often remains undiagnosed despite clinically manifest symptoms. Screening for parkinsonism could lead to improved detection and earlier treatment, and facilitate research studies of PD prevalence. In order to determine the feasibility of screening, this study evaluated the validity of previously developed screening questionnaires. We systematically searched online databases PubMed and EMBASE for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2009. In each database a Parkinson(s) disease or parkinsonism term was combined with a screening term (screening instrument, screening questionnaire, screen or prevalence survey) and a validity term (validation, sensitivity and specificity). Included studies reported the psychometric properties of at least one self-report questionnaire for parkinsonism. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. From these studies, 9 screening questionnaires were identified. Sensitivity and specificity estimates varied widely. Sensitivity estimates were as high as 100% when questionnaires were tested among previously diagnosed PD patients and included a high number of parkinsonism-specific items, but were as low as 48% when tested among early cases in a community-based sample. Specificity estimates were lower, ranging from 22100%. An older sample, presence of multiple co-morbid conditions and lower literacy led to lower specificity estimates. Higher specificity estimates were seen when the screening questionnaires were administered by a physician. Screening questionnaires can detect symptomatic parkinsonism. However, the performance of these questionnaires varied based on the individual items, study sample, and method of administration. The performance of screening questionnaires in the detection of early or mild parkinsonism was modest. PMID:21930414
Dahodwala, Nabila; Siderowf, Andrew; Baumgarten, Mona; Abrams, Aaron; Karlawish, Jason
Objective. To test the reliability and validity of a modified and translated version of the original Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Method. A cohort of 184 RA patients from different Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait and Morocco) were recruited and asked to participate in the study. Two questions had been
Yasser M. El Meidany; Maha M. El Gaafary; Ihab Ahmed
Objective. To test the reliability and validity of a modified and translated version of the original Health Assessment Questionnaire on patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).Method. A cohort of 184 RA patients from different Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait and Morocco) were recruited and asked to participate in the study. Two questions had been changed
Yasser M El Meidany; Maha M El Gaafary; Ihab Ahmed
This study investigated mental health problems in 54 deaf adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age residing in the states of New South Wales and Tasmania in Australia. Mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The SDQ Self Report was translated into Australian Sign Language
Cornes, Andrew J.; Brown, P. Margaret
The Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), developed by Juniper etal., assesses the impact of asthma on children's daily life. It contains 23 items, covering three dimensions: symptoms, activities limitation and emotional function. Aims: To develop an equivalent Spanish version of the PAQLQ, and to assess its measurement characteristics. Methods: The forward and back-translation method was used for the
E. Tauler; G. Vilagut; G. Grau; A. González; E. Sánchez; G. Figueras; O. Vall; M. Ferrer; J. Alonso
The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from four large scale cohorts. Three theoretical models
Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Somhovd, Mikael Julius; Obel, Carsten
The aim of this study was to adapt the "Questionnaires for Knowledge and Compliance with Standard Precaution" to Brazilian Portuguese. This was a methodological study with the following steps: 1) initial translations; 2) synthesis of translations; 3) analysis by a committee of experts; 4) back translation; 5) semantic validation; and 6) pretest. The sample was composed of 42 nurses, 12 of which participated in the semantic validation, and 30 of which participated in the pretest. The study was conducted in a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The semantic validation showed that the questionnaires are understandable, easy to complete, and appropriate in regard to knowledge and compliance with standard precautions. The pretest confirmed the final version. Therefore, the process of cultural adaptation was shown to be satisfactory, and the questionnaires are adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, and their process of validation should be continued to test the psychometric characteristics. After that, the instruments will be ready for use in Brazil. PMID:25080697
Valim, Marília Duarte; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci
&T to a friend or colleague? Yes No Please explain. _____ 14. What most helped you achieve your goals at Missouri1 EXIT INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE Â FACULTY AND STAFF Missouri University of Science and Technology
Missouri-Rolla, University of
Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL et al. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
This paper, based on the Chinese audience's aesthetic and cultural anticipation and the application of Peter Newmark's translation theory on translating film titles, discusses the features and translation of film title from English to Chinese. The four main translation methodsliteral translation, transliteration, free translation, semantic translation and\\/or communicative translation and the different translation strategies of film titles used in Hong
The objective of this study was to develop the Retrospective Child Feeding Questionnaire (RCFQ), and to assess its structural validity. In its original version, the CFQ was constructed to measure current practices of maternal feeding of children. For the present study, the CFQ was translated into Hebrew by translation, independent back-translation, and revision, and was then reworded to assess a retrospective assessment of maternal child feeding practices by adults. A large community sample of volunteers (N=406) was recruited and administered the RCFQ, and self-reported on body satisfaction, disordered eating, and body mass. The structural validity of the RCFQ was established by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for men and women. Some measure of construct validity is provided by correlational analysis. The RCFQ is structurally robust, and useful in assessing early influences on adult BMI, eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction. PMID:23376732
Lev-Ari, Lilac; Zohar, Ada H
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items concerning walking and biking from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires (PAQs). The purpose of this database is to provide easy access to a large number of items assessing duration and frequency of walking and bicycling in the non-disabled adult population. We also briefly review the results of validation studies identified for some of the PAQs.
Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the
Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated. PMID:11619197
Lyons, J B
This comparative study focuses on three editions of "Rose Blanche," Roberto Innocenti's picturebook portrayal of a young girl who discovers a Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of her German city. The original text, written in French by Christophe Gallaz to accompany Innocenti's illustrations, was translated into English and published in the
This article discusses the notion of equivalence from a descriptive and target?oriented perspective. The first part of the article deals with this notion from a theoretical point of view and argues that equivalence has a heuristic value in Translation Studies provided one does not adopt a prescriptive and source?oriented perspective. In order to prove this assertion, the analysis focuses on
Translational recoding includes a group of events occurring during gene translation, namely stop codon readthrough, programmed ±1 frameshifting, and ribosome bypassing, which have been found in organisms from all domains of life. They serve to regulate protein expression at translational level and represent a relatively less known exception to the traditional central 'dogma' of biology that information flows as DNA?RNA?protein and that it is stored in a co-linear way between the 5'?3' of nucleic acids and N?C-terminal of polypeptides. In archaea, in which translational recoding regulates the decoding of the 21st and the 22nd amino acids selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, only one case of programmed -1 frameshifting has been reported so far and further examples, although promising, have not been confirmed yet. We here summarize the current state-of-the-art of this field that, especially in archaea, has relevant implications for the physiology of life in extreme environments and for the origin of life. PMID:23015064
Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco
We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a
Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen
Integrated, multidisciplinary programs for training physicians and scientists in translational science have become essential in efforts to meet the demand for more effective translation of basic science discoveries into new clinical applications. PMID:25442932
Jensen, Frances E; Amara, Susan G
The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in
Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria
We present a mobile augmented reality (AR) translation system, using a smartphones camera and touchscreen, that requires the user to simply tap on the word of interest once in order to produce a translation, presented as an AR overlay. The translation seamlessly replaces the original text in the live camera stream, matching background and foreground colors estimated from the source
Victor Fragoso; Steffen Gauglitz; Shane Zamora; Jim Kleban; Matthew Turk
The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating that the questionnaire can discriminate differences in quality of environmental education curricula. Of the 35 curricula evaluated, 6 were high quality, 14 were medium quality and 15 were low quality. The criterion-related validity of the instrument is at current time unable to be established due to the lack of comparable measures or a concretely usable set of multidisciplinary standards. Face and content validity were sufficiently demonstrated.
Minner, Daphne Diane
This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.
Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda
We must assume that translators strive to maintain or enhance the force and vividness of the source text. Thus the use of\\u000a translations provides a particularly stringent test of each languages capacities (within the limits, of course, of the skills\\u000a of individual translators). The translation task gives us a window into the maximum possibilities of a language, as it strives
Dan I. Slobin; Ruth A. Berman
Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a
Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh
The nature of literary translation and ways in which it differs from other forms of translation are examined, looking at practical difficulties, challenges, and satisfaction in the profession of literary translation. The difficulties discussed include suggestions about how to get started, legal questions of copyright, and choice of text.
Cincotta, Madeleine Strong
PRESS RELEASE FROM TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY (http://www.nature.com/tp/) This press release is copyrighted to the journal Translational Psychiatry Its use is granted only for journalists and news media: While we are happy for images from Translational Psychiatry to be reproduced for the purposes
PRESS RELEASE FROM TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY (http://www.nature.com/tp/) This press release is copyrighted to the journal Translational Psychiatry Its use is granted only for journalists and news media of 1934. PICTURES: While we are happy for images from Translational Psychiatry to be reproduced
PRESS RELEASE FROM TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY (http://www.nature.com/tp/) This press release is copyrighted to the journal Translational Psychiatry Its use is granted only for journalists and news media Translational Psychiatry to be reproduced for the purposes of contemporaneous news reporting, you must also seek
ULTRA (Universal Language TRAnslator) is a mul- tilingual, interlingual machine translation system currently under development at the Computing Re- search Laboratory at New Mexico State University. It translates between five languages (Chinese, En- glish, German, Japanese, Spanish) with vocabular- ies in each language based on approximately 10,000 word senses. The major design criteria are that the system be robust and
David Farwell; Yorick Wilks
A video tutorial that shows how to author EJS models in multiple languages. The tutorial describes how to: Enable the EJS translation tool Translate strings within an EJS model Translate documentation pages Package and distribute a multi-language jar file
The major imperative of the pharmaceutical industry is to effectively translate insights gained from basic research into new medicines. This task is toughest for CNS disorders. Compared with non-CNS drugs, CNS drugs take longer to get to market and their attrition rate is greater. This is principally because of the complexity of the human brain (the cause of many brain disorders remains unknown), the liability of CNS drugs to cause CNS side effects (which limits their use) and the requirement of CNS medicines to cross the blood-CNS barrier (BCNSB) (which restricts their ability to interact with their CNS target). In this review we consider the factors that are important in translating neuroscience research into CNS medicines. PMID:22580061
Palmer, Alan M; Alavijeh, Mohammad S
Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.
Pitts, E. R.
We present a novel framework for mapping between any combination of XML and rela- tional schemas, in which a high-level, user- specified mapping is translated into semanti- cally meaningful queries that transform source data into the target representation. Our ap- proach works in two phases. In the first phase, the high-level mapping, expressed as a set of inter-schema correspondences, is
Lucian Popa; Yannis Velegrakis; Renée J. Miller; Mauricio A. Hernández; Ronald Fagin
Harvard University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical No Instructions: All employees must be medically evaluated prior to use of respiratory protection. Employees may University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical Evaluation Questionnaire
Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the Revised Faces Pain Scale (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years. PMID:23758965
situations Inspired students to set and achieve goals which really challenged them. Asked students to share to real life situations. (M) Inspired students to set and achieve goals which really challenged them. (MFRINQ End-of-year Questionnaire FRINQ End-of-year Questionnaire Dear Student, In order to help us
Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments
Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher
In the current information age, there is a growing use of and reliance on the Internet. One area of concern for educators is the communication of information using an electronic questionnaire interface. Therefore, it seems pertinent to look at the issue of dissemination of Internet questionnaire information and the integrity of this process.
Variational Decoding for Statistical Machine Translation Zhifei Li, Jason Eisner, and Sanjeev in Phrase Segmentations machine translation software 3 Monday, August 17, 2009 #12;machine translation Spurious Ambiguity in Phrase Segmentations machine translation software 3 Monday, August 17, 2009 #12
Uniqueness of translation invariant norms Krzysztof, the Lp-norm is the only one that makes all translations continuous, while I for A = C (G), A = L1 translation continuou* *s. Key Words: automatic continuity, uniqueness of norm, translation invariant
210 Literature in transLation (Lit) Literature in translation 201 (Classics 201) (3)-- Classical in translation 203 (Classics 203) (3)-- Greek Literature from Homer to the early Hellenistic Period Readings in translation from Homer, Hesiod, the tra gedians
TICS modelling : Conception of questionnaire Sylvie Damy Associate professor in Computer Science Techniques Â 16 Route de Gray- F-25030 BesanÃ§on cedex Introduction Within the framework of the action "TICS. The modelling of the "Territorial Intelligence Community Systems", or TICS is useful to transcribe
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This questionnaire assesses attitudes toward potential drug education programs and drug use practices in college students. The 87 items (multiple choice or free response) pertain to the history and extent of usage of 27 different drugs, including two non-existent drugs which may be utilized as a validity check; attitude toward the content, format,
Francis, John Bruce; Patch, David J.
A deterministic questionnaire method for zygosity determination is developed for use in epidemiological studies of adult twins. It is based on the answers of both members of a twin pair to two questions on similarity and confusion in childhood. The algorithm of the method is used to determine the zygosity status of a twin pair at two different levels of
Seppo Sarna; Jaakko Kaprio; Pertti Sistonen; Markku Koskenvuo
A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each
Simonton, Linda J.; Haugland, S. M.
-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) YES NO 1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor? 2. Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity? 3. In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were
The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
INSURANCE & CLAIMS MANAGEMENT SPECIAL EVENTS QUESTIONNAIRE TODAY'S DATE: / / 1. TITLE OF EVENT: 2. IS THERE AN ADMISSION CHARGE? YES NO IF YES, AMOUNT OF ADMISSION? 17. SPONSOR INSURED BY: 18. ADDRESS OF INSURER: INSURANCE & CLAIMS MGT. WILL DETERMINE INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS AND MAY REQUIRE CERTIFICATES OF INSURANCE
Conducted 3 studies with 125, 67, and 118 male undergraduates to investigate the possibility of constructing a new questionnaire to measure the achievement motive. Study I started with an initial item pool whose content ranged over 10 aspects thought to be characteristic of an individual who is highly motivated to achieve. Items embodying all except 1 aspect were included in
Hubert J. Hermans
ENERGY EXCEPTION REQUEST Energy Exception Request Questionnaire rev AA.01 2013/04/02 GUIDELINES which exceed the normal schedule by completing this Energy Exception Request and submitting it to the Office of Energy Management. Energy Management will prepare a cost analysis and return
DRUG STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PROGRAM DIRECTOR:______________________________________ DATE and/or efficacy of a drug? A. If yes, is the testing, study, evaluation or research primarily for use in pharmaceutical pre-market clearance applications to the Food and Drug Administration? 2. Is drug administered
Software, such as Cardiff's TELEform Information Capture System, is available to create and print a scannable version of the Diet History Questionnaire form. To create booklets, you may still need to hire a professional printer. Using TELEform, you will be able to scan the instrument with an imaging scanner (contact Cardiff for specifications).
This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)
Resource Purpose: This information acquired via the questionnaire is used to support development of the effluent guidelines for the Iron and Steel Point Source Category (40CFR Part 420). One of the statutory decision criteria for the adoption of a best available treatment t...
Clinical hyperacusis consists of a marked intolerance to ordinary environmental sounds, while hearing thresholds are quite often normal. Hyperacusis appears to be a subjective phenomenon, which is not easily defined or quantified by objective measurements. In order to create a tool suitable to quantify and evaluate various hyperacusis symptoms, a questionnaire screening several aspects of auditory symptomatology has been constructed.
S. Khalfa; S. Dubal; E. Veuillet; F. Perez-Diaz; R. Jouvent; L. Collet
The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.
Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.
PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE Has your child had swim lessons before? Yes No Is your child com- fortable in the water? Parent/child or level 1 class No Level 1 class Yes Does your child put their face in the water? No Level 2 class Yes Can your child swim underwater, swim Front crawl, and back crawl? No Level 3 class Yes
Five questionnaires based on Ronald Edmonds' work on "effective schools" were developed for elementary and secondary students, teachers, principals, and parents. They were designed to assess the perceptions of each group on the five areas identified by Edmonds as distinguishing effective and ineffective schools for students from low-income
Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.
Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will tak
Page 1 Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will take a few moments to answer this short survey
Islam, M. Saif
This article reports on the Canadian-French translation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS), a 26-item questionnaire that measures the quality of life (QoL) impacts of using assistive technologies from the person with disability's point of view. Following standard procedures, the study included forward and backward translations, committee reviewing, pre-testing with bilingual lay people, and psychometric evaluation of the translated questionnaire with subjects with mobility impairment (n = 83) and visual impairment (n = 37). The use of translators translating in their mother tongue and the participation of one author of the questionnaire contributed to the quality of the translation. We found that words that had equivalence in English and French did not necessarily cover the same areas of meaning. The subscales (n = 3) and total scale of the French PIADS achieved good test-retest stability (ICC of 0.77-0.90) and internal consistency (0.75-0.94). Concurrent validity with the source PIADS also produced acceptable coefficients (0.77-0.83). At the item level, non-significant t test (p > 0.10) results supported the premise that the scores were not different across languages, except for two items. The results are robust enough to recommend the use of the Canadian-French questionnaire for the investigation of the QoL impacts of assistive technologies for persons with disability. PMID:12206579
Demers, Louise; Monette, Michèle; Descent, Micheline; Jutai, Jeffrey; Wolfson, Christina
Â le Job Stress Survey (JSS), le Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) et le questionnaire de santÃ© gÃ©nÃ©rale staff and to study the extent to which they can have an impact on burnout and the level of psychological Survey (JSS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12
This is a descriptive research on the difficulties of Filipino high school students in translating algebraic word problems into mathematical equations. This research is composed of three parts: (1) development of an 11-page "Filipinized" questionnaire; (2) analysis of the mathematical thinking processes of the respondents based on the answers to
Mangulabnan, Pauline Anne Therese M.
A Dutch translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was made. In the first wave of data collection, self-report data of 11- to 16-yearolds (N = 970) were collected on the SDQ and other measures of psychopathology. In the second wave of data collection, extended versions of the SDQ were completed by 11- to 16-year-olds (N = 268), by parents of 8- to 16-year-olds (N = 300) and by teachers of 8- to 12-year-olds (N = 208); in addition, the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was completed by the parents and the Youth Self Report (YSR) by the 11- to 16-year-olds. The results reveal that the internal consistency of the teacher SDQ is good; and the parent and self-report SDQ are generally acceptable and comparable with the internal consistencies of CBCL/YSR. The mean inter-informant product-moment correlations of the SDQ scales were satisfactory (parent-teacher 0.38; teacher-self-report 0.27; parent-self-report 0.35) and comparable with the mean inter-informant correlations of the CBCL and YSR (0.34). The inter-informant rank correlations of the impact questions were also satisfactory (mean parent-teacher 0.48; mean parent-self-report 0.24). Concurrent validity with the other measures of psychopathology used in the present study was good. PMID:14689260
van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A; Goodman, Robert
??This thesis introduces methods to directly train speech translation systems on audio recordings of interpreter-mediated communication. By employing unsupervised and lightly supervised training techniques, the (more)
The well-known AltaVista search service has teamed with SYSTRAN Software, Inc. (discussed in the January 24, 1997 Scout report) to offer this web page translation service in the language pairs of English-Spanish, English-French, English-German, English-Portugese, and English-Italian from the main Altavista page. Users can search and then simply hit the translate button, at which time the language options are given. Users may also use the direct translation page; at present this method is more effective when page content is cut and pasted directly than when an URL is specified. Translations, as might be expected, tend to be fairly wooden.
In 1928, the Library of Virginia inherited a mass of materials from the Virginia War History Commission, which had spent the previous eight years gathering information on Virginia's participation in World War I. Included in this material were over 14,900 four-page questionnaires from a survey of WWI veterans in Virginia. The Library of Virginia has digitized these survey forms and created a free, fully-searchable database. Users have three search options: by word or phrase, combination, and expert/boolean. Search returns offer basic information on each individual, and users must follow the link at the bottom of the page to download the digitized images (in .tif format) of the questionnaire forms. In some cases, respondents submitted photos or additional pages with their forms and these are included in the database.
We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted version of the Persian Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ). We followed the Beaton's guideline to translate the questionnaire to Persian. We administered the final version to 223 patients among which 79 patients returned 3 days later to respond to the Persian MHOQ for the second time. In the first visit, respondents also filled the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and rated the pain based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cronbach's alpha for the total MHOQ was 0.79 which showed good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total MHOQ was 0.84 which demonstrated good reliability between test and retest. The absolute correlation coefficient between total MHOQ and the DASH was as high as 0.74. Persian version of the MHOQ proved to be a reliable and valid instrument to be implemented among Persian population with the hand and wrist disorders. PMID:25609271
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza
The purpose of the study was to translate and adapt in the Italian language a questionnaire that could effectively assess perceived motivational climate in physical education. An Italian version of the Teacher-initiated Motivational Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire proposed by Papaioannou (1998) was administered to 1,681 young students, 840 girls and 841 boys, ages 11 to 14 years. Data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis to assess the goodness of fit of the expected two-factor solution constituted by a Mastery Climate scale (six items) and a Performance Climate scale (six items). A good fit was indicated between the observed data and theoretical model and supported the two-dimensional structure of the test. In the total sample, the Mastery factor accounted for 33.6% of the variance and the Performance factor accounted for 15.4%. Cronbach alpha of the Mastery and Performance scales were .79 and .70, respectively. PMID:18459369
Bortoli, Laura; Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena; Berchicci, Marika; Bertollo, Maurizio; Robazza, Claudio
Rachael Richardson Tucker Maney Naval Research Laboratory Carol Van Ess-Dykema Susan Converse John S translation services for the security of the nation Government User Session Â· Translation Â English to target language(s) Â Foreign language(s) to target language(s) Â usually English Â· Transcription Â Audio Â Video
Gupta, Kalyan Moy
..." 3 #12;This grammar allows construction of sentences S such as "the man will hit the ball", which hasLanguage analysis and translation Â· History of machine translation Â· Sentence structures, hybrid, example-based approaches. 2 #12;Sentence structures and analysis Chomsky's grammars for natural
Lano, Kevin Charles
The Dark Room has a spectrum of characters urban and rural, working-class and professional, Tamil and English speakers. In the first part of this paper, I analyse key passages in the book, and in its translation, Iruttu Arai, to examine the strategies Narayan invents to distinguish the speech styles of his characters. The translation cannot match Narayan's irony and spare
This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her
Tully, Eric J.
A new measure of coping, the Pain Coping Questionnaire (PCQ), is presented and validated in two studies of children and adolescents. Factor analyses of data from healthy children and adolescents supported eight hypothesized subscales (information seeking, problem solving, seeking social support, positive self-statements, behavioral distraction, cognitive distraction, externalizing, internalizing\\/catastrophizing) and three higher-order scales (approach, problem-focused avoidance, emotion-focused avoidance). The subscales
Graham J Reid; Cheryl A Gilbert; Patrick J McGrath
Early patterns of temperament lay the foundation for a variety of developmental constructs such as self-regulation, psychopathology, and resilience. Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) display unique patterns of temperament compared to age-matched clinical and non-clinical samples, and early patterns of temperament have been associated with later anxiety in this population. Despite these unique patterns in FXS and recent reports of atypical factor structure of temperament questionnaires in Williams Syndrome (Leyfer, John, Woodruff-Borden, & Mervis, 2012), no studies have examined the latent factor structure of temperament scales in FXS to ensure measurement validity in this sample. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of a well-validated parent-reported temperament questionnaire, the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001), in a sample of 90 males with FXS ages 3-9 years. Our data produced a similar, but not identical, three-factor model that retained the original CBQ factors of negative affectivity, effortful control, and extraversion/surgency. In particular, our FXS sample demonstrated stronger factor loadings for fear and shyness than previously reported loadings in non-clinical samples, consistent with reports of poor social approach and elevated anxiety in this population. Although the original factor structure of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire is largely retained in children with FXS, differences in factor loading magnitudes may reflect phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome. These findings may inform future developmental and translational research efforts. PMID:24380785
Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Robinson, Marissa; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Hatton, Deborah D.
We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.620.65 and 0.620.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.400.50 and 0.500.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.780.88 (percent agreement 69%82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.750.84 (percent agreement 64%73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386
Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.
The TRP, together with the NCI Office of Communications and Education, has created the NCI Translational Research Interactive Network or NTRIN (pronounced Enter In), a social media site that allows researchers and administrators interested in cancer translational research to find one another online.
The TRP, together with the NCI Office of Communications and Education, has created the NCI Translational Research Interactive Network or NTRIN (pronounced "Enter In"), a social media site that allows researchers and administrators interested in cancer translational research to find one another on line.
A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.
We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent
Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh
The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as ribosomopathies associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:22767671
This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425
Woese, C R
The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human
Although relevance theory has mainly been applied to spoken discourse, in the last years it has also been used in many other instances of human communication. We believe this cognitive approach offers excellent working tools to explain the processes performed in the translation of literature. This paper focuses, from a relevance-theoretic perspective, in two different translations of William Shakespeare's sonnet
We propose a new probabilistic approach to information retrieval based upon the ideas and methods of statistical machine translation. The central ingredient in this approach is a statistical model of how a user might distill or "translate" a given document into a query. To assess the relevance of a document to a user's query, we estimate the probability that the
Adam L. Berger; John D. Lafferty
Objective To translate the English Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for patellar tendinopathy (VISA-P) questionnaire into a Korean version and to determine the reliability and validity of the Korean version. Methods The English VISA-P questionnaire was translated into Korean according to the internationally recommended guidelines. Then, 28 adolescent elite volleyball athletes (average age, 16 years; range, 14 to 19 years) were asked to complete the questionnaire three times (before examination, after examination, and 1 week later) for reliability. They were evaluated through a physical examination and ultrasonography to diagnosis patellar tendinopathy. Results The internal consistency of the VISA-P questionnaire by Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 for the first, 0.78 for the second, and 0.79 for the third assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the first and second assessments was 0.97. The ICC between the second and third assessments was 0.96. The mean VISA-P scores were 67.6±15.7 for the patellar tendinopathy group (n=23) and 92.6±8.6 for the normal group (n=5). There were significantly lower VISA-P scores in the patellar tendinopathy group compared to the normal group. Conclusion The translated Korean version VISA-P questionnaire has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity. In addition, this study indicated that most adolescent elite volleyball athletes had patellar tendon problems. Therefore, the Korean version VISA-P is a useful self-administered outcome score of athletes with patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24236258
Park, Byung-Hyun; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee
Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is
Discusses several concerns of translating "Languages of Limited Diffusion" (LLD) including: (1) the lack of knowledge of the language; (2) the role of word-for-word or computer translation; (3) translating from a translation or from the translator's native language; (4) common elements in the source and target languages; (5) uncommon languages'
INVESTIGATION Translation Initiation: A Regulatory Role for Poly(A) Tracts in Front of the AUG as the loading dock for ribosomes during translation initiation and is the key site for translation regulation to translation initiation factors to enhance translation initiation, but a long ($12) pre-AUG poly(A) tract
We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation
Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon
This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations
Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah
Certified Translation Services For translating your transcript if you have a foreign degree Bruce@wordexpress.net ** This company offers both translation services and academic credential evaluation services. Please specify that you need a translation only. #12;
Background: This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the designed sexual, behavioral abstinence, and avoidance of high-risk situation questionnaire (SBAHAQ), with an aim to construct an appropriate development tool in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptiveanalytic study was conducted among female undergraduate students of Tehran University, who were selected through cluster random sampling. After reviewing the questionnaires and investigating face and content validity, internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 16 Software, respectively. Results: The sample consisted of 348 female university students with a mean age of 20.69 ± 1.63 years. The content validity ratio (CVR) coefficient was 0.85 and the reliability of each section of the questionnaire was as follows: Perceived benefit (PB; 0.87), behavioral intention (BI; 0.77), and self-efficacy (SE; 0.85) (Cronbach's alpha totally was 0.83). Explanatory factor analysis showed three factors, including SE, PB, and BI, with the total variance of 61% and KaiserMeyerOlkin (KMO) index of 88%. These factors were also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis [adjusted goodness of fitness index (AGFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039]. Conclusion: This study showed the designed questionnaire provided adequate construct validity and reliability, and could be adequately used to measure sexual abstinence and avoidance of high-risk situations among female students. PMID:24741650
Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami; Jafari, Mohammad Reza
Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257
Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's ? and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results The calculated Cronbach's ? of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83) were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67) were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70), demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion The adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the assessment of the outcome of the treatment of the Greek speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:19607720
Antonarakos, Petros D; Katranitsa, Labrini; Angelis, Lefteris; Paganas, Aristofanis; Koen, Errikos M; Christodoulou, Evangelos A; Christodoulou, Anastasios G
...or to certify to the correctness of translations. (However, see § 92.56 with...an oath as to the correctness of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal...
...or to certify to the correctness of translations. (However, see § 92.56 with...an oath as to the correctness of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal...
SYSTRAN New Generation: The XML Translation Workflow Jean Senellart Christian Boitet Laurent Romary Customization of Machine Translation (MT) is a prerequisite for corporations to adopt the technology called the SYSTRAN Translation Stylesheet, this method is coherent with the current evolution
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
THE MOLECULAR MECHANICS OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION Lee D. Kapp and Jon R. Lorsch Department eukaryotic translation. We discuss the mechanisms conserved across the three kingdoms of life as well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Overview of the Steps of Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Bedwell, David M.
...or to certify to the correctness of translations. (However, see § 92.56 with...an oath as to the correctness of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal...
This article reports on the CanadianFrench translation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS), a 26-item questionnaire that measures the quality of life (QoL) impacts of using assistive technologies from the person with disability's point of view. Following standard procedures, the study included forward and backward translations, committee reviewing, pre-testing with bilingual lay people, and psychometric evaluation of
Louise Demers; Michèle Monette; Micheline Descent; Jeffrey Jutai; Christina Wolfson
The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.
Abdellah, Antar Solhy
Integration of ASR and Machine Translation Models in a Document Translation Task Aarthi Reddy1 of machine aided human language translation. It addresses a translation scenario where a human translator translation system (SMT). The techniques presented in the paper assume that the optimum tar- get language word
Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis. PMID:22478256
Foxx, R M
Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis. PMID:22478256
Foxx, R. M.
This document specifies an IPv4-to-IPv6 transition mechanism, in addition to those already specified in (TRANS). This solution attempts to provide transparent routing, as defined in (NAT-TERM), to end-nodes in V6 realm trying to communicate with end-nodes in V4 realm and vice versa. This is achieved using a combination of Network Address Translation and Protocol Translation. The scheme described does not
The design and use of questionnaires in course and faculty evaluation are discussed and the literature reviewed. Problems of questionnaire construction and interpretation of results are described and a questionnaire developed at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo is given as an example. (Author/MSE)
McBean, Edward A.; Al-Nassri, Sabah
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires.
Phil Edwards; Ian Roberts; Mike Clarke; Carolyn DiGuiseppi; Sarah Pratap; Reinhard Wentz; Irene Kwan
Translational control of specific mRNAs is a widespread mechanism of gene regulation, and it is especially important in pattern formation in the oocytes of organisms in which the embryonic axes are established maternally. Drosophila and Xenopus have been especially valuable in elucidating the relevant molecular mechanisms. Here, we comprehensively review what is known about translational control in these two systems, focusing on examples that illustrate key concepts that have emerged. We focus on protein-mediated translational control, rather than regulation mediated by small RNAs, as the former appears to be predominant in controlling these developmental events. Mechanisms that modulate the ability of the specific mRNAs to be recruited to the ribosome, that regulate polyadenylation of specific mRNAs, or that control the association of particular mRNAs into translationally inert ribonucleoprotein complexes will all be discussed. PMID:21690213
Richter, Joel D.; Lasko, Paul
The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) recently augmented the scope of its activities to encompass translational bioinformatics as a third major domain of informatics. The AMIA has defined translational bioinformatics as the development of storage, analytic, and interpretive methods to optimize the transformation of increasingly voluminous biomedical data into proactive, predictive, preventative, and participatory health. In this perspective, I will list eight reasons why this is an excellent time to be studying translational bioinformatics, including the significant increase in funding opportunities available for informatics from the United States National Institutes of Health, and the explosion of publicly-available data sets of molecular measurements. I end with the significant challenges we face in building a community of future investigators in Translational Bioinformatics. PMID:18755990
Butte, Atul J.
This paper defines the class of time-constrained applications: applications in which the user has limited time to process the system output. This class is differentiated\\u000a from real-time systems, where it is production time rather than comprehension time that is constrained. Examples of time-constrained MT\\u000a applications include the translation of multi-party dialogue and the translation of closed-captions. The constraints on comprehension
Janine Toole; Davide Turcato; Fred Popowich; Dan Fass; Paul Mcfetridge
We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models out-perform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels
Philipp Koehn; Franz Josef Och; Daniel Marcu
: Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1997). Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A Mellen Press. Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1998). Mapping the domain of expressivity: Multi-method evidence
Gross, James J.
To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support. PMID:24686955
Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine
The Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) attempts to address the limitations of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). As there is no Turkish version of the FIQR available, we aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of a Turkish translation of the FIQR in Turkish female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. After translating the FIQR into Turkish, it was administered to 87 female patients with FM. All of the patients filled out the questionnaire together with a Turkish version of the FIQ, hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS), short form-36 (SF-36). The tender-point count (TPC) was also calculated from tender points identified by thumb palpation. One week later, FM patients filled out the Turkish FIQR at their second visit. The test-retest reliability of the Turkish FIQR questions ranged from 0.714 to 0.898. The test and retest reliability of total FIQR score was 0.835. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for FIQR visit 1 (the first assessment) and 0.91 for FIQR visit 2 (the second assessment), indicating acceptable levels of internal consistency for both assessments. The total scores of the FIQR and FIQ were significantly correlated (r?=?0.87, P?0.01). Significant correlations for construct validity were also obtained between the FIQR total and domain scores and the FIQ, the HADS and the subscales of the SF-36 (FIQR total versus SF-36 physical component score and mental component score were r?=?-0.63, P?0.01 and r?=?-0.51, P?0.01, respectively). The Turkish FIQR is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring health status in FM, showing sufficient reliability and construct validity. It may be utilized for both clinical practice and research use in the Turkish-speaking population in place of FIQ, since its Turkish version has problems in the wording, omissions, concepts, and scoring from the original FIQ. PMID:20703890
Ediz, Levent; Hiz, Ozcan; Toprak, Murat; Tekeoglu, Ibrah?m; Ercan, Songul
In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales. These seven steps do not address all aspects of survey design, nor do they represent the only way to develop a high-quality questionnaire. Instead, these steps synthesize multiple survey design techniques and organize them into a cohesive process for questionnaire developers of all levels. Addressing each of these steps systematically will improve the probabilities that survey designers will accurately measure what they intend to measure. PMID:24661014
La Rochelle, Jeffrey S.; Dezee, Kent J.; Gehlbach, Hunter
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in appearance. Patients with the disorder present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in the general population and have shown that the disorder is relatively common. To date, no BDD assessment instruments have been validated in the general population. Our aim was to validate a brief self-screening instrument, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), in a female community sample. The BDDQ was translated into Swedish and filled out by 2891 women from a randomly selected community sample. The questionnaire was validated in a subsample of 88 women, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) together with clinical assessment as the gold standard. In the validation subsample, the BDDQ showed good concurrent validity, with a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 90% and a likelihood ratio of 9.4. The questionnaire can therefore be of value when screening for BDD in female populations. PMID:23948660
Brohede, Sabina; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas
Background: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) was developed in an attempt to define the basic factors of personality or temperament. We aimed to assess the factor structure and the psychometric properties of its Greek version and to explore its relation to psychopathological symptoms and hostility features. Methods: ZKPQ was translated into Greek using back-translation and was administered to 1,462 participants (475 healthy participants, 619 medical patients, 177 psychiatric patients and 191 opiate addicts). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. Symptoms Distress Check-List (SCL-90R) and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ) were administered to test criterion validity. Results: Five factors were identified, largely corresponding to the original versions respective factors. Retest reliabilities were acceptable (rlis: 0.79-0.89) and internal consistency was adequate for Neuroticism-Anxiety (0.87), Impulsive Sensation Seeking (0.80), Aggression-Hostility (0.77) and Activity (0.72), and lower for Sociability (0.64). Most components were able to discriminate psychiatric patients and opiate addicts from healthy participants. Opiate addicts exhibited higher rates on Impulsive Sensation Seeking compared to healthy participants. Neuroticism-Anxiety (p<0.001) and Impulsive Sensation Seeking (p<0.001) were significantly associated with psychological distress and Aggression-Hostility was the most powerful correlate of Total Hostility (p<0.001), and Neuroticism-Anxiety was the stronger correlate of introverted hostility (p<0.001), further supporting the instruments concurrent validity. Conclusions: Present findings support the applicability of the Greek version of ZKPQ within the Greek population. Future studies could improve its psychometric properties by finding new items, especially for the Sociability scale. PMID:25031514
Hyphantis, T; Antoniou, K; Floros, DG; Valma, V; Pappas, AI; Douzenis, A; Assimakopoulos, K; Iconomou, G; Kafetzopoulos, E; Garyfallos, G; Kuhlman, M
Purpose To translate the original 42-item National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life Questionnaire (NEI-RQL-42) into\\u000a Turkish and to investigate its validity and reliability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The linguistic translation followed the international guidelines of forward and backward translation. Ninety-five consecutive\\u000a subjects (37 myopes, 18 hyperopes and 40 emmetropes) who had a visual acuity of 0.8 or better in the worse eye completed
Ebru Toker; Sumru Onal; Muhsin Eraslan; Merih Eyriparmak
We discuss translational research and its application in family violence research by (a) discussing what translational research is, (b) describing a six-stage model of the translational research cycle, (c) pondering the implication of each stage for family maltreatment research, and (d) providing examples of areas ready for translational research relevant to family violence. PMID:19634357
Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith
This article focuses on the prominent Chinese reformer Liang Qichao's (1873-1929) thinking concerning and practice of translation work. The focus on the translation work of only one but someone who was politically very prominent - translator clearly shows that in the major cultural and societal context, translation is marginalised and considered a simple tool for supplementing literature rather than
Visibility is proposed in this article as an inverse corollary to Venuti's notion of invisibility and a site of methodological interest for translation history. By historicizing the visibility of translators and of other foreign elements in translations and paratexts, we can trace broader cultural-aesthetic agendas related to translation as they change over time. This essay demonstrates such changes in medieval
A. E. B. Coldiron
is shown appropriate for common instances of relations among translations previously treated in an ad hocFaithful Translations Among Models and Specifications ? Shmuel Katz Computer Science Department applications of translations among model descriptions are described and key issues in translating among models
Balanced Codon Usage Optimizes Eukaryotic Translational Efficiency Wenfeng Qian1 , Jian-Rong Yang1 in rapidly growing organisms. It is widely believed that synonymous codons are translated with unequal speeds and that translational efficiency is maximized by the exclusive use of rapidly translated codons. Here we estimate
Calls for the translation of research from bench to bedside are increasingly demanding. What is translation, and why does it matter? We sketch the recent history of outcome-oriented translational research in the United States, with a particular focus on the Roadmap Initiative of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD). Our main example of contemporary translational research is stem cell
Jane Maienschein; Mary Sunderland; Rachel A. Ankeny; Jason Scott Robert
In this paper, we describe improved alignmentmodels for statistical machine translation. Thestatistical translation approach uses two typesof information: a translation model and a lan-guage model. The language model used is abigram or general m-gram model. The translationmodel is decomposed into a lexical and analignment model. We describe two different approachesfor statistical translation and presentexperimental results. The first approach isbased on
Franz Josef Och; Christoph Tillmann
Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture
Forest-Based Translation Rule Extraction EMNLP 2008 talk, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 2008 Haitao Mi #12;Forest-based Translation Rule Extraction Translation Rule Extraction Â· rule extraction ("syntax") from either or both sides Â· more informed translation thanks to syn. categories
Plotkin, Joshua B.
MRes in Translation Studies School of Arts and Humanities A fantastic gateway to a career in translation http://stir.ac.uk/fj #12;Recent research has shown that the fall in the number of language in Translation Studies is a fantastic gateway into a career in Translation, whether you want to work freelance
Update date: October 2011 Journals in Translation Algebra Logic Algebra and Logic. Springer, New York. (Translation of Algebra Logika) ISSN 0002-5232. Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. Ser. 2 American Mathematical Society Translations, Series 2. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI. (Selected translations
Objective The original Danish translation of the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA) proved problematic as the wording of item 5 was not semantically clear, rendering the questionnaire internally inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine data collected with a revised Danish translation of the IOI-HA in order to: (1) evaluate the effect of the revision, and (2) to examine if the psychometric properties of the revised translation of the IOI-HA are equivalent to those of previously validated translations. Design Psychometric properties were evaluated performing inter-item correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and item-total correlation. Study sample Three hundred forty-one adult hearing-impaired participantsall of whom were voluntary hearing aid testers attached to the Global Audiology Group in GN ReSound A/S on a non-payment basis were mailed a revised Danish IOI-HA questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed good internal consistency along with a clear division of items into two distinct factors. Conclusions The revised Danish translation of the IOI-HA proves internally consistent. Furthermore, it possesses psychometric properties equivalent to those reported in several corresponding studies of other translations. Data obtained from it can therefore validly be considered comparable to data obtained from previously validated translations of the IOI-HA. PMID:24475867
Objectives: To assess the response to a self-administered questionnaire and attendance of a medical centre for physical and psychological health screening. Methods: 4500 men and women from the three services were randomly selected to receive either a full or abridged screening questionnaire. The full questionnaire included the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) checklist, 15 symptoms, a
RJ Rona; M Jones; R Hooper; S Wessely
We interviewed 170 sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (mean age 25 years) with a modified version of the Frankfurter Befindlichkeitskala (FBS, 33-item) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), with a view to highlighting the psychosocial issues which worry them, the way they cope with these problems, and the factors associated with these issues. The mean FBS score of SCD
Jude U. Ohaeri; Wuraola A. Shokunbi; Kehinde S. Akinlade; Lola O. Dare
This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a
McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk
This study reports levels of psychological distress found in a sample of Australian case managers who work with the unemployed. Using a longitudinal survey method- ology, 86 case managers employed throughout Australia completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; D. P. Goldberg, 1978) on 2 occasions during 1999. In comparison with other studies investigating psychological well- being of both employed
Richard Goddard; Wendy Patton; Peter Creed
Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study
Objective: The aim of this study was t o explore job satisfaction, professional role and burnout among community mental health staff in Austria. Methods: The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Ques- tionnaire, the GHQ-12, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire exploring staff's professional role and team identi- ty were administered to 195 community-based mental health professionals in two Austrian regions. Staff's
Hemma Swoboda; Ingrid Sibitz; Stefan Frühwald; Günther Klug; Belinda Bauer; Stefan Priebe
Objectives The UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme uses the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001, J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16, 606) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006, Arch. Intern. Med., 166, 1092) to assess patients' symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively. Data are typically collected via telephone or face-to-face; however, no study has statistically investigated whether the questionnaires' items operate equivalently across these modes of data collection. This study aimed to address this omission. Methods & Results Questionnaire data from patients registered with an IAPT service in London (N = 23,672) were examined. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that unidimensional factor structures adequately matched observed face-to-face and telephone data for the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Invariance analyses revealed that while the PHQ-9 had equivalent factor loadings and latent means across data collection methods, the GAD-7 had equivalent factor loadings but unequal latent means. In support of the scales' convergent validity, positive associations between scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 emerged. Conclusions With the exception of the GAD-7's latent means, the questionnaires' factor loadings and latent means were equivalent. This suggests that clinicians may meaningfully compare PHQ-9 data collected face-to-face and by telephone; however, such comparisons with the GAD-7 should be done with caution. Practitioner points The PHQ-9 and GAD-7's factor loadings were equivalent across data collection methods. Only the PHQ-9's latent means were equivalent across data collection methods. Clinicians may be confident collecting PHQ-9 data by telephone and face-to-face and, then, comparing such data. Caution is recommended when determining clinical effectiveness using telephone and face-to-face GAD-7 data. More psychometric research is warranted. PMID:24117915
Ryan, Travis A; Bailey, Alastair; Fearon, Pasco; King, John
1 Translation prediction using word cooccurrence graphs Marianna Apidianaki Lattice CNRS / ENS. Applications relative to translation (machine translation, bilingual lexicon building etc.) are highly the strategies adopted during the translation process and the final translation choices. It also complicates
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The Center for Translation Studies at Barnard College THE PEDAGOGIES OF TRANSLATION: Current 4, 2012 Session 1: 2:00-3:30 p.m. Translation in the Translator Training Program 1. Luise von Flotow, School of Translation and Interpretation, University of Ottawa 2. FranÃ§oise Massardier-Kenney, Institute
About Our MSc Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation Tools programme offers the specialist training required to work as a professional translator in a variety of contexts. Students either work, Arabic, Chinese (Strand B). Programme Structure The MSc Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) preferentially affects females at childbearing age. For this reason patients and treating physicians were frequently confronted with questions concerning family planning, pregnancy and birth. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expertise about pregnancy related topics in multiple sclerosis of neurologists in private practice. Methods We developed a survey with 16 multiple choice questions about pregnancy related topics and sent it to neurologists in private practice in Berlin, Germany. Results 56 completed questionnaires were sent back. 54% of all questions were answered correctly, 21% of the questions were answered with I dont know. Correct answers were more often given by physicians who treat more than 400 MS patients per year (p?=?0.001). Further positive associations were found for assumed relevance of the topic (p?=?0.002) and the degree of counseling (p<0.001). Conclusion To provide a comprehensive counseling, MS patients with desire for children should be counseled by physicians with a lot of experience in MS treatment. PMID:24901447
Borisow, Nadja; Paul, Friedemann; Ohlraun, Stephanie; Pach, Daniel; Fischer, Felix; Dörr, Jan
Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQs responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593
Objectives The ManchesterOxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. Methods The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed. Results The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (? = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ? 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36. Conclusions Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data. PMID:23673374
Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.
Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. Of the total subjects, 45% (123) first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = .77, p < .05 and kappa = .80, p < .05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) paranoid ideation scale (rho = .27, p < .05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = .14, p = .07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-14). PMID:20163388
Leamon, Martin H; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E; Nordahl, Thomas E; Kranzler, Henry R; Galloway, Gantt P
Pfeffer's Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) is one of the most commonly employed tools in studies on pathological cognitive aging. Despite the different versions of the questionnaire translated for use in clinical practice, few studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the FAQ (P-FAQ). Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the P-FAQ with regard to internal consistency, factorial structure and associations with demographic factors (age, sex, and schooling), depressive symptoms, cognitive measures and other measures of functionality. One hundred sixty-one older adults were divided into four groups (91 with dementia, 46 with mild cognitive impairment, 11 with psychiatric disorders and 13 healthy controls). All participants were evaluated by cognitive, behavioral and functional tests and scales. Their caregivers answered the P-FAQ. The questionnaire showed high internal consistency (? = 0.91). Factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure, which, accounted for 66% of the total variance. The P-FAQ was not correlated with demographic factors, was weakly correlated with depressive symptoms (? = 0.271, p < 0.01, R2 = 7%) and strongly correlated with cognitive measures (Matttis Dementia Rating Scale total score: ? = ?0.574, p < 0.01, R2 = 33%) as well as complex instrumental activities of daily living (? = ?0.845, p < 0.01, R2 = 71%). Cognitive performance and depression status were independent predictors of P-FAQ scores in regression models. The present findings indicate that the P-FAQ has satisfactory reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and ecological validity. Therefore, this questionnaire can be used in clinical practice and research involving the Brazilian population of older adults. PMID:25309432
Assis, Luciana de Oliveira; de Paula, Jonas J.; Assis, Marcella G.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.
The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was specifically developed to assess disease severity and functional ability in fibromyalgia patients. In 2009, a revised version of the FIQ was published, the FIQR; this version achieved a better balance among different domains (function, overall impact, symptoms). Here, we present the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Female fibromyalgia patients (n?=?106) completed an online survey consisting of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, the original FIQ, and the Brazilian Portuguese FIQR, which was translated by a standard method. Validity was established with correlational analyses between the FIQR, FIQ, and SF-36 items. Three domains were established for the FIQR (function, overall impact, symptoms), and their contribution for the SF-36 subscales was also scrutinized. The Brazilian FIQR validation process showed that the questions performed in a very similar way to the original English FIQR. The new questions in the FIQR symptoms domain (memory, balance, tenderness, and environmental sensitivity) revealed a significant impact in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The Brazilian Portuguese FIQR demonstrated excellent reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.96. There was a gain on weight of the function domain and a decrease of the symptom domain, leading to a better balance among domains. The FIQR predicted a great number of SF-36 subscales, showing good convergent validity. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FIQR was validated and found to be a reliable, easy-to-use, and score FM-specific questionnaire that should prove useful in routine clinical practice and FM-related research. PMID:23604595
Paiva, Eduardo S; Heymann, Roberto E; Rezende, Marcelo C; Helfenstein, Milton; Martinez, Jose Eduardo; Provenza, Jose Roberto; Ranzolin, Aline; de Assis, Marcos Renato; Pasqualin, Vivian D; Bennett, Robert M
The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter. It is argued that the texts of modernism and post-modernism contain information blocks describing a character's perception of events in altered states of consciousness. This model helps to explain how a translator's inappropriate linguistic choice may influence the target language reader's aesthetic reaction. PMID:19894118
Aim of the study The purpose of this study was to create and introduce a Polish version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire for Endometrial Cancer (QLQ-EN24). Material and methods The translation procedure described by the EORTC was adopted; this comprised two independent forward translations of the original English questionnaire into Polish, two independent backward translations from Polish to English and pilot testing conducted on 12 patients with diagnosed endometrial cancer. They were asked whether there was any difficulty in answering, confusion while answering, or difficulty in understanding the questions, and if the patients themselves would have framed the questions in a different way. Results During the process of translation, discussions and text corrections were performed by medical experts and native English speakers. Some sentences or phrasing were adopted from other EORTC questionnaires for different diseases. After pilot testing, further text corrections were adopted according to patients comments. These involved wording, sentence structure, and text editing (font size, bolding). Conclusions The final version of the Polish EN24 questionnaire has been approved by the EORTC Translational Office. It is available on the EORTC web page now. PMID:24966799
Zalewski, Kamil; Grabowski, Jacek P.; Mardas, Marcin; Jones, Steven; Pietrzak-Stukan, Ma?gorzata; Dudziak, Miros?aw
The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.
Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.
This site shows students how to translate word problems into equations. It gives seven steps, from reading the problem carefully to checking the solution, to creating equations. The lesson moves on to a few simple exercises in which a natural language sentence is translated to an algebraic equation. It then moves on to more elaborate word problems which require students to identify the important data and follows the given seven steps to create and solve the equation. The more complex questions draw on student understanding of geometric formulae. There are six questions at the end for students to test their new knowledge of how to create and solve equations.
Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not
Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser
Perry, William L
The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by an expert committee, and field test of the prefinal version. Psychometric characteristics of reliability and construct validity were evaluated for the final version. Internal consistency of the final version was high (Cronbach's ? = 0.97) and item-to-total correlations were moderate (range from 0.44 to 0.85). Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the DASH with the scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast. Fair to moderate correlations found in this study between the DASH and most scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast support the construct validity of the Puerto Rico-Spanish DASH. The final version of the questionnaire was revised and approved by the Institute for Work and Health of Canada. Revisions to the original DASH English version are recommended. This version of the DASH is valid and reliable, and it can be used to evaluate outcomes in both clinical and research settings. PMID:19901616
Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colón-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia
NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This instrument collects much of the same information as a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), but without asking about portion size. The resulting data can be employed in the NCI usual dietary intakes model as covariates. By not asking about portion size, the NHANES FFQ requires less respondent burden than other FFQs.
Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that
Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross
Background Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys. Objective The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys. Methods The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health check-up center. Comprehensibility of the translation was tested in a pilot study of 10 patients. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was assess with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. Results A total of 100 adult asthma patients and 134 volunteers were recruited. Reliability was examined for 10 items in 100 asthmatics; Cronbach ? coefficients were 0.84, and test-retest repeatability was good (Cohen ? coefficient, 0.71-1.00). Validity was assessed for 8 items in 234 participants; in particular, 'recent wheeze' showed a high sensitivity (0.89) for physician-diagnosed asthma. 'Recent asthma attack' and 'current asthma medication' showed high specificity (0.96-0.98). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the Korean version of the ECRHS screening questionnaire was comprehensible, reliable and valid. We suggest the questionnaire to be utilized in further epidemiological studies for asthma in Korean adult populations. PMID:25653917
Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Lee, Jong-Myung; Min, Kyung-Up
The aim of our study was translation and assessment of validity and reliability of the Persian version of DN4 questionnaire. The goal was to fill the gap caused by the absence of a validated instrument in Persian to facilitate discrimination of neuropathic pain. In this study, the adaptation and validation of the questionnaire was carried out in 4 steps, including translation, retranslation, semantic, and literal assessments, and a pilot study for practicability and potential perception difficulties of the final Persian version on 45 patient samples. The questionnaire validation performed on 175 patients, 112 (64%) females with the mean age of 52.53 (SD = 14.98) ranging from 22 to 87 years of age with neuropathic (N = 86) and non-neuropathic pain (NNP) (N = 89). Sensitivity, specificity, and Youden Index in cut-off point ? 4 were 90%, 95%, and 0.85, respectively, which are noteworthy findings among other validation studies. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire was 0.852. Inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability were significant intraclass coefficient (ICC = 0.957 and ICC = 0.918, respectively). The Persian version of DN4 questionnaire is a reliable, valid, feasible, and easily administered tool for precise discrimination neuropathic pain from NNP in Farsi. The characteristics of this test can assist practitioner to diagnose neuropathic pain accurately for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:23763722
Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Fateh, Hamid R; Forogh, Bijan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ahadi, Tannaz; Ghaboussi, Pouya; Bouhassira, Didier; Raissi, Gholam Reza
Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus???1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and MannWhitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p?=?.004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p?=?.04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p?=?.036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Among the longer disease-specific questionnaires, only the AQLQ emerged as predictor of ED visits in asthma patients (OR: 0.9; p?=?.002; AUC 0.727). In the second year of follow-up, none of HRQoL questionnaires predicted exacerbations. Conclusions AQ20 predicts exacerbations in asthma and CCQ predicts ED visits in COPD in the first year of follow-up. Their predictive ability is similar to or even higher than that of longer disease-specific questionnaires. PMID:23706146
Relation between self report energy expenditure from the Zutphen Physical Activity Questionnaire score, and 7-day objective physical activity (PA) measurements from accelerometers and pedometers (Pearson correlation).
The VARK Questionnaire "How Do I Learn Best?" is a very useful free learning styles survey tool. This questionnaire can help students better understand how they learn and how to best study depending upon their preferred learning style: visual, aural, kinesthetic, read-write or multimodal. After taking the questionnaire, the participant will receive a personal learning profile with learning and study hints specifically geared to their learning style. It also can help instructors find out how their students learn and the best ways to teach them. There is also a version of the questionnaire available for athletes or for younger people.
??This thesis discusses aspects of feminist translation as exemplified by my French to English translation of Marie Vieux-Chauvets novel, Les Rapaces (1984). Articulating feminist translation (more)
Shread, Carolyn P T
The Tongues portable, rapid-development, speech-to-speech machine translation system was developed specically to allow a realistic eld-test of a deployable prototype. In this paper we will describe the system, its eld-testing using regular US Army ofcers and naive Croatians, and the evaluation of these tests. The evaluation includes analysis of answers to a questionnaire, analysis of system transcript logs, and the
Robert E. Frederking; Alan W Black; Ralf D. Brown; John Moody; Eric Steinbrecher
Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.
L. Vanni; R. Laura
Collaborations and partnerships are essential for success in translational research. Over the years, SPORE teams reached beyond their grants to partner with other government programs, foundations, and industry to move discoveries into early phase clinical testing. Each SPORE has multiple collaborative activities. Presented here are highlights of recent projects to illustrate the range of collaborations and partnerships driven by SPOREs.
PRESS RELEASE FROM TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY (http://www.nature.com/tp/) For papers Psychiatry Its use is granted only for journalists and news media receiving it directly from the Nature Psychiatry to be reproduced for the purposes of contemporaneous news reporting, you must also seek permission
Angiogenesis inhibitors are a new class of drugs, for which the general rules involving conventional chemotherapy might not apply. The successful translation of angiogenesis inhibitors to clinical application depends partly on the transfer of expertise from scientists who are familiar with the biology of angiogenesis to clinicians. What are the most common questions that clinicians ask as they begin to
Robert Kerbel; Judah Folkman
It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is
Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei
Over the span of two years, the TRWG reviewed NCIs current intramural and extramural translational research portfolio (within the scope of the TRWG mission), facilitated broad community input, invited public comment, and recommended ways to improve and integrate efforts. The ultimate goal was to accelerate progress toward improving the health of the nation and cancer patient outcomes.
The PIRLS 2011 international database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the PIRLS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the PIRLS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 5 sections: (1) Student Questionnaire; (2) Home Questionnaire (Learning to Read
Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.
This document is a questionnaire designed for work-based learning providers. It is a diagnostic benchmarking tool developed to give organizations a snapshot of their current state. Following a brief introduction, there are instructions for filling in the questionnaire, which includes both open-ended response and scoring according to a
Owen, Jane; Yarrow, David; Appleby, Alex
To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was
Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.
The purpose of this manuscript was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ) a parent-reported questionnaire for measuring perceived environmental restrictions for young children participation. Reliability and homogeneity were tested by Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations.
Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Nava Z.; Jarus, Tal; Bart, Orit
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S. It collects detailed information about food, nutrient, and supplement intake and other dietary behaviors. Before the 2009-10 administration, the NHANES collected this information exclusively through 24-hour recalls, food frequency questionnaires, and survey questionnaires.
The performance of multiple imputation in questionnaire data has been studied in various simulation studies. However, in practice, questionnaire data are usually more complex than simulated data. For example, items may be counterindicative or may have unacceptably low factor loadings on every subscale, or completely missing subscales may
Van Ginkel, Joost R.
...information requested by the questionnaire is for use by the Commission...of forms: 2013 USITC Survey Regarding Outstanding...Frequency of use: survey, single data gathering...effect at the time of the survey (6) Estimated number...Information obtained from the questionnaire that qualifies as...
Page SJ, Shawaryn MA, Cernich AN, Linacre JM. Scaling of the revised Oswestry low back pain questionnaire. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1579-84. Objective: To evaluate the measurement properties of the Revised Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (RODQ) by using rating scale analyses. Design: Calibration of item responses by using a data set. Setting: Four outpatient therapy clinics in the northeastern United States.
Stephen J. Page; Marla A. Shawaryn; Alison N. Cernich; John M. Linacre
The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,
Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made
A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.
Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.
Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation Nikki Traylor 93950, USA Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts
Pizza into Java: Translating theory, Pizza is a strict superset of Java that incorporatesothreehigher-order function* *s, and ideas from.algebraic data types. Pizza is defined by translation into Java andPcompilesiintozza attempts to make
In this thesis, we present methods for using linguistically motivated information to enhance the performance of statistical machine translation (SMT). One of the advantages of the statistical approach to machine translation ...
Zbib, Rabih M. (Rabih Mohamed), 1974-
The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire was developed directly from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to measure quality of life (QoL). Since then, it has become widely used in clinical studies and trials and has been adapted for use in 24 languages. The objective was to develop and validate 11 additional language versions of the RAQoL in US English, Mexican Spanish, Argentinean Spanish, Belgian French, Belgian Flemish, French, Romanian, Czech, Slovakian, Polish and Russian. The language adaptation and validation required three stages: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews and validation survey. The translation process involved a dual-panel methodology (bilingual panel followed by a lay panel). The validation survey tested the psychometric properties of the new scales and included either the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) or the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) as comparators. Internal consistency of the new language versions ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability from 0.85 to 0.99. RAQoL scores correlated as expected with the HAQ. Correlations with NHP sections were as expected: highest with energy level, pain and physical mobility and lowest with emotional reactions, sleep disturbance, and social isolation. The adaptations exhibited construct validity in their ability to distinguish subgroups of RA patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. The new language versions of the RAQoL meet the high psychometric standards of the original UK English version. The new adaptations represent valid and reliable tools for measuring QoL in international clinical trials involving RA patients. PMID:25270915
Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Twiss, James; Rouse, Matthew; Korkosz, Mariusz; Jancovic, Roman; Nemec, Petr; Pacheco-Tena, César Francisco; Saraux, Alain; Westhovens, Rene; Durez, Patrick; Martin, Mona; Tammaru, Marika
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of Social Capital Questionnaire ( SCQ) developed by Onyx and Bullen (2000) among a sample of medical science students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran and to compare the factor analysis with findings from two previous studies in Australia and the United States. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 293 medical science students (Male: 95/Female: 198) from 7 faculties in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. After translating SCQ into Persian applying back-translation technique and three-stage consensus panel, the questionnaires administered to the respondents and they were asked to complete them. Statistical Analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted to evaluate factor structure of the Persian SCQ (PSCQ),which showed a moderate replicability, validity, and reliability (Cronbach alpha= .79) to those found in previous studies. Twelve factors extracted with eight values greater than 1 which altogether accounted for 76.23% of the total variance. Applying Cattell's scree test, it was indicated that between seven and eight factor sextracted. The correlations between factors were detected in the low (at the lowest 0.002) to modest (at the highest 0.614) range. Conclusion: The differences found in the factor analysis between the studies may be ascribed to the various types of populations studied. Despite the difference in populations studied, our findings support the meaningful nessof P-SCQ as an instrument that is worthy of further attention for use in social health researches, although more studies are recommended to help researchers in comparing its variety in dimensions of different communities. PMID:25250262
Yari, Arezoo; Nadrian, Haidar; Rashidian, Hamideh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Doroudi, Rajabali; Hoursan, Haydeh
This paper describes the latest version of handheld speech-to-speech translation system developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, NICT. As the entire speech-to-speech translation functions are implemented into one terminal, it realizes real-time and location free speech-to-speech translation service for many language pairs. A new noise-suppression technique notably improves speech recognition performance. Corpus-based approaches of recognition, translation, and
A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.
Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258?315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review. What is already known on this topicPostal questionnaires are widely used in the collection of data in epidemiological studies and health researchNon-response to postal questionnaires reduces the effective sample size and can introduce biasWhat this study addsThis systematic review includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis no questionnaire responseThe review has identified effective ways to increase response to postal questionnairesThe review will be updated regularly in the Cochrane Library PMID:12016181
Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
We discuss phrase-based statistical machine translation performance enhancing techniques which have proven effective for Japanese-to-English and Chinese-to- English translation of BTEC corpus. We also address some issues that arise in conversational speech translation quality evaluations.
Young-Suk Lee; Salim Roukos
Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,
Rodriguez, Cecilia M.
The DIPLOMAT rapid-deployment speech translation system is intended to allow naive users to communicate across a language barrier, without strong do- main restrictions, despite the error- prone nature of current speech and translation technologies. Achieving this ambitious goal depends in large part on allowing the users to interactively correct recognition and translation er- rors. We briefly present the Multi- Engine
Robert Frederking; Alexander Rudnicky; Christopher Hogan
Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's
Although investigators are encouraged to translate their laboratory research to impact the care of patients, there is an unappreciated downside to participating in T1 translation from the standpoint of the investigator if their translational efforts do not yield positive results in pivotal clinical trials. PMID:23629490
Mann, Douglas L.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Discusses the existence of anglicisms in German as a problem for the practice and teaching of translation, in which attention must be paid to the status of loans in the German linguistic and social system. Offers an approach to the translation of transparent anglicisms and proposes a method of translation. (SR)
The American Translators Association, founded in 1959, has twelve hundred members in six classes of membership. It provides a registry of American translators, a professional service directory, accreditation and translator training programs, and publishes a journal, the "ATA Chronicle." A reaffirmation of ATA principles concludes the article. (AMH)
This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire to
Group Leader in Molecular and Translational Neuroscience The Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience Â DANDRITE is the Danish node of the Nordic-EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine. We have an opening for a Group Leader position in Molecular and Translational Neuroscience. Nordic
The present article discusses translation as a colonising as well as a decolonising strategy in the dynamics of cultural representation and interpretation. Most translation, in particular the literary kind, is a matter of culture. China is taken as the key example, since translation has played an important role informing China's modern culture and in reconstructing the literary and critical discourse
Translation is a sort of reproductive art, but especially in cases of the greater aesthetic value and pragmatic aspects of the text, particularly when translating literary texts, the creativity of the translator goes into action. However, it must not surpass the intention of the author of the source text. Respecting system differences between the source and target languages as well
TRANSLATING CULTURES Workshop: Cultural MÃ©lange in Aesthetic Expressions 11Â12 February, 2013 Â Le Mirail, France) Cross-fertilization between African and European theatre: Translating cultural, NTNU) Famous Blue Raincoat in translation 14.30Â14.45: Closing remarks #12;
Coupled Transcription and Translation Within Nuclei of Mammalian Cells Francisco J. Iborra,1 Dean A. Jackson,2 Peter R. Cook1 * It is widely assumed that the vital processes of transcription and translation as transcription "factories." Some of this nuclear translation also depends on concurrent transcription by RNA
Bedwell, David M.
ERGODICITY FOR INFINITE PERIODIC TRANSLATION SURFACES PASCAL HUBERT AND BARAK WEISS Abstract. For a Z-cover M M of a translation surface, which is a lattice surface, and which admits infinite strips to Howard Masur whose work is a great source of inspiration for the authors. 1. Introduction A translation
Exploring Parallelization Strategies for NUFFT Data Translation Yuanrui Zhang Mahmut Kandemir parallelization strategies for the Non-Uniform FFT (NUFFT) data translation on multicore architectures. The NUFFT and image processing as well as in scientific computing. The critical extension lies at the translation
Pitsianis, Nikos P.
ERGODICITY FOR INFINITE PERIODIC TRANSLATION SURFACES PASCAL HUBERT AND BARAK WEISS Abstract. For a Z-cover M M of a translation surface, which is a lattice surface, and which admits infinite strips Keywords: Ergodicity, infinite, periodic, translation surfaces. This paper is dedicated to Howard Masur
In this paper, we describe improved alignment models for statistical machine translation. The statistical translation approach uses two types of information: a translation model and a lan- guage model. The language model used is a bigram or general m-gram model. The transla- tion model is decomposed into a lexical and an alignment model. We describe two different ap- proaches for
Franz Josef Och; Christoph Tillmann; Hermann Ney
View update translation for XML Iovka Boneva University Lille 1 BenoÃ®t Groz University Lille 1 Staworko University Lille 3 ABSTRACT We study the problem of update translation for views on XML documents update program that translates the view update without side effects on the view. Additionally, we require
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
We describe a novel approach to statistical machine translation that combines syntactic information in the source language with recent advances in phrasal translation. This method requires a source-language dependency parser, target language word segmentation and an unsupervised word alignment component. We align a parallel corpus, project the source dependency parse onto the target sentence, extract dependency treelet translation pairs, and
Christopher Quirk; Arul Menezes; Colin Cherry
Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease which runs its course for the remainder of the patient's life frequently causing disability of varying degrees. Negative effects on Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are well documented and a subject of clinical study. The Multiple Sclerosis QOL 54 (MSQOL-54) questionnaire was developed to measure HRQOL in patients with MS. It is composed of 54 items, and is a combination of the SF-36 and 18 disease-specific items. Objective The objective of this project was to translate the MSQOL-54 into French Canadian, and to make it available to the Canadian scientific community for clinical research and clinical practice. Methods Across all French speaking regions, there are occurrences of variation. They include the pronunciation, sentence structure, and the lexicon, where the differences are most marked. For this reason, it was decided to translate the US original MSQOL-54 into French Canadian instead of adapting the existing French version. The SF-36 has been previously validated and published in French Canadian, therefore the translation work was performed solely on the 18 MS specific items. The translation followed an internationally accepted methodology into 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation, and patients' cognitive debriefing. Results Instructions and Items 38, 43, 45 and 49 were the most debated. Problematic issues mainly resided in the field of semantics. Patients' testing (n = 5) did not reveal conceptual problems. The questionnaire was well accepted, with an average time for completion of 19 minutes. Conclusion The French Canadian MSQOL-54 is now available to the Canadian scientific community and will be a useful tool for health-care providers to assess HRQOL of patients with MS as a routine part of clinical practice. The next step in the cultural adaptation of the MSQOL-54 in French Canadian will be the evaluation of its psychometric properties. PMID:14636427
Acquadro, Catherine; Lafortune, Louise; Mear, Isabelle
Certain criteria are demonstrated for a spatial derivation of a von Neumann algebra to generate a one-parameter semigroup of endomorphisms of that algebra. These are then used to establish a converse to recent results of Borchers and of Wiesbrock on certain one-parameter semigroups of endomorphisms of von Neumann algebras (specifically, Type III_1 factors) that appear as lightlike translations in the theory of algebras of local observables.
D. R. Davidson
In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an increasingly prominent model in biomedical research. To showcase the translational impact of the model across multiple disease areas, Disease Models & Mechanisms has compiled a Special Issue that includes thought-provoking reviews, original research reporting new and important insights into disease mechanisms, and novel resources that expand the zebrafish toolkit. This Editorial provides a summary of the issues contents, highlighting the diversity of zebrafish disease models and their clinical applications. PMID:24973741
Patton, E. Elizabeth; Dhillon, Paraminder; Amatruda, James F.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita
The basic goal of translational research, from a boinformatics perspective, is to relate data acquired from basic research\\u000a to an outcome in a patient. The relation of data may be following the drug discovery process, where biochemical and protein\\u000a structure data is linked all the way through to data collected during the clinical trial process and onward. The relation\\u000a of
Nicholas F. Tsinoremas
In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an increasingly prominent model in biomedical research. To showcase the translational impact of the model across multiple disease areas, Disease Models & Mechanisms has compiled a Special Issue that includes thought-provoking reviews, original research reporting new and important insights into disease mechanisms, and novel resources that expand the zebrafish toolkit. This Editorial provides a summary of the issue's contents, highlighting the diversity of zebrafish disease models and their clinical applications. PMID:24973741
Patton, E Elizabeth; Dhillon, Paraminder; Amatruda, James F; Ramakrishnan, Lalita
Inflammation is a complex, multi-scale biologic response to stress that is also required for repair and regeneration after injury. Despite the repository of detailed data about the cellular and molecular processes involved in inflammation, including some understanding of its pathophysiology, little progress has been made in treating the severe inflammatory syndrome of sepsis. To address the gap between basic science knowledge and therapy for sepsis, a community of biologists and physicians is using systems biology approaches in hopes of yielding basic insights into the biology of inflammation. Systems biology is a discipline that combines experimental discovery with mathematical modeling to aid in the understanding of the dynamic global organization and function of a biologic system (cell to organ to organism). We propose the term translational systems biology for the application of similar tools and engineering principles to biologic systems with the primary goal of optimizing clinical practice. We describe the efforts to use translational systems biology to develop an integrated framework to gain insight into the problem of acute inflammation. Progress in understanding inflammation using translational systems biology tools highlights the promise of this multidisciplinary field. Future advances in understanding complex medical problems are highly dependent on methodological advances and integration of the computational systems biology community with biologists and clinicians. PMID:18437239
Vodovotz, Yoram; Csete, Marie; Bartels, John; Chang, Steven; An, Gary
Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652
Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy
The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. PMID:25220412
Objective (1) To evaluate whether the Nine Items Questionnaire (WOQ-9) for the detection of wearing-off (WO) in Parkinson Disease (PD), by means of its screening ability, is a helpful tool to assist neurologists in diagnosing WO; (2) To determine the sensitivity and the specificity of a free Brazilian Portuguese translation of WOQ-9. Method A sample obtained by convenience included 60 patients. The WOQ-9 was answered by the patients themselves before their routine consultations. The detection of the WO by the WOQ-9 was compared with the neurologist assessment. Statistical significance was 5%. Results The WOQ-9 showed sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 10.3%, positive and negative predictive values of 54.4% and 100% respectively. The identification of WO by the WOQ-9 was congruent in 54.5% of cases with neurological evaluation. Conclusion The WOQ-9 is a convenient screening tool to aid physicians to detect WO in PD patients, and it is a quick and easy self-administered questionnaire. PMID:25410454
Santos, Jasper Guimarães; Chien, Hsin Fen; Barbosa, Egberto Reis
What is the relationship between translation and the ideology of cultural pluralism? This essay focuses on Schleiermacher to investigate how translation was central to the Romantic conception of culture and identity. By evoking translation as the manifestation of cultural difference, Schleiermacher expressed a challenge to the Enlightenment's universalism and formulated the ideas of cultural plurality and difference. His translation theory
Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the
About Our MSc Arabic-English Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation Tools programme offers the specialist training required to work as a professional translator in a variety of contexts. Students work) Â the international association of university institutes with translating and interpreting programmes. Programme
About Our MSc Chinese-English Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation Tools programme offers the specialist training required to work as a professional translator in a variety of contexts. Students work (CIUTI) Â the international association of university institutes with translating and interpreting
Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian, and 10 Latin women. The average age was 49 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with a range of 22.7 to 89.9 years. Measures utilized included an online calcium quiz, a printed calcium food frequency questionnaire and one three-day diet record. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson correlation coefficients. Sub-analyses were conducted by ethnicity. The correlation between each questionnaire and the daily calcium intake from the diet records was 0.37, p<0.001. Among the ethnic subgroups, the correlations were highest for African American women, followed by Caucasian women. There was also a trend toward higher correlations in younger women. These simple calcium assessment tools, taking less than five minutes to complete, have correlation values with diet records similar to more complex food frequency questionnaires reported in the literature. These questionnaires may provide valuable tools to estimate calcium intake in research, clinical and community settings. PMID:19559142
Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.
The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 19931995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708
Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari
Background: Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its authorities have understood and recognized the importance of matching leadership styles with effective and competent care for success in health care organizations. This study aimed to develop the Supportive Leadership Behaviors Scale based on accepted health and educational theories and to psychometrically test it in the Iranian context. Methods: The instrument was based on items from established questionnaires. A pilot study validated the instrument which was also cross-validated via re-translation. After validation, 731 participants answered the questionnaire. Results: The instrument was finalized and resulted in a 20-item questionnaire using the exploratory factor analysis, which yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors (all above 0.6). Mapping these four measures of leadership behaviors can be beneficial to determine whether effective leadership could support innovation and improvements in medical education and health care organizations on the national level. The reliability measured as Cronbachs alpha was 0.84. Conclusion: This new instrument yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors which are applicable in health and educational settings and are helpful in improving self efficacy among health and academic staff.
Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, ,Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo
Cross-cultural adaptation and determination of the reliability and validity of PRTEE-S (Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge), a questionnaire for patients with lateral epicondylalgia, in a Swedish population
BACKGROUND: In Sweden, as well as in Scandinavia, there is no easy way to evaluate patients' difficulties when they suffer from lateral epicondylitis\\/epicondylalgia. However, there is a Canadian questionnaire, in English, that could make the evaluation of a patient's pain and functional loss both quick and inexpensive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the
Pia Nilsson; Amir Baigi; Bertil Marklund; Jörgen Månsson
Evaluation research provides new perspectives for clinical supervision (CS), and international collaboration offers advantages to develop valid instruments for this purpose. Besides translation, an instrument developed and tested in another culture requires systematic validation. The study focuses on the translation process of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale for testing in Finland carried out collaboratively between the Universities of Tampere and Manchester. The instrument is a 45-item questionnaire with a Likert-type (1-5) scale comprising seven sub-scales: trust and rapport, supervisor advice and support, improved care and skills, importance and value of CS, finding time, personal issues and reflection and total score. At first, a licensed translator translated the instrument into Finnish. A native British language teacher at the University language centre performed the blind back-translation into English. The translations were compared by both collaborative parties and by three experienced Finnish supervisors. A pilot sample (n = 182) was collected to test the translated instrument. In this sample Cronbach's alpha value for the total score was 0.9227 and in the sub-scales 0.6393-0.8838. The mean values in the sub-scales were 14.2-29.3, SDs 3.02-3.88 and modes 14.0-30.0. The British test sample had almost similar values. Translating an instrument into another language not only requires expertise in language, but also in practice. The cultural validation is the most important phase in the process that can be accomplished with pilot testing and statistical methods. However, further expert evaluation is required for the validity of the instrument. PMID:14629638
Hyrkäs, Kristiina; Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, Kaija; Paunonen-Ilmonen, Marita
Background While Indigenous Australians are believed to be at a high risk of psychological illness, few screening instruments have been designed to accurately measure this burden. Rather than simply transposing western labels of symptoms, this paper describes the process by which a screening tool for depression was specifically adapted for use across multiple Indigenous Australian communities. Method Potential depression screening instruments were identified and interrogated according to a set of pre-defined criteria. A structured process was then developed which relied on the expertise of five focus groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group participants re-visited the difficult items, explored their meaning and identified potential ways to achieve equivalence of meaning. Results All five focus groups independently selected the Primary Health Questionnaire 9, several key conceptual differences were exposed, largely related to the construction of hopelessness. Together with translated versions of each instrument for each of the five languages, a single, simplified English version for use across heterogeneous settings was negotiated. Importantly, the code and specific conceptually equivalent words that could be used for other Indigenous language groups were also developed. Conclusions The extensive process of adaptation used in this study has demonstrated that within the context of Indigenous Australian communities, across multiple language groups, where English is often a third or fourth language, conceptual and linguistic equivalence of psychological constructs can be negotiated. A validation study is now required to assess the adapted instruments potential for measuring the burden of disease across all Indigenous Australian populations. PMID:24139186
Psycholinguistics, discourse patterns, and English as a second language were addressed in creating a theoretical framework for examining language in relationships. The Language Relationship Questionnaire was designed to provide an inventory language and its roles in relationships. (Contains 1 figure.)
Eckstein, Daniel; Juarez-Torres, Rachel; Perez-Gabriel, Ana Maria
Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager, TBD Job Description Questionnaire (JDQ) Professional ( ) ( ) Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager ( ) ( ) Christine Bauer, Assistant Director ( ) ( ) Janet AtkinsonCampus Center, Extended Studies, Position Title: Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager Employee Name: TBD
LATEX ALLERGY SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE Name:________________________ Job title:__________________ Work location:__________________ Are you aware of having an allergy to latex? YES NO If yes, please, Wheezing or Allergy like symptoms: Apples / Apricot / Avacado / Bananas / Carrots / Celery / Cherries
Leistikow, Bruce N.
This study analyses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire elaborated in England by Travers and Cooper in 1996. This Italian survey was completed by 863 teachers randomly drawn from a cross-section of Italian school levels. The construct validity of the questionnaire was verified by factor analysis and by measuring the internal consistency of the single scales. All dimensions measured by the Teacher Stress Questionnaire were compared for sample subgroups of all teacher levels. Several meaningful and reliable factors emerged from the factor analysis of the scales. The internal consistency of each scale (Cronbach's alpha) revealed satisfactory values. Teachers' age and school level were determining factors for all dimensions of stress explored. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire showed satisfactory psychometric properties and constitutes a useful and reliable measure to analyse stress in Italian schools. PMID:24597443
Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto
computers using Event Business Management System (EBMS). Â· Produces and sends contracts and event plansPARTI: JOB DESCRIPTION Weighted Job Questionnaire (WJQ) Custom Meeting, Event and Conference Services Current Position Classification: Department's Position Title: Event Planning Assistant Evaluating
Information on chronic drug use at any time in the past was collected with a self-administered questionnaire as part of a prospective cohort study on diet, other life-style factors and cancer among subjects aged 5569 years. The validity of the questionnaire information on drug use was evaluated among 207 subjects by comparing it to pharmacy records of dispensed drugs. The
Piet A. Van den Brandt; Hans Petri; Elisabeth Dorant; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Sacha Van de Crommert
Alcohol effect expectancies have important implications in our understanding drinking behavior and motivations for drinking. Several instruments have been developed to asses alcohol expectancies among various populations. Although co-occurrence of PTSD among those with alcohol use disorders is extremely common, there is no measure of PTSD-related alcohol expectancies. The Post-traumatic stress disorder-Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (P-AEQ) is a 27-item, self-report questionnaire
Sonya B. Norman; Robyn K. Inaba; Tom L. Smith; Sandra A. Brown
Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, poorly understood, parkinsonian symptom interfering with daily functioning and quality of life. Assessment of FOG is complex because of the episodic nature of this symptom, and the influence of mental and environmental factors on it.Objective: To design a self-reportable reliable questionnaire for FOG.Method: A questionnaire consisting of 16 items regarding gait and
N. Giladi; H. Shabtai; E. S. Simon; S. Biran; J. Tal; A. D. Korczyn
The 2nd Cross Company Respiratory Symposium (CCRS), held in Horsham, U.K. in 2012, brought together representatives from across the pharmaceutical industry with expert academics, in the common interest of improving the design and translational predictiveness of in vivo models of respiratory disease. Organized by the respiratory representatives of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Federations (EFPIA) group of companies involved in the EU-funded project (U-BIOPRED), the aim of the symposium was to identify state-of-the-art improvements in the utility and design of models of respiratory disease, with a view to improving their translational potential and reducing wasteful animal usage. The respiratory research and development community is responding to the challenge of improving translation in several ways: greater collaboration and open sharing of data, careful selection of the species, complexity and chronicity of the models, improved practices in preclinical research, continued refinement in models of respiratory diseases and their sub-types, greater understanding of the biology underlying human respiratory diseases and their sub-types, and finally greater use of human (and especially disease-relevant) cells, tissues and explants. The present review highlights these initiatives, combining lessons from the symposium and papers published in Clinical Science arising from the symposium, with critiques of the models currently used in the settings of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. The ultimate hope is that this will contribute to a more rational, efficient and sustainable development of a range of new treatments for respiratory diseases that continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality across the world. PMID:25328010
Mercer, Paul F; Abbott-Banner, Katharine; Adcock, Ian M; Knowles, Richard G
Background: Learning in a clinical environment is an inseparable part of a training program in medical education. To evaluate the quality of training in a clinical environment, a comprehensive questionnaire which is adjusted for local purposes is essential. This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Activities Coaching Context (ACC)-questionnaire from the perspective of residents and students in a clinical learning environment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 65 residents and students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. The Content Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the judgment of a panel of ten experts in medical education. The construct validity of the questionnaire was determined by factor analysis. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS16. Results: The ratio and index of content validity calculated by experts view were quite acceptable (0.31 and 0.7, respectively). Construct validity was examined by factor analysis which confirmed seven first order factors. Cronbachs Alfa coefficient revealed a high degree of internal consistency (0.932). The reliability of the questionnaire was measured by test - retest (0.9). Conclusions: The ACC questionnaire appeared to be a valid, reliable and also appropriate tool to evaluate the educational quality of a clinical learning environment. PMID:25405107
Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Haji Ahmadi, Maryam; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Yadollahi, Sohrab
No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout. PMID:25343131
Squires, Allison; Finlayson, Catherine; Gerchow, Lauren; Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Matthews, Anne; Schwendimann, Rene; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Heinen, Maude; Brzostek, Tomasz; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Aiken, Linda H; Sermeus, Walter
Survey research remains the most popular source of market knowledge, yet researchers have not yet established one consistent technique for measuring responses. Some market research companies offer respondents two answer options; others five or seven. Some answer formats use middle points on the answer scales, others do not. Some formats verbalize all answer options, some only the endpoints. The wide variety of answer formats that market research companies and academic researchers use makes comparing results across studies virtually impossible. This study offers guidance for market researchers by presenting empirical translations for the answer formats they most commonly use, thus enabling easier comparisons of results. PMID:24926110
Dolnicar, Sara; Grün, Bettina
The 2010 GOLDEN HELIX Symposium Genetic Analysis in Translational Medicine' was held in Athens, Greece, Athens, Greece, 1-4 December 2010. The scientific program covered all aspects of this discipline, including genome-wide association studies, genomics of cancer and human disorders, molecular cytogenetics, advances in genomic technology, next-generation sequencing applications, pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. In addition, various topics on genetics and society and genetic analysis in clinical practice were discussed. Here, we provide an overview of the plenary lectures and the topics discussed in the symposium. PMID:21438074
Patrinos, George P.; Innocenti, Federico; Cox, Nancy; Fortina, Paolo
The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) is a patient self-reported measurement instrument that evaluates pain self-efficacy beliefs in patients with chronic pain. The measurement properties of the PSEQ have been tested in its original and translated versions, showing satisfactory results for validity and reliability. The aims of this study were 2 fold as follows: (1) to translate the PSEQ into Italian through a process of cross-cultural adaptation, (2) to test the measurement properties of the Italian PSEQ (PSEQ-I). The cross-cultural adaptation was completed in 5 months without omitting any item of the original PSEQ. Measurement properties were tested in 165 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) (65% women, mean age 49.9 years). Factor analysis confirmed the one-factor structure of the questionnaire. Internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.94) and test-retest reliability (ICCagreement = 0.82) of the PSEQ-I showed good results. The smallest detectable change was equal to 15.69 scale points. The PSEQ-I displayed a high construct validity by meeting more than 75% of a priori hypotheses on correlations with measurement instruments assessing pain intensity, disability, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and coping strategies. Additionally, the PSEQ-I differentiated patients taking pain medication or not. The results of this study suggest that the PSEQ-I can be used as a valid and reliable tool in Italian patients with CLBP. PMID:25264358
Chiarotto, Alessandro; Vanti, Carla; Ostelo, Raymond W; Ferrari, Silvano; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Rocca, Barbara; Pillastrini, Paolo; Monticone, Marco
Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.
Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.
This study outlines a translation procedure for an attitudinal instrument. The study investigated the cross-translation of the Job Descriptive Index Sub scale of 'type of work.' The cross-translation or committee translation procedure asks two or more translators to translate a text from source to target language, then an expert assesses the validity of these translations. Empirically, this method has three translators, translate the instrument from English to Arabic and then an expert assesses the translations made by the three translators. This method was supported by having 180 bilinguals attempt the source language and later attempt the target language instrument or the translated instrument. The two versions are then compared through the ANOVA, correlational analyses and factor analyses. The results indicated a high reliability for the Arabic and English versions. The committee translation approach provides a valid method for translation, the results however, showed that the instrument in both languages did not show item to item similarity or equivalence. PMID:24441616
Nasser, R; Diefenbach, B
Eukaryotic translation initiation commences at the initiation codon near the 5' end of mRNA by a 40S ribosomal subunit, and the recruitment of a 40S ribosome to an mRNA is facilitated by translation initiation factors interacting with the m(7)G cap and/or poly(A) tail. The 40S ribosome recruited to an mRNA is then transferred to the AUG initiation codon with the help of translation initiation factors. To understand the mechanism by which the ribosome finds an initiation codon, we investigated the role of eIF4G in finding the translational initiation codon. An artificial polypeptide eIF4G fused with MS2 was localized downstream of the reporter gene through MS2-binding sites inserted in the 3' UTR of the mRNA. Translation of the reporter was greatly enhanced by the eIF4G-MS2 fusion protein regardless of the presence of a cap structure. Moreover, eIF4G-MS2 tethered at the 3' UTR enhanced translation of the second cistron of a dicistronic mRNA. The encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site, a natural translational-enhancing element facilitating translation through an interaction with eIF4G, positioned downstream of a reporter gene, also enhanced translation of the upstream gene in a cap-independent manner. Finally, we mathematically modeled the effect of distance between the cap structure and initiation codon on the translation efficiency of mRNAs. The most plausible explanation for translational enhancement by the translational-enhancing sites is recognition of the initiation codon by the ribosome bound to the ribosome-recruiting sites through "RNA looping." The RNA looping hypothesis provides a logical explanation for augmentation of translation by enhancing elements located upstream and/or downstream of a protein-coding region. PMID:25583496
Paek, Ki Young; Hong, Ka Young; Ryu, Incheol; Park, Sung Mi; Keum, Sun Ju; Kwon, Oh Sung; Jang, Sung Key
Eukaryotic translation initiation commences at the initiation codon near the 5? end of mRNA by a 40S ribosomal subunit, and the recruitment of a 40S ribosome to an mRNA is facilitated by translation initiation factors interacting with the m7G cap and/or poly(A) tail. The 40S ribosome recruited to an mRNA is then transferred to the AUG initiation codon with the help of translation initiation factors. To understand the mechanism by which the ribosome finds an initiation codon, we investigated the role of eIF4G in finding the translational initiation codon. An artificial polypeptide eIF4G fused with MS2 was localized downstream of the reporter gene through MS2-binding sites inserted in the 3? UTR of the mRNA. Translation of the reporter was greatly enhanced by the eIF4G-MS2 fusion protein regardless of the presence of a cap structure. Moreover, eIF4G-MS2 tethered at the 3? UTR enhanced translation of the second cistron of a dicistronic mRNA. The encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site, a natural translational-enhancing element facilitating translation through an interaction with eIF4G, positioned downstream of a reporter gene, also enhanced translation of the upstream gene in a cap-independent manner. Finally, we mathematically modeled the effect of distance between the cap structure and initiation codon on the translation efficiency of mRNAs. The most plausible explanation for translational enhancement by the translational-enhancing sites is recognition of the initiation codon by the ribosome bound to the ribosome-recruiting sites through RNA looping. The RNA looping hypothesis provides a logical explanation for augmentation of translation by enhancing elements located upstream and/or downstream of a protein-coding region. PMID:25583496
Paek, Ki Young; Hong, Ka Young; Ryu, Incheol; Park, Sung Mi; Keum, Sun Ju; Kwon, Oh Sung; Jang, Sung Key
A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions, with the competency Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis. These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. PMID:24841800
Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M
A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. PMID:24841800
Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M
Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions. PMID:23475805
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). The
Ralph Maddison; Cliona Ni Mhurchu; Yannan Jiang; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Anthony Rodgers; Carlene MM Lawes; Elaine Rush
We have developed and evaluated a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for use in program evaluation. Formative work led to the development of the 62-item HIV-Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-K-Q), which was administered to 409 women and 227 men. Item analyses resulted in the deletion of 17 items that were either too easy or did not correlate
Michael P. Carey; Dianne Morrison-Beedy; Blair T. Johnson
An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.
Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587
Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent
Background Communication between patients and medical staff can be challenging if both parties have different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Specialized applications can potentially alleviate these problems and significantly contribute to an effective, improved care process when foreign language patients are involved. Objective The objective for this paper was to discuss the experiences gained from a study carried out at the Hannover Medical School regarding the use of a mobile translation application in hospital wards. The conditions for successfully integrating these technologies in the care process are discussed. Methods iPads with a preinstalled copy of an exemplary multilingual assistance tool (xprompt) designed for use in medical care were deployed on 10 wards. Over a period of 6 weeks, approximately 160 employees of the care staff had the opportunity to gather experiences with the devices while putting them to use during their work. Afterwards, the participants were asked to fill out an anonymous, paper-based questionnaire (17 questions) covering the usability of the iPads, translation apps in general, and the exemplary chosen application specifically. For questions requiring a rating, Likert scales were employed. The retained data were entered into an electronic survey system and exported to Microsoft Excel 2007 for further descriptive analysis. Results Of 160 possible participants, 42 returned the questionnaire and 39 completed the questions concerning the chosen app. The demographic data acquired via the questionnaire (ie, age, professional experience, gender) corresponded to the values for the entire care staff at the Hannover Medical School. Most respondents (35/39, 90%) had no previous experience with an iPad. On a 7-point scale, the participants generally rated mobile translation tools as helpful for communicating with foreign language patients (36/39, 92%; median=5, IQR=2). They were less enthusiastic about xprompts practical use (36/39, median=4, IQR=2.5), although the app was perceived as easy-to-use (36/39, median=6, IQR=3) and there were no obvious problems with the usability of the device (36/39, median=6, IQR=2). Conclusions The discrepancy between the expert ratings for xprompt (collected from the App Store and online) and the opinions of the studys participants can probably be explained by the differing approaches of the two user groups. The experts had clear expectations, whereas, without a more thorough introduction, our study participants perceived using the app as too time consuming in relation to the expected benefit. The introduction of such tools in todays busy care settings should therefore be more carefully planned to heighten acceptance of new tools. Still, the low return rate of the questionnaires only allows for speculations on the data, and further research is necessary. Trial Registration This study was approved by the local institutional review board (IRB), Trial ID number: 1145-2011. PMID:25100677
Background The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) has been translated to many languages and has been used in many countries as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder. The main objective of this study was to evaluate validity of the Thai version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric outpatient sample, and to determine its optimum question #1 item threshold value for bipolar disorder. Methods The English language Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpatients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were performed. Results The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69). The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%), specificity (72.7%), positive predictive value (74.3%), and negative predictive value (75.0%). The ROC area under the curve (AUC) for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90). Conclusion The Thai version of the MDQ had some useful psychometric properties for screening for bipolar disorder in a mood disorder clinic setting, with a recommended question #1 item threshold value of at least five positive items. PMID:25170269
Waleeprakhon, Punjaporn; Ittasakul, Pichai; Lotrakul, Manote; Wisajun, Pattarabhorn; Jullagate, Sudawan; Ketter, Terence A
Background and Purpose Assessment of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important in clinical evaluations of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for quantifying the impact of illness and treatment on their daily lives. Although MS-specific HRQoL instruments have been used internationally, there are no data regarding HRQoL instruments specifically designed for patients with MS in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Korean Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life (MusiQoL) questionnaire. Methods Fifty-six patients with MS were recruited from June 2009 to February 2010 at the National Cancer Center in Korea. The original English versions of the MSIS-29 scale and the MusiQoL questionnaire were translated into Korean and evaluated for their acceptability, reliability, and validity. Results The patients wereaged 36.5±8.6 years (mean±SD; range, 20-56 years). Their score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.0±1.9 (mean; range, 0-7.5), and their disease duration was 5.2±4.7 years (mean±SD; range, 1-24 years). The Korean versions of the MSIS-29 and MusiQoL questionnaires showed satisfactory psychometric properties, including construct validity (item-internal consistencies of 0.59-0.95 and 0.59-0.92, respectively; item-discriminant validities of 95-100% and 93.8-100%), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.96-0.97 and 0.77-0.96), reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.78-0.90 and 0.50-0.93), unidimensionality (Loevinger scalability coefficients of 0.70-0.78 and 0.63-0.90), and acceptability. External validity testing indicated the presence of significant correlations between similar aspects of the two questionnaires. Conclusions The Korean translated versions of the MSIS-29 and MusiQoL questionnaires demonstrated reliability and validity for measuring HRQoL in Korean patients with MS. PMID:24829601
Huh, So-Young; Kim, Su-Hyun; Joung, Ae-Ran; Park, Kibyung; Kim, Woojun; Park, Min Su
The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.
Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari
Hunayn ibn Ish?q is one of the most important translators of scientific and medical texts in the 'abb?sid era. He played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek medical science to the Arab world, because of his deep knowledge of the Syriac, Arabic and Persian languages. He translated about 300 texts, especially medical ones, and he founded a school in which many disciples were instructed in the art of translation, like his son Ish?q and his nephew Hubays. Hunayn composed a lexicon of scientific terminology, using a new method of translation which represents his great innovation. PMID:11623411
Expressed emotion (EE) has proved to be an established factor in short-term relapse in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Family Questionnaire (FQ), a brief self-report questionnaire measuring the EE status of relatives of patients with schizophrenia in terms of criticism (CC) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI). The translated and adapted 20-item FQ was administered to 176 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Caregivers' burden (Family Burden Scale) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28) were also evaluated. The findings indicated that the Greek version displays a two-factor structure with two subscales of EE-CC and EOI-with 10 items each, similarly to the original version. The convergent validity of the subscales was highly supported by correlations with caregivers' burden and psychological distress. The Cronbach's ? coefficient measuring internal consistency for the two scales were 0.90 for CC and 0.82 for EOI. The test-retest correlation coefficients measuring reproducibility were 0.99 and 0.98 for CC and EOI, respectively. The Greek version of the FQ appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to be used in both research and clinical assessment of family EE. PMID:24636193
Koutra, Katerina; Economou, Marina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N
Abstract Purpose . Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Design . Quantitative and observational. Setting . A midsized northeastern university. Subjects . Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. Measures . International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. Analysis . A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Results . Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R(2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p < .001). Conclusion . The CBPAQ successfully explains and predicts PA behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students. PMID:25162324
Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W
The Leeds Behçet's disease quality-of-life (BD-QoL) questionnaire is a specific and valid measure which is applied in English-speaking patients. We conducted Persian adaptation of BD-QoL questionnaire. Between June and December 2012, 220 Iranian patients fulfilling International Study Group criteria for the diagnosis of BD attending the rheumatology clinics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. Bilingual translators undertook the forward translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the BD-QoL questionnaire. Back-translation was conducted, and this version was sent to the designer of the questionnaire and revised accordingly. SF-36 health survey, Iranian Behçet's disease dynamic activity measure (IBDDAM), and Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) were other administered measures. The Varimax rotation method with Kaiser normalization defined 5 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Studied cases were comprised of 118 males (53.6 %) and 102 females (46.4 %). Mean age of the patients was 38.3 ± 11.3 years (range 16-73). The mean BD-QoL score was 10.3 ± 8.8. Test-retest reliability was high, and two time points were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.75-0.84). Cronbach's ? coefficient of 0.949 demonstrated the excellent internal consistency. These factors cumulatively explained 58.74 % of total variance. The ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 7.08, which underlined the undimensionality. The results revealed adapted BD-QoL scores had significant correlation with IBDDAM (correlation coefficient = 0.19, P value = 0.005) and BDCAF (correlation coefficient = 0.21, P value = 0.002). Conversely, no significant correlation between BD-QoL and SF-36 results was detected (P value = 0.078). The Persian version of BD-QoL was shown to be unidimensional, highly reliable, and adequate construct validity. PMID:25216713
Vojdanian, Mahdi; Faezi, Seyedeh Tahereh; Tennant, Alan; Morgan, Ann W; Paragomi, Pedram; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mattaji, Maryam; Davatchi, Fereydoun
...PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY: National...in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10...4(d). This questionnaire is designed to gather...PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire. OMB Number:...
The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 362 Baseline Questionnaires for 201 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to ...
...the Census Bureau and survey sponsors to improve questionnaires and procedures, reduce...and economic census and survey questionnaires prior to fielding them...measurement problems with the questionnaire or survey procedure:...
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...Review: OPM Form 1203-FX, Occupational Questionnaire AGENCY: U...request (ICR) 3206-0040, Occupational Questionnaire, OPM Form...necessary for the proper performance of the functions of OPM...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Occupational Questionnaire is an...
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The accomplishment of translator in standardized English translation of TCM should be paid more attention, since it cannot but influence the foreign academic inter-communion and quality of transmission of TCM. PMID:17717935
The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with its potential for use in translational research testing animal models of schizophrenia-related phenotypes. Specifically, we review the reasons for interest in MMN in schizophrenia, issues pertaining to the measurement of MMN, its use as a vulnerability index for the development of schizophrenia, the pharmacological sensitivity of MMN and the progress in developing animal models of MMN. Within this process we highlight the challenges posed by knowledge gaps pertaining to the tool and the pharmacology of the underlying system. PMID:24391602
Todd, Juanita; Harms, Lauren; Schall, Ulrich; Michie, Patricia T.
Synopsis This article reviews translational research in endocrine surgery, with a focus on disorders of the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, and endocrine pancreas. Discovery of genes responsible for heritable endocrine cancer syndromes, including MEN1, MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau, Neurofibromatosis, and Familial Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma syndromes, has increased knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of endocrine cancer and refined surgical treatment options. Knowledge of mutations in sporadic cancer, such as BRAF in thyroid cancer, has led to rapid progress in small-molecule kinase inhibitor strategies. These breakthroughs and their influence on current endocrine therapy are discussed to provide endocrine surgeons with an overview of the basic science research currently creating new clinical treatments and improving patient care. PMID:24012403
Sherman, Scott K.; Howe, James R.
The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.
Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.
To develop and validate a specific questionnaire to assess burden on families of children with infantile haemangioma (IH): the Haemangioma Family Burden questionnaire (HFB). Items were generated from a literature review and a verbatim report from parents. Subsequently, a study was implemented at the Necker Hospital and the Pellegrin Children's Hospital for psychometric analysis. The HFB was refined via item reduction according to inter-question correlations, consensus among experts and exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item questionnaire, grouped into 5 dimensions, was obtained. Construct validity was demonstrated and HFB showed good internal coherence (Cronbach's ?: 0.93). The HFB was significantly correlated with the mental dimension of the Short-Form-12 (r?=?-0.75), and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (r?=?-0.61). HFB scores differed significantly according to the size and localization of the IH. A validated tool for assessing the burden on families of children with IH is now available. PMID:24676555
Boccara, Olivia; Méni, Cecile; Léauté-Labreze, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Dufresne, Hélène; Brauchoux, Sébastien; Taieb, Charles
Clinical experience shows that the individual significance of olfactory function varies between subjects. In order to estimate these individual differences we developed a questionnaire to study the subjective importance of the sense of smell. Questions were arranged within three subscales: association with olfactory sensations, application of the sense of smell, and the readiness to draw consequences from the olfactory perception. The questionnaire was shown to be time efficient, suitable for normosmic subjects and patients with hyposmia or anosmia. It exhibited a good internal reliability (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.77). First results in 123 subjects indicate that the subjective importance of the sense of smell stays at the same level throughout life-span despite of a decreased olfactory sensitivity. Furthermore, women reported a higher importance of olfaction. It is hoped that this questionnaire will contribute to clarify, for example, cross-cultural differences in the perception of odours. PMID:19626331
Croy, Ilona; Buschhüter, Dorothee; Seo, Han-Seok; Negoias, Simona; Hummel, Thomas
Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or
Mehay, Dennis Nolan
In two experiments we compared normal reading and reading for translation of object relative sentences presented word-by-word. In Experiment 1, professional translators were asked either to read and repeat Spanish sentences, or to read and translate them into English. In addition, we manipulated the availability of pragmatic information given in
Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, M. Teresa
This paper discusses the impact of translation on literary traditions and the sociological elements which contribute to the shift of the canon. The effort of translation to enlarge and enrich a literary system makes it a powerful tool for the introduction of new aesthetics and trends as well as the ideology implied in them. A translation of a literary work
When participants are asked to translate an ambiguous word, they are slower and less accurate than in the case of single-translation words (e.g., Laxen & Lavour, 2010; Tokowicz & Kroll, 2007). We report an experiment to further examine this multiple-translation effect by investigating the influence of variables shown to be relevant in bilingual
Boada, Roger; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Gavilan, Jose M.; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Tokowicz, Natasha
EFFICIENT INTEGRATION OF TRANSLATION AND SPEECH MODELS IN DICTATION BASED MACHINE AIDED HUMAN TRANSLATION Luis RodrÂ´iguez1 , Aarthi Reddy2 , Richard Rose2 1 Departamento de Sistemas Inform with combining models for decoding an op- timum translation for a dictation based machine aided human trans
Background Laryngeal hypersensitivity may be an important component of the common disorders of laryngeal motor dysfunction including chronic refractory cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. Patients with these conditions frequently report sensory disturbances, and an emerging concept of the irritable larynx suggests common features of a sensory neuropathic dysfunction as a part of these disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire for patients with laryngeal dysfunction syndromes in order to measure the laryngeal sensory disturbance occurring in these conditions. Methods The 97 participants included 82 patients referred to speech pathology for behavioural management of laryngeal dysfunction and 15 healthy controls. The participants completed a 21 item self administered questionnaire regarding symptoms of abnormal laryngeal sensation. Factor analysis was conducted to examine correlations between items. Discriminant analysis and responsiveness to change were evaluated. Results The final questionnaire comprised 14 items across three domains: obstruction, pain/thermal, and irritation. The questionnaire demonstrated significant discriminant validity with a mean difference between the patients with laryngeal disorders and healthy controls of 5.5. The clinical groups with laryngeal hypersensitivity had similar abnormal scores. Furthermore the Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire (LHQ) showed improvement following behavioural speech pathology intervention with a mean reduction in LHQ score of 2.3. Conclusion The Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire is a simple, non-invasive tool to measure laryngeal pesthesia in patients with laryngeal conditions such as chronic cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. It can successfully differentiate patients from healthy controls and measure change following intervention. It is a promising tool for use in clinical research and practice. PMID:24552215
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular extension of an existing utility-based quality of life questionnaire (Health Measurement Questionnaire). The new instrument has been named the Utility Based Quality of life--Heart questionnaire, or UBQ-H. DESIGN: Explored the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. PATIENTS: A sample of 322 patients attending cardiac outpatient clinics were recruited from two large metropolitan teaching hospitals. A second sample of 1112 patients taking part in the LIPID trial was also used to investigate the validity and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. RESULTS: Ninety per cent of all UBQ-H questionnaires were returned, and item completion rates were high (median of less than 1% missing or N/A answers). Cronbach's alpha measure of internal consistency for the scales ranged between 0.79- 0.91, and each item was also most strongly correlated with its hypothesised domain than alternative domains. The intra-class test- retest reliability of the UBQ-H scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.81 for patients with stable health. Results supported the construct validity of the UBQ-H. The UBQ-H was significantly correlated with other information on quality of life (for example, General Health Questionnaire) as anticipated. The instrument was able to distinguish between contrasted groups of patients (for example, with versus without symptoms of dyspnoea, prior myocardial infarction versus none, etc), and was responsive to changes in health associated with adverse events requiring hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The modifications made to the Health Measurement Questionnaire has resulted in an assessment designed for cardiovascular patients that has proved to be both reliable and valid. PMID:10562879
Martin, A. J.; Glasziou, P. P.; Simes, R. J.
Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):16931703. PMID:23204612
Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
Background The objective of the current study was to translate and validate the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF. Methods A forward-backward translation procedure was followed to develop the Iranian version of the questionnaire. A stratified random sample of individuals aged 18 and over completed the questionnaire in Tehran, Iran. Psychometric properties of the instrument including reliability (internal consistency, and test-retest analysis), validity (known groups' comparison and convergent validity), and items' correlation with their hypothesized domains were assessed. Results In all 1164 individuals entered into the study. The mean age of the participants was 36.6 (SD = 13.2) years, and the mean years of their formal education was 10.7 (SD = 4.4). In general the questionnaire received well and all domains met the minimum reliability standards (Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation > 0.7), except for social relationships (alpha = 0.55). Performing known groups' comparison analysis, the results indicated that the questionnaire discriminated well between subgroups of the study samples differing in their health status. Since the WHOQOL-BREF demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the Iranian version of the SF-36 as expected, the convergent validity of the questionnaire was found to be desirable. Correlation matrix also showed satisfactory results in all domains except for social relationships. Conclusion This study has provided some preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF to be used in Iran, though further research is required to challenge the problems of reliability in one of the dimensions and the instrument's factor structure. PMID:18366715
Nedjat, Saharnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Holakouie, Kourosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Majdzadeh, Reza
This paper underlines a methodology for translating text from English into the Dravidian language, Malayalam using statistical models. By using a monolingual Malayalam corpus and a bilingual English\\/Malayalam corpus in the training phase, the machine automatically generates Malayalam translations of English sentences. This paper also discusses a technique to improve the alignment model by incorporating the parts of speech information
Mary Priya Sebastian; Sheena Kurian K; G. Santhosh Kumar
Messenger RNA (mRNA) translation is highly regulated in cells and plays an integral role in the overall process of gene expression. The initiation phase of translation is considered to be the most rate-limiting and is often targeted by oncogenic signaling pathways to promote global protein synthesis and the selective translation of tumor-promoting mRNAs. Translational control is a crucial component of cancer development as it allows cancer cells to adapt to the altered metabolism that is generally associated with the tumor state. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are strongly implicated in cancer etiology, and they exert their biological effects by modulating both global and specific mRNA translation. In addition to having respective translational targets, these pathways also impinge on the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which acts as a critical signaling node linking nutrient sensing to the coordinated regulation of cellular metabolism. mTOR is best known as a central regulator of protein synthesis and has been implicated in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including cancer. In this article, we describe the current knowledge on the roles and regulation of mRNA translation by various oncogenic signaling pathways, as well as the relevance of these molecular mechanisms to human malignancies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and cancer. PMID:25477072
Gao, Beichen; Roux, Philippe P
The present paper reviews the traditional methodologies of translator training and proposes an eclectic multi-componential approach that involves a set of interdisciplinary skills with the ultimate objective of meeting market demand. Courses on translation for specific purposes (TSP) and think-aloud protocols (TAP) along with self-monitoring and
What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the
PATSTAGS computer program translates data from PATRAN finite-element mathematical model into STAGS input records used for engineering analysis. Reads data from PATRAN neutral file and writes STAGS input records into STAGS input file and UPRESS data file. Supports translations of nodal constraints, and of nodal, element, force, and pressure data. Written in FORTRAN 77.
The controversy over the place of translation in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a thriving field of inquiry. Many older language teaching methodologies such as the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method, and Natural and Communicative Approaches, tended to either neglect the role of translation, or prohibit it entirely as a
Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed
Discusses the identity-forming power of translation in advertising copy. In the marketing of goods and services across cultural boundaries, an understanding of culture and semiotics that goes well beyond both language and design is involved. Translators must understand marketing, the legal jurisdictions of their market, how cultural differences
Seguinot, Candace; And Others
Discusses how the therapist can serve as a translator when communication becomes toxic or confusing. Describes ways for the counselor to soften hostile messages and harden passive messages. Gives an example of a clarifying interpretation and identifies other uses of translations. (RJM)
Translational research has proven to be a powerful process that bridges the gap between basic science and medical practice. The complexity of translational research is two-fold: integration of vast amount of information in disparate silos, and dissemination of discoveries to stakeholders with different interests. We designed and implemented a
Webster, Yue Wang
Dr. Agarwal serves as a Program Director in the Translational Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Agarwal monitors translational research SPOREs grant portfolios in Gastrointestinal (GI), Pancreatic and Skin Cancers.
The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and\\/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or
Paolo De Paoli
? #12;Knowledge Translation? Â· Knowledge mobilization Â· Evidence-based practice Â· Research transferKnowledge Translation Using Evidence for Better Decisions Alberta Innovates Â Health Solutions between producers and potential users of research that supports evidence-informed decision making
promoting evidence-based, rigorously-tested programs and practices throughout all program areas, including Discovery Practice-based Evidence DIFFUSION #12;What's New About Translational Research? Hasn't CCE beenTranslating Research and Building the Evidence Base John Eckenrode Professor of Human Development
This article contributes to recent scholarship on censorship and translation by exploring the phenomenon of productive censorship, or the artful evasion of censorship restrictions by authors and their readers, in the context of Soviet Russia. Specifically, the work of three homosexual-identified literary translators Mikhail Kuzmin, Ivan Likhachev and Gennadii Shmakov is examined in order to demonstrate how, under
Brian James Baer
Virtual Memory o translation lookaside buffer (TLB) o cache o translation is called table walking o table walking done by MMU hardware o may take up to 4 memory reads (plus the actual access) for each virtual memory access o locality makes caching
Biagioni, Edoardo S.
Communication Access Realtime Translation--(CART)--is the instant translation of the spoken word into English text performed by a CART reporter using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text is then displayed on a computer monitor or other display device for the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to read. This
Larson, Judy, Comp.
This study, in an attempt to rise above the intricacy of "being informed on the verge of globalization," is founded on the premise that Machine Translation (MT) applications searching for an ideal key to find a universal foundation for all natural languages have a restricted say over the translation process at various discourse levels. Our paper
Acikgoz, Firat; Sert, Olcay
Pizza into Java: Translating theory into practice Martin Odersky University of Karlsruhe Philip Wadler University of Glasgow Abstract Pizza is a strict superset of Java that incorporates three ideas types. Pizza is defined by translation into Java and compiles into the Java Virtual Machine
We propose a new interpretation of doubly special relativity (DSR) based on the distinction between the momentum and the translation generators in its phase space realization. We also argue that the implementation of DSR theories does not necessarily require a deformation of the Lorentz symmetry, but only of the translation invariance.
This animation shows the transcription process of RNA within the plant cell. Single stranded RNA moves out of the cell where it is translated into proteins. This is the first in a series of three animations on protein synthesis. The other two animations are Transcription and Translation.
Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla
An approach to automatic translation is outlined that utilizes techniques of statistical information extraction from large data bases. The method is based on the availability of pairs of large corresponding texts that are translations of each other. In our case, the texts are in English and French.Fundamental to the technique is a complex glossary of correspondence of fixed locutions. The
Peter F. Brown; John Cocke; Stephen A. Della Pietra; Vincent J. Della Pietra; Frederick Jelinek; Robert L. Mercer; Paul S. Roossin
We propose a new interpretation of doubly special relativity based on the distinction between the momenta and the translation generators in its phase space realization. We also argue that the implementation of the theory does not necessarily require a deformation of the Lorentz symmetry, but only of the translation invariance.
Background Treatment burden refers to the workload imposed by healthcare on patients, and the effect this has on quality of life. The Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ) aims to assess treatment burden in different condition and treatment contexts. Here, we aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of an English version of the TBQ, a scale that was originally developed in French. Methods The TBQ was translated into English by a forward-backward translation method. Wording and possible missing items were assessed during a pretest involving 200 patients with chronic conditions. Measurement properties of the instrument were assessed online with a patient network, using the PatientsLikeMe website. Dimensional structure of the questionnaire was assessed by factor analysis. Construct validity was assessed by associating TBQ global score w?th clinical variables, adherence to medication assessed by Moriskys Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), quality of life (QOL) assessed by the PatientsLikeMe Quality of Life Scale (PLMQOL), and patients confidence in their knowledge of their conditions and treatments. Reliability was determined by a testretest method. Results In total, 610 patients with chronic conditions, mainly from the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, or New Zealand, completed the TBQ between September and October 2013. The English TBQ showed a unidimensional structure with Cronbach ? of 0.90. The TBQ global score was negatively correlated with the PLMQOL score (rs?=??0.50; p?0.0001). Low rather than moderate or high adherence to medication was associated with high TBQ score (mean [SD] TBQ score 61.8 [30.5] vs. 37.7 [27.5]; P?0.0001). The treatment burden was higher for patients who had insufficient knowledge compared with those who had sufficient knowledge about their treatments (mean?±?SD TBQ score 62.3?±?31.3 vs. 47.8?±?30.4; P?0.0001) and conditions (63.0?±?31.6 vs. 49.3?±?30.7; P?0.0001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the retest (n?=?282) was 0.77 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.82). Conclusions We found that the English TBQ is a reliable instrument in this population, and provide evidence supporting the construct validity for its use to assess treatment burden for patients with one or more chronic conditions in English-speaking countries. PMID:24989988
Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence.
Albrithen, Abdulaziz A.; Singleton, Edward G.
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is an important aspect of health outcomes and its assessment should be made using validated instruments. The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was developed and validated for use on young adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability, validity, and applicability of the PIDAQ for young adults in Brazil. After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the questionnaire was completed by 245 individuals (124 males and 121 females) aged 18-30 years from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to test discriminant validity, the subjects were examined for the presence or absence of malocclusion based on the dental aesthetic index criteria. Dental examinations were carried out by a previously calibrated examiner [weighted kappa = 0.64-1.00, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.78-1.00]. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha of the subscales was between 0.75 and 0.91 and test-retest reliability was assessed using the ICC, which ranged from 0.89 to 0.99 for dental self-confidence and social impact, thereby revealing satisfactory reliability. Discriminant validity revealed that subjects without malocclusion had different PIDAQ scores when compared with those with malocclusion. The results suggest that the Brazilian version of the PIDAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties and is thus applicable to young adults in Brazil. Further research is needed to assess these properties in population studies. PMID:20713456
Sardenberg, Fernanda; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Paiva, Saul M; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; Vale, Miriam P
Background Quality of life of stoma patients is increasingly being addressed in clinical trials. However, the instruments used in the majority of these studies have not been validated specifically for stoma patients. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a quality-of-life instrument, "Stoma-QOL", specifically for patients with colostomy or ileostomy. Methods Potential items were formulated in English on the basis of the results of a series of semi-structured interviews with 169 adult stoma patients. The process resulted in a preliminary 37-item version, which was translated into French, German, Spanish and Danish, and administered repeatedly to 182 patients with colostomy or ileostomy. A psychometric selection of items was performed through Rasch Analysis. The measurement properties of the final questionnaire version were subsequently tested. Results The 20 items in the final questionnaire covered four domains sleep, sexual activity, relations to family and close friends, and social relations to other than family and close friends. These items were found to define a unidimensional variable according to Rasch specifications (Infit MNSQ < 1.3). Internal consistency reliability calculated as Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, i.e., highly reliable. Spearman's correlation coefficients of scores across times of administration was >0.88 (p < 0.01), indicating a high test-retest reliability. Item calibrations by country calculated as ICC were 0.81 (0.670.91 95% CI), confirming cross-cultural comparability across the European countries included in the study. Conclusion Given the adequacy of the metric properties of the Stoma-QOL suggested by the psychometric analyses, this study confirms the suitability of the instrument in clinical practice and in clinical research. PMID:16219109
Prieto, Luis; Thorsen, Hanne; Juul, Kristian
By the late eighteenth century, women wrote books popularizing the major scientific advances of the times. From even an earlier stage, women translated popular science books, many written especially for the ``use of the Ladies.'' From Aphra Behn's translation of Fontenelle's famous Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes in 1686 to Mary Somerville's 1831 lucid exposition in English of Laplace's well-known book, The Mechanism of the Heavens, translation moved gradually toward professional scientific exposition. Who were these women and what sparked their interest in science? How had they acquired the knowledge necessary to translate science books? The aim of this article is to shed some light on a little known area of women's activities-the translation of science books-and to show their contribution to the diffusion of the scientific knowledge.
Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302
Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri
Translation studies from ideological angle have made more space for us. Translation needs to be studied in connection with society, history and culture. The factors that influence translation are not only language, but also transmission of ideology between different nations and countries. Ideology plays an important role in translation practice. But translation only receives influences from ideology to a certain
Translation involves reading and interpretation, and a translation can be seen as the reader\\/translator's reading of a particular text. Using the Sanskrit aesthetic concept of the sahrdaya, or the ideal reader, I argue that the translator is primarily a reader and interpreter. The paper examines three English translations of the Bengali novel Anandamath made in the same culture at different
One key issue addressed in this article is a translator's right to give up translating certain pieces of writing which he considers unworthy of translation. The issue of a translator's choice and his responsibility are regarded as constituting the ethics of translation. Another question discussed is the criterion for assessing the value of literature. The author argues that there are
Robert I. Vinonen
Forest-Based Translation Haitao Mi Institute of Computing Technology Qun Liu Institute of Computing of Pennsylvania #12;Forest-based Translation Two Approaches in Syntax MT 2 #12;Forest-based Translation Two Â· with a synchronous grammar Â· generate translations accordingly 2 #12;Forest-based Translation Two Approaches
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Heritable differences in gene expression between individuals are an important source of phenotypic variation. The question of how closely the effects of genetic variation on protein levels mirror those on mRNA levels remains open. Here, we addressed this question by using ribosome profiling to examine how genetic differences between two strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae affect translation. Strain differences in translation were observed for hundreds of genes. Allele specific measurements in the diploid hybrid between the two strains revealed roughly half as many cis-acting effects on translation as were observed for mRNA levels. In both the parents and the hybrid, most effects on translation were of small magnitude, such that the direction of an mRNA difference was typically reflected in a concordant footprint difference. The relative importance of cis and trans acting variation on footprint levels was similar to that for mRNA levels. There was a tendency for translation to cause larger footprint differences than expected given the respective mRNA differences. This is in contrast to translational differences between yeast species that have been reported to more often oppose than reinforce mRNA differences. Finally, we catalogued instances of premature translation termination in the two yeast strains and also found several instances where erroneous reference gene annotations lead to apparent nonsense mutations that in fact reside outside of the translated gene body. Overall, genetic influences on translation subtly modulate gene expression differences, and translation does not create strong discrepancies between genetic influences on mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25340754
Albert, Frank W; Muzzey, Dale; Weissman, Jonathan S; Kruglyak, Leonid
Heritable differences in gene expression between individuals are an important source of phenotypic variation. The question of how closely the effects of genetic variation on protein levels mirror those on mRNA levels remains open. Here, we addressed this question by using ribosome profiling to examine how genetic differences between two strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae affect translation. Strain differences in translation were observed for hundreds of genes. Allele specific measurements in the diploid hybrid between the two strains revealed roughly half as many cis-acting effects on translation as were observed for mRNA levels. In both the parents and the hybrid, most effects on translation were of small magnitude, such that the direction of an mRNA difference was typically reflected in a concordant footprint difference. The relative importance of cis and trans acting variation on footprint levels was similar to that for mRNA levels. There was a tendency for translation to cause larger footprint differences than expected given the respective mRNA differences. This is in contrast to translational differences between yeast species that have been reported to more often oppose than reinforce mRNA differences. Finally, we catalogued instances of premature translation termination in the two yeast strains and also found several instances where erroneous reference gene annotations lead to apparent nonsense mutations that in fact reside outside of the translated gene body. Overall, genetic influences on translation subtly modulate gene expression differences, and translation does not create strong discrepancies between genetic influences on mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25340754
Albert, Frank W.; Muzzey, Dale; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Kruglyak, Leonid
A general theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus makes it seem more neutral such that perception of subsequent stimuli is shifted in the opposite direction. The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is an extensively studied example of this. Although similar effects have been described in other sensory systems, it has not previously been described in the vestibular system. Velocity storage has been extensively studied in the vestibular system and suggests a persistence of perception in the direction of the initial movement. The current study sought to determine how motion perception is influenced by prior movement in darkness. Thirteen human subjects (mean age 41, range 2168) underwent whole-body foreaft translation. The threshold of vestibular motion discrimination perception was measured using a single interval (1I) of motion lasting 0.5 s in which subjects identified their direction of motion as forward or backward using an adaptive staircase. The translation aftereffect (TAE) was measured in 2-interval (2I) experiments: The adapting stimulus moved 15 cm in 1.5 s (peak velocity 20 cm/s, peak acceleration 42 cm/s2). After a fixed inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 3 s, a second stimulus lasting 0.5 s was delivered and the subject identified the perceived direction of the second test stimulus. The test stimulus was determined using an adaptive staircase. The ISI was constant within the block, but adapting stimuli directions were randomly interleaved. During the 1I condition, the response bias was near zero in all subjects. With a 2I stimulus, 8 of 13 subjects demonstrated a significant bias. At an ISI of 0.5 s, a minority of subjects demonstrated a bias in the same direction as the adapter. When the ISI was 1, 1.5, or 3 s, all subjects who demonstrated a significant TAE had one in the opposite direction of the adapter, similar to that seen for MAE. When averaged across subjects, the TAE was significant with ISIs of 1.0 s and above. These findings demonstrate that perception of vestibular stimuli depends on prior motion. This has important implications for understanding and quantifying vestibular perception. PMID:22562589
This article describes the development and validation of a new measure of workplace incivility, the Uncivil Workplace Behavior Questionnaire (UWBQ). Participants included 5 samples of Australian adult employees (total N = 368). Principal axis factoring of the UWBQ yielded 4 interpretable factors (Hostility, Privacy Invasion, Exclusionary Behavior, and Gossiping), all of which exhibited high internal consistency. The 4-factor structure received
Roberta J. Martin; Donald W. Hine
BACKGROUND: IVF and embryo transfer has become an established and increasingly successful form of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbers of couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify major factors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF treatment. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1510 couples who had undergone IVF treatment at Ninewells Hospital and
M. Rajkhowa; A. Mcconnell; G. E. Thomas
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices and attitudes toward drugs in high school students. The instrument has 59 items (multiple choice or completion), some with several parts. The question pertain to aspirations for the future, general attitudes and opinions, biographic and demographic data, family background and relationships, alcohol
Bogg, Richard A.; And Others
Scholarship Search Questionnaire First Name Last Name Grad Date Major(s) Minor(s) GPA What are your there are thousands of scholarships and lots of money waiting to be awarded. Often being awarded a scholarship is a matter of matching up the applicant to the scholarship(s) for which he or she is best qualified
Reflective thinking is often stated as a learning outcome of baccalaureate nursing education, and as a characteristic of a competent professional; however, no consistent method exists to assess the extent to which students engage in reflective thinking. To address this need, Kember and Leung developed and tested a self-report questionnaire based
Lethbridge, Kristen; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Laschinger, Heather K. S.; Fernando, Rajulton
A study compared the influence of two forms of discourse completion test (DCT) on the elicitation of rejection of advice. An open questionnaire providing scenarios alone was compared with a classic dialogue completion task in which a conversational turn is provided. The tasks were given to 32 graduate students, 19 native and 13 non-native
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.
Background: Despite the ample interest in the measurement of substance abuse and dependence, obtaining biological samples from participants as a means to validate a scale is considered time and cost intensive and is, subsequently, largely overlooked. Objectives: To report the psychometric properties of the drug use disorder (DUD) questionnaire
Scherer, Michael; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Voas, Robert B.
A new self-report identity inventory was developed that avoids some of the shortcomings of previous measures and offers the advantages of short completion time, objective scoring, and separate, continuous exploration and commitment scores. The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire consists of 32 items which assess the dimensions of exploration and commitment in eight areas: occupation, religion, politics, values, family, friendships, dating,
Elizabeth Balistreri; Nancy A. Busch-Rossnagel; Kurt F. Geisinger
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire in 78 tennis playing subjects who had chronic, unilateral, MRI-confirmed lateral elbow tendinopathy and who concomitantly participated in an outcome study. The PRTEE results were compared with results of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); the Disabilities of the Arm,
Joy C. MacDermid; T OVEREND
The College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) was developed by UCLA Professor Emeritus Dr. C. Robert Pace in the 1970s. First administered by Dr. Pace in 1979, the CSEQ Research Program formally moved its operations to Indiana University's Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning in 1994, under the direction of Chancellor's Professor
Gonyea, Robert M.; Kish, Kelly A.; Kuh, George D.; Muthiah, Richard N.; Thomas, Auden D.
inventory to IT practitioners; using Formal Concept Analysis #12;(FCA) (Ganter and Wille 1999, Wille 1982) work-place, we have developed a tacit knowledge inventory which forms part of a questionnaire given to experts and non-experts in three separate IT organisations. In psy- chology, descriptive statistics
This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the On Farmers Ground nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...